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The Crisis

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Christmas, 1920

The Crisis

ONE DOLLAR AND A H A L F A Y E A R

FIFTEEN CENTS A COPY

DO

YOU

KNOW

that the National A s s o c i a t i o n for the A d v a n c e m e n t of C o l o r e d P e o p l e
sent James W c l d o n Johnson, its A c t i n g Secretary, to Haiti last
spring to investigate and report on c o n d i t i o n s there under A m e r i c a n
occupation—
that his articles in The Nation and T H E CRISIS told for the first time of
the murder, rapine and exploitation of the Haitians b y A m e r i c a n s —
that the shocking of the American nation and g o v e r n m e n t into making
an investigation which will lead to the eventual (and probably im­
mediate) ending of the horrible regime in Haiti is directly due to
the National Association for the A d v a n c e m e n t of C o l o r e d P e o p l e ' s
expose—
that the eyes of the civilized w o r l d have been directed to the treatment
of colored people in Haiti and in America by the United States gov­
ernment?
No
one can tell what the final results will be.
immediate and far-reaching changes.

Certain it is that there will be

That is what

The NATIONAL ASSOCIATION for
The ADVANCEMENT of COLORED PEOPLE
can and will d o with y o u r support. E v e r y new member, every new branch m e a n s
greater power to light unceasingly for a square deal for colored people in America
and elsewhere.
ARE

YOU A

MEMBER?

H A V E Y O U A B R A N C H IN Y O U R C I T Y ?
If

not, write t o d a y to

The National Association for
The Advancement of Colored People
70 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y .
for

REV.

information.

National Officers

Executive Officers

President
MOORFIELD STOREY
Vice-Presidents
ARCHIBALD
H. G R I M K E

MARY WHITE OVINGTON
Chairman
of the
Beard
JAMES
W E L D ON
JOHNSON'
Acting
Secretary

JOHN
BISHOP
ARTHUR

OSWALT)

1IAYNES
JOHN
"R.

HOLMES

W A L T E R F. W H I T E
Assistant
Secretary
J. E . S P I N G A R X
Treasu ret

HURST

SPIXGARN

GARRISON

VILLARD

DR.

W . E . P,. DLI B O I S , Director
and
Research

WILLIAM

P I C K E N S . Associate

of
Field

Publications
Secretary

THE
A

RECORD

CRISIS
OF

T H E

D A R K E R

RACES

PUBLISHED M O N T H L Y A N D COPYRIGHTED B Y T H E NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOB T H E
A D V A N C E M E N T OF COLORED P E O P L E , A T 70 F I F T H A V E N U E . N E W Y O R K C I T Y .
CON­
DUCTED B Y W . E. B U R G H A R D T DU BOI8; JESSIE REDMON FAUSET, L I T E R A R Y EDITOR;
AUGUSTUS GRANVILLE DILL, BUSINESS MANAGER.

Vol. 2 1 - N o . 2

DECEMBER, 1920

Whole No. 122

PICTURES

Page

COVER. "DARK W O M A N H O O D UNREDEEMED." After the painting by
J. H. Caines.
THE INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF W O M E N , N O R W A Y
RUINS OF CHRISTOPHE'S PALACE, HAITI
MEN OF THE MONTH

59
63
77

ARTICLES
THE INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF W O M E N
57
MARCUS G A R V E Y . W . E. B. Du BoU
58
THE HOUSING CRISIS IN N E W Y O R K CITY. Victor R. Daly
61
THREE BOOKS
62
JOSEPH A N D M A R Y COME T O BETHLEHEM.
Translated from an old
French chanson by Jessie Fauset. Decorated
72-73
75
THREE POEMS. Charles Bertram Johnson

DEPARTMENTS
OPINION
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION
PEOPLE
THE LOOKING GLASS
MEN O F THE MONTH
THE HORIZON

53
FOR THE ADVANCEMENT

OF COLORED
65
69
75
78

THE JANUARY CRISIS
T h e January C R I S I S will conclude ihe article on
short story and articles on community houses.
Our

1921 Calendar cf

Xegro

authors

is

M a r c u s Garvey.

There will be an

excellent

a remarkable document.

FIFTEEN CENTS A COPY; ONE DOLLAR AND A HALF A YEAR
FOREIGN

the

RENEWALS:
subscription is

SUBSCRIPTIONS

TWENTY-FIVE

T h e date of expiration of each subscription
due, a blue renewal blank is enclosed.

CENTS

EXTRA

is printed on the wrapper.

When

CHANGE OF ADDRESS:
T h e address of a subscriber can be changed as often as desired.
I n ordering a change of address, both the old and the new address must be given. T w o weeks'
notice is required.
MANUSCRIPTS
and
panied by return postage.

drawings relating to colored people are desired.
I f f o u n d unavailable they will be returned.

E n t e r e d a s s e c o n d c l a s s m a t t e r N o v e m b e r 2 , 1 9 1 0 , at
Y o r k , under t h e A c t of M a r c h 3 , 1 8 7 9 .

the

post

office

T h e y must be accom­
at

New

York,

New

So

CRISIS ADVERTISER

THE

National Training School
D U R H A M , N O R T H CAROLINA

A School for the Training of Colored Young
Men and Women for Service
Though it is young in history, the Institution feels a just pride in the work thus
far accomplished, for its graduates are already filling many responsible positions,
thus demonstrating the aim of the school to train men and women for useful
citizenship.

DEPARTMENTS ALREADY ESTABLISHED
The
The
The
The

Grammar School
Academy
School of Arts and Science*
Department of Music
The
Department

T h e Teacher Training Department
The Divinity School
The Commercial Department
The Department of H o m e Economics
of Social Service

TERM OPENED SEPTEMBER 21, 1920
For

President

farther information and Catalog, address

James

E. Shepard, Durham, North

Carolina

STATE OF NEW JERSEY

Lincoln University

MANUAL TRAINING &
INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL

a m o n g c o l l e g e s for c o l o r e d students
by the A m e r i c a n Medical A s s o c i a t i o n

Ranked in C l a s s 1

FOR

COLORED

College and Theological Seminary
opened Sept. 2 1 , 1 9 2 0

YOUTH

Address:

BORDENTOWN, N. J.

President, J o h n B . Rendall, D . D .
Lincoln University,
Chester County, P a .

A high institution for the training of
colored youth. E x c e l l e n t equipment,
thorough instruction, wholesome sur­
roundings. A c a d e m i c training for all
students.
Courses in carpentry, agriculture and
trades for b o y s , including auto re­
pairing.
Courses in domestic science and do­
mestic art for girls.
A
n e w trades building, thoroughly
equipped.
New
girls' dormitory thoroughly and
modernly equipped.

The

Cheyney, Pa.
M a d e in 1 9 2 0 an accredited State N o r m a l School,
offering in addition to the regular N o r m a l course
of two years professional three year courses in H o m e
Economics and M a n u a l T r a i n i n g .
A diploma from
any
of these courses makes a graduate eligible to teach
in^ the public schools of Pennsylvania.
A three-year
H i g h School Course is offered to all who have com­
pleted the eighth grammar grade.

T e r m s reasonable.
F a l l term opened September,
For

W.

Cheyney Training School
for Teachers

B o a r d and T u i t i o n

1920.

1st
2nd

information address

R. VALENTINE,

For

Principal
Mention

further

LESLIE

T

HE

CRISIS.

$153.00

Semester, September 13, 1920
Semester, January 26, 1921
pailiculars
and catalog,
write—
PINCKNEY HILL,
C H E Y N E Y , PA.

Principal,

THE

CRISIS ADVERTISER

MOREHOUSE COLLEGE
Atlanta University

(Formerly Atlanta Baptist College)
ATLANTA, G A
College, Academy, Divinity School
A n institution famous within recent years
for its emphasis on all sides of manly develop­
ment—the only institution in the far South
devoted solely to the education of Negro
young men.

I s beautifully located in the City of Atlanta,
Ga. T h e courses of study include High School,
Normal School mid College. Special emphasis,
is laid upon the training of teachers.
Students
come from all parts of the South.
Graduates
have a fine record for successful work.
For further information address

President Edward T . W a r e
Atlanta* G a .
^liJttllllUJUllUIIIUJJUtlllUitlOlllla^UJUIUllJJIIIIllllJUIIIUJIIJiUILIIiUUIIJIJiLlllllitMllllllIllllllJilUliailllJItttlJJJTn^

I KNOXVILLE COLLEGE I

Graduates given high ranking by greatest
northern universities. Debating, Y . M . C. A . ,
athletics, all live features.
F o r information, address
J O H N H O P E , President.

Beautiful Situation.
H e a l t h f u l Location.
B e s t Moral and Spiritual Environment.
Splendid I n t e l l e c t u a l A t m o s p h e r e .
N o t e d tor H o n e s t and Thorough W o r k .

FISK UNIVERSITY

I n s t i t u t i o n offers f u l l courses in t h e fol­
lowing departments: College, Normal, H i g h
School, G r a m m a r School, D o m e s t i c Science,
Nurse Training and
Industrial.

NASHVILLE, TENN.
Founded 1866

Good w a t e r , s t e a m h e a t , e l e c t r i c
lights,
natural drainage, splendid dormitories,
Ex­
p e n s e s very r e a s o n a b l e .

Thorough Literary, Scientific, Educational,
Musical and Social Science Courses. Pioneer
in Negro music. Special study in Negro life.
Ideal and sanitary buildings and grounds.
Well-equipped Science building.
Christian home life.
High standard of independent manhood and
womanhood. F o r literature, etc., write

Began September IS, 1920.
For

catalog

and

other

information

address

PRESIDENT J. KELLY GIFFEN
KnoulUe, Tenn.

§

1

iiTTTiruijiiiiimiiiiiiiimfriTniiniiiniHiiFiiiiiFniirmimttnnuTiiiiiiiirniii

1870 CLARK UNIVERSITY 1920
ATLANTA,

F A Y E T T E AVERY M c K E N Z I E ,

President

GEORGIA

Over 100 acres of beautiful campus.
Twelve buildings
with new $100,000 administration building with modem
chapel and gymnasium under construction.
Strong facul­
ty—Religious atmosphere—Athletics—Co-educational. Ad­
mission only by application.

BIDDLE

RE-ARRANGED COURSES OF S T U D Y
J u n i o r High School—7th and 8th Grades and 1st and
2nd Year^' High School Courses, with Certificate.
J u n i o r College—3rd and 4th Year High School with
• Freshman and Sophomore years of College work, with
Diploma.
College—Four years above High School, or two years
above Junior College Course, with degree of A.B.
Domestic Science—Commerce—Normal—
Pre-medical Course
51st year nf nine months opened September 22. 1920.
$16.00 per month pays tuition, board, room and laundry.
HARRY
ANDREWS
KING,
President

UNIVERSITY

CHARLOTTE. N. C.
Blddle University, ei-eratrii index the sasslces or
the Northern Presbyterian Church, has (our Depart­
ment*—High School, Arts ud Sciences Theological
and Industrial, The completion of a Grammar School
course is the requirement, for entrance to the first Tear
of the High School.
The School of Arts and Sciences offer* two courses
uf study, the Classical and the Scientific
m the
scientific, German )• substituted for Greek or Latin.
The entrance requirement for the Freshman Claes 1*
16 units of High School work.
The Theological Department offers two courses, each
consisting of three years. The first is purely Cngllsh.
Greek and Hebrew are taught In the others.
All students In the High School Dept. axe reqmlretl
tu take trades In the Industrial Dept.
F s r further information, t d d r t t t
President H . L . MtCreray,
Charlotte, N . C .

&fjt Jflortba Agricultural
anb ifflecfjamcal College
Offers courses leading to certificates,
diplomas and degrees.

Morris Brown University
Atlanta. G a .

Nathan

B.

Young,

Co-Educational

President

Tallahassee, Florida

STATE UNIVERSITY, Louisville, Ky.
Founded 1879.
The only Institution In the State baring for Its object
Collegiate. Ministerial. Medical, and Legal training for Col­
ored citizens In Kentucky.
Special training In Insurance, Social Service, Nursing and
Hospital Work.
,
Normal, Commercial, Music, Domestic Science, Missionary
training class.
Evening classes,
correspondence course.
Degrees offered.

The
largest institution of learning in the
South
owned and controlled by Negroes. Faculty of special­
ists, trained in some of the best universities in the
N o r t h and in the South.
Noted for high standard of
scholarship; industrial emphasis and positive Chris­
tian
influence.
Well
equipped
dormitories;
sane
athletics under faculty supervision.
Expenses rea­
sonable.
Location central and healthful.
Departments:
T h e o l o g y , College, H i g h School, Nor­
mal, Commercial, Musical, Domestic Science, Sewing,
Printing and Tailoring.
First Semester began September, 1920.
For further information address

JOHN H . LEWIS, President
BISHOP J. S. FLIPPER, Chairman Trustee Board.

P r e s i d e n t C. H . P a r r i s h
Mention

THE

CRISIS.

THE

52

CRISIS ADVERTISER

Talladega

W i l e y University
Marshall, Texas

Founded in 1867 for the E d u c a t i o n of
Negro Leaders

Recognized as a college of first class by
Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas and Okla­
homa State Boards of Education. Har­
vard, Boston University, University of
Illinois and University of Chicago repre­
sented or. its faculty.
One hundred
twenty-seven in College Department, ses­
sion 1919-1920.
Several new buildings,
steam heated and electric lighted.
M.

W . DOGAN,

College

Talladega, Alabama

Beautiful and Healthful L o c a t i o n .
Literary, Scientific, Educational, S o ­
cial
Service,
Theological,
Musical,
Business
Administration, Journalism,
Nurse T r a i n i n g Courses.
H i g h Standards o f Christian M a n ­
h o o d and W o m a n h o o d .
For

President

further information address
F . A . S U M N E R , President

MUSIC TEACHER

COLEMAN

W A N T E D — A well trained and experienced
teacher of pianoforte and voice for a Chris­
tian school. Must be devoted to her work
and a good example f o r young women.

COLLEGE

GIBSLAND, L A .
Supported b y Baptist State W o m a n ' ! H o m e
Mission S o c i e t y of C h i c a g o and B o s t o n and
A.
B . H . S o c i e t y of N e w Y o r k .
Students
from six
different
states.
Graduates
ex­
e m p t e d on first g r a d e b y L o u i s i a n a , A r k a n s a s
and O k l a h o m a .

O.

L. COLEMAN,

ST.

Address—SECONDARY

SCHOOL,

c/o T H E

CRISIS.

Couple would like to adopt
a baby girl 14 to 16 months
old.

President

M A R Y ' S SCHOOL

Write
Box 194, Ridgewood, N. J.

An
E p i s c o p a l b o a r d i n g school f o r g i r l s , n n d e r t h e
direction of t h e s i s t e r s of St. M a r y . A d d r e s s : T H E
SISTER-IN-CHAEGE.
6138 Gerraantown
Avenue,
Philadelphia.
Pa.

The Lincoln Hospital and Home
TRAINING SCHOOL FOR NURSES
in the city of N e w York

Both of Us Lose, Young Man

offers to young colored women a three
years' course of instruction in nursing.
Capacity of hospital—420 beds.
Post Graduate Course of six months to
graduates of accredited schools.
For information apply to:

If you fail to study the supe­
rior advantages North Carolina
offers you through The Agri­
cultural and Technical College
for securing good, practical and
technical training.

Superintendent of Nurses

Lincoln Hospital and H o m e
New York, N . Y .

Four Strong Departments:
Agricultural

Academic

Mechanical

Teacher-Training

HALE INFIRMARY AND NURSE TRAINING
SCHOOL, 325 Lake Street, Montgomery, Ala.
Offers to H i g h School graduates a n d y o u n g
women of higher education and good moral
character, between the ages of 1 8 and 3 5 , a
three years' course in the profession of nurs­
ing.
F o r further information apply to the
Superintendent enclosing a stamp.

Night School for those who
desire to work in the day.
Fall Term began, September 1,1920

Special CRISIS Offer

Address:

JAS. B. D U D L E Y , President
A. & T . College
Greensboro, N. C .

Mention

Five
paid-up yearly
subscriptions
to tlie
C R I S I S sent in at one t i m e will entitle the
sender to a year's subscription tree. T h i s offer
holds good until midnight of December 3 1 ,
1920.

TnE

CRISIS.

THE CRISIS
Vol. 21.

No. 2

DECEMBER, 1920

Whole No. 122

Opinion
of W. E. B. Dubois

"See, Governor? Hear that? The
Saturday crowds are in town and
Jack is a prime favorite—you know
they're none too well disposed toward
you and the Government since this
new usurpation of federal power."
"That's just it," answered the Gov­
ernor angrily, straightening in his
chair
and
flashing
challenging
glances right and left: "Lawlessness
has brought Mississippi to this pass
and yet you want me not only to p a r ­
don a notorious criminal, but also to
condemn an innocent man."
"Innocent?" cried several voices,
but the great voice of the Bishop outdrowned them all.
"You do not understand," he said
ominously, thrusting forward
his
great bulk and towering over the ner­
vous frame of the Governor. The
Governor stiffened but did not quail.
"You are northern born—you live far
from our problem—our fearful Prob­
lem. Remember, Sir, in Mississippi
there is one Crime of Crimes, one
beside which all crimes fade to inno­
cence—Murder, Arson, Rape, Theft—
all are nothing beside the crime of
Race Equality. Sir, this man, whom
we have brought before you, not only
preaches openly the equality of all
men, but (and the Bishop shuddered)
practices it!"
And then the flying words of all the
eager, angry councilors raised and
swept across the golden board and up
the crimson curtains and down the
open, sun-flushed windows:
"Do you know what he wants?"—
"He wants equality for Everybody—
everybody, mind you"—"Turks, Jews,
Niggers, Dagoes, Chinks, Japs"—

PONTIUS PILATE

PONTIUS
P I L A T E , Federal
Governor of Mississippi, sat
in the Judgment seat at
Jackson.
B e f o r e him
stretched a table of shining gold and
the morning sun sang through the
eastern windows.
It lighted
the
faces of the Chief Priest and the Eld­
ers as they bent eagerly toward him,
and twisted itching hands.
He was lingering a pile of silver
money which seemed to have been
tossed or thrown upon the table be­
fore him.
"This-er-Iscariot fellow," he began
in a low, inquiring voice, while his
eyes sought the haunting shadows of
the long, crimson curtains at his back.
A bishop interrupted him: a tall
and mighty bishop cassocked, ringed,
and jewelled:
"Just a case of uneasy conscience
—a worthless fellow—we shall give
this to foreign missions, shall we not,
and seek Souls for the Kingdom?"
And he gathered up and counted out
thirty pieces— "and now to the main
matter."
"I don't see how I can pardon this
Barabbas,"
said the Governor,—
speaking with sudden vehemence.
"He is a criminal and a drunkard—
he has killed men before and—"
" N o w , now, Governor!" interrupt­
ed the Judge, "Jack Barabbas is not
so bad—quarrelsome, to be sure,
when in liquor, and quick to defend
his honor as every white man should
be. Moreover—hark f"
Something floated in by the win­
dow. It was a low, but monstrous
sound and in it lay anger and blood.
53

54

THE CRISIS

"everybody"—"talking, sleeping, kiss­
ing, marrying"—"the damned scoun­
drel !"—"and do you know why he
wants it?"—"He's nothing but a—"
—"He's a Bolshevist—a Red Revolu­
tionist"—"He is going to overthrow
all government—"
And then in a shriek—"He claims
to be God and King."
Slowly, Pilate arose.
"Bring him in," he said.
They swung the crimson curtains
back and there in the shadows stood
the Christ.
Pontius Pilate shuddered.
"Art
thou King?" he whispered.
And the answer came calm and
clear, " Y e s ! "
The cry of the mob below shivered
to a shriek, while the Chief Priest
and the Elders stood in a silence that
was ominous.
Pilate turned.
"I find no fault in this man," he
said doggedly, as his hands trembled.
"He blasphemed against the White
Race," hissed the Bishop.
But Pilate continued: " Y o u have
brought this man before me as a dan­
gerous agitator.
I have examined
him before you and have found no
fault in him. I will therefore fine him
and let him g o . "
But the council cried in one voice.
"Away with Christ—and pardon
Barabbas!"
"I'll pardon Barabbas if you insist
—but Christ—"
Again the groan of the mob rose
and flooded in at the window, break­
ing the sunshine.
Pilate stirred uneasily—"I won't
punish him," he said testily. "I know
no law."
"Sir, w e know our unwritten law.
The crowd below—"
"I'll have no violence," cried Pilate.
"It was just this lynching business
that led the federal government to
interfere in Mississippi—"
• "Your Excellency, consider a mo­
ment," interrupted the States Attor­
ney. " Y o u incur no responsibility.

You simply deliver this man into our
hands; and by your pardon of Barab­
bas the crowd will be mollified and—"
"And what?" asked the Governor.
"Well, there will be less likelihood
of violence."
Pilate arose agitated.
"I'll have
nothing to do with it," he said. "I
wash my hands of the whole thing."
The councilors bowed and turned
to the door. The shout of the mob
rose and rent the courtyard and the
sunlight died:
—Lynch
him!
Lynch
the
damned—!
For a moment Pilate hesitated with
clenched hands and riven face. Then
slowly he left the chamber.
It was late afternoon and Pilate
stood in the clean, cool bathroom,
washing his hands. His wife hurried
in.
"Pontius," she said hesitatingly,
"have nothing to do with that just
man—for I have suffered—"
"There, there! It's all right," he
said, chucking her under the chin.
"Don't meddle in politics." They both
started, for they heard the mad music
of myriad feet, the laughter, scream­
ing and cursing of men, and the shrill
babble of women's voices; and then
over the height of the hills rolled the
far-off echo of that world-worn c r y :
"My God, my God! Why has Thou
forsaken m e ! "
THE UNREAL CAMPAIGN
-

N E V E R have the American peo­
ple endured such a Presiden­
tial campaign. It is true that
in no campaign are the great
issues always distinct and clear and
the alignments definite and under­
standable. But surely in no campaign
ha? there ever been such a lack of
ali iment and such deliberate smearin of issues. One may, as one is con­
stituted, regard voting as a test of
conscience and principle or as a prac­
tical make-shift. In the first, the land
may easily go to the dogs while the
Dreamer walks his high and isolated
fe

OPINION

path. In the other case, we may too
easily forget our dreams.
But both sorts of Voters on No­
vember 2, 1920, were in maddening
puzzlement. The League of Nations?
There was no real difference between
the parties; between Johnson and
Wilson there was a world of argu­
ment ; but Taft and Holt, Hoover and
Cox? It was all a matter of punctua­
tion and style. No man then could vote
either the Republican or the Demo­
cratic ticket because he favored or op­
posed the League. And outside the
League, What? Imperialism, labor and
wage, the power of capital, the mar­
keting of farm products, the building
of homes, the training of children, the
ownership of land, the freedom of
suffrage—in these and all else the ma­
jor parties were mere fog or reaction.
Indeed the only real, stinging, fighting
questions in the whole campaign were
President Wilson and the Negro.
The Family Tree
The allegation was that the Presi­
dent-elect had a black man some­
where among his remote ancestors.
Can you conceive how real a fury this
query roused? How else could it be
with our deliberate cultivation of race
hate and with Pat Harrison of Mis­
sissippi heading one of the Speakers'
Bureaus ?
Suppose President Harding is col­
ored—What of it? He would be but
one of hundreds of distinguished
Americans who served their country
well from the day of Alexander Ham­
ilton to that of Lew Wallace. Nefer­
tari and Amenhotep, Candace and
Terence, Askia and Tamuramaro,
Browning and Lafcadio Hearn—how
many of the world's heroes have
shared the black blood of Africa! It
is an ancient and noble lineage; as
high and deserving as that of any race
on earth, until Ethiopia was raped
and murdered and despoiled by
Europe. God knows that all of us—
black, white, red and yellow, are low
enough in ancestry and service, but

55

"Pure White America" excels most
lands in being able to boast an ances­
try which includes.far more jails, asy­
lums and gutters and far fewer pal­
aces than most nations. Is this her
shame or glory? And which was
worse: the shrieking whispers of the
Democrats, or the vociferous denials
of the Republicans of the taint! Taint,
forsooth! what could taint America?
Ohio, once the home of freedom, led
in Anti-Negro propaganda, egged on
by Cox and the new white southern
immigration. "Timely warnings" to
white folk were distributed by the
hundred thousand declaring, "Ohioans
should remember that the time has
come when we must handle this prob­
lem in somewhat the same way as the
South is handling it!" As a result
many of the colored candidates for the
legislature were defeated, but more
were elected than ever before and
many friends like Governor Davis,
formerly Mayor of Cleveland, tri­
umphed.
Third

Parties

The third parties have made a sin­
gularly spiritless campaign. A s re­
sidual legatees of all protest and un­
rest they did almost nothing to answer
the searching query of desperate
strivers for light. Not the ultimate
dogma of Marxian socialism or the
undigested hodge-podge of FarmerLaborers sufficed. Men asked and
were not answered: What is the next
step and how does it lead to a definite,
clearmarked way? The great mass of
laboring people, the thrifty, hard­
working farmers and small capital­
ists, lacked dismally here that leader­
ship which through the great Labor
party of England and the right wing
Socialists of Italy are hewing, wav­
eringly but stubbornly, a real path,
leaving on the one side intransigeant
communism and on the other, organ­
ized and reactionary theft.
Not so
America. We, the burden-bearers,
could not even agree to disagree and
delivered the masses bound into the

THE CRISIS

56

hands of the Phillistines.
And the' Black Man. He had no
chance. He was less than free and
more than a slave. He was a machine
—an automatic registration mark for
the Republican party. He could not
be otherwise. From the day Wood­
row Wilson shamelessly betrayed his
black supporters of 1912 to the day
when the flippant Cox of Ohio built
his Ohio campaign on the cheapest
brand of "nigger"-hatred, the black
American had but one political choice
or mission: to defeat the South-ridden
Democratic party. He could not even
think of taking an off-shot at the Mil­
lenium by voting Socialist or Farmer
Labor—he must defeat the Demo­
crats.
And he did his bit.
And so the great farce ends. The
People have spoken—and said noth­
ing.
THE A. M . E. CHURCH

0 0 little has been said of the
extraordinary
accomplish­
ment of the Department of
Finance of the A. M. E.
Church during the last quadrennium.
For the first time in the history of
the church there has been collected
in "dollar money" over a million dol­
lars during a quadrennium.
The
Financial Secretary who accomplished
this is John Russell Hawkins, of
North Carolina. The "dollar money"
is a sort of federal tax upon individ­
ual members for the support of the
general connection and its increase
since its entablishment has been as
follows:
1S72—1870

$95,554

1S9G—1900

$400,074

1876—1880

99.925

1 9 0 0 - 1 9 0 1

703.411

1880—^1884

1G9.3S9

1904—190S.'

605,494

1884—1SSS

199,514

190S—1912

790,OSS

1888—1S92

313.341

1912—1910

S50.211

1892—1896

351.912

1910—1920

1,033.079

Thus from 1872-1920 the church
has collected $5,758,625 for general
expenses, not including money raised
for local purposes, salaries for pre­

siding elders and pastors and special
monies raised for mission work,
church extension and in education
rallies. This is a record of which any
organization should be proud.
A N D N O W LIBERIA

HE Wilson Plan of assisting
Liberia has been finally re­
vealed in detail. Its terms,
which include a loan of five
million dollars, are found to be disas­
trously rigid. Worley, a white Vir­
ginian, as General Receiver, is the
one prominent figure and would be
the real ruler of Liberia under this
plan, together with his band of white
pensioners. He and our Secretary of
Legation, Bundy, sought to force the
plan through, but President
King
called an extra session of the Legisla­
ture to consider amendments. While
the Legislature was in session a cable­
gram was received from the United
States, saying that no amendments
to the Plan would be accepted and
that the Plan must be signed as sub­
mitted by them, "or the friendly in­
terest which has heretofore existed
would become lessened."
The Liberians, however, refused to
be frightened and are preparing to
eend another commission to America,
now that the election is over, to dis­
cuss some reasonable changes in the
proposed financial arrangements.
COOPERATION

HE second annual coopera­
tive convention met in Cin­
cinnati,
November 11-14;
the "All American Farmer
Labor Cooperative Commission" has
been organized with headquarters in
Washington, D. C , and Frederic C.
Howe is executive secretary; in New
York the Socialist Rand School is
giving courses on cooperation and an­
swering questions by correspondence.
Thus the movement grows.
Shall
American Negroes lag behind!

INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL
M C SWINEY

HE veriest coward may die
for a cause in the frenzy ot
battle with court martial and
disgrace behind him and
naming medals in front.
A brave
man may rush to his death at sudden
call in time of peace. But the bravest
of the brave is he who without hurt
or hate simply lies still and for the
sake of Right dies by inches through
endless days. No cause with such
martyrs can ever die.
MARTYRS

HREE years ago December
11, at 7:17 in the morning,
thirteen
American Negro
soldiers were murdered on
the scaffold by the American govern­
ment to satisfy the bloodlust of Texas

57

on account of the Houston riot. This
was bad enough; but in addition to
this there are today languishing in
the United States Penitentiary at
Leavenworth, Kan., 56 colored men
sentenced to life imprisonment and 5
men sentenced to imprisonment for
15 years, all for the same alleged of­
fence. This shameful injustice is a
trumpet call to every American Negro
and we should never rest until these
men are pardoned and freed,—
"Lord, these are Thine who pay the
price
For what a freeman's soul is
worth,—
Whose madness is their sacrifice
That what they love may live on
earth!
Lord these are Thine!"

THE INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN
The International Council of Women
meets every five years. This year it
met in Christiania, Norway, and for the first
time had an accredited Negro delegate, Mrs.
Mary B. Talbert of Buffalo N. Y., and her
alternate, Dr. Mary F. Waring of Chicago.
The race has been represented unofficially
twice before,—by Miss Hallie Q. Brown who
addressed the London meeting in 1899 and
by Mrs. Mary Church Terrell who spoke at
the Berlin meeting in 1904.
The delegates, including Mrs. Talbert and
her daughter and Dr. Waring, traveled in a
party via Italy, Switzerland, France, Bel­
gium, Denmark, Norway and Scotland.
There were five southern-born white women
in the party: Mrs. Alexander Watkins of
Miuter City, Miss.; Mrs. James Riley of
Charlotte, N. C , former vice-president of
the L'eneral Federation of Women's Clubs;
Mrs. O. J. Chandler of Harrodsburg, Ky.;
Mrs. Heisey of Great Falls, Mont.; and Mrs.
Marsh of Wyoming. These women together
with Mrs. Howard Gould during the whole
78 days of the journey made the life of the.
colored delegates as uncomfortable as possi­
ble. Mrs. Gould began the campaign on
shipboard by repeating in a loud voice vari­
ous tales of the systematic importation of

southern colored women into the North for
voting purposes.
Repeated efforts were
made to segregate the colored women in
Italy and Switzerland. At the American
Y. W. C. A. in Paris, where the party ar­
rived late in the morning after an all night
ride, all the white delegates were welcomed
and accommodated while the colored dele­
gates were even refused breakfast. A t Ant­
werp, Mrs. Riley went to the proprietor of
the hotel and demanded segregation of the
colored guests, which he refused. Mrs. Wat­
kins left the party at Brussels to avoid fur­
ther contact.
,
In Birmingham, England, at the Queen's
Hotel, Mrs. Heisey and Mrs. Riley refused
seats at the table where Mrs. Talbert and
her daughter were sitting and left the
dining-room.
At Copenhagen, Denmark,
they were entertained at the American Con­
sul. -Mrs. Gould, Mrs. Chandler and Mrs.
Marsh, of Wyoming, refused to attend be­
cause the colored women were there.
At the meeting of the council the colored
women received every courtesy from the
foreign delegates and from the American
officials, Mrs. Phillip North Moore and Mrs.
Joseph C. Merriman. During this time Mrs.
Talbert published four articles on our race

58

THE

CRISIS

problem in two leading Christiania papers.
On the return there were several social
functions of such importance that the South­
erners were compelled to endure in silence
the presence of the colored delegates. For
instance, all the delegates were entertained
by the King and Queen of Norway. All the
Southerners were present. Lady Aberdeen,
president of the Council, entertained the
delegates and alternates at breakfast. Mrs.
Riley was placed opposite Dr. Waring and
did not leave the table. At Hadow House,
Aberdeen, Scotland, on the way back, Lady
Aberdeen entertained _ the whole American

party. At her request Mrs. Talbert sat at
her right and the representative of the Jew­
ish women, Mrs. Nathan Harris, at her left.
All the Southerners were present. Mrs.
Riley sat at the right of Lord Aberdeen and
Mrs. Merriman. conductor of the party, on
the left. They were entertained at Edin­
burgh, Scotland, by the Common Council.
All were present.
And so the eventful journey ended with
the colored women quietly and with dignity
standing at their guns and the southern
white women furious at the "social equal­
ity!"

MARCUS GARVEY
W. E. B. Du Bois
MARCUS
GARVEY was born at St.
Ann's Bay, Jamaica, about 1885. He
was educated at the public school and then
for a short time attended the Church of
England Grammar School, although he was
a Roman Catholic by religion. On leaving
school he learned the printing trade and
followed it for many years. In Costa Rica
he was associated with Marclam Taylor in
publishing the Blue field's Messenger. Later
he was on the staff of La Nation. He then
returned to Jamaica and worked as a print­
er, being foreman of the printing depart­
ment of P. Benjamin's Manufacturing Com­
pany of Kingston. Later he visited Europe
and spent some time in England and France
and while abroad conceived his scheme of
organizing the Negro Improvement Society.
This society was launched August 1, 1914.
in Jamaica, with these general objects
among others:
"To establish a Universal Confraternity
among the race"; "to promote the spirit
of race pride and love"; "to administer to
and assist the needy"; "to strengthen the
imperialism of independent African States";
"to conduct a world-wide commercial and
industrial intercourse".
His first practical object was to be the
establishment of a farm school. Meetings
were held and the Roman Catholic Bishop,
the Mayor of Kingston, and many others
addressed them. Nevertheless the project
did not succeed and Mr. Garvey was soon in
financial difficulties.
He therefore prac­
tically abandoned the Jamaica field and
came to the United States. In the United
States his movement for many years lan­

guished until at last with the increased
migration from the West Indies during the
war he succeeded in establishing a strong
nucleus in the Harlem district of New York
City.
His program now enlarged and changed
somewhat in emphasis. He began especially
to emphasize the commercial development
of the Negroes and as an islander familiar
with the necessities of ship traffic he
planned the "Black Star Line". The public
for a long time regarded this as simply a
scheme of exploitation, when they were
startled by hearing that Garvey had bought
a ship. This boat was a former coasting
vessel, 32 years old, but it was put into
commission with a black crew and a black
captain and was announced as the first of a
fleet of vessels which would trade between
the colored peoples of America, the West
Indies and Africa. With this beginning,
the popularity and reputation of Mr. Gar­
vey and his association increased quickly.
In addition to the Yarmouth he is said to
have purchased two small boats, the Shadyside, a small excursion steamer which made
daily excursions up the Hudson, and a
yacht which was designed to cruise among
the West Indies and collect cargo in some
central spot for the Yarmouth.
He had
first announced the Black Star Line as a
Five Million Dollar corporation, but in Feb­
ruary, 1920, he announced that it was going
to be a Ten Million Dollar corporation with
shares selling at Five Dollars. To this he
added in a few months the Negro Factories
Corporation capitalized at One Million Dol­
lars with two hundred thousand one dollar

PAKTIAL V I E W OF A SESSION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN, CHRIST1ANIA,
N O R W A Y ; LADY ABERDEEN PRESIDING. (The arrow showB Mrs. Talbert.)
59

6o

THE

CRISIS

shares, and finally he announced the sub­
scription of Five Million Dollars to free
Liberia and Haiti from debt.
Early in 1920 he called a convention of
Negroes to meet in New York City from the
1st to the 31st of August, "to outline a
constructive plan and program for the up­
lifting of the Negroes and the redemption of
Africa". He also took title to three apart­
ment houses to be used as offices and pur­
chased the foundation of an unfinished Bap­
tist church which he covered over and used
for meetings, calling it "Liberty Hall". In
August, 1920, his convention met with repre­
sentatives from various parts of the United
States, several of the West India Islands
and the Canal Zone and a few from Africa.
The convention carried out its plan of a
month's meetings and culminated with a
mass meeting which filled Madison Square
Garden. Finally the convention adopted a
"Declaration of Independence" with 66 ar­
ticles, a universal anthem and colors,—red,
black and green—and elected Mr. Garvey as
"His Excellency, the Provisional President
of Africa", together with a number of
various other leaders from the various
parts of the Negro world. This in brief is
the history of the Garvey movement.
The question comes (1) Is it an honest,
sincere movement? (2) Are its industrial
and commercial projects business like and
effective?
(3) Are its general objects
plausible and capable of being carried out?
The central and dynamic force of the
movement is Garvey. He has with singular
success capitalized and made vocal the great
and long suffering grievances and spirit of
protest among the West Indian peasantry.
Hitherto the black peasantry of the West
Indies has been almost leaderless. Its na­
tural leaders, both mulatto and black, have
crossed the color line and practically ob­
literated social distinction, and to some ex­
tent economic distinction, between them and'
the white English world on the Islands. This
has left a peasantry with only the rudi­
ments of education and with almost no
economic chances, grovelling at the bottom.
Their distress and needs gave Garvey his
vision.
It is a little difficult to characterize the
man Garvey. He has been charged with
dishonesty and graft, but he seems to me
essentially an honest and sincere man with
a tremendous vision, great dynamic force,
stubborn determination and unselfish desire
to serve; but also he has very serious de­

fects of temperament and training: he is
dictatorial, domineering', '"Sordinately vain
and very suspicious. He cannot get on with
his fellow-workers. His entourage has con­
tinually changed. He has had endless law
suits and some cases of fisticuffs with his
subordinates and has even divorced the
young wife whom he married with great
fanfare of trumpets about a year ago. All
these things militate against him and his
reputation. Nevertheless I have not found
the slightest proof that his objects were not
sincere or that he was consciously diverting
money to his own uses. The great difficulty
with him is that he has absolutely no busi­
ness sense, no flair for real organization and
his general objects are so shot through with
bombast and exaggeration that it is diffi­
cult to pin them down for careful examina­
tion.
1

On the other hand, Garvey is an extraor­
dinary leader of men. Thousands of people
believe in him. He is able to stir them
with singular eloquence and the general run
of his thought is of a high plane. He has
become to thousands of people a sort of
religion.
He allows and encourages all
sorts of personal adulation, even printing
in his paper the addresses of some of the
delegates who hailed him as "His Majesty".
He dons on state occasion, a costume con­
sisting of an academic cap and gown
flounced in red and green!
Of Garvey's curious credulity and sus­
picions one example will suffice: In March,­
1919, he held a large mass meeting at Pal­
ace Casino which was presided ever by
Chandler Owen and addressed by himself
?nd Phillip Randolph. Here he collected
$204 in contributions on the plea that while
in France, W. E. B. DuBois had interfered
with the work of his "High Commissioner"
by "defeating" his articles in the French
press and "repudiating" his statements as
to lynching and injustice in America! The
truth was that Mr. DuBois never saw or
heard of his "High Commissioner", never
denied his nor anyone's statements of the
wretched American conditions, did every­
thing possible to arouse rather than quiet
the French press and would have been de­
lighted to welcome and co-operate with any
colored fellow-worker.
1

Of the 15 names of his fellow officers in 1914 not a
single one appears in 1918; of the 18 names of officers
published in 1918 only 6 survive in 1919; among the
small list of principal officers published in 1920 I do
not find a single name mentioned in 1919.

(To be concluded in

January)

THE HOUSING CRISIS IN NEW YORK CITY

mm

VICTOR

R.

DALY

MUCH
has been said of late concerning in the most congested parts of Harlem the
the acute shortage of dwelling houses rentals average $9.50 per room.
in New York City. A great deal of time
The population of Harlem has increased
and space has been devoted to elaborating approximately from 55,000 in 1913 to
on the resultant suffering and privation
150,000 today. During this time the actual
that always follow in the wake of a shortage housing facilities, although they have ex­
of any commodity. The Metropolitan press, tended greatly, have by no means kept
welfare organizations, housing commissions, pace with the tremendous growth of the
reconstruction committees and scores of
population, especially during the period fol­
like agencies, however, have been so taken lowing the war. So great is the congestion
up with the problems of white people that that 5,000 new-law apartment houses could
very little time has been found to devote be utilized tomorrow if they were available.
to housing relief among Negroes. As is
A few specific cases will serve to show
usually the case, then, unless the Negro to what extent consideration of health and
himself takes the initiative and attempts to sanitation has been discarded in the mad
work out his own salvation by bringing his search after shelter. In one instance we
case to the direct attention of those who are found a family of five, including three chil­
in position to help him, he will find himself
dren, 5, 3 and 2 years old, occupying one
suffering from housing troubles long after room of a five-room flat in which there
the ills of others have been cured.
were altogether 16 people living. On an
In a recent survey of the housing condi­ average, there are 14 families living in
tions in the Negro section of Harlem, the every 8 family apartment house, and 17
New York Urban League has dis­
NEGRO P O P U L A T I O N
closed some facts that have pro­
(AUG-^1913) .
voked a great deal of attention to
58 NEGRO POPULATION
I N C R E A S E . . ( A U G . I 9 I 3 -to
the question of Negro housing in

A U G ipao)
XSd MIXED POPULATION
the city. This survey shows that
C ± WHITE P O P U L A T I O N
a housing situation exists in upper
- 3 VACANT LOTS
E^l FACTORIES
Harlem which is a menace not only
gncf W A R E H O U S E S .
to the lives and health of the peo­
ple who reside in that particular
section, but to the entire city of
New York. The harder this fact
can be driven home to the "powers
that be," the quicker will be the
relief extended to this community.
The simple fact that the Negro
cannot live anywhere that he may
desire, by virtue of the policy of
segregation, places his housing
problem in a class by itself. As a
result of segregation, there is an
artificial restriction of the already
too limited supply of dwelling
houses. This accounts for the fact
— r-»oc[HtfsLQKOl
that Negroes are paying compara­
• 0EE0 LHtyH]
tively higher rents than other ra­
cial groups in New York City.
The present average monthly rent­
•ED DEO DED
als for the most modern apart­
]'D=D 033 LED
ments is about $12.50 per room.
D I S T R I B U T I O N oP N E G R O P O P U L A T I O N
o/>
Even in the oldest cold-water flats
HARLEM
1

6l

62

THE

families occupying 10 family houses. In
one extreme case we found 33 families oc­
cupying a 16 family house.
With conditions like these it is no wonder
that such trivial questions as health, sani­
tation and morals have long since been
thrown to the winds. We found that the
infant mortality among Negro babies is
three times that of any other sec­
tion of the city.
As we expected, the
spread of contagious diseases has steadily
increased; 16 per cent of Negro deaths in
1914 were from tuberculosis, while in 1919
tuberculosis accounted for 22 per cent of
Negro deaths. Every week 13 Negroes die
in New York City of tuberculosis.
It is claimed that the solution of the gen­
eral housing problem in New York City lies
in the building of new houses. "Stimulate
building!" is the cry of the hour. As far
as Harlem is concerned this program of­
fers small chance of direct relief unless
municipal housing is adopted. Present day
costs of building and construction, coupled
with the scarcity of credit and mortgages,
prevent Negroes themselves from erecting
dwelling houses for their own use. Unfor­
tunately, white investors have become im­
bued with the erroneous idea that apart­
ment house construction for Negroes is an
unprofitable business.
Consequently the
hope of relief by the method of new building
by private capital is out of the question.
For a generation Negroes have been living
on the left-over housing of white tenants
who have moved into other districts. If
any immediate help is to come to Harlem
it will have to be in this same manner.

CRISIS

When houses can be secured for the white
families now Jiving on the outskirts of the
colored section, these families will move
away. The landlord, confronted with the
problem of keeping his apartments occu­
pied, will be glad to welcome colored tenancy.
Within the past 18 months Negroes have
been investing heavily in real property in
Harlem. Scores of apartment houses occu­
pied by white families have been purchased
by colored investors who have been replac­
ing the white tenants by colored people.
The courts have generally assisted these
new landlords. Of recent months such pro­
cedure has been absolutely the only relief
to the overcrowded colored section. Now
even this is stopped. The recent anti-land­
lord legislation just passed by the Legisla­
ture of the State will react, unconsciously,
to the detriment of the colored people. At
present everybody is rejoicing over the fact
that the new law makes it impossible for
the landlord to dispossess a tenant except
for one of the three following reasons:
(1) actual non-payment of rent, (2) per­
sonal use of the premises for the landlord,
(3) demolition of the building.
Under
these restrictions, how could a colored in­
vestor be able to get white families out of
a house that he desires to use for colored
tenants?
Only by the personal volition of the white
tenants themselves. . This is not likely.
Consequently there is scant hope for any
immediate relief of the housing congestion
in Harlem. The intent of the law was
good, doubtless, but for the Negro, it closed
the only open door of relief.

THREE BOOKS

The Negro Faces America. By Herbert
J. Seligmann. Harper and Brothers, New
York.
Rachel. By Angelina W. Grimke. The
Cornhill Company, Boston.
Children of the Mist. By George Madden
Martin. D. Appleton and Company, New
York.
A FIRST step in an attempt upon the
*• hates, distrusts and preconceptions
clustered about race is to separate and ex­
amine them. There is, in fact, no race

problem in the United States. There are
a thousand problems with which race is
more or less connected, frequently deliber­
ately connected for an ulterior motive, in
the absence of organic connection between
race distinctions and the subject at issue."
With this statement as his thesis Mr.
Seligmann proceeds to point the connection
between economic considerations and race
relations which has prevailed in this coun­
try ever since the Civil War. Just before
the Chicago race riot, for instance, a clash
arose between the interests of two real

KUINS OF CHRISTOPHE'S

PALACE, SANS SOUCI, HAITI

64

THE

estate factions rather than between the
two races. In the actual riot, the causes
lay (1) in the entrance of migrating south­
ern Negroes into white residential districts;
(2) in hostility between union whites and
non-union Negroes in the stockyards; (3)
in political enmity engendered by the fact
that a certain city administration won its
election through the Negro vote. A care­
ful survey of conditions in other cities
where riots occurred shows the same type
of causes.
Mr. Seligmann points out that liberty and
life have to be fought for almost daily by
every Negro,—"the patience and determina­
tion and courage which go into the struggle
are values that no nation can afford to
spurn." Miss Sarah N. Cleghorn has said
something like this last, but Mr. Seligmann
is alone, I believe, in defining the white
Southerner's penchant for colored woman.
He works it out on a Freudian basis which
assumes "that the choice of the mate is
influenced by the characters impressed upo.i
the infant male as belonging to his mother."
Many Southerners receive their first impres­
sions from their colored nurses. The in­
ference is obvious. We find here too an
idea since carried out by Professor R. T.
Kerlin—"A white American desirous of a
critical insight into the society in which he
flatters himself he lives could not do better
than read carefully a number of race-con­
scious newspapers published for and by Ne­
groes of the United States."
There are many valuable suggestions for
intensive study on the part of the white
student of race issues. Thus the author
finds what all Negroes know, that the South
was the real victor in the Civil War, that
the vote became a class distinction only
when the Negro became a candidate for it,
that no real scientific data can be deduced
from the measurement of the intelligence of
Negro and white school children until ra­
cial characters can be isolated from the
effect of social environment and that col­
ored Americans have at last learned the
necessity for organization and self-defense.
Altogether The Negro Faces America is a
book showing thought and research and
calling for still more thought and research.
RACHEL
is a play as terrible, as search­
ing and as strong as anything produced
by the continental European dramatists,—
including the Scandinavian. Indeed one must
think of Ibsen, for the action progresses

CRISIS

from one depth of sad dreariness to another.
As a bit of writing, Miss Grimke has as
usual turned cut a fine piece of work; as
a bit of propaganda it leaves something to
be desired. Undoubtedly a better effect
would be gained by having the humiliation
of the colored children acted rather than
related.
One lesson the play certainly
teaches: Rachel, her mother and Tom have
all let their troubles make them morbid,
whereas John Strong is quite normal. Shall
we not learn to look on color "as a state of
mind" as Miss Ovington's Hertha puts it,
—something mutable and transitory?
FIGHT stories written simply and sympa­
thetically by George Madden Martin
give a new concept of the Children of the
Mist who live in Mississippi, Louisiana,
Florida, the rice fields of the Carolinas and
the backwoods of Kentucky. These are
people emerging from the fogs of slavery
and gazing through a glass darkly on a
freedom promised, but as "yet denied". Mrs.
Martin has let the characters in the main
speak for themselves so the reader must be
touched and thrilled and saddened according
to his own dictates. "The Sleeping Sick­
ness" is the best story of the group, though
almost all are good. But in this one Mrs.
Martin aside from using a plot unique and
yet inevitable, lets fall one or two gems
"It ain't de law foh my boy I'm afraid uv,
Mr. Tom," Angey explained to the white
man. "En' it ain't de thought uv de law
whut is mekin' de boy look ez yo' kin see
he duz. It's de fear uv de lack uv de laiv
wi' both uv us." And later Angey, splendid
soul, says to the white woman whose son
she might have saved, "Lemme learn yo'
some'n', Miss Janie. Wu'k foh de good­
will uv de colored folks in case de time
come w'en yo' gwine ter need it; it ain't no
harder wu'k dan wu'kin' for dere ill-will."
Mrs. Martin shows an almost uncanny
realization of the distrust and its ramifi­
cations which colored people are inevitably
bound to have of their white neighbors. Thus
the inimitable Angey makes no" complaint of
having vainly trusted her grandson to the
sheriff. But she remarks: "When yo' gits
yo' hand in a lion's mouth, pat him en rub
him till yo' git it out, but don't yo' put it
in any mo. . . . Puttin' it anudder way, I
might say thet a mouse ought to be a fus'­
rate han' to keep away f'om cat-tracks."
J.

F.

National • Ass ociaiion - for • (he • • ­
Advancement o/^ Colored-People.
FUNDS NEEDED T O FIGHT

ARKANSAS

CASES

A L L readers of T H E CRISIS and members
of the Association know of the long,
difficult and as yet undecided fight that the
Association is making to save the lives of
12 Negroes sentenced to death in Arkansas
and the freedom of 67 men sentenced to Ions
prison terms for the alleged "massacre"
in Phillips County, Ark., in October, 1919.
As announced in the November issue of
the Branch Bulletin, Colonel George W.
Murphy, who has been serving as chief
counsel of the Association in the defense of
79 men and who was most vigilant and de­
termined in his efforts to save the lives of
these men, died on October 11. The cases
of the 12 men sentenced to death, were first
appealed to the Phillips County Circuit
Court, where motions for new trials were
denied. They were then appealed to the
Supreme Court of the State of Arkansas
where the verdict of the Phillips County
Circuit Court in six of the cases was re­
versed and the cases remanded for new trial
and in the six remaining cases the verdict
of death was affirmed. The first six cases
on being re-tried, were re-sentenced to death
by the Phillips County Court. In the mean­
time in the latter six cases a motion was
filed in the Federal Court of the Eastern
District of Arkansas for trial there on a
writ of certiorari.

Similar action was taken in the remain
ing six cases upon the men being re-sen­
tenced to death. On October 11 the Su­
preme Court of the United States refused a
motion to carry the cases directly from the
Arkansas State Supreme Court to the
United States Supreme Court, an effort
made by Colonel Murphy to carry the cases
immediately to the highest tribunal of the
country. This decision was rendered on the
same day that Colonel Murphy died. The
cases will now have to be fought in the
Federal Courts in Arkansas and if the
Association should meet defeat there the,
cases will then go to the Court of Appeals
of the Federal Courts. If there an un­
favorable verdict is rendered then the cases
will go to the United States Supreme Court.
Immediately following the trouble in
Arkansas, the Association had little difficulty
in raising funds. To date it has expended
over $6,000 in the defense. It is obligated
at present to pay within a few weeks an
additional $5,000. That sum must be raised
within a short time if the lives of the men
in Arkansas are to be saved. The Associa­
tion is therefore making an appeal to every
person who wishes to see justice done in the
cases of these men to contribute immedi­
ately in as large measure as possible to the
Defense Fund. It makes this appeal to all
persons whether they contributed to the
original fund or not. Action must be taken

HAITIAN ARTICLES IN PAMPHLET FORM
The
four article.? by James Weldon Johnson which appeared in The Nation, to­
•*
gether with official documents secured by Mr. Johnson in Haiti last spring,
and which have caused so great an upheaval in the United States during the past
three months, have been combined and published in pamphlet form. The price is
twenty-five cents a copy, which can be obtained by writing to the National Office*
There is only a limited supply on hand. Persons desiring copies should write atl
once for them. The investigation and the report thereon form one of the most
damning indictments of imperialism ever published and should be included in the
library of every person who wishes to read and keep a record of what has been done
in the Negro republic of Haiti by the United States government and the National City
Bank of New York.

65

66

THE

CRISIS

not guilty of the crime charged and, second,
that if Hill was returned to Arkansas his
life would not be safe. He thereupon re­
fused extradition.
The State of Arkansas then attempted to
secure Hill's extradition through the State
Courts of Kansas. Upon this proving un­
availing they attempted to use the Federal
V I C T O R Y IN R O B E R T L. H I L L C A S E
Courts. The first charge against Hill was
ROBERT
L. HILL, the alleged leader of that he had "impersonated a Federal of­
-*-*-the "massacre" in Phillips County, Ark., ficer." Finding that they would not be able
in 1919, has been entirely absolved of all to substantiate such a charge, the Arkansas
blame by the Attorney-General of the authorities shifted ground to a new charge
United States and both Federal charges of "conspiring with one V. E. Powell to im­
against him dismissed. Thus victoriously personate a Federal officer." Judge Pollock
ends one of the most dramatic legal battles of the Federal Court of Kansas set April
in the United States since pre-Civil War 8 for a hearing on the Federal indictment.
days, when fugitive slaves sought asylum In the meantime, Walter F. White, of tha
in northern states from oppressions in the National Office, was sent to Washington,
South. The Federal Government has gone where he held a conference with Assistant
on record as recognizing that a Negro ac­ Attorney-General William C. Herron and
cused of a crime against a white man in a presented evidence to show, first, that the
southern state cannot receive a fair and State of Arkansas was attempting to use
unbiased trial.
the Federal Courts solely to get Hill back
A brief history of the rapidly developing within the jurisdiction of the State Courts
chain of events in this case will be of in­ and, second, that since Mr. U. S. Bratton, a
terest. On January 22 Mr. Hill was ar­ white attorney of Little Rock, who had
rested in Topeka, Kansas, and Governor prosecuted a number of white planters for
Brough asked for his extradition. The N. A. robbing Negro share croppers, had be<m
A. C. P. immediately asked Senator Arthur driven from the state under threats of death
Capper, a member of our National Board it was doubly dangerous for Hill, a colored
of Directors who was familiar with the facts man, to be carried back to that state. As a
in the case, to wire Governor Allen of Kan­ result of this interview the Federal Attor­
sas, asking him not to grant the extradition ney at Washington ordered the United States
of Hill until the Association was able to Attorney at Little Rock to forward to
present the facts.
Senator Capper also Washington all evidence in the Hill case
wired to Hugh T. Fisher, County Attorney for examination.
of Shawnee County, Kansas, asking him to
Later, upon the hearing held before Judge
act as chief counsel for Hill. Through Sen­
Pollock, a provisional extradition was grant­
ator Capper's aid Governor Allen and Mr.
ed to the State of Arkansas providing that
Fisher acted promptly. Had this not been
Hill should be carried back to Arkansas to
done, there would have been but slight
be tried upon the Federal charge in the Fed­
chance of Hill escaping a return to Arkan­
eral Courts, and that if Hill was convicted
sas and possible lynching. Thus the aid of
upon the Federal charge, that he was to
two white members of the Association
be returned safely by the Arkansas authori­
meant the saving of the life of a colored
ties to the Federal Court in Kansas.
The
man.
Arkansas authorities refused to accept such
On January 27 the hearing on the ex­ extradition papers and Judge Pollock re­
tradition proceedings was held before Gov­ leased Hill under a $2,000 bond for a hear­
ernor Allen. In spite of the protest of At­ ing at the October term of Court at Leaven­
torney-General Arbuckle, a continuance was worth, Kansas.
granted to permit the securing of sworn
On October 2 Mr. White was again sent
testimony showing that Hill was not tt,e to Washington for a conference with the
leader of the insurrection.
Department of Justice. The Department
immediately as the Association is dependent
upon its friends and supporters to aid it in
this critical period. The men are guilty of
no crime save that of protesting in a legal
and legitimate fashion against vicious eco­
nomic exploitation. The fight must be made
to prevent their being legally lynched.

Finally, on March 23, after several hear­
ings and the presentation of much evidence,
Governor Allen decided, first, that Hill was

had given the United States Attorney at
Little Rock the opportunity of saving his
face by allowing him to voluntarily dismiss

N . A . A . C . P.

the two charges against Hill. This he
refused to do, whereupon the Attorney-Gen­
eral ordered both cases in the Federal
Court against Hill to be dismissed.
Thus ends one of the most dramatic legal
fights the Association has ever undertaken
and one which is undoubtedly to have a most
far-reaching effect. Special credit is due
Mr. Fisher, who, in spite of a very large
law practice and his official duties as County
Attorney, fought unceasingly for Mr. Hill's
release and who refused not only to accept
a fee, but would not even allow the Na­
tional Office to reimburse him for personal
expenditures made in connection with the
case.
Much credit is also due Messrs. James H.
Guy, Elisha Scott and A. M. Thomas, col­
ored attorneys of Topeka, who loyally sup­
ported and aided Mr. Fisher.
DELINQUENT BRANCHES
JIM-CROWISM, disfranchisement, segre­
gation and lynching are still with us.
We must continue the fight against the color
line. We need the moral support of every
colored citizen, but we cannot pay the law­
yers' bills or the expense of a Haitian in­
vestigation with moral support. It takes
money as well as enthusiasm to do anything
worth while.

67

To meet our various expenses we are de­
pending upon the branches. Since the fun­
damental purpose of the Association is the
"Advancement of Colored People," colored
people ought to support it to the best of
their ability. Some branches are doing their
full share, others are doing less, and still
others are doing nothing. Simply to keep a
branch on record costs the Association annu­
ally $9.30. The National Office apportioned
among the various branches, according to the
colored population of the community, the
amount necessary to insure the carrying out
of Jhe program for 1920. This was pub­
lished in T H E CRISIS for August. We are
quite confident that these amounts were not
impossible sums if the officers and the exec­
utive committees took their work and the re­
sponsibility connected with it* seriously. It
may be that some of them are much too busy
to give adequate time to the Association.
If so, it is only fair to the branches that
they yield their places to others.
The National Office does not want to drop
any branches but it does not feel that it can
carry for another year those branches which
are doing no active work and giving no finan­
cial support.
Below is a list of those branches from
whom no word has been received since Jan­
uary 1, 1920. This list is published in order

COLORED REFT/GEES AFTER A SOUTHERN FIRE

THE

68

to g i v e the officers and m e m b e r s of these
b r a n c h e s an o p p o r t u n i t y to revive them and
to p r e v e n t the revocation o f their c h a r t e r s .
C h a r t e r s o f delinquent branches will be re­
voked at the J a n u a r y meeting o f the B o a r d
o f D i r e c t o r s unless some r e p o r t is received
f r o m them p r i o r to that date. I f the officers
of these branches will take no action, w e are
inviting the members to write to the Nation­
al Office if they wish to keep their b r a n c h
alive.
ALABAMA
Klocton
Ensley
ARIZONA
Bisbee
Tucson
ARKANSAS
Edmondscm
Jonesboro
P i n e Bluff
CONNECTICUT
Stamford
FLORIDA
Palatka
St. Augustine
Tampa
GEORGIA
Albany
Columbus
Dublin
Hawkinsvillc
Macon
Savannah
Thomasville
Valdosta
Waycross
IDAHO
Boise
ILLINOIS
E v a n st o n
Joliet
Madison
Maywood
Quincy
INDIANA
South Bend
KENTUCKY
Earlington
Owensboro
Paducah
MICHIGAN
Bay City
Saginaw
MISSOURI
Springfield
N E W JERSEY
Paterson
N E W MEXICO
Albuquerque

NORTH CAROLINA
Fayetteville
Lexington
Raleigh
Wilmington
WinstonSalem
OHIO
Miami County
Zaneaville
OKLAHOMA
McAlester
Muskogee
OREGON
Portland
PENNSYLVANIA
Carlisle
Ilarrisburg
West Chester
York
SOUTH C A R O L I N A
Beaufort
TEXAS
Austin
Bailey ville
Ben Jiley
Fort Worth
Gonzales
Greenville
Hearne
High ban*
Leggett
Marlin
Marshall
M u m ford
O r a n ge
Palestine
Seguin
Silsbee
Temple
Waco
Waelder
Whartort
VIRGINIA
Charlottesville
Louisa County

CRISIS

NOMINATING

COMMITTEE

THE N o m i n a t i n g C o m m i t t e e f o r m e m b e r s
of the B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s o f the N a ­
tional A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the A d v a n c e m e n t o f
Colored P e o p l e r e p o r t s these nominees f o r
terms e x p i r i n g D e c e m b e r 3 1 , 1 9 2 3 :
D r . J. M a x B a r b e r , P h i l a d e l p h i a .
P r o f . G e o r g e W . Cook, W a s h i n g t o n , D . C.
Mr. H a r r y E . D a v i s , Cleveland.
Mr. A . H . G r i m k e , W a s h i n g t o n , D . C.
Rev. J o h n H a y n e s H o l m e s , N e w Y o r k .
D r . V . M o r t o n Jones, N e w Y o r k .
Mr. J o h n E . Milholland, N e w Y o r k .
Mr. J. E . S p i n g a r n , N e w Y o r k .
Mr. Moorfield S t o r e y , B o s t o n .
Mr. W i l l i a m E n g l i s h W a l l i n g , N e w Y o r k .
The N o m i n a t i n g C o m m i t t e e :
HARRY H .

PACE,

ROBERT R .
CHARLES
THE

NEW

Chairman.

CHURCH,

H.

STUDIN.

SECRETARY

A

T the D e c e m b e r m e e t i n g o f the B o a r d o f
Directors, James Weldon Johnson, Act­
ing S e c r e t a r y of the N . A . A . C. P., was
elected S e c r e t a r y .
Mr. Johnson w a s born in Jacksonville,
Fla., in 1871. H e w a s educated at A t l a n t a
and Columbia Universities, and has acted as
United States Consul in V e n e z u e l a and
Nicaragua.
H e j o i n e d the N a t i o n a l A s s o ­
ciation as Field S e c r e t a r y in 1917. He is a
well-known a u t h o r and poet.

WEST VIRGINIA
Blucfield
Morgantovvn
CANADA
Windsor

ANNUAL MEETING
r

T H E

A n n u a l M e e t i n g o f the N a t i o n a l A s ­

sociation f o r the A d v a n c e m e n t o f Col­
ored People will be held in the E a s t R o o m
of the Sage F o u n d a t i o n , 130 E a s t T w e n t y second Street, N e w Y o r k City, on the

after­

noon o f M o n d a y , J a n u a r y 3, at t w o o'clock.
There

will

be

reports

from

officers

and

branches and the nominations f o r D i r e c t o r s
will be voted upon.

JAMES

WELDON

JOHNSON

The Looking Glass
LITERATURE

man o f A f r i c a , f o r he has at least proved
himself a man.
W e in E n g l a n d o w e o u r
N e g r o brother-subject a g r e a t debt o f grati­
tude f o r all he has done f o r our beloved E m ­
pire. M a n y a native of Nigeria has trekked
his last trek and f o u g h t his lasc fight f a r
a w a y from his own land f o r the sake o f that
E m p i r e which has given him freedom, justice
and all that makes life w o r t h living. Rus­
kin once said that w a r w a s an injustice of
the ignoblest kind at once to God and Man,
which must be stemmed f o r the sake of them
both. This story has been written f o r the
express purpose o f letting the outside world
know h o w nobly the W e s t A f r i c a n soldier
has helped to stem this tide o f injustice to
civilization."
T h e narrative abounds in acts of heroism
performed b y Nigerian soldiers, in remain­
ing with wounded officers under h e a v y fire
or shielding them with their own bodies. O f
S e r g e a n t - M a j o r Belo A k u r e , the hero o f a
dozen fights, Captain Downes s a y s :
"I can honestly state I have never seen a
braver man. His one idea is that his officers
must on no account run into unnecessary
d a n g e r ; on no account will he let an officer
go in front o f him on a road. A n y cover
that is handy must be reserved to conceal
the officers, even if he himself must lie down
in the open. I have seen him deliberately
g e t in front of a E u r o p e a n so that i f any
one should be hit it would be himself."
*
*
*

THE time d r a w s near the birth of Christ;
T h e moon is hid, the night is still •
A single church below the hill
Is pealing, folded in the mist.
x

R i n g o u t false pride in place and blood,
T h e civic slander and the s p i t e ;
R i n g in the love o f truth and right,
R i n g in the common love o f good.
T e n n y s o n : In
Memoriam.

*

*

*

John H . H a r r i s writes us concerning his
f o r t h c o m i n g book, Africa—Slave
or
Free?
This is n o w about to be published in the
I pre­
United States b y Messrs. Dutton.
pared this little book with the single object
of g i v i n g a bird's-eye view o f A f r i c a and the
A f r i c a n t o d a y — economically, politically,
ethically, religiously. The book" has been
w a r m l y received here [London-], and is being
widely adopted by students and organiza­
tions, as a text-book, and I can safely say
that no one can peruse this book without
h a v i n g at their fingers' ends the A B C o f
the A f r i c a n situation.
I k n o w there is no
such book on the m a r k e t anywhere.

*

*

*

T h e N e w Y o r k CaU s a y s :
Darkwater,
W . E . B . D u B o i s ' intense
and m o v i n g study o f the position o f the
darker races in the modern world, is soon to
a p p e a r in a F r e n c h translation. The pub­
lishers, H a r c o u r t , B r a c e & H o w e , announce
that a third printing of the book has been
found necessary here.

*

*

Important periodical literature on the Ne­
g r o during the current y e a r :
A m e r i c a ' s Ireland—Haiti, Santo D o m i n g o .
Nation, F e b r u a r y 21, '20.
N e g r o Problem in South A f r i c a .
Nation,
M a r c h 13, '20.
Prince o f A b y s s i n i a Makes History. W .
A . A n d e r s o n . Travel, M a r c h , '20.
P r o b l e m o f E g y p t . Review of
Reviews,
April* '20.
Politics vs. Progress in South A f r i c a . C.
D a w b o r n . Living Age, June 19, '20.
Our Debt to N e g r o Sculpture.
Literary
Digest, July 17, '20.
A r e W e Going to A c t Justly in A f r i c a ?
S. Olivier. Contemporary
Review, A u g u s t ,
'20.
Self-Determining Haiti.
James Weldon
Johnson. Nation, A u g u s t 28, '20.

*

A n E n g l i s h m a n , Captain W . D . Downes,
M. C , has written With the Nigerians
in
German East Africa.
(Methuen, L o n d o n . )
T h e Spectator
says:
Captain D o w n e s writes t h r o u g h o u t as one
w h o felt it an honor to g o through this cam­
p a i g n with the W . A . F . F., as one " w h o
suffered and laughed, f o u g h t and trekked,
worked and rested, starved and fed with
this gallant band o f black volunteers from
N i g e r i a , f o r it must be remembered that
e v e r y N i g e r i a n soldier that w e n t to German
E a s t A f r i c a volunteered his services f o r
that c a m p a i g n . I am sure that if those pio­
neers o f N i g e r i a , Glover and F r e e m a n , could
have seen the regiment, o f which they were
the founders, at M a h i w a , they would have
seen something o f which they would have
been j u s t l y proud. . . .
I hope that
when m y readers have read this account,
p o o r l y told as it is b y an amateur writer,
they will in f u t u r e respect the fighting black

THREE

INDIANS

MUNSEY'S
M A G A Z I N E speaks o f three
Indians, particularly o f Bal G a n g a d a r
Tilak:
P r o b a b l y no t w o men have been m o r e in­
fluential in modern India than G. K. Gokhale
69

THE

70

and B . G. Tilak. In spirit and method these
t w o Indian leaders represent opposite types
—the one a distinguished statesman and or­
ator, the other h a v i n g neither eloquence nor
instinct f o r public affairs, but wielding g r e a t
influence through his two n e w s p a p e r s pub­
lished at P o o n a , the Mahratta,
in English,
and the Kesari, in Mahrati. Tilak's s t o r m y
career has just come to an end, to the g r e a t
grief of nationalist India.
H e had extra­
ordinary personal gifts and the p o w e r of
inspiring fanatical devotion, and f o r f o r t y
years he has been at the head of the nation­
alist movement. In India his name is one
with which to w o r k m a g i c or terror.
He
was either adored or passionately opposed.
Bal G a n g a d a r Tilak was sixty-five years
of age when he died. He was a M a h r a t t a
by race, a B r a h m a n by caste, a l a w y e r by
profession, and a j o u r n a l i s t b y choice. W h e n
yet a y o u n g man, he was prosecuted by the
g o v e r n m e n t f o r d e f a m i n g a native ruler, the
Diwan of Kolhapur, w h o m he accused of
cruelty. H e served his sentence o f a hun­
dred days in prison, and came out resolved
to free his c o u n t r y f r o m b u r e a u c r a c y . T h e
nationalist m o v e m e n t that he started in the
early eighties at Poona was the foundation
of the Y o u n g India party, which swept the
whole peninsula. Y e a r after year found him
in difficulties with the government. Finally,
in 1907, the extremists, o f w h o m he w a s Lhe
leader, broke up the National C o n g r e s s at
Surat, b o m b s w e r e hurled in B o m b a y , and
Tilak was again arrested.
His long-drawn out trial before a Parsee
j u d g e and j u r y w a s a sensation. Tilak con­
ducted his own defense, and his address t o
the c o u r t lasted six d a y s . H e w a s convicted
and sentenced to six y e a r s ' imprisonment in
the fortress at Mandalay, f r o m which he
was released only a f e w weeks before the
outbreak o f the great war. Visitors to Lon­
don last year, during the debates on the bill
which has made radical changes in the g o v ­
ernment of India, m i g h t have seen him, a
conspicuous figure w e a r i n g the m a g e n t a
turban o f his race, at every session of the
House o f Commons and in the committeeroom o f the House of Lords, where he ap­
peared as a delegate of the National Con­
gress of India.
Sanskrit students who knew Bal G a n g a d a r
Tilak hold t h a t if his life had not been
devoted to politics, he would have been in
the front rank of orientalists.
H e is the
author o f a curious, widely discussed book,
" T h e A r c t i c H o m e of the V e d a s , " written
during his prison terms, and designed to
prove by astronomical and other evidence
that the g r e a t A r y a n migration began from
a region within the A r c t i c circle.
;

T h e third Indian is a p h y s i o l o g i s t :
A n Indian scientist, P r o f e s s o r Jagadis C.
Bose, is one of the most talked-of physiolo­
gists of E u r o p e . N e a r l y t w e n t y years a g o
he read a paper in London, before the R o y a l
Society, s h o w i n g that tin could be tired and
iron could suffer f r o m an affection c o r r e ­

CRISIS

sponding to tetanus in h u m a n b e i n g s . W h e n
he w e n t on to assert that plants could g i v e
response to electric impulse, m e m b e r s o f the
society declared that electric response as de­
scribed in the p a p e r w a s absolutely impossi­
ble. Bose took up the challenge, and within
a year had p r o v e d his point to the satisfac­
tion o f the R o y a l Society itself.
Bose's g r e a t success in this line o f re­
search is the result of his m a r v e l o u s skill
in the construction of m i c r o - a p p a r a t u s f o r
detecting the smallest m o v e m e n t s in plants.
Several years a g o he perfected a mechanism
that magnified one hundred thousand times,
enabling him t o r e c o r d g r o w t h at the rata
of a hundred-thousandth p a r t o f an inch per
second. " M a n is never satisfied," said Bose,
and n o w he has succeeded in c o n s t r u c t i n g
an a p p a r a t u s that magnifies a million times.
To realize w h a t this means, the p r o f e s s o r
points out that if the snail's p a c e could be
s o magnified, it w o u l d r a c e f o r t y times
around the earth in t w e n t y - f o u r hours. In
this a p p a r a t u s the slightest m o v e m e n t up­
sets a v e r y delicately balanced m a g n e t i c sys­
tem, with a m i r r o r deflecting a r a y o f light
to the e x t r e m i t y of an arc o f a n y desired
magnitude.

EDUCATION IN SOUTH
CAROLINA
IN

Greenville, S. C., one D a v e T r a x l e r
urges the citizens not to refuse Federal
educational aid (as provided f o r under the
Smith-Hughes l a w ) in the f e a r t h a t Uncle
Sam will insist on the attendance o f white
and black at the same schools, o r the em­
ployment o f N e g r o teachers, f o r w h i t e pu­
pils. He has p r o o f positive not only that
such will not be the case, but t h a t colored
citizens will n o t even secure their share of
such an a p p r o p r i a t i o n . T a k e , f o r instance,
this interesting letter a p p e a r i n g in the
Greenville
Piedmont:
L A U R E N S , S.

C.

Hon. D. B. Traxler, Greenville, S. C.:
Dear Sir—
I shall gladly give y o u the facts referred
to in y o u r inquiry some d a y s a g o . I shall
itemize these f a c t s s e p a r a t e l y :
Total expenditures
for
white
school
$143,482.70
Total expenditures f o r N e g r o
school
14,057.00
Total number white teachers . .
171
Total number N e g r o t e a c h e r s . .
80
Total n u m b e r of white schools.
71
Total number o f N e g r o s c h o o l s .
74
Total white enrollment
5,907
Total N e g r o enrollment
6,180
The teaching o f V o c a t i o n a l A g r i c u l t u r e
under the Smith-Hughes L a w has been satis­
f a c t o r y at G r a y C o u r t and at L a u r e n s in
this c o u n t y .
U n d e r this l a w the F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t

THE

LOOKING

p a y s one-half o f the s a l a r y ; the State onefourth and the local c o m m u n i t y the other.
In the plan here at Laurens the communi­
ties o f Prospect, Copeland, T r i n i t y R i d g e
and Laurens received the full time o f a
teacher and a c o m m u n i t y w o r k e r f o r the
sum o f $440.00. T h e same was the case at
G r a y C o u r t - O w i n g s w h e r e the service o f a
full-time teacher w a s received f o r one-fourth
of his salary, the national g o v e r n m e n t and
state g o v e r n m e n t p a y i n g the other threefourths.
V e r y truly,
R. T.

WILSON.

Superintendent o f Education, Laurens Coun­
ty, South Carolina.

*

*

71

GLASS

E i g h t years later (a period to which the
folk-songs often r e f e r ) , Napoleon's soldiers
threatened the W e s t Indies. A large number
of whites and mulatto refugees with their
slaves had escaped in the St. D o m i n g a n in­
surrection and fled to Cuba. T h e y w e r e now
by the w a r between F r a n c e and Spain, again
forced to become exiles, and within three
summer months o f 1809, over five thousand
persons, white, free mulattoes, and black
slaves, came to N e w Orleans f r o m Cuba.
They continued to emigrate f r o m Cuba,
Guadeloupe and other French W e s t Indies,
until about ten thousand persons, t w o thou­
sand o f w h o m w e r e free people of color,
took refuge in N e w Orleans.

*

A n o t h e r letter r e a d s :
GREENVILLE, S. C , A u g u s t 16, 1920.
Mr. D. B. Traxler, Greenville, S. C:
M y D e a r Sir—
U n d e r the terms o f the Smith-Hughes act,
passed by Congress in 1917, there has been
spent in Greenville county during the last
school year, ending J u l y 1, 1920, the sum of
$3,265.00, which amount w a s appropriated
by the Federal g o v e r n m e n t f o r the teaching
of agriculture and other subjects in the sev­
eral schools so aided. N o n e o f the money
so contributed w a s used f o r the teaching of
Negroes o r was used to hire N e g r o teach­
ers, and the spending o f the funds so a p p r o ­
priated was left absolutely in the hands of
the State authorities.
W i t h kind regards and good wishes, I am,
Y o u r s v e r y truly,
M. C. BARTON,

Superintendent o f Education,
Greenville, S. C.

County

of

CREOLES
MAUD
C U N E Y H A R E writes in the
; * Musical
Observer:
The history o f the Creole folk-song of
A m e r i c a is interwoven with the history of
the southwest section of the country and
particularly that o f the State o f Louisiana.
In A u g u s t , 1779, in the w a r o f A m e r i c a n
Independence, a little a r m y of 1,430 men
composed o f Creoles, t w o c o m p a n i e s o f which
w e r e free men o f color, and 160 Indians,
marched under Galvez t o defend themselves
against the British.
F o r 16 years Louis­
iana, w h i c h had been founded b y French
i m m i g r a n t s under Iberville, had been a
Spanish possession—a g i f t o f K i n g Louis
X V to his Spanish cousin, Charles III of
Spain.
"*
In 1791, N e g r o e s o f Santo D o m i n g o rose
in rebellion and a f e w refugees found their
w a y to Louisiana. Skilled in sugar-making,
they revived this prosperous industry which
had l o n g remained dormant, although sugar­
cane had been introduced 40 years previous
by the Jesuits o f St. D o m i n g o .

By 1788 the Louisiana province contained
1,701 free men and 21,465 slaves amidst the
French and Spanish settlers. T h e Carmelite
Convent played its p a r t in these early days,
as an educational centre.
H e r e attended
both white and free colored children; m a n y
of the latter class had wealthy parents w h o
paid a high price f o r their tuition.
Chil­
dren of the wealthy were sent to Paris to
complete their education. In fact, says an
old Creole neighbor and friend of m y g r a n d ­
mother, Mons. V i c t o r , w h o came to N e w Or­
leans from Martinique in 1847, " M a n y o f the
women and children did not k n o w whether
they were Creoles or white, n o r could the
whites themselves tell w h o was white and
who was Creole, so generally was the popu­
lation mixed, while the city was largely
French in manners and life."
The town of St. Martinsville on the Bayou
Teche, w a s nicknamed " L e petit Paris," and
here it was that K i n g Louis Phillipe (when
Duke of Orleans) was entertained.
"The
streets, banquetts, w e should say,
were bright with color, the nights filled with
song and laughter.
T h r o u g h the scene the
people of color add the spice o f c o l o r in the
l i f e ; they add the zest of r o m a n c e . " W i t h
the French spirit greatly predominating,
from this mingling o f races s p r a n g the Cre­
ole, and in this environment, the Creole song.
W h o are the Creoles? The w o r d itself is
used in E u r o p e as well as in the French
W e s t Indies and in the South-West section
of this country. " C r e o l e " as used to denote
race is a term that is continually being mis­
understood and w a r m l y argued. T h e w o r d
" C r e o l e " is f r o m the Spanish " C r i o l l o " and
the French verb " c r e e r " to create—a created
race.
Of
the Spanish Creoles, Calderon in
"Latin A m e r i c a " says, the three races, Ibe­
rian, Indian and A f r i c a n , united by blood,
f r o m the population o f Spanish A m e r i c a ,
while A r t h u r R. G r a y in " T h e N e w W o r l d "
says, the E u r o p e a n established in A m e r i c a
becomes a C r e o l e ; his is a new race, the
final product o f secular unions. I f all the
races o f the n e w world w e r e finally to unite,
the Creole would be the real A m e r i c a n .
(Continued

on page

74)

joseph and mary come to bethlehem

AT last we've reached the town where in a b y g o n e y e a r
Prince D a v i d s a w the light,—that k i n g w i t h o u t a peer.
" T a k e c o u r a g e , M a r y m i n e ; beside yon c l i m b i n g spire
Nestles a little inn, 'tis there w e shall retire."
T h e w a t c h m a n in the t o w e r
Cries, " S e v e n is n o w the h o u r . "
" A h ! sir, within your house m a y w e not shelter find—
Some little quiet n o o k ? F o r heaven's sake be k i n d ! "
" Y o u r plea is all in v a i n ; you two must further f a r e ;
M y house is filled with f o l k ; seek l o d g i n g s o t h e r w h e r e . "
T h e w a t c h m a n in the t o w e r
Calls, " S e v e n is still the hour."
" W e ' l l seek another p l a c e ; see that house opposite,
A l l b r i g h t with light and cheer,—'tis there we'll sup and sit."
"Joseph, y o u r a r m ! D e a r G o d ! I find myself so w e a k .
I cannot travel more, or o t h e r -lodgings seek."
T h e w a t c h m a n in the t o w e r
W a r n s , " E i g h t is n o w the h o u r . "
" H o ! H o s t o f the Three C r o w n s , tell me, you must have r o o m
Some little hole for two. W e ' l l n o t mind dust o r g l o o m ! "
"I take but noble folk w h o p a y a handsome meed.
Begone you b e g g a r s ! G o ! I hate y o u r l o w l y b r e e d ! "
" A h ! sir, upon m y knees, f o r g r e a t Jehovah's sake,
I p r a y you scorn us n o t ; w e have so much at s t a k e ! "
" A w a y , p o o r carpenter, some other shelter find,
M y house w a s never meant f o r people o f your k i n d ! "
T h e w a t c h m a n in the t o w e r
Sighs, " N i n e is n o w the h o u r . "
" A h ! M a d a m e auburn-haired, f o r God's sake g i v e to me
Some shelter, some retreat within y o u r h o s t e l r y ! "
" W h y I've no bed m y s e l f ; tonight all c o m f o r t l e s s
Upon a bed o f straw, I'll shiver in distress!"
" O h , M a d a m e ! " M a r y begs in tears and on her knees,
" Y o u realize m y p l i g h t : compassion, if you p l e a s e ! "

72

I

translated by jessie
Fauset

" Y e s , Mother-soon-to-be, your plight is v e r y c l e a r ;
Y o u r time is imminent—it must not happen here."
T h e w a t c h m a n in the tower
M o a n s , " T e n is n o w the hour."
" A t least until I find some shelter, some retreat,
Y o u ' l l let her linger here, upon that vacant s e a t ? "
" O f course she m a y , p o o r child. 'Tis plain she needs to rest.
Quick, t r y the W h i t e H o r s e Inn o r else the M a g p i e ' s Nest."
" Y o u chattering, foolish w i f e ! " a shrill voice cries in scorn,
" Y o u ' l l linger at the door till night turns into m o r n ? "
" H u s h , that's m y husband! G o ! W e ' l l have to separate!
F a r e w e l l , farewell, good f o l k ; God's m e r c y be y o u r f a t e ! "
One wails within the t o w e r —
" E l e v e n is the h o u r n o w . "
P o o r Joseph in despair and utterly unable
T o find a l o d g i n g fit, espies a little stable.
W i t h i n this l o w l y home, as prophesied Isaiah,
The little Christ is born, the Lord, the world's Messiah.
T h e watchman in the tower
Chants, " M i d n i g h t is the hour."
Noel!
Noel!
Noel!
Chimes out each h a p p y bell.
B r i n g frankincense and m y r r h !
P l a y pipe and dulcimer!
R i n g bells with silvery v o i c e !
T h e Christ is born, r e j o i c e !
T h e Christ, so l o n g foretold
B y prophets n e w and old,
T h e Christ f o r w h o m w e ' v e yearned,
T o us at last hath turned.
P l a y p i p e ! P l a y dulcimer!
A l l things that ever w e r e
T h e h a p p y chorus swell,—
— A n old French Chanson
Noel!

Noel!

Noel!

by Yvette

73

rendered
Guilbert.

THE

74

AFRICANS, ASIATICS
ANGLO-SAXONS

AND

THE

A n t i - S l a v e r y and A b o r i g i n e s P r o ­
tection Society presents the case o f the
e x p r o p r i a t i o n of the M a s h o n a and Matabele
territory in A f r i c a :
T h e cardinal f a c t of the land situation was
that the ownership o f the entire lands o f
Southern Rhodesia w a s declared b y the
Chartered C o m p a n y to be vested in them as
a c o m m e r c i a l asset, that is to say, t h a t the
lands p r a c t i c a l l y belonged not to the native
inhabitants but to p r i v a t e persons in this
c o u n t r y w h o happened to be shareholders in
the c o m p a n y . This contention carried with
it the logical sequence that the natives o f
these territories had (and h a v e ) lost all
ownership rights to their lands—that no
single M a s h o n a o r Matabele owned o r owns,
either b y tribal o r individual right, the
g r o u n d on which his hut is erected, the
gardens he tills, or w h a t e v e r y student o f
A f r i c a knows, o r should k n o w , is dearer
and more sacred to him even than to the
E u r o p e a n , the burial g r o u n d s of his family.
It cannot be too clearly understood that the
expropriation o f the land ownership rights
of the 800,000 natives o f Southern Rhodesia
is absolute in degree, and applies to every
native f r o m the f a m i l y o f L o b e n g u l a to
every private individual in the territory—
not a vestige of native ownership remains.

*

*

*

H e r e is the much vaunted British j u s t i c e :
T h e total costs incidental to the native
case have been about £7,000, which sum the
A n t i - S l a v e r y and A b o r i g i n e s Protection So­
ciety advanced f o r the natives. T h e Chart­
ered C o m p a n y refuses, and the British Gov­
ernment, though it can do so, will not insist
upon the application o f the resolution o f the
Legislative Council to the costs o f the native
case. This attitude obviously implies that
the M a s h o n a and Matabele people are not
to be deemed p a r t o f the "inhabitants and
p e o p l e " o f Southern R h o d e s i a — e x c e p t , o f
course, f o r purposes o f t a x a t i o n !
*
*
*
J a p a n has no notion of sitting quiet under
A m e r i c a n racial distinction. A n A s s o c i a t e
Press dispatch tells u s :
T h e Japanese Government, as a result of
yesterday's meeting o f the Cabinet, will, in
the first place, v i g o r o u s l y pursue the nego­
tiations c o n c e r n i n g A m e r i c a n anti-Japanese
legislation, and, in the second place, will
push firmly the question o f racial equality
in the L e a g u e of Nations conferences, ac­
c o r d i n g to the Hochi Shimbun today. These
decisions will be considered further at to­
day's meeting o f the Diplomatic A d v i s o r y
Council, the n e w s p a p e r says.
A g r a d u a t e o f Columbia University, N e w
Y o r k , M . Osako, w h o followed Representa­
tive K o d a m a , attributed the anti-Japanese
sentiment in the United States to racial dif­
ferences. H e declared that the whites w e r e

CRISIS

o p p r e s s i n g the colored races, backed b y the
p o w e r and influence o f cvilization. J a p a n
w a s the o n l y c o u n t r y s t r o n g l y o p p o s i n g
white oppression, M . Osako asserted, and
therefore had incurred the hatred o f the
Americans.
In his address to the P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n o r s
yesterday, P r e m i e r H a r a said the situation
of the w o r l d never w a s more- strained than
at present.
Hitherto, he declared, Japan's
problems had been confined to the Orient,
but international competition had arisen, re­
sulting in a marked increase in J a p a n ' s re­
sponsibility to the w o r l d and the expansion
of her national expenditure.

BLACK

JEWS

DR. J A C Q U E S F A I T L O V I T C H , o f Ge­
neva, tells of the existence o f black
Jews in A b y s s i n i a . H e writes in the Amer­
ican Jewish Year
Book:
In A b y s s i n i a , in the vast e m p i r e o f the
N e g u s , exist J e w s called " F a l a s h a s . "
Their
skin o f a light b l a c k color and the regular
and finely cut features w h i c h characterize
them speak o f a n o n - A f r i c a n r a c e .
Their
n a m e " F a l a s h a , " a s u r n a m e g i v e n to them
b y the natives, s i g n i f y i n g exiled immigrants,
proves t h a t they are s t r a n g e r s w h o came
f r o m abroad to establish themselves in Ethi­
opia. T h e y called themselves B e t a Israel
( " T h e H o u s e o f I s r a e l " ) , a n d with great
pride state that they are the offspring o f the
stock of A b r a h a m , I s a a c and J a c o b . Cer­
tainly no historical d o c u m e n t s exist in writ­
ing, but theirl oral traditions,
faithfully
transmitted f r o m f a t h e r to son, sustain
their
claim
as
Jews.
They
maintain
even to this day, as they h a v e maintained
t h r o u g h o u t the centuries in this remote cor­
ner o f the D a r k Continent, the assertion of
descent f r o m o u r ancestors, and this sincere
claim, n e x t to their religious h o p e , is their
most cherished h e i r l o o m . W h e n evils befall
them, it constitutes their strength and their
consolation. T h e y a l w a y s s h o w themselves
w o r t h y sons o f our people, and in the past
they have m a n y times demonstrated that
they possess the characteristics o f o u r race,
the v i v i f y i n g f o r c e o f the existence o f Israel.
This quality distinguishes them f r o m their
c o m p a t r i o t s , all o f w h o m . Christians, Mus­
lims and P a g a n s , b e a r witness to the rela­
tionship o f the F a l a s h a s to the J e w i s h race
and religion.
A m o n g the F a l a s h a s there exist no differ­
ences o f religion n o r a n y distinction o f class.
A l l profess the same faith, practise the same
customs, and live on a basis o f equality.
T h e priests and the Dabteras [learned m e n ]
f o l l o w trades, and w o r k like e v e r y b o d y else
to p r o v i d e f o r their needs.
O n l y in the
m a t t e r o f h e a d g e a r are they distinguished
f r o m the o t h e r s ; they w e a r t u r b a n s o f white
cloth, while the other F a l a s h a s , like all
A b y s s i n i a n s , g o bare-headed b y d a y and by
night, indoors as well as out o f d o o r s .
T h e i r o c c u p a t i o n , o r i g i n a l l y t h a t o f mili­

MEN

OF

THE

t a r y m e r c e n a r y service u n d e r the different
sovereigns, and l a t e r trade on the banks o f
the Nile and on the littoral of the Red Sea,
is m a i n l y a g r i c u l t u r e and manual labor.
T h e y are in their c o u n t r y almost the only
people w h o are able to follow, with any skill,
the trades w h i c h are practiced in A b y s s i n i a ,
and thanks t o their skill they are on good
terms with their non-Jewish c o m p a t r i o t s .
A b y s s i n i a needs the F a l a s h a s w h o furnish
the articles indispensable f o r the mainten­
ance o f the country.

PUBLICITY

AS

USUAL

The publicity methods of the W a s h i n g ­
ton, D . C , Post with r e g a r d to N e g r o e s
speak f o r themselves:
S N A T C H E S GIRL'S PURSE
Unidentified N e g r o T a k e s $16.50 F r o m Tel­
ephone O p e r a t o r
Helen Barnes, 17 years old, living on
Sligo Mill road, n e a r Blair road northeast,

MONTH

75

reported to the police last n i g h t that she had
a pocketbook containing $16.50 and some
c a r tokens snatched b y an unidentified N e g r o
as she w a s c r o s s i n g a lot n e a r B l a i r road
and Rittenhouse road on her w a y home.
Miss Barnes is a telephone operator, and
told the police last night that she has noticed
a N e g r o loitering about several times. T h e
case was investigated b y policemen f r o m the
Tenth Precinct and Detectives Thompson
and E m b r e y , of headquarters.
*
*
*
But the retraction carefully refrains f r o m
stating the truth until the very end o f the
p a r a g r a p h so that he w h o runs m a y not
read:
Helen M . Barnes, 17 years old, w h o re­
ported t o the police o f the Tenth Precinct
last Saturday night t h a t she had been at­
tacked b y a N e g r o and robbed o f a purse
containing $16.50, signed a statement at p o ­
lice headquarters yesterday to the effect that
she had not been robbed o f any money o r
attacked by a N e g r o .

THREE POEMS
C H A R L E S BERTRAM J O H N S O N

II
SHADOWS

RACE

WHEREVER
turn I will o r may,
• * T h e y fall across my. o n w a r d w a y ;

DREAMS

THE

chance here to be nobler men—
Filled with the conscious breath of
God—
W h e t h e r free in the city's din,
Or delving wisely in the sod.

B u t w h a t I yield not heart to see,
I k n o w can never master me.
III

SNOW

All
day the clouds
*• G r o w cold and fall,
A n d soft the white fleece shrouds
Field, hill and w a l l ;
A n d n o w I know
W h y comes the s n o w :
The bare black places lie
T o o near the sky.

Men of the month
DR. E . M. B R A W L E Y has retired f r o m
the pulpit a t W h i t e R o c k
Baptist
Church, D u r h a m , N . C , after 8 y e a r s '
service. D u r i n g this period the debt on the
church has been reduced f r o m $20,000 t o
$7,000, all c u r r e n t expenses have been met
and a p a r s o n a g e has been purchased. T h e

congregation presented Dr. B r a w l e y with a
silver loving c u p .
Dr. B r a w l e y w a s horn in 1851 at Charles­
ton, S. C. H e was the first student in the
school o f t h e o l o g y at H o w a r d U n i v e r s i t y .
In 1875 he w a s graduated f r o m Bucknell
University.
D r . B r a w l e y has organized

76

THE

CRISIS

Baptist churches, S u n d a y schools and con­
ventions t h r o u g h o u t the South and is the
author o f a " C o m m e n t a r y o n M a r k " , a text­
book on E v a n g e l i s m , a n u m b e r o f tracts
and pamphlets, and editor of The
Evangel,
a monthly pamphlet.
H e was president of
Selma U n i v e r s i t y f o r 4 years and in 1908
founded M o r r i s College at Sumter, S. C.
The well-known Benjamin G. B r a w l e y , the
author and historian, is his son.
AT

Trinidad, B . W . I., E m a n u e l M z u m b o
L a z a r e has been appointed as the first
N e g r o member o f the Legislative Council
by L o r d Milner, to succeed N o r m a n L a ­
mont. T h e H o n . M r . L a z a r e w a s born at
N e w T o w n , P o r t of Spain, Trinidad, on D e ­
cember 24, 1864. In 1891 he m a r r i e d V i r ­
ginia Noelize S w o a r d , w h o recently died.
Mr. Lazare was the first N e g r o to pass the
examination o f the L a w Society, Inc., of
E n g l a n d ; in 1888 he succeeded in h a v i n g
the Governor, Sir W i l l i a m R o b i n s o n , de­
clare a public holiday in celebration o f the
jubilee of N e g r o e m a n c i p a t i o n ; as a Lieu­
tenant, in 1897, he w a s one o f the officers
of the military contingent at the D i a m o n d
Jubilee celebration o f Queen V i c t o r i a . H e
serves on the Ground Provisions Committee
and is a member of the A g r i c u l t u r a l So­
ciety o f Trinidad and T o b a g o , an a d v i s o r y
member o f the Trinidad W o r k i n g m e n ' s A s ­
sociation and the only N e g r o m e m b e r o f
the B o a r d o f A g r i c u l t u r e ; sketches o f his
life with p h o t o g r a p h s have appeared in The
Graphic, The Sketch, Black and White, and
Army and Navy, all popular English papers.
T h e Grenada says o f M r . L a z a r e :
"He
stands up in his manhood as a full blooded
N e g r o with n o apology f o r his existence."
T
TURNER
LAYTON
w a s born
in
•* • W a s h i n g t o n , D . C , w h e r e he attended
the public schools and H o w a r d University.
H e is the son of the late P r o f e s s o r J o h n T.
Layton, f r o m w h o m he received most o f
his musical training. F o r the popular song
field Mr. L a y t o n has written " S w e e t E m a ­
lina M y Gal", " S w e e t and P r e t t y " , " E v e r y ­
body's C r a z y ' B o u t the D o g g o n e Blues",
" G o o d - B y e A l e x a n d e r " , "Cute Little W i g ­
glin' D a n c e " , " A f t e r Y o u ' r e G o n e " ; he has
written restricted songs f o r such vaude­
ville headliners as B e r t W i l l i a m s , N o r a
Bayes, Eddie L e o n a r d , Stella
Mayhew,
Blanche R i n g , E m m a Carus, A l Jolson,
E d d i e Cantor, E v a T a n g u a y , V a n and
Schenk and Belle Baker.

M r . L a y t o n has as his c o l l a b o r a t o r M r .
H e n r y S. C r e a m e r . M r . C r e a m e r w a s born
in R i c h m o n d , V a . , June 2 1 , 1879, the son
o f the R e v . H e n r y Creamer.
H e attended
the public and high schools of N e w Y o r k
City. F o r m a n y years he was an instructor
and demonstrator o f stage d a n c i n g , the first
d r a m a t i c c r i t i c f o r the Amsterdam
News,
and a f o u n d e r o f the Clef Club. A m o n g
M r . C r e a m e r ' s w o r k s a r e the lyrics for
" T o o M u c h I s a a c s " , " D a n d y D i x i e Min­
strels", the late E r n e s t H o g a n ' s "Oyster­
m a n " , S. H . D u d l e y ' s " S m a r t Set", R o g e r
and C r e a m e r ' s " O l d M a n ' s B o y " , and the
f o l l o w i n g s o n g s : " D e a r Old M o o n l i g h t " .
" W h y D o Y o u W a i t for T o m o r r o w " , "Dear­
est M e m o r i e s " , " I ' v e G o t the F i n e s t M a n " ,
" D r o o p D e m E y e s " , " C l e f Club Chant",
" T w e n t y Y e a r s " , " I ' m W i l d A b o u t Moon­
shine" and " S h o w M e H o w . "
T h e complete musical score of M r . and
M r s . Coburn's B r o a d w a y p r o d u c t i o n , " T h r e e
S h o w e r s " , w h i c h p l a y e d in N e w Y o r k City
at the H a r r i s T h e a t r e , w a s w r i t t e n by
Messrs. L a y t o n and Creamer, w h o also have
succeeded in h a v i n g o v e r t h i r t y composi­
tions recorded with the V i c t o r , Columbia
and E m e r s o n p h o n o g r a p h c o m p a n i e s .
J O S H U A H E N R Y J O N E S , JR., the son of
B i s h o p J. H . Jones o f the A . M . E.
Church, w a s b o r n at O r a n g e b u r g , S . C ,
N o v e m b e r 22, 1876. W h i l e in Central High
School, at Columbus, h e contributed verse
and to
to the Ohio Sunday State Journal
the high school p a p e r , o f w h i c h he w a s a
founder.
In his senior y e a r he w o n the
prize f o r the class s o n g f o r w h i c h there
w e r e 135 contestants.
H e attended Ohio
State and Y a l e Universities and w a s grad­
uated f r o m B r o w n U n i v e r s i t y in 1903. H e
secured a position w i t h the
Providence
News as sports editor and after three years,
was made head of the L a b o r D e p a r t m e n t of
the p a p e r and later founded the Union Ad­
vocate,
a w e e k l y publication devoted to
union news. H e has served as head o f the
sports d e p a r t m e n t o f the W o r c e s t e r Evening
Post; assistant city and n e w s editor oi the
L a w r e n c e Sun-American;
c i t y editor o f the
Boston
Daily Advertiser
with a staff of
f r o m 25 to 30 m e n ; and a m e m b e r o f the
editorial staff o f the Boston
Post.
M r . J o n e s has published t h r o u g h
the
Stratford C o m p a n y , B o s t o n , a v o l u m e o f
poems, " T h e H e a r t o f the W o r l d " , a book
o f elegant style, noble t h o u g h t and deep
sentiment.

J.

TURNER

LAYTON

HENRY
B E . E . M.

JOSHUA H. JONES,

JE.

EMANUEL

77

S.

CREAMER

BRAWLEY
M,

LAZARE

The Horizon

COMPILED

BY

MADELINE

G-

A L L I S O N

ored singers t h a t w o u l d p a c k the l a r g e s t
MUSIC AND A R T
' I ""HE St. Louis Post Dispatch,
a white auditorium in the c i t y w i t h m u s i c lovers
daily, has reproduced in its r o t o g r a v u r e of all races and c o l o r s . "
section a bust of the late M m e . C. J. W a l ­
C The
Dudley-Murray
United
Theatre
ker made b y E . C. Gaither, a N e g r o sculp­
C o r p o r a t i o n has been o r g a n i z e d at W a s h ­
tor.
ington, D . C , w i t h an authorized capital
of $500,000. It will erect T h e D o u g l a s s
C G e o r g e W . Lattimore, colored p r o p r i e t o r
of the A m e r i c a n Southern Syncopated Or­
T h e a t r e at 1333-41 Y o u Street, N . W . , on
chestra and Singers, has leased Philhar­ a lot 117 b y 145 feet.
monic Hall in London, E n g l a n d , f o r 2
G A collection o f six Creole f o l k - s o n g s ar­
years at a rental o f $50,000 p e r year.
ranged b y M a u d Cuney H a r e is to be pub­
C Ground has been broken f o r the D o u g ­ lished b y Carl F i s c h e r , N e w Y o r k .
Philip
lass T h e a t r e in B a l t i m o r e ; it will be erected
Hale says in the New Music Review:
"One
by the Quality A m u s e m e n t C o r p o r a t i o n at
awaits e a g e r l y the b o o k o f Creole songs
a cost o f $400,000.
that M r s . M a u d Cuney H a r e is editing.
C J. W . F. Leman, D i r e c t o r o f the Steel Mrs. H a r e , b y birth and e a r l y environment,
Pier Orchestra at A t l a n t i c City, N . J... has " is well qualified to edit and a n n o t a t e these
consented to engage f o r the next season
songs."
E d w a r d Stello, a N e g r o soloist. This will
G W e s t V i r g i n i a Collegiate Institute has
be the first appearance of a colored soloist
presented K e m p e r H a r r e l d in a violin reci­
on the Steel Pier.
tal; M r s . Clarice J. M i c h a e l s w a s accom­
(I T h e H. W . G r a y C o m p a n y has published
panist.
Mr. Paul C. Bolin's " C o m m u n i o n Service
C H a z e l H a r r i s o n , pianist, has b e g u n her
in G". This w o r k is dedicated to St. Phil­
fall concert t o u r with a p i a n o recital in
lip's Protestant E p i s c o p a l Church o f N e w
Detroit, M i c h .
Y o r k City, o f which M r . B o l i n is organist
C A C o m m u n i t y S e r v i c e O r c h e s t r a o f 60
and choirmaster.
members has been o r g a n i z e d in C h i c a g o b y
C A n active b r a n c h o f the National A s s o ­
Charles E l g a r .
ciation of N e g r o Musicians is the Indianapo­
G A t Orchestra Hall, C h i c a g o , J a m e s A .
lis Music P r o m o t e r s ' Club, o f which Ella V .
M u n d y has presented soloists and a chorus
T h o m a s , pianist, is president and A d e l a i d e
in concert.
M a r y E . Jones w a s the so­
Thornton, Supervisor o f Music in the Col­
p r a n o soloist and Cleo D i c k e r s o n the pian­
ored Schools, is secretary.
T h e club has
ist.
instituted a monthly C o m m u n i t y P r o g r a m ,
G M a r i e P e c k Johnson, T . T h e o d o r e T a y ­
a series of three artists' recitals and the
lor and G e o r g e J o h n s o n — k n o w n as T h e
maintenance of a piano quartette.
J o h n s o n - T a y l o r - J o h n s o n T r i o , are t o u r i n g
d Marie F o r d o f Los A n g e l e s , CaL, has
the E a s t and South in concert. M r s . John­
accepted the position of D i r e c t o r o f M u s i c
son is the s o p r a n o soloist, M r . T a y l o r the
at Lincoln Institute, Jefferson City, M o .
pianist and M r . Johnson the tenor.
(I M m e . E . A z a l i a H a c k l e y has given her
G T h e W i l l i a m s Singers h a v e appeared in
second folk-song festival in Detroit.
On
a t w o - d a y c o n c e r t in Louisville, Ky.~
the p r o g r a m w e r e compositions b y Bur­
leigh, Cook, Dett, Johnson and
Diton.
A m o n g the artists w e r e Cleota Collins, B e r ­
EDUCATION
tha H a n s b u r y and L. D . Collins.
Ralph
I O T A C H A P T E R , a graduate chapter of
Holmes says in the Detroit Journal:
"There
the O m e g a Psi Phi F r a t e r n i t y , has been
is no reason w h y e v e r y season should not
organized in A t l a n t i c City, N . J..
George
see a concert b y the pick of the local col­
E . B r i c e is basileus.
78

THE

79

HORIZON

C. F r a n c i s C. Sumner, P h . D . , Clark Uni­
v e r s i t y '20, has been appointed P r o f e s s o r
of P s y c h o l o g y and Philosophy at W i l b e r force University.
C. E m i l y C. Charlton o f B r o o k l y n , N . Y „
has been graduated f r o m F i r s t Institute o f
P o d i a t r y as an h o n o r s t u d e n t ; she has
passed, the State B o a r d of Medical E x ­
aminers.
C. A t the last session of the Mississippi
Legislature the B o a r d of Supervisors o f
Sunflower County had a special law passed
allowing them to levy a 1 mill tax f o r Delta
Industrial Institute, Inc., instead o f the
annual a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f $2,000; the n e w
law gives the school an income o f $22,500
a year. W i l l i a m F . Reden, a graduate of
the State U n i v e r s i t y o f I o w a , is principal.
C O n e hundred colored students have en­
tered Ohio State University f o r the present
semester; they are distributed in all de­
partments.
G. T h e D e m o c r a t i c school b o a r d at W i l ­
mington, Del., dismissed M r s . A l i c e DunbarNelson, a teacher o f English in H o w a r d
H i g h School, because she attended a politi­
cal m e e t i n g in the home o f Senator Hard­
ing against the wishes o f her principal, R a y
W o o ten.
C D u r i n g the p a s t 10 years the number o f
white school children in South Carolina has
risen f r o m 156,051 to 226,065, an increase
of 70,014; the n u m b e r of colored school
children during this period increased f r o m
184,364 to 251,980, an increase of 67,616.
(L T h e State of K e n t u c k y has fixed a mini­
m u m w a g e o f $75 a month f o r school teach­
ers, white and c o l o r e d . .
C A t the colored Wendell Phillips H i g h
School, Chicago, a course of study in N e g r o
h i s t o r y and literature has been installed
with W i l l i s N . H u g g i n s as instructor.
G. A n institute on venereal disease control
and social h y g i e n e will be held in W a s h ­
ington, D . C , N o v e m b e r 22-December 4, and
an
All-America
conference,
December
6-11. I n f o r m a t i o n as to courses, etc., will
be g l a d l y furnished b y the United States
Public Health Service, W a s h i n g t o n , D . C.
C. A t H o w a r d University, D w i g h t O. W .
H o l m e s has been elected Dean o f the
T e a c h e r s ' College, succeeding M r . L. B.
M o o r e ; D u d l e y D . W o o d w a r d , D e a n o f the
Senior College, succeeding Carter G. W o o d ­
s o n ; D r . St. E l m o B r a d y is head of the
D e p a r t m e n t of Chemistry and O. C. T h o r n ­
ton, i n s t r u c t o r in the School of F i n a n c e ;
D r . W . E . M o r r i s o n , a g r a d u a t e of T u f t s

College, is football coach.
d In T e x a s 113 colored high schools report
an enrollment o f 30,000; 34 have 4-year
c o u r s e s ; 37 have 3-year c o u r s e s ; 19 have
2-year c o u r s e s ; 23 have one-year c o u r s e s ;
62 o f the schools have libraries, with 15,000
volumes.
G A D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e has been
opened at Clark University under Prof.
G e o r g e Griswold, a g r a d u a t e o f A l b i o n Col­
lege. T h e course requires 2 years and is
open to high school graduates w h o wish to
become stenographers, accountants, secre­
taries and business m a n a g e r s .
C Carnegie Hall has been dedicated at M o r ­
gan College, Baltimore. Its cost is $95,000.
T h e late M r . Carnegie g a v e $50,000 of this
sum.
(I Fannie Cobb Carter, f o r 9 years a m e m ­
ber o f the faculty o f W e s t V i r g i n i a Col­
legiate Institute, has resigned.
C F i f t y N e g r o students, 35 men and 15
women, are enrolled at the University o f
I o w a ; at I o w a A g r i c u l t u r a l College, 25 Ne­
groes are enrolled, the largest number in
the history of the school.
d D r . W a l t e r B. Jerrick, a graduate o f
Lincoln University '13, and the University
of Pennsylvania Medical School '18, has
gone to Scotland to pursue a post-graduate
course in medicine at the University o f
Edinburgh.
POLITICS

AT

Cleveland, Tenn., the N e g r o nominee
f o r A l d e r m a n , D r . T. E . Stevens was
elected o v e r his white opponent b y a 107-76
vote. W h i l e at Jellico, Tenn., D r . Stevens
served as a member o f the city B o a r d of
Health.
C. John C. H a w k i n s , a N e g r o in N e w Y o r k
City, has been elected to the A s s e m b l y f o r
his third term on the Republican ticket.
C In St. Louis, M o . , 18,000 N e g r o men and
12,378 N e g r o w o m e n registered, a total o f
30,378. In 1910 the N e g r o population w a s
44,541; it is n o w a p p r o x i m a t e l y 90,000.
(I M r s . M a r y Seymour, a colored woman
at H a r t f o r d , Conn., was a candidate f o r
Congress on the F a r m e r - L a b o r ticket.
C The following N e g r o e s w e r e elected m e m ­
bers o f the L e g i s l a t u r e : W a l t h a l l M . M o o r e ,
Republican, St. Louis, M o . ; and D r . W . G.
A l e x a n d e r , Republican, O r a n g e , N . J.
MEETINGS

A

P U B L I C reception has been tendered
to Bishops R o b e r t E . Jones and M a t ­
t h e w W . Clair at the A c a d e m y o f Music,

THE

80

Philadelphia. Bishops J o n e s and C l a i r are
the first N e g r o e s to attain the r a n k of
bishops in the Methodist E p i s c o p a l Church.
T h e r e have been several colored M i s s i o n a r y
Bishops.
C Hattie B. Marble,
D o c t o r of P h a r m a c y at
Y a z o o City, Miss., has
been elected f o r
her
second term as F i r s t
V i c e - President of the
colored N a t i o n a l
Med­
ical A s s o c i a t i o n , which
has
2,000
members.
MISS M A R B L E
Miss Marble is the only
w o m a n w h o has presid­
ed at a meeting o f the organization.
C. T h e 17th annual c o n f e r e n c e o f the
Rhode Island Union o f Colored W o m e n ' s
Clubs has convened at Union C o n g r e g a t i o n a l
Church, N e w p o r t . Mrs. J. J, Robinson w a s
elected president; Miss M a r y Jackson and
Mrs.
Henrietta A r m s t r o n g w e r e elected
first and second h o n o r a r y presidents.
(I The 26th annual meeting o f the A f r o A m e r i c a n Presbyterian Council has been
held at Capital Street Church, H a r r i s b u r g ,
Pa., o f which the R e v . B. M. W a r d is
pastor.
The R e v . L. F . Ellerson o f 13th
A v e n u e Church, N e w a r k , N . J., w a s elected
president, succeeding the R e v . C. B . Allen
of
Pittsburg.
d T h e National B e a u t y H a i r
Cultun'sts
League has held its first annual convention
at Philadelphia.
M m e . Estelle of N e w
Y o r k is president.
INDUSTRY

A

T Chapel Hill, N . C , the P r o g r e s s i v e
M a n u f a c t u r i n g C o m p a n y has been or­
ganized with an authorized capital stock of
$50,000. T h e R e v . L. H . H a c k n e y is presi­
dent o f the b o a r d o f directors.
d T h e entire stock o f the colored F i r s t
Standard Bank, Louisville, K y . , represent­
ing a capital and surplus o f $110,000, has
been sold in less than 5 months.
(I M r . J. T . Jackson, a real estate b r o k e r
at G e r m a n t o w n , Pa., recently handled $84,­
000 w o r t h o f business in one week.
(I A m o n g achievements o f N e g r o e s at
Columbus, Ohio, are the purchase o f a $50,­
000 theatre and a $40,000 hospital.
(I T i d e w a t e r B a n k and T r u s t C o m p a n y ,
N o r f o l k , V a . , reports a paid-in capital stock
of $100,000; surplus fund and undivided
profits, $21,647; furniture and
fixtures,
$16,705; cash in v a u l t and due f r o m banks,
$137,003; deposits, $437,178.

CRISIS

(L T h e M e c h a n i c s and F a r m e r s ' B a n k at
D u r h a m , N . C , r e p o r t s $17,038 c a s h in
v a u l t ; f u r n i t u r e and fixtures, $3,017; real
estate, $ 5 3 7 ; capital stock paid in, $45,097;
deposits ( s a v i n g s ) $96,283; deposits ( s u b ­
j e c t to c h e c k ) $148,757.
C A strike o f 11,000 m i n e w o r k e r s in A l a ­
b a m a has been in p r o g r e s s 6 m o n t h s . John
L. Lewis, I n t e r n a t i o n a l P r e s i d e n t o f the
United M i n e W o r k e r s o f A m e r i c a , has
telegraphed t o P r e s i d e n t W i l s o n u r g i n g t h a t
the D e p a r t m e n t o f Justice institute legal
proceedings to compel o b s e r v a n c e o f the
principle o f collective b a r g a i n i n g and the
protection o f the civil rights. M a n y o f the
miners are colored.
C. T h e M o d e r n S a v i n g s and T r u s t Com­
p a n y has been o r g a n i z e d at P i t t s b u r g h , Pa.,
with a subscribed capital stock o f $125,000.
(I T h e C o m m e r c i a l B a n k and T r u s t Com­
p a n y has been opened at R i c h m o n d , V a . , as
a $250,000 enterprise.
M r . J o s e p h Mat­
thews is d i r e c t o r and M r . T . C. E r w i n ,
president.
(I A l l i e W i l l i a m s , a N e g r o at S i o u x City,
I o w a , raises g u i n e a p i g s f o r the medical
profession.
H e receives orders t h r o u g h o u t
the country.
THE

CHURCH

IN a m e m b e r s h i p d r i v e at F i r s t C o n g r e g a ­
tional Church, A u g u s t a , Ga., M r s . S. S.
Johnson r e p o r t e d 154 n e w m e m b e r s in 60
days. T h e R e v . C. S. Ledbetter is pastor.
([ E l ' ' ° r W . H . Green r e p o r t s 6000 colored
members o f the Seventh D a y A d v e n t i s t
C h u r c h ; d u r i n g 1918-19 they raised $400,­
000.
E l d e r Green is s e c r e t a r y o f the N o r t h
A m e r i c a n N e g r o D e p a r t m e n t w i t h head­
quarters at Detroit, M i c h ,
il Mt. Zion M . E . C h u r c h at G e o r g e t o w n ,
D . C., has celebrated its 104th anniversary.
The R e v . A l b e r t Mitchell is p a s t o r .
CRIME

THE f o l l o w i n g l y n c h i n g s h a v e
place since o u r last r e c o r d :

taken

Greenville, A l a . , Oct. 1 4 — S e l e c t R e i d ,
shot; wounding foreman.
Fremont, N. C , October 19—Norman
A r t i s ; p e e p i n g into w o m a n ' s r o o m w h i l e
hired b y the husband to do detective w o r k .
C M r . P. H . R o b i n s o n o f J a c k s o n v i l l e , F l a . ,
i n f o r m s us t h a t T H E CRISIS' r e c o r d o f the
l y n c h i n g o f H o s e y P o o l e at P e n s a c o l a , F l a . ,
A u g u s t 13, is an e r r o r ; t h a t H o s e y killed
his b r o t h e r , w a s arrested, tried a n d con­
victed o f first d e g r e e m u r d e r and h a n g e d .

THE

SOCIAL

HORIZON

PROGRESS

ALICE
W A R D S M I T H has been ap­
•* *• pointed a p o l i c e w o m a n at W a s h i n g t o n ,
D . C. Miss Smith is a colored graduate o f
the U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n , Seattle; she
has served as h e a d w o r k e r f o r Lincoln
House, Glen Cove, L. I., and a special
w o r k e r f o r the H e n r y Street Settlement in
New York.
C W . L. Houston, a N e g r o at F o r t Scott,
Kan., has been retained as attorney f o r the
Order o f R a i l r o a d Station A g e n t s , a white
organization.
H e is the first colored at­
torney t o a p p e a r before the Interstate
C o m m e r c e Commission.
C In the
competitive examination
for
nurses in the D e p a r t m e n t o f Health, N e w
Y o r k City, Miss L a v e n i a M o o r e headed the
list o f 100 applicants.
T h e Misses M a r ­
g a r e t H a r r i s and Nellie Mosely were also
successful competitors.
G M a y m e D . T u r n e r at Philadelphia has
been appointed
Assistant
Inspector of
H o u s i n g and Sanitation in the Bureau of
Health at a salary o f $1300 per year. Miss
T u r n e r with an average o f 8 0 % stood first
on the list o f 7 candidates, including 5 men,
and is the first colored w o m a n appointee.
C Since 1910 Mississippi's population of
1,789,182 has been decreased b y 7,932 or 4 % .
This is attributed to the migration of Ne­
groes.
G J . W i l l i a m s Clifford, f o r m e r l y a Lieutenant
o f the 367th Infantry, 92nd Division A . E .
F., has resigned his position as Special
Representative o f colored soldiers and sail­
ors in the Bureau o f W a r Risk Insurance,
"because o f continual limitations of m y
official duties b y prejudiced southern white
superiors."
C M a r k e r s Carter, after 20 y e a r s ' active
service, has been transferred f r o m Chief
Gunner's Mate, U . S. N , to the Fleet Naval
Reserve. T h e captain in c o m m e n d i n g M r .
Carter, w h o is a N e g r o , s a i d : " Y o u r rec­
o r d shows that y o u h a v e committed no of­
fense against l a w and discipline o r failed
to p e r f o r m any d u t y assigned in a most
efficient m a n n e r . "
G A t Pine Bluff, A r k . , 500 N e g r o e s have
been m a d e homeless as a result o f a fire.
T h e d a m a g e is estimated at $300,000.
G T h e B a r at F o r t Smith, A r k . , has ad­
mitted its first N e g r o lawyer, in the person
o f A t t o r n e y E d w a r d D . Dobbins.
G A t Cleveland L e a g u e P a r k , Ohio, H a r r y
J. W a l k e r , a N e g r o , w a s Official A n n o u n c e r
for the W o r l d Series baseball g a m e s .

8i

G R o b e r t S. Lockett is the first N e g r o in
N e w Y o r k to be appointed a mounted pa­
trolman.
G W i l l i a m E . Parsons, a N e g r o at Santa
Fe., N. M., won second place in a statewide
subscription contest f o r the Daily
Neiv
Mexican, a white paper, and was awarded a
$1,200 Overland touring car.
G Catherine B. A l l e n , daughter o f M r . and
M r s . W . F . T r o t m a n o f Brooklyn, N. Y . ,
is the first colored w o m a n to be appointed
Assistant Librarian in the N e w Y o r k P u b ­
lic L i b r a r y . Miss Allen received her library
training at H o w a r d University and has
been assistant librarian at Tuskegee Insti­
tute.
G Mrs. Powhatan Bagnall, a colored w o ­
man o f Boston, Mass., has been appointed
Field W o r k e r f o r the United States inter­
departmental Social H y g i e n e Board.
G F r o m J a n u a r y 14-July 20 the Citizens'
Defense Fund of Little R o c k , A r k . , raised
$10,426 to defend the 12 N e g r o e s convicted
in connection with the riot at Elaine. Of
this sum $6,100 has been spent in attorney
fees and the remainder in cost and at­
tendant expenses. This m o n e y w a s in addi­
tion to the expenditures o f the N . A . A . C. P.
M r . J. G. T h o r n t o n is chairman o f the com­
mission.
G M r . Sol T. Plaatje, author o f " N a t i v e
Life in South A f r i c a " and editor of a news­
paper, has sailed f o r Montreal, Canada, in
connection with the w o r k o f the W o r l d
Brotherhood C o n g r e s s ; he will visit the
United States.
C Members of the Sulgrave Institute have
visited H a m p t o n Institute as a p a r t o f their
itinerary arranged in celebration o f the
first A m e r i c a n Legislative A s s e m b l y , which
was held at Jamestown, in July, 1619. Lord
Rathcreedan, the spokesman, paid w a r m
tribute to H a m p t o n .
G Secretary Daniels has appointed a Court
o f Inquiry to investigate in Haiti charges
made in connection with the A m e r i c a n O c ­
cupation.
C T h e N e g r o Commission o f Missouri ap­
pointed b y G o v e r n o r Gardner f o r the bet­
terment o f industrial, educational, housing,
home life, health and living conditions, has
offices in the State Capital.
M r . R. S.
Cobb is secretary o f the Commission.
G T w e n t y colored w o m e n have been called
f r o m various parts of the c o u n t r y to attend
the third E x t e n s i o n T r a i n i n g Course f o r
colored Y . W . C. A . secretaries.

THE

82

G A t St. Louis, M o . , t w o colored city de­
tectives,
Addison
Logan
and
William
Crockett, have been awarded bronze medals
t o r honorable service.
C T h e f o l l o w i n g a w a r d s have been made in
the N . A . A . C. P. l y n c h i n g essay c o n t e s t :
F i r s t prize, $ 5 0 — A r t h u r W i l l i a m s o f Lin­
coln U n i v e r s i t y ; second prize, $ 3 0 — L o r i m e r
Milton of B r o w n U n i v e r s i t y ; third prize,
$20—Donald B. Goodloe of H o w a r d Uni­
versity.
PERSONAL

THE

m a r r i a g e is announced of Miss E v a
V . Clay, teacher of child hygiene f o r
the B o a r d of Health at N e w a r k , N . J., t o
Mr. George H. Faulk, State Superintendent
of the A m e r i c a n W o r k m e n ' s
Insurance
C o m p a n y o f W a s h i n g t o n , D . C. Miss Clay
served as a Red Cross nurse at C a m p Grant,
111., and is a g r a d u a t e of Freedmen's H o s ­
pital.
d M r . and M r s . Joseph M. A b b o t t o f
Spout Springs, A p p o m a t t o x County, V a . ,
have been married 45 y e a r s ; they are the
parents of 15 children.

MR.

A N D MRS. JOSEPH M. A B B O T T

G Mrs. A n n a Pitts Clifton at A t l a n t a , Ga.,
has given birth to her 24th child; 8 of the
children are alive. M r s . Clifton is 54 years
of age and her husband, Charles Clifton,
57.
C Dr. J. Hee'.ey Barber, a g r a d u a t e of
M e h a r r y Medical College, is dead at A t ­
lanta, Ga., where he had practised f o r the
past 14 years.
C The remains o f the late Sergeant Peter
D e f o u r who died at Brest, as a member of
the Medical Detachment A . E . F., has ar­
rived at Trinidad, B. W . I., his home, where
a military burial was held,
d Mrs. A n n a Tubman at Philadelphia, Pa.,
is the mother of 18 living children.
Mrs.
T u b m a n , w h o is 43 years of age, has been
married 29 years.

CRISIS

NATIONAL

URBAN

LEAGUE

S I X T Y - S E V E N organizations,representing
29 o f the l a r g e s t cities, w e r e represented
at the N a t i o n a l U r b a n L e a g u e ' s A n n u a l
Conference held in N e w a r k , O c t o b e r 20-23.
U r b a n L e a g u e executives f r o m 25 cities were
in attendance.
T h e r e p o r t s i n d i c a t e : Perm­
anent general i m p r o v e m e n t in health a m o n g
N e g r o e s ; t h a t the industrial position o f the
N e g r o w o r k e r while serious on a c c o u n t o f
increased m i g r a t i o n f r o m E u r o p e and slow­
ing up in certain industries shows no cause
f o r alarm as c o n c e r n s the N e g r o ; that racial
co-operation which developed d u r i n g the w a r
is on the i n c r e a s e ; t h a t southern N e g r o e s
are steadily c o m i n g n o r t h w a r d ,
d T h e Industrial D e p a r t m e n t o f the N e w
J e r s e y U r b a n L e a g u e placed last month a
g a n g o f colored w o r k m e n under their own
foreman with the S t a n d a r d Oil C o m p a n y at
R a h w a y , N . J.
d The N e w Y o r k U r b a n L e a g u e provided
convalescence and fresh air outings f o r 305
T h e pre-natal clinic
persons last summer.
opened in H a r l e m in J u l y has advised in
876 cases of e x p e c t a n t m o t h e r s . T h e League
w a s instrumental in s e c u r i n g to colored
dining c a r employees a w a g e increase as al­
lotted to other railroad employees by the U.
S. W a g e and A d j u s t m e n t B o a r d . N e w open­
ings f o r e m p l o y m e n t w e r e made with the
United Chemical C o m p a n y and the Schles­
inger T o y F a c t o r y .
d T h e Cleveland o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s r e p o r t for
the fiscal year ending October 1, shows the
placing o f six personnel w o r k e r s in plants
and the e m p l o y m e n t o f eight colored foremen
w h o had been trained in the school f o r fore­
men inaugurated b y W i l l i a m Conners, E x ­
ecutive Secretary. In co-operation with the
C u y a h o g a F a r m B u r e a u and the F a r m De­
p a r t m e n t o f the city, N e g r o e s are being
placed on f a r m s as w o r k e r s , tenants and
owners. S u r p l u s l a b o r is being distributed
in n e a r b y t o w n s .
F o u r thousand w o r k e r s
were placed with 992 in skilled positions.
T h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E c o n o m i c s shows 2,162
families visited and 164 n e w b a n k accounts
opened.
d The L e a g u e d u r i n g the p a s t nine years
has made 64,452 placements o f N e g r o w o r k ­
ers in positions not b e f o r e held by them,
d F r a y s e r T . Lane, o f the C h i c a g o Urban
League, and A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r o f the C o m ­
munity Service, has been appointed E x e c u ­
tive S e c r e t a r y o f the n e w l y o r g a n i z e d Kan­
sas City U r b a n L e a g u e .

THE

CRISIS

CI M a u r i c e Moss, 1920 F e l l o w o f the Nation­
al U r b a n L e a g u e at the N e w Y o r k School
of Social W o r k , has been appointed Director
of the F r e d e r i c k Douglass B o y s ' Club of T o ­
ledo, O h i o .
0 Fellowships f o r the year 1920-1921 have
been g r a n t e d b y the National U r b a n League
to W i l l i a m A . Daniels at the Graduate School
of Social A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , C h i c a g o Univers­
i t y ; Ruth W . H o w a r d at the School f o r So­
cial W o r k e r s , Boston, M a s s . ; and Phila A .
McGillery at the Pennsylvania School of So­
cial Service, Philadelphia.
FOREIGN

THE

Conference o f A f r i c a n s f r o m British
dependencies has met and sent a depu­
tation to London. Resolutions passed by
the conference a r e : " T h a t this conference
views with g r e a t disfavor the p r o p a g a n d a of
the E m p i r e Resources Development Commit­
tee with respect to the British W e s t A f r i ­
can Colonies, and is strongly of the opinion
that the natural resources of the British
W e s t A f r i c a n dependencies are not f o r the
exploitation o f concessionaries under State
control."
Other resolutions passed dealt
with the palm kernels e x p o r t duty, which
the conference pledged itself to endeavor to
repeal; with judicial reforms, particularly
deploring the modifications in British W e s t
A f r i c a o f the r i g h t to trial b y j u r y , and
protesting against the denial o f the r i g h t
to representation b y Counsel in the P r o ­
vincial C o u r t s ; with the flogging o f women,
which the conference wholly condemned as
a barbarous practice f o r any offence what­
ever.
(I The Building W o r k e r s ' International
U n i o n in E a s t London, South A f r i c a , has
opposed the introduction o f a rate o f 1 shil­
ling 3 pence f o r colored w o r k e r s and 1 shil­
ling 9 pence f o r white workers, and demand­
ed a flat rate o f 1 shilling 6 pence f o r all
workers.
C L o r d Sinha, Indian Under-Secretary f o r
India, has resigned at London, England,
and been succeeded b y the white E a r l o f
Lytton. L o r d Sinha and other Indian lead­
ers insisted upon the appointment o f Secre­
t a r y M o n t a g n e as V i c e r o y o f India because
of his firm stand in condemning the A m r i t ­
sar massacre and other repressive measures
in I n d i a ; the appointment was refused.
C A l a w dated M a r c h 17, 1920, provides
for the organization in P a r i s in 1925 o f an
Interallied Colonial E x p o s i t i o n and f o r the
building o f a p e r m a n e n t colonial museum.

ADVERTISER

83

PARENTS
and

TEACHERS
Is it a CHRISTMAS Gift to Your
Children ? Then why not a Year's
Subscription to

THE BROWNIES'BOOK
A monthly magazine designed es­
pecially for our children which at­
tempts to bring to them :

/.

The best in pictures and stories
of Negro life.
2. The life and deeds of famous
men and women of the Negro
race.
J. The current events of the world
told in beautiful language which
children can understand.
THE BROWNIES'
BOOK has ap­
peared monthly since the January, 1920,
issue. Its circulation is still less than
5,000 copies per month. In order to keep
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ard—as wc are determined to do—we
must have at once 12,000 subscribers.
Won't you help us now to reach that
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If each person reading this page will
send us just one paid-up yearly sub­
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S P E C I A L O F F E R : Five paid-up
vearly subscriptions to the B R O W N I E S '
B O O K sent in at one time will entitle
the sender to a year's subscription free.
This offer holds good until midnight of
December 31, 1920.
15 Cents per copy
Agents

Wanted

Sample

$1.50 per year
Subscribers

copies sent on

Wanted

request.

DuBois and Dill, Publishers
2 W e s t 13th

St.

N E W Y O R K , N. Y .

THE

84

"JUST

T H E

CRISIS

P L A C E

ADVERTISER

F O R

Y O U R

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N

O

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BERNARD-HEWITT & C O M P A N Y
A M O N E Y G E T T E R because It Is A C R O W D
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Pharoas—4U0 pages, 60 illustrations.
(Retails alone for
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Was adopted as a textbook by North Carolina
State Board of Education.

(2)

The Pictorial History of the Negro in the Great World
War, giving a brilliant historical sketch, a description of
battle scenes by Colonel Haywood of the Fighting Fif­
teenth New York, Capt. Marshall, Sergeant Steptoe, Ralph
Tyler and others, with 150 excellent pictures of officers
and men and war views. (Sells alone for $2.00.)

Just Think, only $2.50 for these two great books.
Agents wanted everywhere, large c o m m i s s i o n s paid
ADDRESSi E. A. JOHNSON, 17 Wemt 132nd Street, New York, N . Y .
Mention T H E C u m

THE

CRISIS

ADVERTISER

85

1920
The Southern A i d Society of
Va., Inc., has striven during
1920, as a l w a y s heretofore, to
render to its policyholders a
superior service during sick­
ness, accidents and the dark
hour of death. A s a result of
its efforts to keep faith with the
people, the society has done a
larger and more satisfactory
business during 1920 than ever
before.
Therefore at this joyous sea­
son of the year we first give
thanks to Him from w h o m Com­
eth all good things; then to the
good people who have so will­
ingly and consistently entrust­
ed to our care and keeping the
sacred duty of protecting their
firesides in the time of sickness,
accidents and death; and last,
but not least, to that band of
ever faithful co-workers—our officers, superintendents, a gents
and clerks—for their loyal devotion to the interests of both
the policyholders and the Society.
The success of 1920 inspires and prepares us for bigger
and better service during 1921.
If you live in Virginia—you should have the superior pro­
tection provided only by the unmatched policy of the

SOUTHERN AID SOCIETY OF VA., INC.
Home

Office:

520 N. Second Street

District

Offices

OFFICERS
A. D . P R I C E , Pres.
EDW.
STEWART,
1st
Vice-Pres.
J A S . T . C A R T E R , 2nd
Vice-Pres.
& Atty.

and

Agencies

AND

EOARD

R I C H M O N D , VA.
Throughout

State

DIRECTORS
B. A . C E P H A S , 3rd ViccPres.
A. W A S H I N G T O N
W.
E.
B A K E R , Treas.
C. N. J A C K S O N
B. L. J O R D A N , Sec.
W . E. R A N D O L P H
W.
A. J O R D A N ,
Asst.
Sec.

Mention

THE

OF

the

CRISIS.

86

THE

CRISIS

ADVERTISER

soothing the after-smart of sha

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Mention

T H E CRISIS.

THE

CRISIS

87

ADVERTISER

The R. G. Doggett Amusement Corporation, Inc.
will present

The Bramhall Players and a superb cast of black and white players in
"JUSTICE"

A Drama of Race, Love and Law
IN T H R E E A C T S
and

"THE

FATHER'S SONS"
A Peace of Killing

Both

by BUTLER DAVENPORT

at the

LAFAYETTE

THEATRE

7th Avenue, between 1 3 1 s t and 132c! Streets, N e w York, N . Y .

THE

W E E K OF NOVEMBER 29

"Justice" is a big, powerful, virile drama of tolerance toward the
individual, appealing to every lover of humanity.
"Uncle Tom's Cabin" went far to free the Negro's body from bond­
age; "Justice" will go far to liberate the white man's mind from
prejudice.
"I think, m y friends, you are guilty of a great wrong against God
and humanity. This Negro question is still to be settled."
These
words are as true today as when spoken by John Brown—and this
drama of "Justice" shows the way to solve this problem of the color
line.

:-:

Comments

:-:

"Justice" is a great play.
It is ten years ahead of its time.—Lee
Shubert, Manager.
"Justice" is the most panoramic play I have heard. It seemed as
if I saw the people as you read it. It is five years ahead of its time.—
Henry Miller, Actor-Manager and Co-Star with Blanche Bates in "The
Famous Mrs. Fair."
"Justice" is a great play. It should be played at once, but won't
be in the condition our theatre is in today.—Emma Goldman, AuthorLecturer.
The Corporation has arranged also to present Mr. Davenport in
readings from "Justice" and other plays for Clubs and Literary Societies.
For information regarding the above attractions, address—

R.

G. D O G G E T T

302 West 137th Street

New York, N. Y .
MENTION

T H E CRISIS.

THE

88

MISS

CRISIS

ADVERTISER

MADELINE

ALLISON

SHOPPER r ^ r ^ r ;



Would you not like to do your Christmas shopping in New York City?
Miss Allison is a colored business woman, horn in New York and thoroughly familiar with its
shops. If you will write her of your wants, she will send you descriptions and prices by return mail.
Meantime, here are a few suggestions:

StationeryAssorted colors, white, pink, blue, lavender;
high grade linen finished stock; ribbon tied;
46 envelopes, 24 sheets o f paper and 24 cor­
respondence cards . . . 8Q cents per b o x and
up.
White linen cloth finished paper; _ 84
sheets o f paper and 84 envelopes; ribbon tied.
$4.68 per b o x .

F O U N T A I N PENS
Made of pure para rubber; 14 karat solid gold diamond point pen; full chased
barrel, 88 cents each and up.
Sterling Silver filigree pen; the silver is inlaid over the vulcanite; space is re­
served on barrel for engraving name of owner, $ 6 , 1 7 each.

WATCH

FOBS

Attractive silk watch fob with gold plated charm, 60 cents each and up.
All metal fob 14 karat gold plated, braided links witb C1AST> g U i r ^ - n o n t which
holds chain in position; ornamented
with buckle and charm that can be ,
engraved, $ 2 . 5 4 each.

Toilet and Manicure Sets
3 piece French ivory toilet set in hinged case, sateen
lined; contains hand mirror with 4J^ inch beveled
glass, flat back hair brush with 9 rows of bristles
and a dressing comb. $ 7 , 4 7 per set and up.
7 piece combination toilet set of grained ivory in
lined cabinet; contains nail file, cuticle pusher, 3
inch handle dressing comb, hair brush. 9 rows of
bristles, mirror with l A inch beveled glass, nail
buffer, glass salve jar. $6.96 per set and up.
l

Cuff

Links

MISS

Gold plated eutt links
with stone settings;
finely
embossed
strong
post,
lever
ends.
5 6 cents per
pair and up.
Solid
gold cuff links, set
with diamonds; good,
heavy weight; Ro­
man finish. $ 5 . 0 0 per
pair. Combination set
—gold plated scarf
pin and sleeve button
set, stone settings,
64 cents per set and
up.

MADELINE

Hand Bags
Chiffon velvet hand bags
with silk chenille tas­
sel; silver polish frame;
silver chain handle, fan­
cy liuingr extra inside
frame pocket; hanging
mirror;
colors — navy,
taupe arid brown. $3.32
each and up.

ALLISON

R o o m 622, 70 Fifth Avenue
( R e f e r s b y permission to the Editor of the

Mention T H E CBISIB.

NEW Y O R K , N . Y .
Crisis.)

THE

CRISIS

89

ADVERTISER

M U S I C IN THE HOME
P U T S S U N S H I N E IN T H E

HEART

Standard Songs Which Should be in Every Repertoire
THE

R O U G H , R O C K Y R O A D ("MBBiTO

Bv W. C. HANDY
A beautiful spiritual with a heart-throb in every note, with a new arrangement "by one of America's
foremost composers. PRICE 40c.

T H I N K I N G OF T H E E

A L I T T L E SONG

Hy HARRY
II. PACE
PRICE 30c. A ballad par-excellent.

PRICE 20c. For little tots and school children.
Just what the name implies.

PICKANINNY
PRICE 30c.

A wonderfully melodious mother croon.

AFRO-AMERICAN

ROSE

A Lullaby.

HYMN

SPHINX

By li\ C. HANDY
A soul-stirring, martial hymn of beauty. Special
Prices in lots to Choirs and Schools.
WE

The sweetest song on Broadway.

BARBOUR
flv J. BERN I
PRICE 30c. An Egyptian,. Intermezzo.

CAN SUPPLY YOU W I T H ALL THE

LATEST

SHEET

MUSIC

WHY DID YOU MAKE A PLAYTHING OF ME?
By J. BERN1
BARBOUR
A "Good B y e " appeal of a lover. Beautiful lyrics and wonderful music.
piece of musical composition.

PRICE 15c.

LONG GONE

A master­

ST. LOUIS BLUES

PRICE 15c. Another ' C a s e y Jones" or "Steam­
boat B i l l " . Sung by Marion Harris on Columbia
Record.

PRICE 30c.

Sung by Marion Harris on Colum­
bia Record. It's great.

THAT THING CALLED LOVE
PRICE 30c.

Sung by Mamie Smith on Okeh Record. The first colored girl to make a record of a
popular song, and it's a wonderful record.
Two Great Columbia Records by

BEALE ST. BLUES
PRICE 30c. Always a favorite.
On all
Rolls and Phonograph Records.

BERT WILLIAMS

Player

" I T ' S YOUR MOVE N O W " u„d
"O DEATH, W H E R E IS T H Y STING V'

THINK OF ME LITTLE DADDY
By

PRICE 15c.
OUR

A soni; brimful

MISS

of life.

ALUl.i'<TA

WHITMAN

Recorded by Sweatman's

Orchestra on Columbia Record.

MUSIC IS OX ALL PHONOGRAPH RECORDS AND P L A Y E R ROLLS
We ran fill vour orders for Player Rolls.

Our music mav be had w h e r e v e r sheet music is sold, and at the music counters of Woo'.worth,
Kress, Kresge. McCrory. Metropolitan and National Stores, or direct from the Publishers.
N. B.—If it is Sheet Music vou want we ran supply you. If we don't publish it we will get it tor you.

PACE
'

&

HANDY

MUSIC

CO.,

Inc.

P A C E h HANDY BUILDING)

232 W. 46th Street

Dept.

C

Mention T H E CRISIS.

New York, N, Y.

THE

90

CRISIS A D V E R T I S E R

Cleota J. Collins
Lyric

LUC

Soprano

''Judging
from the appear­
ance of a large number of
music lovers, her sweet lyric
voice held them spellbound.
She was applauded again and
again after each number."—
Boston
Chronicle.

IMPORT:
EXPORT:
COFFEE
FLOUR
COCOA
SOAP
CASTOR BEANS
HARDWARE
LIGNUM VITAE
D
R
Y
GOODS
MAHOGANY
COTTON FABRICS
LOG
WOOD
FURNITURE
COTTON
PAINTS
COCOANUT

Address:
156

LULA

HAMILTON

AVENUE,

COLUMBUS,

OHIO

Colored American business men desiring to trans­
act business between Haiti and the United States
of America, are cordially invited to communi­
cate with us.

ROBINSON-JONES

Soprano
Available for

WANTED

Concerts

DUDLEY'S FAMOUS AUTO POLISH

New York, N. Y .

for furniture, pianos, church p e w s , hard­
wood floors and hundreds of other things
that have a varnished surface. Makes them
look like new. Agents can make $50.00 to
$75.00 per w e e k selling Dudley's Polish to
furniture dealers, drug stores, hardware
stores, churches, housekeepers, automobile
stores, paint stores and grocery stores.
Special Offer: For 90 days we will ship to
all new agents $10.00 worth o f Dudley's
Polish for $5.00. Take advantage of this
special offer at once.

JOSEPHINE A. JUNIUS

CONTRALTO
"Miss Junius is the possessor of a Contralto
voice, lovely in quality, which she uses artis­
tically."—Oscar Saenger.
Address
74

W.

142d

ST.

NEW

YORK,

WANTED

Live Agents A t Once T o Sell

Telephone 6393 Morningiide
174 W . 136th Street

DORSINVILLE & CO.

MANUFACTURERS'
AGENTS
IMPORTERS
AND
EXPORTERS
PORT AU PRINCE, HAITI

N.

Y.

Dudley & Porter Manufacturing Co.
11S South Main St.,

Muskogee, Okla.

Clarence Cameron W h i t e
Violinist

Tmlephonm, Baring T7$4

Recitals, Concerts, Instruction
Studio:
616 Columbus Avenue

Boston, Mass.

ISADORE
Notary

E. A L D A M A JACKSON
Graduate of Institute of Musical Art
Organist-Director of Music of St. Marks M. E.
Church; Concert Accompanist; Piano, Voice,
Theory, Instruction, Conducting, Coaching.
Harmony taught from beginning to com­
pletion. Private or correspondence.
Geothius system.
Studio: 250 W . 138th St., New York, N. Y .
Telephone Morningside 1708.

The Colored Teachers'Bureau
Will Help Y o u Get a Better Paying Position.
REGISTER

NOW

S E A S O N A B L E TERMS

Address: Colored Teachers' Bureau
Box 22, W i l b e r f o r c e , 0 .

F o r all L o d g e a n d

Church

Societies

CENTRAL REGALIA CO.
JOS. L. JONES, Pr...
Cineioniti, Obi*
N. E. Car. 8th and Plum Su.,

Tel.

6487 Fort Hill

EDGAR
ATTOBNEY AND

Pa.

Cable Address, Epben

P

BENJAMIN

COUNSELLOR-AT-LAW

34 School Street

Boston, Mass.

LIVE IN C A L I F O R N I A
Colored People, Attention!
$50.00 cash will start you owning a home in
Southern
California.
No Jim-Crowism—no
separate schools—an opportunity to live as a
man. Write today for FREE I N F O R M A T I O N .
BOOKERTEE INVESTMENT C O .
1718 W . Jefferson St.,
Los Angeles, Cal.

Alf^T €\\\tf*HL
Snapupthisprofitsmoshing
Zr^f* M b a r g a i n now. S E N D N O

« « 3uBt your name, address, size and color.
We will send you delivery charges paid. 6 pairs o f
tneewellest heavy weight brown or blaok genuine
duc-web mens' silk socks, worth $1.00 eaoh.
N

SEND

NO

MONEY

pay S3.19
on arrival,
chat-pea
paid,
|Yon
Pairs
o ! Silk
Socksdelivery
— Guar.
$6 Value
Don't wait. Got
at FOOTS today. Limited quantity
left. Only 6- pain
...lira to a customer. Money cheer-,
fully refunded if you can match them for S6.
BERNARD, HEWITT &
D e p t . L 344

Mention T H E

Mortgage*

Public

6 North 42nd Street, Philadelphia,

O

Badges, Banners, Lodge Regalia

MARTIN

Real Estate and Insurance

CRISIS.

CO.
CHICAGO

THE

THE
LOT

CRISIS A D V E R T I S E R

MOST
OFFER

91

ATTRACTIVE
EVER
MADE!

Excellent Lots, Developed Under New Plan, with Fruit Trees Planted on them, in

Beautiful ORCHARDVILLE
$56
FOR
ONLY

ON VERY
EASY T E R M S

PEOPLE FROM A L L O V E R T H E COUNTRY
ARE S E C U R I N G T H E S E L O T S A N D T H E DE­
M A N D FOR T H E M IS I N C R E A S I N G B Y
L E A P S A N D B O U N D S . If you want any you
must A C T Q U I C K L Y :
Orchardville is located in a high grade fruit
growing region and is to be developed into a
B E A U T I F U L F R U I T C I T Y . Each lot will have
F I V E H I G H G R A D E F R U I T T R E E S PLANT­
ED ON I T , also a beautiful shade tree, which
will be cultivated and taken care of by us for
F O U R Y E A R S W I T H O U T E X T R A COST TO
YOU.
When the fruit trees come into commer­
cial bearing they should earn you E X C E L L E N T
YEARLY
R E T U R N S ON Y O U R I N V E S T ­
M E N T W I T H O U T A N Y EFFORT ON YOUR
PART.
The lots are sized 3 0 x 1 4 4 feet, and have plen­
ty of room for a house, garden, chicken yard,

shed, etc., besides the room taken up by the fruit
trees.
E A C H L O T IS G U A R A N T E E D T O BE H I G H
AND
D R Y U N D E R A MONEY-BACK GUAR­
A N T E E , and the title to the property is absolutely
clear.
The price of the lots is only $56, as stated above,
Smaller
and the terms are only $3.00 a month.
terms when more than one lot is purchased. NO
INTEREST.
We have a beautiful booklet that gives all the
particulars of this offer, and that explains how
to secure your lots. Send for one T O D A Y .
Simply write your name and address on the cou­
pon
attached below and mail it to us R I G H T
AWAY.
The number of lots is L I M I T E D and
they are GOING F A S T , which makes it a case
of F I R S T C O M E — F I R S T S E R V E D .

Arenson Realty Development Corporation
CHICAGO, ILL.

19 S. La Salle Street
~

I
J

7

I

~
R e a l t y
111,

Gentlemen:—I

I

your

I

Nome

!.

7 o « m

I

~

A r e n s o n
Chicago,

booklets

D e v e l o p m e n t

C o r p .

Date
am

interested

in

your

without

obligation

to

me.

Orchardville

offer

would

like

to

receive

one

of

I
|

Address
State.

CRI-12-20

Mention

and

1
I

192

THE

CRISIS.

]

I

Q

2

THE

H O L I D A Y

CRISIS

S atrmcnt of the Ownership, Management, Circulation,
etc., required by the Art of Congn ss uf August U4. .912,
nf (ho CRISIS, published monthly at 70 F.ftli Avenue,
New York, N. Y . , for October 1. 1920.

S U G G E S T I O N S

The 1921 CRISIS Calendar

State of New York
Luunty of New York

will be in keeping with our high standards
of past years, It will contain excerpts from
the works of foremost Negro authors—an
artistic and valuable reminder
" A s the Days of the Year Go B y "
Price 50 Cents

Ready December

Before me, a Notary Publie in and for the State
and
county aforesaid, personally appeared Augustus
•^lanville Dill, who, having been d..ly sworn accord­
.ng to law, deposes and says that lie is the Business
.Manager of the CRISIS and tllii, the following is, to
the best of h s knowledge and behef, a true statement
of the ownership, management, etc., of the aforesaid
publication for the date shown in he above caption,
lequ.red by the Act, of August 24, 1912, embodied In
section 443, Postal Laws and Regulations:

15

SPECIAL OFFER
A copy of the 1921 CRISIS Calendar will
he sent free to any person sending us A T
ONE
T I M E three (3) paid-up yearly sub­
scriptions to the CRISIS on or beforo Decem­
ber, 24, 1920.

Publisher: The Nat'onal Association for the Advance­
ment of Colored People, 70 Fifth Avenue, New York.
N. Y.
Editor: W. E. Burghardt DuBois, 70 Fifth Ave­
nue, New York, N. Y.
Managing Editor: W. E. Burghardt DuBois, 70 Fifth
Avenue, New York, N. Y.
Business Manager: Augustus Granville Dill, 70 Fifth
Avenue, New York, N. Y.
Owners: The National Assoc'ation for the Advance­
ment of Colored People, a corporation with no stoc't;
membership over 90,000.
Moorfield Storey, President,
.Tames Weldon Johnson, Acting Secretary.
Joel E. Spingam, Treasurer.
Mary White Ovington. Chairman Board of Directors.
Known bondholders, mortgagees and other security
holders owning or holding 1 per cent or more of total
amount of bonds, mortgages or other securities: None.
AUGUSTUS GRANVILLE DILL.

SEVEN GIFT BOOKS (Postage Extra)
Souls ot Black Folk. (W. E. B. DuBois)
$1.50
History of the Negro. <B. G. Brawley)
2.00
Darkwater. (W. E. B. DuBois)
2.00
The Shadow. (Mary White Ovington)
2.00
The Negro Faces America. (Herbert J. Selig­
mann)
1.75
Poems of Paul Laurence Dunbar
2.50
The Negro. (W. E. B. DuBois)
90
Address

The

CRISIS

70 Fifth Avenue

New York, N. Y .

Business Manager.

Phonograph Records oi our Foremost Artists

Sworn to and subscribed before me this 29th day of
September, 1920.
FRANK M. TURNER, Notary Public, Queens
County No. 754. Certificate filed in New York
County No. 164. New, York Register No. 2122.
(My commission expires March 30, 1922.)

An Appreciated Christmas Gift
"Go Down Moses," sung "by Harry T. Bur­
leigh; "Villianelle," sung by Florence ColeTalbert; "Cradle Song," played by Clarence
C. White, $1.25 each and 25c for mailing,
packing and insurance, Also a record of the
Atlanta speech by Booker T. Washington,
$1.50 each and 25c. for mailing, etc.
BROOME SPECIAL
23 Clayton A v e . ,
Another

set

of

For the most valuable books
dealing with the Negro Problem
Address The CRISIS

P H O N O G R A P H RECORDS
Medford, Mass.

rro'i'd'
unite

coming
for

out

next

ADVERTISER

month,

circular.

Send No
R

Money!

A

T I O N A L
L I V I N G
Editor: BENZION LIBER, M . D . , D.P.H.
11e:i11h Conservation—Social
Hygiene—In­
dustrial H y g i e n e — P e r s o n a l and Intimate H y ­
giene—Child H y g i e n e — P l a i n , Drugless T r e a t ­
ment of Disease—Birth C o n t r o l — A l l T r u t h s
f r o m all Medical Schools—Fighting Dishon­
esty in the Healing P r o f e s s i o n s — A n s w e r s to
Subscribers' Q u e s t i o n ' s — A r t — F r e e d o m in the
B r i n g i n g U p of C h i l d r e n — V e g e t a r i a n i s m Fighting Superstition.
Rational L i v i n g is an independent illustrated month­
ly devoted to the teaching of rational methods of liv­
ing, an educational guide f o r manual and mental
workers. It is not sensational. I t lias i n view the
plain, o r d i n a r y people, and 'not the extra-oratnarj­
athlete.
I t is scientific, but popular.
I t saves y o u
money.

T h e December Issue of Rational Living Is Out
It contains^ among many other articles: Dr. Marie
Stopes, of England, on Birth Control; Influenza;
Labor and Industrial H y g i e n e ; W o m e n in the T e x t i l e
I n d u s t r y ; Food and the Child.
T h e J a n u a r y issue will contain a large number of
interesting and educational articles.
H e r e are but a
f e w : Fighting Disease in Soviet Russia; F x e r c i s e ,
Good and B a d : W a t e r as a R e m e d y ; Labor and
Health; Stammering;
the Breakfast; Pictures b>
Renoir and V a n Gogh.
40 cents a copy. $4 a year in U . S. value. Cor­
responding rates f o r shorter periods.
N o free sam­
ple copies. Address C I H a m i l t o n Place, New Y o r k ,
N. Y .

O l ) l y
fill
5 Q ° * ™ finest quality, beautiful patterns
-Sent ! n ^ i , S o 3 " ^ f ^ regular$3.60 madras dress shirts,$7.O0value
inVst nnnfiPv
° J? jy madvance, payable C. O. D. ikade of the
T i l l riral! n™i°T
Madras, very durable, very dressy, cut
lulls
finer/ r^Xff^ S \, . -. r ; S^' ^ n c h turn back
t r i n « X * | 5 5 , S K,
<?<*hed.finestworkmanship. In latest
haX-round
Sizll 1144 ft
? size and
S color
, < preferred.
« * » » <»> " ^ t e
j ^ K r u u n a . sizes
toftS."
17*5. "S?
State
" 6 G u a r a n t e e !2, , e " W"; " o n e r In f o i l . If yon can match these
SendnoMonev.juatyournam?
#n"»h«r« for Jess than 13.60 each,
charges crewiS: 1Pay 2n"/K69 on SSit^?
° "I^J " .»'
. <Mi»«T
f

r

on

h

le

coa t

f

o, t

E o f

a

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l e B

l a c k

r

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s t r i

e 3

a

d

1

Mention

O.P..S04
T h e Crisis.

B

E
4

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N

A

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9

f a s t

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?i w .

W

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0 , l c e

THE

CRISIS

ADVERTISER

M A D E to M E A S U R E

E X P R E S S OR P O S T A G E

PREPAID

This offer is one of the biggest, most gener­
ous ever made by any tailoring house. It's
your one big opportunity to get a finely tailored-to-measure 2-piece suit with box back,
superbly trimmed and cut in the latest city
style for only $15.00.
W E ' R E
H I G H

O U T T O

T A I L O R I N G

B E A T
P R I C E S

Your own local tailor couldn't and wouldn't
m a k e you a suit for $15.00, let alone supply
the cloth, linings and trimmings. Why not
s a v e 5 0 % on your next suit? We have such
a tremendous business, buy all our materials
in such large quantities and have such a perfect organi­
zation that we can make these wonderful prices—and
remember we guarantee style, fit and workmanship or
your money back.

5

You Save 9 to J5
$

This suit for $15.00 clearly proves our supremacy in the tailoring field. W e offer
dozens of equally good values. Let's tell
C A « n L ft..tf'.l C D C C
you about them. We would rather you did | J | g o d U i P l O UUlTIT
M i t t
not send us any money until we send our
°
~
Write us today and we will mail you absolutely FREE our beautifully illustrated
pattern book showing dozens of the latest city styles and designs, also many large
size cloth samples to choose from. You will be simply thunderstruck at the excep­
tional values we are offering this year. Don't delay; we urge you to act quick; today!

THE
Dept.

PROGRESS TAILORING CO.
6 0 1

C H I C A G O
Mention

T H E CRISIS.

THE

04

CRISIS

ADVERTISER

OUR LATEST CATALOG WILL B E
MAILED TO YOU UPON
REQUEST
W e are positively the only Manufacturers of H U M A N H A I R G O O D S who
specialize and cater direct to the Colored People.

a
e
<
h

<

Our W i g s , Switches, Transformations, Bobs and Braids are strictly hand­
made—of the finest qualities of real Human Hair Goods and manufactured
under the supervision of M M E . B A U M . by the most skillful artists in the
trade.
Try Mme. Baum's Celebrated Scalp and Face Preparations
which are made
of the finest ingredients and are the most satisfying
to the person
using
them*

o
e
ib
u
H

We
Mme. Baums
' Bob
gives the appear­
ance of wearing the
hair bobbed, but
makes cutting un­
necessary. M ad o
of strictly Supremo
Quality human
hair, with natural
waves, sewed on
Velvet Ribbon,
fitted with three
tuck Combs to
hold secure.
In
all shades. Price.
$5.50.

S
5

carry t h e largest selection

of H a i r ­

dressers' T o o l s a n d A c c e s s o r i e s .

MME. BAUM'S
MAIL ORDER HOUSE
Our

s
x
H
PI
•*
O
X
o
>
r
o
0

F a c t o r y is L o c a t e d a t

80 F O U R T H A V E .

NEW Y O R K , N. V .

When writing, mention this paper.

AGENTS EARN S>75 00 A WEEK
Selling uiir Enlarged Photo Me­
dallions, Photo Cuff Button
photo Lockets, Photo Watcl
Charms, Photo Breast Pins,
Photo Clocks aiu

Agcnls and Dealer;
Co.. 97 South St..

•opy from
a n y Photograph
and Return Your
Original Photo.
Ageti s" Enlargeti
S a m p l e s *25c.
Negro
B o o k s . Pictures and Pos
Cards.
Proiupi
s h i p i cnts. mm
Bethel Art
Wanted.
Free
Catalog.
Jamaica,

N . Y.

SEND NO MONEY

Write quick for this amazing sock bargain.
Only limited lot. Men's fine quality black or
gray wool socks. Full seamless, double sole,
toe and heel. Guaranteed wear-proof.

6

PAIR OF GUARANTEED <
$1.00 W O O L SOCKS «
Guaranteed Six Months

SendNoMoney!

SEND NO MONEY— write quick.
Socks sent delivery charges paid.
Pay$3on arrival, nomore. Money back
not more than pleased. Give size, color,
BERNARD, HEWITT 8 CO.

Dept. X 044

T w o wonderful $4.00 shirts for only $5.25.
&
fwlf^r
™ $2.75. Everybody wearing these semidress Gray Flannel Shirts for business, work and sport.
lea

Chicago

$

Agents 8 5 Weekly
Get a Robinson Folding Bath Tub FREE
Big sellor. Cost little, no plumbing. Weight
16 p o u n d s , foIdsJntoHmall roll. Kull lenirth b a t h s ,
fur b e t t e r than tin tuba. G u a r a n t e e d 10 y e a r s . $16b>
J20 a day oasily m a d e . W r i t e quick f"i>rnpociul o f f e r .
Robinson Cabinet Mfg. Co.,
15 F a c t o r i e s D l d g . , T o l e d o , O

Cadillac Broadcloth Flannel Shirts
Two $4.00 Shirts for Only $5.25
K,?nl°w% " " " " f y Cadillac Brnndolnth Gray Flannel,
n ,,,.V,L ?^SV?!
i. ' "
P"''ket. '»oed sleeve« mid
l™, SSfsK"i? S"., " < " « F " > n t Stylo.
K ™ * ' ' 1 1 ? thru-ont. Snftturndown collar with an teen
'hStalnSSSSS?;. . T „ S i
?, ™nk.
Try to mntch these
e

Bht

)ne

t tcms

C

h

,0

BMrta i n any s t o r e a t $4.00.

u

t

r l ? e

E

x

,

,gn,y

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a

u

c

Y e t w o offer y o u t w o for only $5.25.

Send No Monev
° *•*•»• SMrt. > n b «
«t
$6 ^5 on nrriiml n „ .
n
e " . trane.portaii..n p r e p a i d . P a y only
withi the 2 2
"T • ?!" i"' . ° ™ « ' f n o t moVo than p l e a s e d
with tho w o n d e r f u l v a l u e . B o auro t o n-ivo n e c k - b a n d s i z e .
BERNARD-HEWITT S CO9.0 0 w . Van B u r s a S t . . CHICAGO
W r i l
o n

ncy b

WANTED

F

h

Agents for T H E CRISIS, Dignified Work
70 Fifth Avenue, New York
Mention T h e C r i s i s .

k

a t

THE

CRISIS

95

Patti's XttiaS Suggestions
Send

$2.50 a n d p o s t a g e f o r

A PERFECTLY
Or

MARVELOUS SKIN TOILETTES

$2.25 f o r P a t t i ' s

Columbia

Bleaching, Vanishing and Cold Cream.
68 cents each.

Record

Also "La Traviata" Powder,

"Patti's Special" Perfume, $1.25

S e n d 10c postage for m a i l i n g o n e a r t i c l e .

an ounce.

2c each a d d i t i o n a l .

$5.00 f o r 6 T o i l e t t e s a n d P a t t i ' s B e a u t y S e c r e t s
BIG

MONEY FOR AGENTS

W R I T E QUICK ! !

Send All Money Orders to
A. A. BROWN, Manager,
Phone Kenwood 9538

Send No Money
Snap this bargain up right now before it is t o o
late. Only limited quantity. Amazing underwear
bargain. Greatest offer ever made. Two Guar­
anteed $ 4 Each, W o o l Unlonsuits, $ 5 . 7 5 .
S a v e big: money on your underwear. Send
postcard o r letter today — this very minute, for
these2 beautiful perfect fitting heavy weight gray
elasticribunionsuits. Full cut. Seams reinforced
and overcast. S e n d No Money—pay only $5.75
o n arrival, n o more; w e pay delivery charges.

We Guarantee *°

r e f u n d

v o u r

BEAUTY

W

EMPORIUM

HIGH GRADE MICHIGAN FARM

FOR SALE
Contains 160 acres, 2 good houses, large
barn, other outhuildings, and located on
line road,

right

at

railroad

the famous fruit belt.
Orchardvillc.

pasture and timber.
bors.

station, in

Only 1 mile from

80 acres cleared, balance
Good colored neigh­

This is a real bargain at $8,500.

Worth

$12,000.

First

long time on balance.

W M M I M M » » V
money if you can
match these 2 wonderful wool unionsuits for
$8.00. Order this amazing bargain this minute
before it is t o o late. Just give name, address
and breast measure.
,

PATTI

4723 S t . L a w r e n c e A v e . , Apt 3, C H I C A G O , I L L .

payment $4,000,
To see this farm

is to want it.
Send f o r particulars.
Other good farms also.
Small o r large.
Tell us what vou want. Ad­
dress P A U L P. A R E N S O N , 10 S. La Salle
St., Chicago, 111.

900 W . Van
Buren, Chicago
Dept.
V 044
BERNARD-HEWITT
& COMPANY
SPEND

YOUR

VACATION A T

The moat wonderfully Ideal spot where young and
old cast aside for the time all the cares and worries
of their strenuous, nerve-racking routine lives and
romp and play once more as children and enjoy to the
full nature In all her wondrous glory. The waters of
the lake and surrounding trout streams are fairly
teeming with game fish of the best varieties.

T h i s
illustration
shows Parten front
Half Wig. Price $6.75

Natural Hair Wigs

This Uuutrat'o
shows " A " wig
Price SI2.50.

Direct from the Manufacturer

Made according to your measurement,
either

wavy

or

crimpy

hair.

Can be

combed and dressed, and cannot be de­
tected

from

hair.

I

a person's

also

make

own

head of

Do you enjoy bathing, boating, Ashing, hunting T
Do you enjoy roaming through the woods picking
wild flowers and wild berries T
Do you want a place to go wbere you can build up
your health, vitality, energy and business efficiency?
Do yoj enjoy mingling with the active, thinking,
/
progressive people of the day—people who do things?
*
Do you believe In progress and do you want to /
have a part in one of the most progressive move- *
merit* of the time? Surely 1
y
Then you will be Interested In. and want to J*
own a lot of your own In Beautiful Idlewlld, jf
Michigan. If you act at once you can se- ­
cure a beautiful lot for only 135.tt each:
/
$6.00 cash; $1.00 per week. When your
payments are completed the lot will bt
/
transferred to you by an absolute
'
warranty deed with abstract showJ
>
Inn clear title.
9

Transformations,

Switches, Puffs, and other articles.

Good

live

agents
Large assortment of hair nets, pincers
and hairdressers' supplies.

Write fnr free catalog.
ALEX

MARKS

energetic
wanted

Idle wild Resort
Company
1110

Hartford

Bldg

So. Dearborn Si.

662-C 8th Ave., at 42d St., New York, N. Y.

Chicag., D.

Mention T H E CRISIS.

,
/ >

tf

/

THE

96

CRISIS

NATIONAL CAPITAL
Combined with

ADVERTISER

CODE O F ETIQUETTE

SHORT STORIES FOR COLORED PEOPLE
ETIQUETTE
PART i
A Book absolutely in a class by itself.
Interesting,
instructive, handsomely illustrated. Wonderful pic­
tures of Washington's prominent colored Society
leaders on the street; at the Theatre; at Church;
in the H o m e ; at Receptions, Balls. Parties, W e d ­
dings, Dinners, & c , &c. T h e illustrations are so
perfect and natural that the well bred, correctly
clothed men and women almost speak to you.
Learn how to dress and conduct yourself on any
and all occasions; correct dress for men and
w o m e n ; suggestions in colors and materials for the
ladies; hints as to footwear, hats, appropriate com­
binations, & c , for both sexes.
What to serve your guests at breakfast, lunch o r
dinner.
How to converse intelligently; h o w to k n o w when
to talk and when to remain silent; h o w to make
friends and gain popularity.
A book that will help the most prominent member
of society or the most humble.

STORIES
PART 2
A wonderful collection of Short Sto­
ries for Young and Old. Stories that
will hold your attention from start to
finish.
By the most famous colored
writer of Short Stories in America.
Stories of Adventure
Stories of Bravery
Stories of School Days

Stories of Pluck
Stories of Success
Stories of Great Men

Stories for Father, Mother or the Chil­
dren. Funny Stories; Stories that will
bring the tears to your eyes; Stories
once started must be finished before
laying aside the book. Handsomely il­
that seem to live
lustrated—pictures
throughout the story.

Illustrating Table Manners

A Book you will want
Must have in your home
A most excellent Christmas Gift
Over fifty pages of pleasing pictures taken
from best photographs. A B I G B O O K ,
containing over 400 pages. The people
are much pleased with this new publica­
tion and are sending thousands of orders
to us. Order today. W e send by insured
parcel post; return your money if not
perfectly satisfied.
Price O N L Y $2.50.
Write todav.

AUSTIN

JENKINS
Mention

Agents Wanted
W e are looking for 1000 hustlers, men
and women. Our offer will pay vou posi­
tively $4 to $9 per day. One agent made
$21
the first day.
Such an oppor­
tunity comes but once in a lifetime.
A G E N T S ' S A M P L E showing specimen
pages and the pictures and covers of book,
will be mailed to you for 25 cents. It
represents exactly the complete book.
Send 25 cents for agents' outfit to-dav.

CO.

T H E CRISIS.

N o . 523 9 t h S T R E E T ,
W A S H I N G T O N , D . C.

Let us send you a suit

Made to your measure, payable after
received, with the clear understanding that if
the fit is not perfect, or if you are not satisfied
in every way; if you are not convinced that
you have received a fine, high-grade, stylish,
splendid-fitting tailored suit made to your
measure and have saved at least $15.00 to
$20.00, you are not under the slightest
obligation to keep it. Don't hesitate or
feel timid, simply send the suit back, no
cost to you. You are not out one penny.
Any money you may have paid us
is refunded at once.
S E N D N O M O N E Y — just your
name. and address for F R E E
samples and latest styles, beautiful
NEW samplebook all sent F R E E
— if you answer now.

All Wool Suits $25.00
S A M P L E S FREE
Any man, young or old, interested
in saving money, who wants to
dress well and not feel extravagant, is invited to answer at once and get our free
book of cloth samples and latest fashions, with everything explained. Simply mail
the coupon, or write letter or postal today, just say, "Send me your samples" and
get our whole proposition by return mail. Agents write too, we have a big NEW
agency deal for you. Try it, costs you nothing—just a stamp, get the F R E E
S A M P L E S and low prices anyway. Learn something important about dressing
well and saving money. Write today.

KNICKERBOCKER TAILORING CO.* Dept. 1083. CHICAGO, ILL.
-TEAR OUT HERE—MAIL TODAY­

FREE SAMPLE BOOK COUPON
Knickerbocker Tailoring Company,
D e p t . 1 0 S 3 . C h i c a g o . 111.

Gentlemen: Please send me your complete big book of Samples & Styles showing your all-wool
suits as low as $25.00, and Agents big new money-making deal. Everything free and postpaid.
Name
Address

ANNOUNCING A NEW POLICY

For
Hair
and
Skin

Nile
Queen
Prepara­
tions
"The Kashmir

Way"

AN UNUSUAL OPPORTUNITY
F o r wide-awake people in every c o m m u n i t y to b e c o m e
shareholders in a successful business.
THE KASHMIR
C H E M I C A L C O . has developed one of the m o s t p r o g r e s s i v e
manufacturing enterprises of its kind among- the R a c e and
offers to investors an opportunity to b e c o m e a part of a g o i n g
g r o w i n g concern, w h o s e conservative management, high class
products and widespread advertising have stamped it a leader
in its line.
W e offer to share the b i g profits made yearly with in­
vestors because w e want to expand our business into every
town and city and to have there interested friends w h o will
find it profitable to b o o s t our preparations, take an interest
in our affairs and help their m o n e y to double itself.
If y o u
want to be a part of a live-wire, m o n e y - m a k i n g organization.
"Write today for full information to N i l e Queen C o r p o r a ­
tion, care of

KASHMIR
3423 I N D I A N A A V E .

CHEMICAL

CO.

CHICAGO,

ILL.

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