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Bianca Bretan

Raluca Petruș

PRE-SERVICE TEACHING PRACTICE KIT

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Corectură și tehnoredactare: tehnoredactare: Coperta:

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This pre-service teaching practice kit has been designed in order to provide guidance to the students who are registered in the teacher training program at the Faculty of Letters in ClujNapoca. It aims to develop the students’ reflective skills and self-evaluation skills.

Bianca Doris Bretan Bianca Doris Bretan Ph.D is a lecturer at the Faculty of Letters, “Babeş“Babeş -Bolyai” University University of ClujNapoca, Romania. She has been a teacher trainer for several years, teaching courses and seminars for students enrolled in the pre-service teaching program. She has also taken part in many projects that targeted teachers’ career development. Bianca Bretan is an author of many articles and studies related to the field of TEFL. Email: [email protected] [email protected] Postal address: Horea Street, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Raluca Petruș

Raluca Petruș is a teaching assistant and a PhD. student at the Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, “Babeş“Babeş -Bolyai” University of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. She teaches different seminars in English and Norwegian that are part of the pre-service teacher training program and several Swedish optional courses. Raluca Petruș has also been actively involved in writing articles and studies related to the field of TEFL. Email: [email protected] [email protected] Postal address: 7-9 Sindicatelor Street, Cluj-Napoca, 400029, Romania

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Contents 1.

INFORMATION SHEET FOR PRE-SERVICE TEACHING PRACTICE ............................................................ 5

2.

PRACTICAL TEACHING OBJECTIVES ....................................................................................................... 6

3.

THE ORGANISATION OF THE PRE-SERVICE TEACHING PRACTICE PORTFOLIO ...................................... 8

4.

THE PRE-SERVICE TEACHING PRACTICE PROGRAMME ......................................................................... 9

5.

QUESTIONNAIRE FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHER TRAINEES........................................................ 10

6.

LESSON OBSERVATION RECORD .......................................................................................................... 15

7.

TRAINEE TEACHING PRACTICE RECORD .............................................................................................. 16

8.

LESSON OBSERVATION SHEET ............................................................................................................. 17

9.

BLACKBOARD MANAGEMENT ............................................................................................................. 62

10.

FEEDBACK SESSION.......................................................................................................................... 63

11.

LESSON PLAN ................................................................................................................................... 64

12.

TEACHER TRAINING LESSON EVALUATION ..................................................................................... 79

13.

ENGLISH TEACHING PRACTICE FINAL REPORT ................................................................................ 82

14.

TRAINEE’S FEEDBACK FORM FOR MENTOR  .................................................................................... 83

15.

REFLECTIVE JOURNAL ...................................................................................................................... 84

16.

USEFUL WEBSITES AND LITERATURE............................................................................................... 86

17.

GLOSSARY ........................................................................................................................................ 88

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1. INFORMATION SHEET FOR PRE-SERVICE TEACHING PRACTICE Pre-service teacher training guidelines

1. You will be part of a group of 6 - 7 students and it is advisable that you attend classes together. Likewise, it is going to be easier for the mentor to provide feedback. The mentor will keep a record of your attendance. 2. Your mentor will supervise your initial teacher training. 3. The methodologist and mentor are working in partnership for your development and will be in regular contact to ensure that your needs are met. 4. We do not impose a teaching practice day. You are going to meet with you mentor and decide together a suitable timetable. You are going to perform your teaching practice in different days and at different hours in order to able to teach and observe a wide variety of classes. We ask you to be flexible so that you get the best possible benefit from this experience. 5. You will teach different levels and together with the mentor you must make sure that you teach a variety of lessons (skills, grammar, etc.). 6. The training is designed to be developmental  not judgmental. You will be encouraged to self-evaluate with a view to becoming responsible for your own development. 7. Observation of your colleagues (5h) will be an integrant part of the training followed by supportive, constructive feedback. You are expected to attend all feedback sessions for the observed/taught classes. 8. You are also expected to keep a full record of your teaching practice. You have the necessary information on the next pages. 9. You will be provided with oral and written feedback from your mentor. This will provide a record of your progress. As the training progresses the mentor will indicate the level of your teaching competence in the form of a grade on your feedback form, so that you are aware of your position and can make any necessary improvements. 10. By the end of the teaching practice you will be expected to be able to achieve certain teaching objectives. These are set out in the “Practical Teaching Objectives” section. 11. There is a standard evaluation form which will be used to evaluate the lessons. Familiarization with the categories listed there can help you understand what is expected of you. 12. Grading:

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Mark

DESCRIPTION

10

A very good performance

9

A good performance

8

A satisfactory performance

7

A weak performance

In case the student receives a final mark that is below seven then he/she has to take this course again. The final mark will be decided and agreed together by the mentors and the methodologist.

2. PRACTICAL TEACHING OBJECTIVES By the end of training you should be able to do the fol lowing: Lesson planning  State the objectives of a lesson (clear aims);  Plan lessons to ensure a variety of activities and modes of interaction;  Plan lessons so as to integrate the different l anguage skills;  Suitable use of time and teaching materials;  Ability to link to previous knowledge;  Show relevant subject knowledge, including National Curriculum awareness.

Presentation and class management  Give clear and concise instructions, examples and explanations;  Balance and vary activities during the lesson;  Make smooth and logical transitions from one stage of the lesson to the other;  Ensure the appropriate correction of errors;  Ensure the participation of most of the class;  Conduct question- and- answer work with a minimum of teacher talk;  Encourage weak pupils and reinforce their contributions;  Use the appropriate class grouping for both language practice and other tasks;  Organize blackboard work;  Effective use of teaching aids.

Pronunciation  Diagnose the pupils’ pronunciation problems, and plan remedial activities;  Use a minimum pair drill to practice a phonemic or stress distinction;

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 In accuracy work, ensure the correction of errors concerning the language point in focus;  In fluency work, intervene only when errors impede communication, and correct

communicatively;  Organize communicative activities: debate, problem-solving;  Evaluate pupils’ oral work.

Testing  Devise and conduct tests to check the pupils’ learning of grammar, functions or vocabulary.

Reflection and awareness  Ability to evaluate own performance reasonably well, connected to the ability to suggest

lines of improvement;  Constructive response to advice: not afraid of criticism, having a co-operative attitude during

the evaluation process.

Remember

You are a guest in the school in which you are performing you pre -service teacher training. Therefore, please: 

Behave courteously with the mentor, the principal and the students.



Behave professionally.



Try and understand school life and contribute positively to it.

3. THE ORGANISATION OF THE PRE-SERVICE TEACHING PRACTICE PORTFOLIO A full record of all your activities should be kept and organised in your own personal TP Portfolio which is a true record of your TP experience. This portfolio would be a valuable resource when you start teaching after graduation. With that in mind you should organise it to suit your needs. Remember that it should be very clear and easy to follow for an independent reader (such as mentors, methodologists, teachers, and inspectors). Documents to be filled in by the student  Lesson plan

How to use the document

The student has to fill in five lesson plans, one for each lesson that has been taught. Teaching materials will be attached (when possible)

 Lesson

observation sheet

The student has to fill in fifteen lesson observation sheets (10 documents for the classes taught by the mentor and 5 documents for

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the peers that have been observed). The observation sheet gives students the possibility to reflect on the main stages of a lesson, the teaching activities used by the teacher and various other aspects linked to the teaching sequence.  Lesson

The student will write here details about the classes that he/she has

observation

observed.

record  Teaching practice

The student will write here details about the classes that he/she has

record

taught.

 Trainee’s feedback

The student will evaluate the mentor.

form for mentor  Reflective journal

The student has to answer the questions that are part of the re flective  journal.

Documents to be filled in by the mentor  Teacher training

How to use the document

This document should be filled in and signed by the mentor.

lesson evaluation  English

This document should be filled in and signed by the mentor.

Teaching Practice final report

4. THE PRE-SERVICE TEACHING PRACTICE PROGRAMME The duration of the pre-service teaching practice program is of 14 weeks. Useful details about the way in which each activity has been scheduled are provided below.

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TEACHING PRACTICE PROGRAMME

Teaching

WEEK

Practice HOURS

1

Orientation meeting with the methodologist on the first Teaching

2h

practice (TP) day. 2

Meeting the mentor for the first time. Discussion with the mentor

6h

about the classes she/he teaches and the textbooks she/he currently uses. Mentor observation. Team planning. 3

Team teaching with a mentor.

15 min

4

Team teaching with peers.

5-10

Planning and teaching lessons alone.

30 min. – 1 h



peers observation



followed by group discussion, feedback

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The portfolio is handed in to the mentor.

14

The portfolio is handed in to the methodologist at the faculty.

4h

Number of hours taught: 

Every student will teach 5 hours: 4h/lessons alone and 1h/lesson in team-teaching format

Number of hours observed:  Every student will observe 15 hours: 10 h/lessons the mentor and 5 h/lesson his/her peers

5. QUESTIONNAIRE FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHER TRAINEES The purpose of this questionnaire is to enable you to introduce yourself to your mentor. It will give you the chance to explain your areas of interest, your expectations and your perceptions of your level of competence in English language and teaching skills. If you do not have any teaching experience then fill in only the parts that are relevant to you. 

Previous teaching experience

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Please indicate how you assess your level of English language competence in the areas below. Use the following scale and circle a number: Basic

1

 Adequate

2

Good 

3

Very good 

4

I

Currently I would rate my knowledge of

English grammar

1

2

3

4

English vocabulary

1

2

3

4

English pronunciation

1

2

3

4

English usage

1

2

3

4

II

Currently I would rate my ability in

English speaking (accuracy)

1

2

3

4

English speaking (fluency)

1

2

3

4

English listening

1

2

3

4

English reading

1

2

3

4

English writing

1

2

3

4



Put a cross (X) on each line at an appropriate point to show your own personal characteristics. Be as honest and objective as you can.

clear thinking

______________________________

creative

______________________________ not very creative

calm

______________________________ anxious

confident

______________________________ lacks confidence

patient

______________________________ impatient

act first

______________________________ think first

optimistic

______________________________ pessimistic

extrovert

______________________________ introvert

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confused



Your experience of English language teaching methodology

Look at the following methodology course list and circle those areas you have already dealt with.  Teaching methods: Grammar

translation, Audio-lingual etc.

 Lesson planning  Teaching aids

 The communicative approach

 Using and adapting a textbook/lesson

 Teaching vocabulary

 Topic-based teaching

 Teaching grammar

 Asking questions

 Teaching reading and listening

 Developing learners’ thinking skills

 Teaching writing and speaking

 Information gap activities

 Classroom management

 Materials development

 Grouping techniques



Your rating of your teaching skills

If you have previous teaching experience of teaching, please comment on the following: Aspects of my teaching which I feel are strong  

Aspects of my teaching which I feel to be enjoyable  

Aspects of my teaching which I need to give special attention in order to improve  

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In the following section please use the scale below to indicate how you would assess your own level of competence in each area given. Give brief reasons why you have assessed yourself as you have. If you have not taught before, you can limit yourself to commenting on knowledge. 1. Currently I would rate my Knowledge/abilities in lesson planning as: Knowledge

1234

Ability

1234

Reasons: 2. Currently I would rate my knowledge about/abilities in using a range of teaching strategies as: Knowledge

1234

Ability

1234

Reasons: 3. Currently I would rate my knowledge/ability to teach: Listening skills

1234

Reading skills

1234

Writing skills

1234

Speaking skills

1234

Reasons: 4. Currently I would rate my knowledge/ability to present: New vocabulary

1234

New structures

1234

Reasons: 5. Currently I would rate my knowledge/ability to practice: New vocabulary

1234

New structures

1234

Reasons: 6. Currently I would rate my knowledge/ability to organize pair/group work: Knowledge

1234

Ability

1234

Reasons: 7. Currently I would rate my ability to work as a member of a team as: Ability

1234

Reasons: 8. Currently I would rate my ability to self-evaluate by accurately reflecting on experience as: Ability

1234

Reasons:

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LESSON OBSERVATION SHEET V Teacher…………………………………… Observer (the student) …………...………………. Date ……………………………………… Title of the lesson ………………...…….………… Grade ………………………………………..……... Level …………………………………… Stages/ Timing

Procedures / Activities Focus on the teacher and the learners

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Alternatives / Rationale

Areas

Comments

CLEARNESS OF AIM  Was there one? Was it realistic for the students?  Was it achieved fully/partially?  What is missing?

LESSON PLAN / PROGRESSION OF LESSON  How effective was each stage?  Did the lesson progress fluidly and logically?  Did the teacher use a variety of activities?  Were the activities set up and clearly organized?

USE OF MATERIALS/AIDS  Were the materials authentic, appropriate,

suitable, and relevant?  What type of materials did the teacher use? (visual, audio etc.) CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT  Did the teacher reorganize the seating when

group work or pair work was involved?  Did the teacher change position appropriately with action?  Was the teacher’s voice clearly audible at all times?  Did the teacher maintain good eye contact?  Did the teacher obscure/not obscure the board?  Were the instructions clearly expressed?  Did the teacher check that the pupils had understood the instructions?  Was the teacher aware of pupils learning difficulties and did she/he respond in a supportive way? VARIETY OF INTERACTION  How many different types of interaction took

place?  Was there sufficient variety in the lesson?  Was there any time when you felt the interaction was inappropriate? If so, when and why? What would you replace it with? ERROR CORRECTION  Note the types of mistakes (vocabulary,

grammar, pronunciation)  How was the correction achieved? (student guided to self-correction, student to student 30

Areas

Comments

correction, teacher to student correction)  Note when the teacher corrected (on the spot, delayed)  Did the teacher correct too much? USING THE BOARD  Was the board visible to all?  Did it appear disorganized?  Was the new language highlighted effectively?  Was the board work complete? (no unfinished

sentences)  Was the board overused or underused?  Was the information on the board relevant for the lesson? TEACHER TALKING TIME  Did the teacher speak too quickly or too slowly?  In which activities was student talking time more

than teacher talking time?  Overall, who did the most talking?

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Areas

Comments

correction, teacher to student correction)  Note when the teacher corrected (on the spot, delayed)  Did the teacher correct too much? USING THE BOARD  Was the board visible to all?  Did it appear disorganized?  Was the new language highlighted effectively?  Was the board work complete? (no unfinished

sentences)  Was the board overused or underused?  Was the information on the board relevant for the lesson? TEACHER TALKING TIME  Did the teacher speak too quickly or too slowly?  In which activities was student talking time more

than teacher talking time?  Overall, who did the most talking?

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LESSON OBSERVATION SHEET X Teacher…………………………………… Observer (the student) …………...………………. Date ……………………………………… Title of the lesson ………………...…….………… Grade ………………………………………..……... Level …………………………………… Stages/ Timing

Procedures / Activities Focus on the teacher and the learners

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Alternatives / Rationale

Areas

Comments

CLEARNESS OF AIM  Was there one? Was it realistic for the students?  Was it achieved fully/partially?  What is missing?

LESSON PLAN / PROGRESSION OF LESSON  How effective was each stage?  Did the lesson progress fluidly and logically?  Did the teacher use a variety of activities?  Were the activities set up and clearly organized?

USE OF MATERIALS/AIDS  Were the materials authentic, appropriate,

suitable, and relevant?  What type of materials did the teacher use? (visual, audio etc.) CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT  Did the teacher reorganize the seating when

group work or pair work was involved?  Did the teacher change position appropriately with action?  Was the teacher’s voice clearly audible at all times?  Did the teacher maintain good eye contact?  Did the teacher obscure/not obscure the board?  Were the instructions clearly expressed?  Did the teacher check that the pupils had understood the instructions?  Was the teacher aware of pupils learning difficulties and did she/he respond in a supportive way? VARIETY OF INTERACTION  How many different types of interaction took

place?  Was there sufficient variety in the lesson?  Was there any time when you felt the interaction was inappropriate? If so, when and why? What would you replace it with? ERROR CORRECTION  Note the types of mistakes (vocabulary,

grammar, pronunciation)  How was the correction achieved? (student guided to self-correction, student to student 45

Areas

Comments

correction, teacher to student correction)  Note when the teacher corrected (on the spot, delayed)  Did the teacher correct too much? USING THE BOARD  Was the board visible to all?  Did it appear disorganized?  Was the new language highlighted effectively?  Was the board work complete? (no unfinished

sentences)  Was the board overused or underused?  Was the information on the board relevant for the lesson? TEACHER TALKING TIME  Did the teacher speak too quickly or too slowly?  In which activities was student talking time more

than teacher talking time?  Overall, who did the most talking?

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LESSON OBSERVATION SHEET XI Teacher…………………………………… Observer (the student) …………...………………. Date ……………………………………… Title of the lesson ………………...…….………… Grade ………………………………………..……... Level …………………………………… Stages/ Timing

Procedures / Activities Focus on the teacher and the learners

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Alternatives / Rationale

Areas

Comments

CLEARNESS OF AIM  Was there one? Was it realistic for the students?  Was it achieved fully/partially?  What is missing?

LESSON PLAN / PROGRESSION OF LESSON  How effective was each stage?  Did the lesson progress fluidly and logically?  Did the teacher use a variety of activities?  Were the activities set up and clearly organized?

USE OF MATERIALS/AIDS  Were the materials authentic, appropriate,

suitable, and relevant?  What type of materials did the teacher use? (visual, audio etc.) CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT  Did the teacher reorganize the seating when

group work or pair work was involved?  Did the teacher change position appropriately with action?  Was the teacher’s voice clearly audible at all times?  Did the teacher maintain good eye contact?  Did the teacher obscure/not obscure the board?  Were the instructions clearly expressed?  Did the teacher check that the pupils had understood the instructions?  Was the teacher aware of pupils learning difficulties and did she/he respond in a supportive way? VARIETY OF INTERACTION  How many different types of interaction took

place?  Was there sufficient variety in the lesson?  Was there any time when you felt the interaction was inappropriate? If so, when and why? What would you replace it with? ERROR CORRECTION  Note the types of mistakes (vocabulary,

grammar, pronunciation)  How was the correction achieved? (student guided to self-correction, student to student 48

Areas

Comments

CLEARNESS OF AIM  Was there one? Was it realistic for the students?  Was it achieved fully/partially?  What is missing?

LESSON PLAN / PROGRESSION OF LESSON  How effective was each stage?  Did the lesson progress fluidly and logically?  Did the teacher use a variety of activities?  Were the activities set up and clearly organized?

USE OF MATERIALS/AIDS  Were the materials authentic, appropriate,

suitable, and relevant?  What type of materials did the teacher use? (visual, audio etc.) CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT  Did the teacher reorganize the seating when

group work or pair work was involved?  Did the teacher change position appropriately with action?  Was the teacher’s voice clearly audible at all times?  Did the teacher maintain good eye contact?  Did the teacher obscure/not obscure the board?  Were the instructions clearly expressed?  Did the teacher check that the pupils had understood the instructions?  Was the teacher aware of pupils learning difficulties and did she/he respond in a supportive way? VARIETY OF INTERACTION  How many different types of interaction took

place?  Was there sufficient variety in the lesson?  Was there any time when you felt the interaction was inappropriate? If so, when and why? What would you replace it with? ERROR CORRECTION  Note the types of mistakes (vocabulary,

grammar, pronunciation)  How was the correction achieved? (student guided to self-correction, student to student 54

Areas

Comments

correction, teacher to student correction)  Note when the teacher corrected (on the spot, delayed)  Did the teacher correct too much? USING THE BOARD  Was the board visible to all?  Did it appear disorganized?  Was the new language highlighted effectively?  Was the board work complete? (no unfinished

sentences)  Was the board overused or underused?  Was the information on the board relevant for the lesson? TEACHER TALKING TIME  Did the teacher speak too quickly or too slowly?  In which activities was student talking time more

than teacher talking time?  Overall, who did the most talking?

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LESSON OBSERVATION SHEET XIV Teacher…………………………………… Observer (the student) …………...………………. Date ……………………………………… Title of the lesson ………………...…….………… Grade ………………………………………..……... Level …………………………………… Stages/ Timing

Procedures / Activities Focus on the teacher and the learners

56

Alternatives / Rationale

Lesson stages

Activities - students and teacher

69

Reasons for activities

Materials

Timing

IV. LESSON PLAN The student has to fill in one lesson plan sheet and one self-evaluation sheet for each lesson that he/she has taught. Teacher…………………………………… Observer …………………………………...………… Date ……………… Title of the lesson……………………………………… Textbook………………………..Grade ………… AIM(S) of LESSON The main aim(s) of this lesson will be: ______________________________________________  ______________________________________________________________________________  ______________________________________________________________________________  ______________________________________________________________________________ STUDENTS' PROBLEMS I anticipate that the following may cause problems:  ______________________________________________________________________________  ______________________________________________________________________________  ______________________________________________________________________________ AIDS / MATERIALS  ______________________________________________________________________________  ______________________________________________________________________________ SELF-EVALUATION Reflection represents an important stage in a teacher’s professional development. Complete the following blanks as soon as you can after you have finished teaching the lesson. Be as open, honest and constructive as you can. 

My feelings immediately after the lesson are / were:  ___________________________________________________________________________  ___________________________________________________________________________



Write down any evidence that your activity was successful:  ___________________________________________________________________________  ___________________________________________________________________________



The things I was not happy with were:  ___________________________________________________________________________  ___________________________________________________________________________



Make suggestions about how you would change the lesson plan to be used in the future to improve the lesson. Note down some particular areas in the lesson you need to pay more attention at in the future:  ______________ ___________________________________________________________________  _________ ________________________________________________________________________

70

Lesson stages

Activities - students and teacher

71

Reasons for activities

Materials

Timing

V. LESSON PLAN The student has to fill in one lesson plan sheet and one self-evaluation sheet for each lesson that he/she has taught. Teacher…………………………………… Observer …………………………………...………… Date ……………… Title of the lesson……………………………………… Textbook………………………..Grade ………… AIM(S) of LESSON The main aim(s) of this lesson will be: ______________________________________________  ______________________________________________________________________________  ______________________________________________________________________________  ______________________________________________________________________________ STUDENTS' PROBLEMS I anticipate that the following may cause problems:  ______________________________________________________________________________  ______________________________________________________________________________  ______________________________________________________________________________ AIDS / MATERIALS  ______________________________________________________________________________  ______________________________________________________________________________ SELF-EVALUATION Reflection represents an important stage in a teacher’s professional development. Complete the following blanks as soon as you can after you have finished teaching the lesson. Be as open, honest and constructive as you can. 

My feelings immediately after the lesson are / were:  ___________________________________________________________________________  ___________________________________________________________________________



Write down any evidence that your activity was successful:  ___________________________________________________________________________  ___________________________________________________________________________



The things I was not happy with were:  ___________________________________________________________________________  ___________________________________________________________________________



Make suggestions about how you would change the lesson plan to be used in the future to improve the lesson. Note down some particular areas in the lesson you need to pay more attention at in the future:  ______________ ___________________________________________________________________  _________ ________________________________________________________________________

72

Lesson stages

Activities - students and teacher

73

Reasons for activities

Materials

Timing

LESSON PLAN

4

Teacher: Győrgydeak A. Patricia Subject: English Date: March 29, 2013 th

Grade: 7

Class description: There are 16 students in this class, 6 boys and 10 girls, all between 13 and 15 years old. They have English classes twice a week (Monday and Friday), for 50 minutes each time. Most of them have been studying English for about 4 years but the class level is quite low. It’s an early group (8.00-8.50 a.m.) and they usually come to class quite sleepy, so an active warm up, where they have to move, is almost always a good start. Lesson length: 8.00-8.50 a.m. Textbook: English Scrapbook -Oxford University Press Lesson type: acquisition of knowledge Curriculum connection: Science, Health, Sports, Arts; Title of the lesson: Tomorrow’s world; Skills: reading, writing, speaking & listening (integrated) Main lesson aims: by the end of the lesson the students will be able to:  Form accurate oral and written sentences by using the future continuous;  Use “will ” to make predictions, based on the text they read about;  Practise vocabulary related to the topic in sentences of their own (engage in

conversations, provide and obtain specific information);  Solve different types of exercises by using the simple future and future continuous;  Express their own ideas using remote future;

Personal goals:  To create a warm, friendly atmosphere;  To activate students’ knowledge on the world by using proper techniques;  To encourage students to communicate freely and spontaneously during the activities; 4

This is a lesson plan sample that is meant to provide guidance.

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PREPARATION

Lesson

Lesson

Lesson

Lesson

Lesson

1

2

3

4

5

Lesson

Lesson

Lesson

Lesson

Lesson

1

2

3

4

5

Clarity and appropriateness of aims and rationale Balance/variety and timing of activities/methods Suitability and preparation of materials Anticipation of problems Awareness of educational system and place in curriculum PERFORMANCE Classroom management Presentation techniques Questioning/elicitation Practice techniques Pace and timing Handling transition Exploitation of materials, use of teaching aids Class dynamics In-class feedback Ability to adapt/improvise/deal with the unexpected Creative use of human resources and materials Giving homework Achievement of aims Working with official school records

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REFLECTION AND AWARENESS

Lesson

Lesson

Lesson

Lesson

Lesson

1

2

3

4

5

Ability to evaluate own/peer performance and response to feedback Willingness to improve professional capabilities through monitoring, reflection and modification of practice Ability to work as a member of a team/independently OVERALL TEACHING COMPETENCE

PORTFOLIO

FINAL TEACHING PRACTICE GRADE

The final grade represents the average of the student’s overall teaching competence and the portfolio.

MENTOR’S SIGNATURE: ______________

Date: ________________

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13. ENGLISH TEACHING PRACTICE FINAL REPORT Student: _______________________________

Year: ___________________

Mentor: _______________________________

Major: __________________

School: ________________________________

Minor: __________________

FINAL TEACHING PRACTICE GRADE: (in numbers and words please):  _______________________________________________________ The following report should give a clear picture of the student teacher’s teaching competence after TP and suggest their future potential as ELT teachers. Please write clearly when completing this form. Personal and professional qualities

Preparation

Performance

Reflection and awareness

Areas for improvement

Mentor:…………………………………………. . Signature:…………………… Date: …………............. Methodologist:………………………………. Signature:……………………..Date: …………............. 82

When teachers are planning a lesson, they think about what their learners might find difficult about the language or skills in the lesson so that they can help them learn more effectively at certain points in the lesson. They may also also think about how learners’ previous learning experience may affect their learning in a specific lesson Attention span How long a learner is able to concentrate at any one time. Authentic material Written or spoken texts which a first language speaker might read or listen to. They may be taken from newspapers, radio etc. The language in the texts is not adapted or made easier for learners or the language learning process Brainstorm To think of ideas (usually quickly) about a topic (often noting these d own). This is often done as preparation before a writing or speaking activity. Class, Class, learner profile A description of the learners and information related to their l earning, including their age, ability, strengths and weaknesses in language and skills. Classroom management The strategies used by a teacher to organise the classroom, the learning and the learners, such as seating arrangements, different types of activities, teacher roles and interaction patterns. Closed question A question which leads to a yes/no answer or another very short response, e.g. Did you come to school by bus? Yes.What did you have for breakfast? Toast. See open question. question.

Cloze test A task-type in which learners read a text with missing words and try to work out what the missing words are. The missing words are removed regularly from the text, e.g. every seventh word. A cloze test is used for testing reading ability or general language use. It is different f rom a gap-fill activity, which can focus on practising or testing a specific language point. Clue A piece of information that helps someone to find the answer to a problem, e.g. a teacher could give the first letter of a word she is trying to elicit as a clue to learners to help them find the word. Coherence When ideas in a spoken or written text fit together clearly and smoothly, and so are l ogical and make sense to the listener or reader. Collocation Words which are regularly used together. The relation between the words may be grammatical, for example when certain verbs/adjectives collocate with particular prepositions, e.g. depend on, good at or when a verb like make or do collocates with a noun, e.g. do the shopping , make a

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 plan. Collocations may also be lexical when two content words are regularly used together, e.g. We went the wrong way NOT We went the incorrect way .

Communicative activity A classroom activity in which learners need to talk or write to one another to complete the activity. Communicative approaches A way of teaching and practising language which is based on the principle that learning a language successfully involves communication rather than just memorising a series of rules. Teachers try to focus on meaningful communication, rather than focusing on accuracy and correcting mistakes. Components (of a lesson plan) The main parts of a l esson plan, e.g. aims, procedure, timing, aids, interaction patterns, anticipated problems, assumptions, timetable fit, personal aims. Convey meaning To express or communicate meaning. Teachers focus on conveying meaning when they present new language. Correction code A series of symbols a teacher may use to mark learners’ writing so that they can correct mistakes by themselves, e.g. P = punctuation mistake, T = tense mistake. Detail, read for detail, listen for detail To listen to or read a text in order to understand most of what it says or particular details. Differentiation noun, differentiate verb To make or see a difference between people and things. In teaching, this can have a special meaning relating to dealing with mixed ability l earners in one class, e.g. the teacher can provide different tasks, activities, texts or materials for different learners in the class according to their ability. A technique teachers use for encouraging learners to practise language. It involves guided repetition or practice. In a choral drill the teacher says a word or sentence and the learners repeat it together as a class. In an individual drill the teacher says a word or sentence and one learner repeats it. In a substitution drill the teacher provides a sentence and a different word or phrase which the learner must use (or substitute) in exactly the same structure, e.g. Teacher: I bought a book. Pen. Learner: I bought a pen. In a transformation drill the teacher says a word or a sentence and the learner answers by changing the sentence into a new grammatical structure Eclectic An approach to language teaching in which the teacher uses techniques and activities taken 90

from different methods. Elicit When a teacher thinks that some learners will know a piece of language or other information, s/he asks targeted questions or gives clues to get, or prompt learners to give the target language or information rather than simply providing it to the class her/himself. Error A mistake that a learner makes when trying to say something above their level of language or language processing. A developmental error is an error made by a second language learner which could also be made by a young person learning their mother tongue as part of their normal development, e.g. I goed there last week (I went there last week).

A fossilised error is an error that has become a permanent feature of a learner’s language, the error has become a habit. Fossilised errors cannot easily be corrected. When a learner makes a slip they make a language mistake but they are able to correct themselves Extensive listening/reading Listening to or reading long pieces of text, such as stories or newspapers. Extract Part of a text which is removed from an original, longer text. Facial expression A person can show how they feel through their face, e.g. smiling, showing surprise. Facilitator To make something possible. Teachers facilitate learning by planning and delivering lessons and maintaining discipline in the classroom. Peer feedback Feedback given to a learner by another learner in the class. Filler 1. A short activity between the main stages of a lesson used for reasons such as time management or to provide a change of pace etc. 2. A word or sound used between words or sentences in spoken English when someone is thinking of what to say Flashcard A card with words, sentences or pictures on it. A teacher can use these to explain a situation, tell a story, teach vocabulary etc. Focus on form Paying attention to the words/parts of words that make a language structure or to spelling or pronunciation. Form The form of a grammatical grammatical structure is the way it is written or pronounced and the parts which 91

combine to make it, e.g. the present perfect (grammatical structure) is made up of have + past  participle (the form).

Gap-fill An activity in which learners fill in spaces or gaps in sentences or texts. This is often used for restricted practice or for focusing on a specific language point. This is differen t from a cloze test which can focus on reading ability or general language use. Gist, global understanding, listening/reading for gist, listening/reading for global understanding To read or listen to a text and understand the general meaning of it, without paying attention to specific details Grade (language) To use language that is at the correct level for the learners and is not too easy or difficult Graded reader A book where the language has been made easier for learners. These are often books with stories or novels where the language has been simplified Group, class dynamics The relationship between learners in the group or class. Guidance noun, guide verb Help given by a teacher with learning, or with doing a task. Guided discovery A way of teaching in which a teacher provides examples of the target language and then guides the learners to work out the language rules for themselves. Guided writing A piece of writing that learners produce after the teacher has helped them to prepare for it by, for example giving the learners a plan to follow, or ideas for the type of language to use. Ice-breaker An introductory activity that a teacher uses at the start of a new course so that learners can get to know each other Independent study Studying without a teacher present or without the teacher monitoring and directing the learning very closely, e.g. learners could carry out research on a topic using reference resources. This could be done at home or with minimum involvement of the teacher in class. Infer attitude, feeling, mood To decide how a writer or speaker feels about something from the way that they speak or write, rather than from what they openly say. Information-gap activity A classroom activity in which learners work in pairs or groups. Learners are given a task, but they are given different information and, to complete the task, they have to find out the missing 92

information from each other. Integrated skills An integrated skills lesson combines work on more than one language skill. For example reading and then writing or listening and speaking. Intensive listening/reading One meaning of intensive listening/reading is reading or li stening to focus on how language is used in a text. This is how intensive listening/reading is used in TKT Interaction patterns The different ways learners and the teacher work together in class, e.g. learner to learner, in pairs or groups or teacher to learner, in open class, in plenary. When teachers plan lessons, they think about interaction patterns and write them on their plan. Interference Interference happens when the learner’s mother tongue affects performance in the target language, especially in pronunciation, lexis or grammar. For example, a learner may make a grammatical mistake because they apply the same grammatical pattern as they use in their mother tongue to what they want to say in the target language, but the L1 grammatical pattern is not appropriate in L2. Interlanguage Learners’ own version of the second language which they speak as they learn. Interlanguage is constantly changing and developing as learners learn more of the second language. Jigsaw listening/reading A text is divided into two or more different parts. Learners listen to or read their part only, then share their information with other learners so that in the end everyone knows all the information. In this way, the text is made into an information-gap activity. L1/L2 L1 is the learner’s mother tongue or first language; L2 is the learner’s second language. Language awareness A learner’s understanding of the rules of how language works and his/her ability to notice language Lead-in noun, lead in verb The activity or activities used to prepare learners to work on a text, topic or main task. A l ead-in often includes an introduction to the topic of the text or main task and possibly study of some new key language required for the text or main task. Learner autonomy When a learner can set his/her own aims and organise his/her own study, they are autonomous and independent. Many activities in coursebooks help learners to be more independent by developing learning strategies and focusing on learner training. Learner-centred

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Skim To read a text to get the general meaning or gist. Solowork Is when students work on their own, individually. STT Student talking time Syllabus A list of items which show what students will study over a period of time. Task Something we ask students to do, such as solving an exercise, making a presentation or creating an advertisement. Test reliability Is achieved when a test gives consistent results whoever is marking it. Test validity Is achieved when the test does what it says it will- and when it is a good measure of what it is testing. TTT Teacher talking time- the amount of time in a lesson where the teacher is speaking. Washback effect Is the influence that a test has on the way students are taught. Writing for learning Describes activities where students write in order to learn language better. Writing for writing Descibes activities which are designed to train students to be better writers. The tasks reflect real writing tasks.

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