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The Crisis

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The CRISIS
Vol. 21—No. 3

J A N U A R Y , 1921

ONE DOLLAR AND A H A L F A YEAR

Whole N o . 123

FIFTEEN

CENTS A COPY

A Selected List of Books
Dealing with the Negro

Problem

These prices d o n o t i n c l u d e postage.

HAZEL.
THE

Postage e x t r a .

( M a r y White Ovington)

$1.00

H E A R T OF A W O M A N A N D O T H E R P O E M S .

( G e o r g i a Douglas

Johnson)

1.25

NORRIS W R I G H T C U N E Y .
THE

( M a u d Cuney H a r e )

L I F E A N D T I M E S OF B O O K E R T. W A S H I N G T O N .

A N A R R A T I V E OF T H E NEGRO.
SOULS OF B L A C K F O L K .

( L e i l a A m o s Pendleton)

C U R S E OF R A C E P R E J U D I C E .

HISTORY
THE

OF T H E NEGRO.

1.50
1.50

( C a r t e r G . Woodson)

. . . .

1.10

(James F . M o r t o n )

25

(B. G. Brawley)

NEGRO M I G R A N T I N PITTSBURGH.

GRANNY

1.50

(W. E . B . DuBois)

A C E N T U R Y OF N E G R O M I G R A T I O N .
THE

1.50
(B. F . Riley)

M A U M E E AND OTHER

2.00

(Abraham Epstein) . . .

P L A Y S FOR A NEGRO

.50

THEATRE.

(Ridgely Torrence)
H A L F A M A N . ( M a r y White Ovington)
AFTERMATH

OF SLAVERY.

M Y LIFE ANDWORK.
THE

(William Sinclair)

1.50

2.00

HAITIAN REVOLUTION.

1.75

(J. W . Cromwell)

PRINCE H A L L A N D H I S FOLLOWERS.

2.00

(George W . C r a w f o r d ) . .

1.00

( T . G. Steward)

NEGRO C U L T U R E I N W E S T A F R I C A .
THE

( B . G. Brawley)

(W. E . B . D U Bois)

NEGRO I N A M E R I C A N HISTORY.

T H E NEGRO.

1.50

( M a r y W h i t e Ovington)

JOHN BROWN.

THE

1.50

(Bishop Alexander Walters)

NEGRO I N LITERATURE A N D A R T .

T H E SHADOW.

1.75
1.20

1.50

(George W . E l l i s )

3.00

(W. E . B . D U Bois)

EDUCATION

OF T H E NEGRO

90
PRIOR

TO 1861.

(Carter G.

Woodson)
THE

2.00

NEGRO F A C E S A M E R I C A .

DARKWATER.

(Herbert J . Seligmann)

(W. E . B . DuBois)

1.75

;2.00

P O E M S OF P A U L L A U R E N C E D U N B A R

2.50

AFRO-AMERICAN FOLKSONGS.

2.00

B O O K E R T. W A S H I N G T O N .
Beecher Stowe)

Address:

( H . E . Krehbiel)

(Emmett

T H E CRISIS,

J . Scott

and L y m a n
2.00

: : 70 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y.

THE
A

R E C O R D

CRISIS
OF

T H E

D A R K E R

R A C E S

PUBLISHED M O N T H L Y A N D C O P Y R I G H T E D B Y T H E N A T I O N A L ASSOCIATION
FOB T H E
A D V A N C E M E N T O F C O L O R E D P E O P L E , A T 70 F I F T H A V E N U E . N E W Y O R K - C I T Y .
COW­
D U C T E D B Y W . E . B U B G H A R D T D U BOIS; JESSIE R E D M O N F A U S E T . L I T E R A R Y
EDITOR;
AUGUSTUS G R A N V I L L E DILL, BUSINESS MANAGER.

Vol. 21-No. 3

J A N U A R Y . 1921

W h o l e N o . 123

PICTURES

Page

COVER. "AFRICA."
From the Group on the New York Custom House
COLORED TEACHERS OF CAPE COLONY, SOUTH AFRICA
NEGRO LEGISLATORS

105
120-1

ARTICLES
E L E C T I O N D A Y IN F L O R I D A .
Walter F. White
M A R G A R E T G A R N E R . A True Romance. Lillie Buffurm Chace Wyman. . .
M A R C U S G A R V E Y . W . E . B. DuBois

106
110
112

DEPARTMENTS
OPINION
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR T H E A D V A N C E M E N T
PEOPLE
MEN OF T H E M O N T H
T H E LOOKING GLASS
THE OUTER POCKET
T H E HORIZON

THE FEBRUARY
D.

T h e February C R I S I S will contain a splendid
C ,
a n d our annual s u m m a r y of lynchings.
The C R I S I S

C a l e n d a r o f N e g r o A u t h o r s i * the

101
OF

COLORED
116
120-1
122
126
127

CRISIS

article on

the

business

revival

in

Washington

most i n s p i r i n g of o u r whole series.

Now

ready.

FIFTEEN CENTS A COPY; ONE DOLLAR AND A HALF A YEAR
FOREIGN

the

R E N E W A L S :
s u b s c r i p t i o n is

SUBSCRIPTIONS

TWENTY-FIVE

CENTS

E X T R A

T h e d a t e o f e x p i r a t i o n of e a c h s u b s c r i p t i o n i s p r i n t e d o n
d u e , a b l u e r e n e w a l b l a n k is e n c l o s e d .

C H A N G E O F A D D R E S S : T h e address of a subscriber
In o r d e r i n g a c h a n g e o f a d d r e s s , b o t h the o l d a n d the n e w
n o t i c e is r e q u i r e d .
M A N U S C R I P T S and
p a n i e d by r e t u r n postage.

2,

1910,

at

wrapper.

When

c a n be c h a n g e d as o f t e n as d e s i r e d .
a d d r e s s m u s t be g i v e n . T w o w e e k s '

d r a w i n g s relating to colored people are desired.
I f f o u n d u n a v a i l a b l e t h e y w i l l be r e t u r n e d .

E n t e r e d as second c l a s s m a t t e r N o v e m b e r
Y o r k , u n d e r the A c t of M a r c h 3, 1879.

the

the

post

office

They
at

must
New

be
York,

accom­
New

98

THE

National

CRISIS

ADVERTISER

Training

School

DURHAM, NORTH CAROLINA

A School for the Training of Colored Young
Men and Women for Service
T h o u g h it is young in history, the Institution feels a just pride in the work thus
far accomplished, for its graduates are already filling many responsible positions,
thus demonstrating the aim of the school to train men and women for useful
citizenship.

DEPARTMENTS ALREADY ESTABLISHED
The
The
The
The

Grammar School
Academy
School of A r t s and
Sciences
Department of M a s k
T h e Department

T h e Teacher Training Department
T h e Divinity School
The Commercial Department
T h e Department of H o m e E c o n o m i c !
of Social Service

T E R M OPENED S E P T E M B E R 21, 1920
F o r farther information and Catalog, address

President

James

E. Shepard,

Durham,

North Carolina

Lincoln University

STATE OF NEW JERSEY

Ranked in Class 1

MANUAL TRAINING and
INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL

a m o n g c o l l e g e s for c o l o r e d students
by the A m e r i c a n M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n

FOR

COLORED

YOUTH

Address:

BORDENTOWN, N. J.
A high institution for the training of
colored youth. Excellent equipment,
thorough instruction, wholesome sur­
roundings. Academic training for all
students.
Courses in carpentry, agriculture and
trades for boys, including auto re­
pairing.
Courses in domestic science and do­
mestic art for girls.
A new trades building, thoroughly
equipped.
New girls' dormitory thoroughly and
modernly equipped.
Terms reasonable.
Fall term opened September, 1920.
F o r information address
W. R. V A L E N T I N E ,

College a n d Theological S e m i n a r y
opened Sept. 21, 1920

Principal

Mention

President, J o h n B . Rendall, D . D .
Lincoln University,
Chester County, Pa.

The Cheyney T r a i n i n g School
for Teachers
C h e y n e y , Pa.
M a d e i n 1920 a n a c c r e d i t e d S t a t e N o r m a l
School,
offering i n a d d i t i o n to the r e g u l a r N o r m a l
course
of two years professional three year courses i n H o m e
Economics and Manual Training.
A diploma
from
a n y o f t h e s e c o u r s e s m a k e s a g r a d u a t e e l i g i b l e to t e a c h
i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s o f P e n n s y l v a n i a .
A three-year
H i g h S c h o o l C o u r s e is offered to a l l w h o h a v e c o m ­
pleted the e i g h t h g r a m m a r g r a d e .
Board

For

and

Tuition

LESLIE

THE

$153.00

1st Semester. September 13, 1920
2 n d Semester, J a n u a r y 26, 1921
further
f^atticulars
and catalog,
write—

CRISIS.

FINCKNEY HILL,
C H E Y N E Y . PA.

Principal,

99

T H E CRISIS A D V E R T I S E R

MOREHOUSE
Atlanta University
Is beautifully located i n the City o f A t l a n t a ,
G a . T h e courses o f study include H i g h School,
N o r m a l School a n d College. Special emphasis
is l a i d u p o n the t r a i n i n g of teachers.
Students
come f r o m a l l parts o f the S o u t h .
Graduates
h a v e a fine r e c o r d f o r s u c c e s s f u l w o r k .
F o r further i n f o r m a t i o n address

President E d w a r d T . Ware
Atlanta. G a .

KNOXVILLE COLLEGE

COLLEGE

( F o r m e r l y A t l a n t a Baptist College)
A T L A N T A , GA.
College, Academy, Divinity School
A n institution famous within recent years
for its emphasis on all sides of manly develop­
ment—the only institution i n the far South
devoted solely to the education of Negro
young men.
Graduates given high ranking by greatest
northern universities. Debating, Y . M . C . A . ,
athletics, a l l live features.
For i n f o r m a t i o n , address
J O H N H O P E , President.

Beautiful Situation.
Healthful Location.
Beat M o r a l and Spiritual Environment.
Splendid Intellectual Atmosphere.
Noted for Honest and Thorough Work.

FISK

UNIVERSITY

I n s t i t u t i o n offers f u l l courses i n t h e fol­
lowing departments: College, Normal,
High
School, G r a m m a r S c h o o l , D o m e s t i c Science,
Nurse T r a i n i n g
and Industrial.

NASHVILLE, TENN.
Founded 1866

Good w a t e r , s t e a m h e a t , e l e c t r i c l i g h t s ,
natural drainage, splendid dormitories. E x ­
penses v e r y r e a s o n a b l e .

Thorough Literary, Scientific, Educational,
Musical and Social Science Courses. Pioneer
in Negro music. Special study in Negro life.
Ideal and sanitary buildings and grounds.
Well-equipped Science building.
Christian home life.
H i g h standard of independent manhood and
womanhood. F o r literature, etc., write
F A Y E T T E A V E R Y M c K E N Z I E , President

B e g a n September 15, 1920.
For

catalog-

a n d other

Information

address

PRESIDENT J , K E L L Y GIFFEN
Knoxville. T e n n .

1870 CLARK UNIVERSITY 1920
ATLANTA.

GEORGIA

Over 100 acres of beautiful campus.
Twelve buildings
with new $100,000 administration building with modem
Strong facul­
chapel a n d gymnasium under construction.
ty—Religious atmosphere—Athletics—Co-educational. A d ­
mission only by application.
R E A R R A N G E D COURSES OF STUDY
Junior High School—7th a n d 8th Grades and 1st and
2nd Tears' H i g h School Courses, with Certificate.
Junior College—3rd a n d 4th Year H i g h School with
Freshman a n d Sophomore years of College work, with
Diploma.
College—Four years above H i g h School, or two years
above Junior College Course with degree of A . B .
Domestic Science— Commerce— Normal—
P r e - m e d i c a l Course
51st year of nine months opened September 22. 19U0
$16.00 per month pays tuition, board, room and laundry.
HARRY
ANDREWS
KING,
President

The

Florida

Agricultural

BIDDLE

UNIVERSITY

CHARLOTTE, N. C.
B i d d l e University operated under the auspices of
the Northern F - lbyteriao Church, baa four Depart­
menu—High School. Art* and Sciences Theological
The come let ion « f s Grammar School
and Industrial.
course is the require men* for entrance u» the first rear
of the High School
The School of A r m and Sciences offers two courses
of study, the Classical and the Scientific- i n the
scientific. German u substituted for Greek or Latin.
The entrance requirement for the Freshman Class Is
16 units of High School work.
The Theological Department offers two courses, each
consisting of three years
The first is purely English.
Greek and Hebrew are taught In the others.
A l l students i n the High School Dept. are required
u> take trades i n the Industrial Dept.
Fer further Information, address
President H . L. McCrerey.
Chsrlotts, N. C.

and Mechanical College
Offers courses leading to certificates,
diplomas and degrees.
Nathan B . Young,

President

Tallahassee, Florida

S T A T E U N I V E R S I T Y , Louisville, K y .
F o u n d e d 1879.
The only Institution i n the State having for Its objen
Collegiate. M i n i s t e r i a l , M e d i c a l , and Legal training for C o l ­
ored citizen* i n Kentucky.
Special training In Insurance, Social Service, Nursing and
Hospital Work.
N o r m a l . Commercial, Mode, Domestic Science, Miss 1 on ary
training clam
Evening classes,
correspondence course.
Degrees
offered.

President C . H . Parriah

Morris Brown University
Atlanta, G a .

Co-Educational
The
largest institution o f learning i n the South
o w n e d a n d c o n t r o l l e d b y Negroes. F a c u l t y o f special­
i s t s , t r a i n e d i n s o m e o f t h e best u n i v e r s i t i e s i n t h e
N o r t h and i n the South.
N o t e d f o r h i g h s t a n d a r d of
scholarship;
industrial emphasis a n d positive Chris­
tian
influence.
Well
equipped
dormitories;
sane
athletics
under faculty supervision.
Expenses
rea­
sonable.
Location central a n d healthful.
Departments:
Theology, College, H i g h School, Nor­
mal, Commercial, Musical, Domestic Science, Sewing,
Printing and Tailoring.
F i r s t Semester began September, 1920.
F o r further information address

J O H N H . L E W I S , President
BISHOP J . S. F L I P P E R , Chairman T r u . t e * Board

M e n t i o n THE CRISIS

THE

100

CRISIS A D V E R T I S E R

Talladega

Wiley University
Marshall,

Texas

Founded in 1867 for the Education of
Negro Leaders

Recognized as a college of first class by
Texas, L o u i s i a n a , A r k a n s a s and O k l a ­
homa State Boards of Education. H a r ­
vard, Boston U n i v e r s i t y . U n i v e r s i t y of
Illinois and U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago repre­
sented or. its faculty.
One
hundred
twenty-seven, in College Department, ses­
sion 1919-1920.
Several new buildings,
steam heated and electric lighted.
M.

College

Talladega, A l a b a m a

Beautiful and Healthful L o c a t i o n .
L i t e r a r y , Scientific, E d u c a t i o n a l , So­
cial
Service.
Theological,
Musical,
Business
Administration.
Journalism,
Nurse T r a i n i n g Courses.
H i g h S t a n d a r d s of C h r i s t i a n M a n ­
h o o d and W o m a n h o o d .
For

further i n f o r m a t i o n address
F . A . S U M N E R , President

W . D O G A N , President

"JUST T H E P L A C E FOR YOUR GIRL"
Daytona Normal and Industrial Institute for Negro Girls, Daytona. F l a .
B e a u t i f u l l o c a t i o n , i d e a l h o m e life, fine, m o d e r n e q u i p m e n t .
Courses include Kindergarten, Primary, Grammar, High, N o r m a l , Vocational.
N u r s e T r a i n i n g at M c L e o d H o s p i t a l a s p e c i a l t y .
Terms reasonable.
S e n d for Catalog.

MARY

McLEOD BETHUNE,

-

H A L E INFIRMARY A N D N U R S E TRAINING
S C H O O L , 325 Lake Street, Montgomery, Ala.

-

Principal

COLEMAN

O f f e r s to H i g h S c h o o l g r a d u a t e s a n d y o u n g
women of higher education
and good
moral
c h a r a c t e r , b e t w e e n the a g e s o f 18 a n d 3 5 , a
three y e a r s ' c o u r s e i n the p r o f e s s i o n of n u r s ­
ing.
F o r further
information
a p p l y to
the
Superintendent enclosing a stamp.

COLLEGE

GIBSLAND, L A .
Supported by B a p t i s t State W o m a n ' * H o m e
M i s s i o n S o c i e t y of C h i c a g o a n d B o s t o n a n d
A.
B . E . S o c i e t y of N e w
York.
Students
from
six
different
states.
Graduates
ex­
e m p t e d on first g r a d e b y L o u i s i a n a , A r k a n s a s
and
Oklahoma.

O.

L. C O L E M A N ,

President

Both of Us Lose, Young Man
ST.
If you fail to study the supe­
rior advantages N o r t h Carolina
offers you through The Agri­
cultural and Technical College
for securing good, practical and
technical training.

The Lincoln Hospital and Home
TRAINING SCHOOL FOR NURSES
in the city of New York

Four Strong Departments:
Agricultural
Mechanical

offers to young colored women a three
years' course of instruction in nursing.
Capacity of hospital—420 beds.
Post Graduate Course of six months to
graduates of accredited schools.
For information
apply to:

Academic
Teacher-Training

Night School for those who
desire to work in the day.

Superintendent of Nurses

L i n c o l n Hospital and H o m e
New Y o r k , N . Y .

Fall Term began September 1,1920
Address:

JAS.

MARY'S SCHOOL

An
E p i s c o p a l b o a r d i n g s c h o o l f o r g i r l s , u n d e r the
d i r e c t i o n of the s i s t e r s of St. M a r y . A d d r e s s : T H E
SISTER-IN-CHARGE,
6138
Germantown
Avenue,
Philadelphia,
Pa.

Atlanta University

B . D U D L E Y , President
A . & T . College
Greensboro, N . C .

Studies of the Negro Problems
20 M o n o g r a p h !

Sold Separately
Address

ATLANTA

UNIVERSITY

ATLANTA UNIVERSITY
Mention

THE

CRISIS.

11

CONFERENCE
ATLANTA

GA.

THE CRISIS
Vol. 21.

No. 3

J A N U A R Y , 1921

Whole No. 123

Opinion of W. E. B. DuBois

It's better to be Right than

White—

This is a wise word. D u r i n g the
last five years A m e r i c a n Negroes
THE Second Pan-African
have handled more money than in the
Conference
under
the
Presidency preceding twenty years. W i t h it they
of Blaise Diagne, Deputy have bought millions of dollars' w o r t h
of property and invested other m i l ­
from Senegal to the
Parliament of France and Commissioner of lions in business, insurance and edu­
But for every dollar thus
A f r i c a n F r e n c h Troops i n the late cation.
war, has been called by the executive wisely used, five dollars have been
committee through its secretary, W . foolishly wasted.
We are not of those who decry the
E . B . D u B o i s , to meet i n P a r i s , i n the
early fall of 1921. A l l Negro gov­ extravagance of the poor and see eco­
ernments and groups and all Negro nomic salvation in the luxury of the
Waste is waste whether i n
organizations interested in the peo­ rich.
ples of A f r i c a n descent w i l l be invited H a r l e m or on F i f t h Avenue or i n the
to participate.
Governments with poppy fields of Flanders, and the an­
colonies i n A f r i c a w i l l be invited to tidote for waste is not miserliness but
send official spokesmen. The N . A . wise expenditure.
Now, wise expenditure for Negroes
A . C. P . financed the first Congress
and w i l l underwrite the call for the today includes not simply good homes
second. Its official connection w i l l but good bank accounts. Money is
thereupon cease and the P a n - A f r i c a n r i s i n g i n value. A dollar saved to­
Congress w i l l , it is hoped, become days means much more than a dollar
thereafter a permanent, self-support­ tomorrow. We need to earn and con­
ing body. F u r t h e r information can trol capital. A l l poor folk need to
be had at the office of T H E C R I S I S , save and learn how to control capital.
f r o m which official invitations w i l l The capital which is today r u l i n g the
world is not the capital of the r i c h —
soon issue.
it is the capital of the middle class
and poor. The control of it is i n the
THRIFT
A T E A C H E R writes us from hands of the rich and that is the rea­
son they are r i c h . The control must
Texas:
through democratic methods grad­
" N o w t h a t prices are on the de­
c l i n e a n d t h e r e is a consequent
ually shift to the hands of masses as
r i s e i n the v a l u e o f money, i t oc­
masses are taught or teach them­
the
c u r s to me t h a t t h i s is an o p p o r t u n e time
selves the science of capitalistic pro­
to s t a r t a n a t i o n a l t h r i f t m o v e m e n t a m o n g
o u r people.
duction.
" S u c h a note s h o u l d be sounded by o u r
But the anger of the poor against
n e w s p a p e r s , m a g a z i n e s a n d p e r i o d i c a l s of
e v e r y k i n d . T h e p r e a c h e r should p r o c l a i m
those who control wealth must not, as
it f r o m the p u l p i t ; the t e a c h e r f r o m the
it so often does, become anger against
l e c t u r e p l a t f o r m . I t o u g h t to be the w a t c h
wealth. The world needs and must
w o r d o f e v e r y household.
" T o have s u c h a m o v e m e n t suggested by
have capital i f present culture is to
you i n T H E CRISIS, I t h i n k , w o u l d be t i m e l y
be
maintained. The Negro race needs
and f r u i t f u l . "
PAN-AFRICA

101

102

THE

and needs desperately larger and
larger amounts of capital for its
emancipation. W h i l e then we strive
to learn to control capital, we must
simultaneously strive to save it.
T h r i f t , saving, care and foresight
are the watchwords for black folk to­
day as never before. We are not go­
ing to be saved by high-powered
automobiles and sables but rather by
the canny savings balance, the wise
investment, and the wide surplus of
income over expense.
M u c h of what we save is thus put
into the control of our white enemies.
There are white banks i n Texas, i n
A t l a n t a and i n black H a r l e m that
w i t h millions of Negro money would
sooner lend to the devil than to a
Negro business enterprise. But the
race is not to the swift nor the battle
to the s t r o n g : our business enterprise
is r i s i n g and t h r i v i n g and it is a
democratic business and not an oli­
garchy of millionaires. W e are grad­
ually learning as a race to control
capital and therein lies salvation for
us and the Poor. B u t to control capi­
tal there must be capital to c o n t r o l :
Save then, brothers,—save and i n ­
vest. Remember Poor R i c h a r d , how
he s a i d :
"A penny saved is a penny earned."
"Waste not, want
not."
"Plough
deep while sluggards
sleep."
"Remember
that time is money."
"A man may, if he knows not how to
save as he gets, keep his nose to the grind­
stone."
"It is hard for an empty bag to stand
upright."
CHICAGO

WE would advise our Chicago
friends to watch n a r r o w l y
the work and forthcoming
report of the Inter-racial
Commission appointed by the
Governor of Illinois after the late riot.
The Commission consists of colored
men who apparently have a much too
complacent trust i n their white
friends; of white men who are too
busy to k n o w ; and of enemies of the
N e g r o race who under the guise of

CRISIS

i m p a r t i a l i t y and good w i l l are push­
ing insidiously but u n s w e r v i n g l y a
program of r a c i a l segregation. They
have, for instance, sent a "question­
n a i r e " to prominent colored men, con­
sisting of 15 questions, w h i c h w i t h all
their surface frankness and inno­
cence seek to betray black folk by
means of the logical dilemma of "seg­
regation" and " r a c i a l s o l i d a r i t y " . B y
subtle suggestion these queries s a y : If
you believe i n colored churches, why
not in colored ghettos ? Does not
Negro advancement increase anti-Negro
hatred? A r e not Negroes prejudiced
against whites? A r e not the mis­
takes of N e g r o leaders manifest? A n d
so on.
Indeed i f a professed enemy of
black folk and t h e i r progress had set
out to start a controversy so as to d i ­
vide the Negroes and their friends i n
counsel and t h r o w the whole burden
of such nasty outbreaks of race hate
as the E a s t St. Louis, W a s h i n g t o n and
Chicago riots upon them, he would
have framed just such a questionnaire
as has been sent out by this
Commission.
MOUNT HERMON

WE have just learned from a
curious source of the
excellent educational
opportunities of American Negroes
and the r i c h endowments of Negro
colleges. O u r i n f o r m a n t is none other
than the distinguished evangelist's
son, W i l l i a m R . Moody, President of
M t . H e r m o n School at E a s t N o r t h field, Mass. W r i t e s M r . Moody J u l y
30, 1920, (the italics are ours) :
" Y o u r s o f the 2 8 t h j u s t a t h a n d i n respect
to the son of the late B i s h o p A l e x a n d e r
W a l t e r s . W h i l e we a l w a y s h a v e a f e w col­
ored boys i n the school at M o u n t H e r m o n ,
we do not encourage
their m a k i n g applica­
t i o n . T h e r e are, as y o u k n o w , many
richly
endowed a n d w e l l e q u i p p e d schools f o r the
colored race t h r o u g h o u t the S o u t h . R a c i a l
needs h a v e been a s t u d y i n these schools,
and the c u r r i c u l u m is especially
adapted
to
these needs. I t h a r d l y seems to us a d v i s ­
able f o r a y o u n g p e r s o n to come to a school
l i k e M o u n t H e r m o n or N o r t h f i e l d w h e r e the
expense to us m u s t of necessity be more
t h a n i t is i n a s o u t h e r n school, a n d w h e r e

OPINION
the acceptance of a colored boy w o u l d mean
the e x c l u s i o n o f some w h i t e boy f o r w h o m
no adequate p r o v i s i o n is made elsewhere.
O f course there are exceptions. B u t w i t h
F i s k and A t l a n t a d o i n g a d m i r a b l e w o r k in
academic w o r k , w h i l e H a m p t o n , Tuskegee
and C a l h o u n are doing" good w o r k i n ele­
m e n t a r y education a n d i n d u s t r i a l courses,
col­
we do not think we ought to encourage
ored boys to come to Mount Herman,
when
it means t h a t some w h i t e boy w h o is now
a p p l y i n g w o u l d have to be refused, w h o
could n e t go to these schools w h i c h have
been so m u n i f i c e n t l y p r o v i d e d . "

This is true philanthropy and our
hearts bleed at the spectacle of the
poor white boy begging a chance
while the idle and impudent Negro
lads toast their heels i n the munifi­
cence and wealth of F i s k , Hampton
and A t l a n t a . T r u t h , however, com­
pels us to append these figures:
Per capita expenditure for
cation :
Per year i n South Carolina
F o r white education
A v e r a g e a n n u a l s a l a r i e s of
Alabama:
Colored teachers
W h i t e teachers
Colored p u b l i c h i g h schools
South
W h i t e p u b l i c h i g h schools
South

N e g r o edu­
$1.44
10.00
teachers i n

in
in

$158.73
355.53
the
64
the
3,025

A n d finally as to Negro colleges
there are i n all 33 schools of which
only 3 rank as "colleges", 15 as "col­
leges and h i g h schools" and the rest
as g i v i n g some college subjects. Of
these only 10 have total incomes of
over $20,000 a year as against one
hundred and ten millions of annual
income to white colleges. A l a s ! the
poor white boy!
VOTES FOR NEGROES

THE astonishing t h i n g about the
Bourbon South is its intellec­
tual bankruptcy when it comes
to the Negro. It continually
assumes that the Negro is a fool.
Some Negroes are fools but the pro­
portion among them is steadily
decreasing, while that among the
Bourbons seems to increase. When
the average white Southerner faces
the problem of racial contact he has

103

absolutely nothing to offer except
what he offered in 1861—namely:
The W i l l of God.
Force and Bloodshed, and
" T h e best friend in the world to the
Negro is the southern white man—
the only one who truly loves h i m ! "
We quote from our ever-delightful
friend, the editor of the Macon, Ga.,
Telegraph.
The tragedy of the situation is that
this man believes what he says. He
knows absolutely just the "place" for
which God made " n i g g e r s " ; but to
support this sincere belief he spreads
falsehoods.
He says that the wo­
man suffrage party by its secret ma­
chinations "probably" caused
the
bloodshed i n the F l o r i d a elections! H e
threatens murder for black men who
want to vote and almost weeps over
the misguided Negroes who have left
the E m p i r e State of l y n c h i n g and
gone to Chicago.
There seems to be in this man's
mind absolutely no conception of the
tremendous, increasing, unswerving
development of the Negro. To h i m
all aspiration, unrest and complaints
of black folk, are conspiracies of
whites. F o r the blacks he has no
program, no vision, except that they
stay where they have always been,
g r o w i n g more content w i t h " J i m
C r o w " cars, lynching and disfran­
chisement.
It is inconceivable to the mentality
of this section of the white South that
such a program is absolutely
impossible. That if, in the end, the price
we must pay for aspiration to modern
manhood is death, and death i n the
most horrible form of public torture
and b u r n i n g like that in F l o r i d a — i f
to live we must die, then the South
w i l l have us to k i l l . A n y man who
does not prefer death to slavery is not
w o r t h freedom.
The enemy of those liberal-minded
white Southerners who t r u l y desire a
more decent South and a more human
program of Negro uplift w i l l not be
found i n the Negro radical nearly as

THE

104

much as i n the supporters of the
Macon Telegraph and their set. The
black man must vote. E v e r y South­
erner w i t h brains knows this. The
Negro is a w a i t i n g his enfranchise­
ment w i t h greater patience than the
South has any r i g h t to expect. B u t
he w i l l not w a i t forever. I f he sees
gathering signs of sanity—a w i l l i n g ­
ness to let the intelligent and t h r i f t y
vote, an honest effort to establish law
and order and overthrow the rule of
the mob, a desire to substitute honest
industrial conditions i n place of the
organized and entrenched theft of
black wealth upon w h i c h southern
industry is today based—such a pro­
gram, tardy and slow and inadequate
though it be, may count on the infi­
nite patience and long suffering of
Ethiopia.
But a plan of intransigentism built
on absolute faith i n the eternal stu­
pidity and cowardice of Negroes,
perpetual disfranchisement and the
threat of mob law to uphold i t — i s
there any man of intelligence and con­
science who dares i n the year of
Christ, 1921, to lay down such a pro­
gram for 12 million human beings
who are more intelligent than the B u l ­
garians, wealthier than the Russians,
physically stronger than the Italians,
and cleaner i n body and m i n d than the
whole peasantry of E u r o p e ?
POLITICAL REBIRTH AND T H E
OFFICE SEEKER

S L O W L Y but steadily and w i t h
unflinching determination the
A m e r i c a n Negro is r e t u r n i n g
to political power. In the last
presidential election, black folk put
13 members of their race into the
legislatures of the N o r t h e r n States;
they have dozens of representatives
in the city councils, not to mention
thousands in the civil service.
Congressional districts in Missouri,
Illinois, Pennsylvania and New York
w i l l put black men i n Congress before
1925.
It is time, therefore, for us to con­
sider seriously the use of our new and
g r o w i n g political power. W e must

CRISIS

realize that this country is not a
democracy; that it is an oligarchy
ruled by the R i c h and P o w e r f u l , and
that the r i g h t to vote is the beginning
and not the end of the dream of
t r a n s f e r r i n g to the masses of men the
power now held by the few. T h i s can
be done only by the study of modern
political and social problems by col­
ored voters, and above all by the dis­
card of the chronic colored office
seeker.
W h e n President-elect Harding
comes to power he w i l l be besieged by
black men who want to be Recorders
of Deeds, Registers of the Treasury,
Assistant Attorneys-General and
Fifteenth Auditors. Their attitude, and
too often the attitude of their en­
dorsers, w i l l be that "recognition" of
the Negro by these largely orna­
mental offices is the a i m and object of
the Negro vote. It is time we dis­
abused our o w n minds and the minds
of the whites that the object of our
voting is to procure bread and but­
ter for a few unemployed politicians
who have been vociferous d u r i n g the
campaign.
N o ! W e w a n t f r o m the Republican
P a r t y and from any other p a r t y that
deserves our votes, not offices but
deeds. W e sit absolutely unmoved by
the appointment of a few figure
heads at $2500 salaries, merely re­
m a r k i n g that i f such men used their
brains i n other directions they would
spurn these petty offices; we stand
determined to make some party, soon­
er or later, stop lynching by effectual
Federal l a w ; abolish "Jim
Crow"
cars i n inter-state traffic; enforce the
loth amendment by m a k i n g peonage
impossible; base representation i n
Congress on the actual vote cast;
make education universal and com­
p u l s o r y ; free Haiti f r o m the South
and the N a t i o n a l C i t y B a n k ; and put
an effective ballot i n the hands of
every man and woman i n the U n i t e d
States. T h i s is going to be the price
of the black vote. L e t no politician
seek to barter i t for less.

105

COLORED TEACHERS

OF C A P E COLONY, SOUTH

AFRICA

E L E C T I O N D A Y IN FLORIDA
WALTER F .

AN u n k n o w n n u m b e r of dead, m e n o f
p r o p e r t y a n d s t a n d i n g f o r c e d to leave
t h e i r homes a n d f a m i l i e s u n d e r t h r e a t of
d e a t h , t h o u s a n d s o f q u a l i f i e d v o t e r s de­
b a r r e d f r o m c a s t i n g t h e i r b a l l o t s — t h e s e con­
s t i t u t e a p o r t i o n of the r e s u l t s of the elec­
To
t i o n s o f 1920 i n the s t a t e of F l o r i d a .
t h a t l i s t m i g h t w e l l be added a n i n c r e a s e d
b i t t e r n e s s on the p a r t o f b o t h w h i t e a n d
colored people t o w a r d s each o t h e r a n d a n ­
o t h e r b l a c k m a r k entered i n the books of
colored people a g a i n s t the w h i t e s f o r w h a t
the f o r m e r h a d to suffer.
I t is n o t possible to w r i t e of r a c e r e l a ­
t i o n s i n the S o u t h t o d a y w i t h o u t g i v i n g due
p r o m i n e n c e to the r e v i v a l of t h a t s i n i s t e r
o r g a n i z a t i o n , the K u K l u x K l a n . T h e r e is
h a r d l y a t o w n o r c o m m u n i t y to be f o u n d
w h i c h does n o t h a v e its b r a n c h . C e r t a i n i t
is t h a t w h e r e v e r one goes i n the S o u t h one
h e a r s of the " K l u c k s " a n d w h a t t h a t order
is g o i n g to do to m a i n t a i n " w h i t e s u p r e m ­
acy".
C l o t h e d i n g r e a t secrecy a n d h i n t i n g
of d i r e t h i n g s to come, the p r e t e n s i o n s of
the noble " p r o t e c t o r s o f s o u t h e r n w o m a n ­
h o o d " w o u l d be l u d i c r o u s w e r e i t not f o r
the v i c i o u s deeds a l r e a d y p e r f o r m e d b y
b r a n c h e s i n some o f the s m a l l e r t o w n s a n d
r u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s . I f one looks at the K u
K l u x K l a n solely f r o m the v i e w p o i n t of the
l a r g e r cities o f the S o u t h l i k e J a c k s o n v i l l e ,
A t l a n t a a n d B i r m i n g h a m w h e r e the N e g r o
p o p u l a t i o n is c o n c e n t r a t e d i n c e r t a i n sec­
t i o n s , the efforts o f the K l a n a r e p a t h e t i c ­
a l l y a m u s i n g a n d a r e t r e a t e d as s u c h b y c o l ­
ored people.
F o r t y y e a r s ago w h e n the
o r i g i n a l K u K l u x d i d effective w o r k i n t e r ­
rorizing, murdering and pillaging the
Negroes of the South it was dealing with four
m i l l i o n r e c e n t l y e m a n c i p a t e d slaves w i t h a l l
o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o l l o w i n g i n the w a k e
o f t w o and a h a l f c e n t u r i e s of h u m a n bond­
age.
They were ignorant, superstitious,
easily frightened, poorly organized, dis­
t r u s t f u l o f each other and s t i l l b e l i e v i n g
t h a t t h e y were i n f e r i o r to w h i t e m e n .
It
w a s a c o m p a r a t i v e l y s i m p l e m a t t e r to en­
velop the K l a n w i t h a c l o a k of s u p e r n a t u r a l
p o w e r a n d to send a colored m a n s h i v e r i n g
to cover u n t i l a p a r a d e h a d passed.
T o d a y , h o w e v e r , the s e t t i n g is c h a n g e d .

WHITE

A n e w g e n e r a t i o n of N e g r o e s has a r i s e n
w i t h t h o u s a n d s o f u n i v e r s i t y , college, h i g h
school and g r a m m a r
school
graduates
a m o n g t h e m ; p o s s e s s i n g p r o p e r t y a n d the
respect f o r self t h a t a c c o m p a n i e s s u c h pos­
sessions. I h a v e t a l k e d w i t h m a n y N e g r o e s
a n d w i t h m a n y w h i t e m e n i n the S o u t h . I
have found a f a r higher order of intelli­
gence a m o n g N e g r o e s t h a n a m o n g whites,
w h e n one c o m p a r e s the t w o r a c e s g r a d e f o r
g r a d e . I n r e g a r d to the K l a n , even the u n ­
educated N e g r o l o o k s u p o n i t w i t h amused
c o n t e m p t . H i s w h i t e b r o t h e r , i n m o s t cases,
cherishes a f a t u o u s b e l i e f c o m m o n to pro­
v i n c i a l a n d c i r c u m s c r i b e d m i n d s t h a t ter­
r o r i s t i c m e t h o d s w i l l be efficacious i n "keep­
i n g the n i g g e r i n h i s p l a c e " .
I n J a c k s o n v i l l e , f o r e x a m p l e , a p a r a d e of
the l o c a l K l a n w a s h e l d o n S a t u r d a y n i g h t ,
O c t o b e r 30. L a r g e n u m b e r s o f colored peo­
ple t u r n e d o u t to v i e w the p a r a d e .
One
old c o l o r e d w o m a n o f the a n t e b e l l u m type
t h a t is f a s t d i s a p p e a r i n g , c a l l e d o u t d e r i ­
s i v e l y to the m a r c h i n g K l u c k s :
" W h i t e f o l k s , y o u a i n ' t done n o t h i n ' .
T h e m G e r m a n g u n s d i d n ' t scare us a n d I
k n o w t h e m w h i t e faces a i n ' t g o i n ' to do i t
now."
That remark
e p i t o m i z e s the
feeling.
P h r a s e d i n b e t t e r E n g l i s h i t l i k e w i s e ex­
presses the s e n t i m e n t a m o n g the l a r g e r
number of educated colored citizens of
Jacksonville. But beneath the amused tolerance
t h e r e i s a g r i m r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t the K l a n
w i l l not spend its energy i n m a r c h i n g —
t h a t the s i n i s t e r p u r p o s e s of the m o v e m e n t
betoken no good t o c o l o r e d people. N e g r o e s
a r e p r e p a r e d f o r t r o u b l e i n e v e r y p a r t of
the S o u t h w h e r e I h a v e been. T h e y r e a l i z e
that they are outnumbered and outarmed
a n d t h a t death is the i n e v i t a b l e f a t e of
m a n y i f clashes come.
T h e s i t u a t i o n i n the s m a l l e r t o w n s a n d
i s o l a t e d r u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s w h e r e the N e g r o
p o p u l a t i o n is w i d e l y s c a t t e r e d i s o f a more
serious n a t u r e . T h e r e the K l a n s c a n w r e a k
their vengeance on a n y N e g r o who dares
offend t h e m b y b e i n g too p r o s p e r o u s or
b e i n g suspected of some c r i m e , g r e a t or
s m a l l , o r b y i n c u r r i n g the d i s p l e a s u r e o f
a n y w h i t e m a n o f the c o m m u n i t y .
This
v e n g e a n c e extends to w h i t e m e n w h o offend
106

E L E C T I O N D A Y IN F L O R I D A
some l o y a l m e m b e r of a K l a n o r w h o dares
show too g r e a t f r i e n d l i n e s s f o r N e g r o e s —
w h e t h e r f o r selfish o r o t h e r m o t i v e s . I t i s
not considered i m p r o p e r b u t j u s t the con­
t r a r y f o r a w h i t e m a n or boy to debauch
o r consort w i t h a colored w o m a n , b u t no
w h i t e m a n c a n t r e a t a N e g r o as a n e q u a l .
A s a case i n p o i n t r e a d a K l a n w a r n i n g
sent to a prominent white lawyer of a
Florida town who advised Negroes to qualify,
r e g i s t e r a n d vote i n the recent election. I t
reads:
W e h a v e been i n f o r m e d t h a t y o u have
been t e l l i n g N e g r o e s to r e g i s t e r , e x p l a i n i n g
to t h e m how to become c i t i z e n s a n d how to
assert their rights.
I f y o u k n o w the h i s t o r y o f r e c o n s t r u c t i o n
d a y s f o l l o w i n g the C i v i l W a r , y o u k n o w how
the " s c a l a w a g s " o f the N o r t h a n d the black
r e p u b l i c a n s o f the S o u t h did m u c h as you
are d o i n g to i n s t i l l i n t o the N e g r o the idea
of s o c i a l e q u a l i t y . Y o u w i l l r e m e m b e r t h a t
these t h i n g s f o r c e d the l o y a l c i t i z e n s of the
S o u t h to f o r m c l a n s of d e t e r m i n e d m e n to
m a i n t a i n w h i t e s u p r e m a c y a n d to s a f e g u a r d
our women and children.
A n d n o w y o u k n o w t h a t h i s t o r y repeats i t ­
self a n d t h a t he w h o r e s o r t s to y o u r k i n d
of a game is h a n d l i n g edged-tools. W e s h a l l
a l w a y s enjoy W H I T E S U P R E M A C Y in
t h i s c o u n t r y a n d he w h o i n t e r f e r e s m u s t
face the consequences.
GRAND MASTER FLORIDA K U
KLUCKS.
Copy
Local K u Klucks
W a t c h this man.
A n e x a m p l e o f w h a t c a n be done and
w h a t h a s been done i n a s m a l l t o w n is the
election riot at Ocoee, Orange County,
Florida. For weeks before November 2, word
h a d been sent to the N e g r o e s t h a t no colored
m a n w o u l d be a l l o w e d to vote. T h e state­
ment was e m p h a s i z e d w i t h the t h r e a t t h a t
a n y N e g r o a t t e m p t i n g to cast h i s b a l l o t
w o u l d be s e v e r e l y p u n i s h e d .
One colored
m a n d i s r e g a r d e d the w a r n i n g . H e w a s the
most p r o m i n e n t m a n in, h i s c o m m u n i t y ,
o w n e d a l a r g e orange g r o v e w o r t h more
t h a n t e n t h o u s a n d d o l l a r s , h i s o w n home
a n d a n a u t o m o b i l e . H e h a d a l w a y s borne
the r e p u t a t i o n of b e i n g a safe and sane
l e a d e r a m o n g h i s people a n d h a d n e v e r been
i n v o l v e d i n t r o u b l e of a n y k i n d . A n d there­
i n l a y h i s u n p o p u l a r i t y . H e w a s too pros­
perous—"for a nigger". H e , Mose N o r m a n ,
a t t e m p t e d to vote. H e w a s beaten severely
a n d ordered to go home. T h e press r e p o r t s
s t a t e d l a t e r t h a t he h a d not p a i d h i s poll
t a x n o r h a d he r e g i s t e r e d .
On this point
a n d the s u c c e e d i n g events, m a y I quote the
s t a t e m e n t o f a w h i t e m a n o f the t o w n w h o
said;

107

"
he w a s denied u p o n the g r o u n d
t h a t he h a d not p a i d his p o l l t a x , w h e n ,
as a m a t t e r o f fact', the r e c o r d s o f t h i s
c o u n t y ( i f t h e y have not been doctored
since) w i l l show t h a t he h a d p a i d h i s t a x .
T h e press c l a i m e d t h a t he made a t h r e a t
t h a t he w a s g o i n g home to get his g u n , a n d
see t h a t he d i d vote. I do not believe t h a t
anyone, s i t u a t e d as ho w a s , w o u l d have been
f o o l h a r d y enough to m a k e such a t h r e a t .
A f t e r the polls closed, a n u m b e r of a r m e d
men w e n t to h i s house, w i t h o u t a w a r r a n t
and w i t h o u t a u t h o r i t y o f l a w as is c l a i m e d
by those a p p r o v i n g t h e i r a c t i o n , to a r r e s t
t h i s N e g r o . T w o w h i t e m e n were shot in
the N e g r o ' s b a c k y a r d . F r o m t h a t t i m e on
f o r three d a y s the c o m m u n i t y r a n r i o t . I
do not believe i t w i l l ever be k n o w n h o w
m a n y N e g r o e s were k i l l e d .
E v e r y Negro
home, schoolhouse, c h u r c h a n d lodge-room
in t h a t c o m m u n i t y w a s b u r n e d , i n some i n ­
stances w i t h women a n d c h i l d r e n o c c u p y i n g
the houses, a n d t h u s b u r n e d to death. . . .
The foregoing is a fair sample of
conditions which exist in most parts of the
state."
T h e s t o r y is e s s e n t i a l l y as told above.
W h e n N o r m a n left the polls he w e n t to the
home of J u l y P e r r y , another colored m a n ,
who l i k e w i s e w a s u n p o p u l a r w i t h the w h i t e s
in t h a t he w a s f o r e m a n of a l a r g e orange
grove owned b y a w h i t e m a n l i v i n g i n N e w
E n g l a n d — a job w h i c h the c o m m u n i t y f e l t
was too good f o r a N e g r o . W h e n the mob
attacked the colored c o m m u n i t y the colored
people f o u g h t i n self-defense, k i l l i n g t w o
w h i t e men a n d w o u n d i n g t w o , a c c o r d i n g to
news accounts.
C i t i z e n s of the t o w n told
me t h a t e i g h t or ten w h i t e s w e r e k i l l e d b u t
t h a t they could not a l l o w the i n f o r m a t i o n to
become k n o w n , f e a r i n g the effect on the
colored p o p u l a t i o n . H o w e v e r , the mob s u r ­
r o u n d e d the settlement, set fire to i t , shot
down or forced back i n t o the flames colored
men, w o m e n a n d c h i l d r e n w h o a t t e m p t e d to
flee.
The number murdered will probably
never be k n o w n .
T h e figures g e n e r a l l y
g i v e n v a r i e d f r o m t h i r t y - t w o to t h i r t y - f i v e .
One lean, l a n k y and vicious looking white
c i t i z e n of Ocoee of w h o m I asked the n u m ­
ber of dead, r e p l i e d :
" I don't k n o w e x a c t l y but I know fifty-six
niggers were killed.
I killed seventeen
my­
self."
W h a t e v e r the n u m b e r , two o f those k n o w n
to have d i e d , were a colored mother and her
two-weeks old infant.
B e f o r e the ashes o f
the b u r n e d houses h a d cooled, e a g e r m e m ­
bers of the mob r u s h e d i n a n d s o u g h t glee­
f u l l y the c h a r r e d bones of the v i c t i m s as
s o u v e n i r s . A s I stood on the spot a p p r o x i ­
the
m a t e l y seventy-two h o u r s f o l l o w i n g
s l a u g h t e r , the r e m a i n s looked as t h o u g h

108

THE

CRISIS

T H E S I X T H W A R D P O L L I N G - T E N T , J A C K S O N V I L L E , F L O R I D A , C O L O R E D SIDE.
LINE DURING ENTIRE D A T

some one h a d gone over them w i t h a finetoothed comb.
A n a m a z i n g a f t e r m a t h of the occurrence
was the a t t i t u d e of the w h i t e i n h a b i t a n t s o f
O r a n g e C o u n t y . T a l k i n g w i t h n u m b e r s of
t h e m , the o p i n i o n of the m a j o r i t y seemed to
be t h a t n o t h i n g u n u s u a l h a d t a k e n p l a c e —
t h a t the w h i t e people h a d a c q u i t t e d t h e m ­
selves r a t h e r m e r i t o r i o u s l y i n c h e c k i n g u n ­
h o l y a n d p r e s u m p t i o u s a m b i t i o n s of N e g r o e s
i n a t t e m p t i n g to vote. E v e n the w h i t e c h i l ­
d r e n o f Ocoee f e l t t h a t a n event s i m i l a r i n
e n j o y m e n t to a c i r c u s h a d t a k e n place. One
b r i g h t - f a c e d a n d a l e r t g i r l of eleven w h e n
asked w h a t h a d o c c u r r e d , t o l d h a p p i l y of
h o w " w e h a d some f u n b u r n i n g up some
n i g g e r s " . T h e r e w a s no t h o u g h t of h o r r o r
at the deed—it w a s accepted as a m a t t e r of
course.
Some of the methods used i n the s m a l l e r
t o w n s i n e l i m i n a t i n g the N e g r o vote a n d
p a r t i c u l a r l y the colored w o m a n vote were
u n i q u e . I n O r a n g e a n d Osceola counties, a
colored w o m a n w o u l d a t t e m p t to r e g i s t e r ;
on b e i n g asked h e r age, f o r e x a m p l e , she
would say twenty-four.
She w o u l d then be
asked the y e a r i n w h i c h she w a s b o r n .
M a n y of t h e m b e i n g i l l i t e r a t e , w o u l d not
know. The registrar would then probably
say, " I f you are t w e n t y - f o u r , y o u w e r e
b o r n i n 1892, w e r e n ' t y o u ? " T h e a p p l i c a n t ,
s e e k i n g to get the o r d e a l over, w o u l d r e p l y
i n the affirmative.
B e f o r e she h a d been
a w a y f r o m the place v e r y l o n g a w a r r a n t
f o r p e r j u r y h a d been s w o r n out a g a i n s t h e r
a n d she h a d been a r r e s t e d .
I found many

A B O U T 400 IN

cases e q u a l l y as
flagrant
where Negro
w o m e n h a d been i m p r i s o n e d f o r s u c h "of­
fenses" as these.
I n the same m a n n e r m e n w o u l d be i n t i m ­
i d a t e d a n d t h r e a t e n e d . A w h i t e l a w y e r told
me l a u g h i n g l y o f h o w a N e g r o w o u l d ap­
p r o a c h a r e g i s t r a t i o n booth i n h i s county,
O r a n g e , a n d ask i f he c o u l d r e g i s t e r . T h e of­
ficials t h e r e , i n m o s t cases of the p o o r e r or­
der o f w h i t e s , w o u l d r e p l y , " O h , yes, y o u can
r e g i s t e r , b u t I w a n t to t e l l y o u s o m e t h i n g .
Some god d a m n b l a c k
is
g o i n g to get k i l l e d a b o u t t h i s v o t i n g business
yet."
In Q u i n c y , G a d s d e n C o u n t y , the l e a d i n g
colored m a n o f the t o w n , a p h y s i c i a n , o w n e r
of a d r u g store a n d other p r o p e r t y i n c l u d i n g
a n e x c e l l e n t home, on e l e c t i o n d a y w a s sur­
r o u n d e d as he a p p r o a c h e d the p o l l i n g booth
to cast his b a l l o t , b y a c r o w d w h o s p a t i n
his face a n d d a r e d h i m to w i p e h i s face.
H i s " c r i m e " w a s t h a t of a d v i s i n g colored
men and w o m e n to r e g i s t e r a n d vote.
He
has since been o r d e r e d to get out of the
t o w n b u t r e m a i n s — d e t e r m i n e d to die r a t h e r
than submit.
H e h a s a l w a y s been a good
c i t i z e n a n d h i g h l y respected b y b o t h w h i t e
a n d colored people.
T w o brothers
of L i v e Oak, Suwanee
C o u n t y , w h o also w e r e good c i t i z e n s , pros­
perous a n d the o w n e r s o f a l a r g e m e r c h a n ­
dise business, w e r e c a l l e d f r o m t h e i r homes
t w o weeks before e l e c t i o n d a y , beaten a l m o s t
to d e a t h a n d o r d e r e d to leave t o w n i m m e ­
diately for the same offense of urging
Negroes to vote. One has gone; the other lies

E L E C T I O N D A Y IN F L O R I D A

109

SAME P O L L I N G - T E N T , W H I T E SIDE. 75 IN L I N E A T 18.40 P. M .
There were 1569 colored women alone registered in this ward and yet only 2633 votes
in all were reported

at the p o i n t of death f r o m a stroke of
p a r a l y s i s b r o u g h t on b y the b e a t i n g .
N o r are these i s o l a t e d cases b u t r a t h e r
are they t y p i c a l of w h a t took place i n m a n y
p a r t s o f the state. T h e W e s t P a l m B e a c h
Post o f O c t o b e r 30 c a r r i e d an a r t i c l e w i t h
the s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t e m e n t , " S h e r i f f R . C.
B a k e r w i l l have s e v e r a l d e p u t y sheriffs a t
the polls to a r r e s t black v i o l a t o r s o f the elec­
t i o n l a w s as f a s t as they a p p e a r a n d ask f o r
ballots." The inference is that only
Negroes violated the election laws while it is
generally known that white Democratic
voters o p e n l y c a r r i e d m e m o r a n d a into the
booths, w h i c h is d i r e c t l y c o n t r a r y to l a w .
O n l y N e g r o R e p u b l i c a n s were arrested f o r
this violation.
In
Jacksonville, where Negroes
form
s l i g h t l y more t h a n h a l f of the p o p u l a t i o n
of 90,000, the s i t u a t i o n w a s different.
In
spite of p a r a d e s o f the K u K l u x K l a n ,
v i c i o u s n e w s p a p e r p r o p a g a n d a designed to
i n t i m i d a t e N e g r o voters, a n d the announce­
m e n t t w o d a y s before election t h a t 4,000
w a r r a n t s h a d been s w o r n out i n b l a n k f o r m
for the a r r e s t of N e g r o e s , the colored vote
t u r n e d out en masse.
M o s t of the colored
people l i v e i n the second, s i x t h , seventh a n d
eighth wards.
A n active c a m p a i g n w a s
c a r r i e d on a f t e r the p a s s a g e of the suffrage
a m e n d m e n t w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n the r e g i s t r a ­
t i o n o f m o r e colored t h a n w h i t e w o m e n i n a l l
f o u r o f the w a r d s . F r a n t i c stories t h r e a t ­
ening domination by " N e g r o washerwomen
a n d c o o k s " f a i l e d to b r i n g out the w h i t e

w o m e n to r e g i s t e r .
T o the n u m b e r o f
w o m e n w a s added the l a r g e r e g i s t r a t i o n of
m e n , w h i t e a n d colored, i n the s p r i n g of
1920.
Y e t , i n the second, seventh a n d
e i g h t h w a r d s the t o t a l vote d i d not e q u a l the
r e g i s t r a t i o n of colored w o m e n alone, w h i l e
i n the s i x t h w a r d the t o t a l n u m b e r of votes
cast w a s o n l y a few m o r e t h a n the number
of w o m e n , w h i t e a n d colored, r e g i s t e r e d .
E v e r y possible effort w a s m a d e to h a m p e r
the v o t i n g of N e g r o e s . T h e p o l l i n g places
were a r r a n g e d w i t h f o u r entrances—one
each f o r w h i t e w o m e n , w h i t e m e n , colored
w o m e n a n d colored men.
N o delay w a s
caused to w h i t e voters.
More than four
t h o u s a n d colored men a n d w o m e n , whose
names, addresses a n d r e g i s t r a t i o n certifi­
cate n u m b e r s are i n the h a n d s of r e s p o n s i ­
ble colored citizens of J a c k s o n v i l l e , stood i n
line f r o m 8:00 A . M . , the h o u r of o p e n i n g ,
to 5:40 P . M . , the h o u r o f c l o s i n g the polls,
a n d were not a l l o w e d to vote.
U n l e s s the p r o b l e m o f the b a l l o t is solved,
either t h r o u g h r e d u c t i o n of S o u t h e r n rep­
r e s e n t a t i o n , a force b i l l or by some other
means, a n d the e n t i r e p r o b l e m of race re­
l a t i o n s solved t h r o u g h c l e a r t h i n k i n g and
j u s t d e a l i n g , o u r race r i o t s a n d s i m i l a r
d i s t u r b a n c e s are j u s t b e g i n n i n g . T h i s m a y
sound p e s s i m i s t i c a n d as t h o u g h the p r o b ­
lem were v i e w e d o n l y f r o m the s t a n d p o i n t
of an a l a r m i s t . T h a t is not the case. I t i s
based u p o n the i n n e r m o s t f e e l i n g s a n d
thoughts of twelve million A m e r i c a n s who
seek to be free.

MARGARET GARNER
A True Romance
LlLLIE B U F F U M

CHACE

WYMAN

THE O h i o R i v e r w a s f r o z e n across i n the
w i n t e r of 1856 a n d seventeen slaves i n
K e n t u c k y , s e e i n g t h e i r o p p o r t u n i t y , took
horses a n d a l a r g e sled b e l o n g i n g to one o f
t h e i r o w n e r s , a n d one S u n d a y n i g h t d r o v e
to the r i v e r - s i d e b e l o w C o v i n g t o n . T h e r e
they
l e f t t h e i r conveyance a n d
walked
across the s t r e a m on the ice.
Desperate
women and tired children were i n that
party.
T h e y reached C i n c i n n a t i i n the
e a r l y m o r n i n g , w h e r e n i n e of t h e m l e f t the
others, took a n o t h e r route, a n d d i d f i n a l l y
escape to C a n a d a .
The remaining eight
w a l k e d u n t i l t h e y f o u n d the house o f a c o l ­
ored m a n n a m e d K i t e , of w h o m t h e y k n e w .

to do so. T h e n the r e d h o r r o r w h i c h s t a i n s
e v e r y p a g e of the R e p u b l i c ' s s t o r y , b e g a n to
c r i m s o n the scene. A w i n d o w w a s b r o k e n ,
blood t r i c k l e d f r o m the M a r s h a l l ' s w r i s t ;
shots w e r e fired i n t o the house, shots were
fired o u t f r o m w i t h i n . R o b e r t G a r n e r , c o l ­
o r e d , w a s , to use o u r l a t e r p h r a s e , a r e d blooded A m e r i c a n — a m a n w h o w o u l d de­
fend his women and children.
B u t the
The
s t r u g g l e c o u l d h a v e b u t one end.
a s s a i l a n t s b r o k e t h e i r w a y i n t o the house.
T h e n the c r i m s o n flood bore the m o m e n t up
f r o m the v a l l e y of s q u a l i d m i s e r y to the
h i g h e s t peak of h u m a n t r a g e d y . A m o t h e r
was there!

T h i s c o m p a n y of f u g i t i v e s consisted o f an
e l d e r l y couple n a m e d S i m o n a n d M a r y , t h e i r
son R o b e r t G a r n e r , h i s w i f e M a r g a r e t a n d
four little children. Simon and M a r y had
once been s e p a r a t e d f o r y e a r s , as a n i n c i ­
dent of s l a v e r y .
Some accounts i n d i c a t e
t h a t M a r g a r e t h a d been the o c c a s i o n a l
v i c t i m of the c u s t o m a r y a n d w o r l d - w i d e ,
a v i d l u s t o f the w h i t e m a n f o r the d a r k
w o m a n . H o w e v e r t h a t m a y be, R o b e r t a n d
she h a d fled, together, w i t h a l l the c h i l d r e n ,
i n search of a home w h e r e t h e y m i g h t safe­
ly continue their f a m i l y life. M a r g a r e t was
about t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s old a n d n o t v e r y
d a r k . L u c y Stone, w h o s a w her, described
h e r as h a v i n g a dignified presence, a n d as
b e i n g "one of the m o s t b e a u t i f u l w o m e n I
h a d ever seen". H e r oldest c h i l d w a s a l i t ­
tle g i r l , v e r y p r e t t y a n d n e a r l y w h i t e .
N e x t came " t w o w o o l l y - h e a d e d l i t t l e f e l ­
lows w i t h fat, d i m p l e d c h e e k s " ; t h e n t h e r e
w a s a b a b y w h i t e r t h a n its m o t h e r .
Its
sex is not r e c o r d e d .

M a r g a r e t h a d already caught up a knife,
a n d w i t h one deft s t r o k e h a d c u t the t h r o a t
of h e r l o v e l y g i r l c h i l d .
N o l u s t f u l woo­
i n g , no r a p i n e f o r h e r !
T h e constables
d r a g g e d R o b e r t out. M a r g a r e t m a d e a n i n ­
effectual effort to k i l l the l i t t l e b o y s , b u t was
o v e r p o w e r e d b y h e r a s s a i l a n t s , a n d a l l the
fugitives were taken into custody.
During
the d a y t h e y w e r e m o v e d a b o u t f r o m office
to office to find out u n d e r w h a t j u r i s d i c t i o n
t h e y b e l o n g e d , f o r t h e r e w a s a question
w h e r e on t h i s e a r t h these f u g i t i v e s d i d be­
l o n g — t h a t i s , a l l e x c e p t the c h i l d w h o the
n i g h t b e f o r e h a d w a l k e d w i t h l i t t l e feet
across the s t r e a m w h i c h w a s to be her
river of death.

A f t e r the f u g i t i v e s a r r i v e d , K i t e w e n t to
c o n s u l t L e v i Coffin, the g r e a t slave r e s c u e r
of O h i o . H e r e t u r n e d to find U n i t e d S t a t e s
M a r s h a l l E l l i s , w i t h constables
already
s u r r o u n d i n g his house.
W i t h them w a s
A r c h i b a l d K . G a i n e s , w h o owned some of
the f u g i t i v e s . H e h a d discovered the sled
immediately after it was left on the
Kentucky shore, and had followed on the track
of the r u n a w a y s .
T h e refugees i n the n o w b e l e a g u e r e d
house h a d b a r r e d the doors a n d w i n d o w s ,
a n d refused to s u r r e n d e r w h e n c a l l e d upon

The legal situation was peculiar. A s an
o r d i n a r y h u m a n b e i n g , M a r g a r e t h a d be­
come a m u r d e r e r a n d as s u c h , a m e n a b l e to
the state o f O h i o . A s a r u n a w a y s l a v e she
w a s a piece of p r o p e r t y o f a k i n d w h i c h the
F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t h a d u n d e r t a k e n to re­
t u r n to i t s o w n e r s .
T h e A b o l i t i o n i s t s of
C i n c i n n a t i t r i e d to h a v e h e r h e l d as a c r i m ­
inal who must stand t r i a l i n Ohio.
The
i n t e n t i o n w a s , a f t e r t r i a l a n d sentence, to
induce the G o v e r n o r o f the S t a t e , S a l m o n P .
C h a s e , to p a r d o n h e r , a n d t h e n h e r f r i e n d s
w o u l d r u s h h e r off to C a n a d a .
D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d o f l e g a l w o r r y , the
captives were kept i n j a i l , but M a r g a r e t was
often b r o u g h t i n t o c o u r t r o o m s w h e r e m a n y
people s a w her.
She w o r e a d a r k c a l i c o
dress, a w h i t e k e r c h i e f a r o u n d h e r neck, a n d
a y e l l o w t u r b a n o n h e r head. H e r l i t t l e boys
110

MARGARET GARNER
p l a y e d c a r e l e s s l y a r o u n d her knees.
She
held her baby in her lap and it kept p u t t i n g
u p i t s t i n y h a n d s to caress h e r face. T h i n k
of i t — t h e sweet t o u c h o f h e r b a b y ' s fingers
on t h i s w o e f u l m o t h e r ' s cheek! M o s t of the
t i m e M a r g a r e t s t a r e d b l a n k l y at the floor,
b u t once i n a w h i l e she looked t i m i d l y
a r o u n d the r o o m . She h a d a s c a r on her
forehead and another on her cheek.
Someone asked how she got these scars. "White
m a n s t r u c k m e , " she a n s w e r e d .
L u c y Stone v i s i t e d h e r i n p r i s o n a n d
f o u n d her i n a state o f d u m b d e s p a i r . She
d i d , h o w e v e r , rouse h e r s e l f enough to say
t h a t she h a d m e a n t to k i l l a l l her c h i l d r e n ,
but b e g a n w i t h the g i r l so as to m a k e s u r e
a t least of her,
because
she
thought
"boy3
could bear s l a v ­
ery better t h a n
girls could."
L u c y Stone told
her i n
return
t h a t i f she h a d
no w e a p o n , she
could
at a n y
time end h e r l i f e
by t e a r i n g open
an a r t e r y w i t h
her teeth
and
letting
herself
bleed to d e a t h ;
" I w o u l d do i t
myself,"
said
L u c y Stone.
I t w a s decid­
ed, a f t e r s e v e r a l
weeks, t h a t the
fugitives
were
primarily
the
c a p t i v e s o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s whose busi­
ness i t w a s to d e l i v e r t h e m s a f e l y into the
hands of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l o w n e r s . T h e r e f o r e ,
t h e y w e r e sent into K e n t u c k y ; b u t M r .
G a i n e s h a d m a d e some s o r t of a p r o m i s e to
L u c y Stone, a n d i t w a s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t he
w o u l d keep M a r g a r e t n e a r the s o u t h e r n
shore o f the r i v e r l o n g enough to enable
G o v e r n o r C h a s e to m a k e a f o r m a l r e q u i s i ­
tion upon Governor Morehead of Kentucky
f o r h e r r e t u r n to O h i o f o r t r i a l there as a
murderess.
One " J o e C o o p e r " f o l l o w e d q u i c k l y across
w i t h G o v e r n o r C h a s e ' s r e q u i s i t i o n , b u t be­
fore a l l l e g a l r e q u i r e m e n t s could be met, M r .

111

G a i n e s s t a r t e d w i t h h i s slaves f o r L o u i s v i l l e .
Cooper p u r s u e d t h e m i n g a l l a n t e n d e a v o r ,
but t h e y w e r e handcuffed a n d d e l i v e r e d to
one M a r s h a l l B u t t s f r o m C o v i n g t o n .
A c c o u n t s v a r y as to the d e t a i l s of w h a t
happened next, b u t the e s s e n t i a l f a c t s s t a n d
out c l e a r l y e n o u g h . T h e Henry Lewis c o l ­
lided with another boat, and Margaret
Garner's baby was drowned. The statement
t h a t the slaves w e r e " h a n d c u f f e d " m a k e s i t
uncertain w h a t M a r g a r e t herself d i d , but
p e r h a p s the handcuffs h a d been r e m o v e d ;
f o r one s t o r y is t h a t she t h r e w the b a b y
o v e r b o a r d , a n d a n o t h e r t h a t she let i t slide
f r o m h e r l a p i n t o the w a t e r .
The proba­
b i l i t y is t h a t she h e r s e l f e i t h e r p l u n g e d
w i t h , or after, it
into the s t r e a m ,
o u t of w h i c h she
was p u l l e d b y a
colored m a n and
placed on
the
Hungarian to
w h i c h the other
slaves h a d been
removed.
She
cried out w i t h
frantic joy when
told
that
the
baby was really
drowned,
and
declared
that
she
herself
would
never
r e a c h t h e i r des­
tined port alive.
Some one t h r e w
a
blanket
a r o u n d her a n d
she
w a s de­
scribed
by
an
eye w i t n e s s as c r o u c h i n g " l i k e a w i l d a n i ­
m a l " on the floor of the boat's deck.
F o r m a n y y e a r s no p r i n t e d r e c o r d r e p o r t ­
ed her a f t e r - f a t e .
L e v i Coffin, n e a r l y a
q u a r t e r of a c e n t u r y l a t e r , w r o t e s a d l y t h a t
M a r g a r e t w a s lost i n the h e l l of A m e r i c a n
slavery.
Some t h i r t y y e a r s h a d elapsed
w h e n L u c y Stone told me t h a t before the
a b o l i t i o n of s l a v e r y a l e t t e r h a d m a d e its
h a z a r d o u s w a y to her. I t was signed R o b e r t
G a r n e r a n d s a i d t h a t he t h o u g h t M r s . Stone
w o u l d be g l a d to k n o w t h a t M a r g a r e t h a d
died.
A s I t h i n k o f the c r o u c h i n g figure she does
not seem " l i k e a w i l d a n i m a l " b u t l i k e a n
image of sublime motherhood.

MARCUS G A R V E Y
W.

E.

B.

DUBOIS

paid for, leav­
i n g the a c t u a l
amount
of
paid-in capital
charged
W H E N i t comes to M r . G a r v e y ' s i n d u s t r i a l against
the
a n d c o m m e r c i a l e n t e r p r i s e s t h e r e is
corporation,
more g r o u n d f o r doubt a n d m i s g i v i n g t h a n in
$472,706.the m a t t e r of h i s c h a r a c t e r . F i r s t of a l l , his
72.
Against
e n t e r p r i s e s are i n c o r p o r a t e d i n D e l a w a r e ,
this
stands
MARCUS G A R V E Y
w h e r e the c o r p o r a t i o n l a w s are loose a n d
o n l y $355,214.w h e r e no f i n a n c i a l s t a t e m e n t s are r e q u i r e d .
59 o f assets ( v i z . : $21,985.21 i n c a s h de­
So f a r as I c a n find, a n d I have searched
posits a n d loans r e c e i v a b l e ; $12,975.01 i n
w i t h care, M r . G a r v e y has never p u b l i s h e d a
f u r n i t u r e a n d e q u i p m e n t , $288,515.37 w h i c h
complete s t a t e m e n t of the income a n d ex­
is the a l l e g e d v a l u e o f h i s boats, $26,000 i n
penditures of the Negro Improvement
r e a l estate a n d $5,739 o f i n s u r a n c e p a i d i n
Association or of the Black Star Line or of a d v a n c e ) .
T o offset the assets he has
a n y of h i s e n t e r p r i s e s , w h i c h r e a l l y revealed
$152,264.14 o f other l i a b i l i t i e s ( a c c r u e d s a l ­
his f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n . A courteous l e t t e r
a r i e s , $1,539.30; notes a n d a c c o u n t s p a y a ­
of i n q u i r y sent to h i m J u l y 22, 1920, a s k i n g ble, $129,224.84; m o r t g a g e s due $21,500).
f o r such f i n a n c i a l d a t a as he w a s w i l l i n g I n o t h e r w o r d s , h i s c a p i t a l stock o f $472,f o r the p u b l i c to k n o w , r e m a i n s to t h i s d a y
706.72 is a f t e r a y e a r ' s b u s i n e s s i m p a i r e d to
unacknowledged and unanswered.
such extent t h a t he h a s o n l y $202,950.45 to
N o w a r e f u s a l to p u b l i s h a f i n a n c i a l state­
show f o r it.
m e n t is no p r o o f of dishonesty, b u t i t i s
Even this Joes not reveal the
p r o o f t h a t e i t h e r G a r v e y is i l l - a d v i s e d and
precariousness of his actual business condition.
u n n e c e s s a r i l y c o u r t i n g s u s p i c i o n , o r t h a t his
B a n k s before the w a r i n l e n d i n g t h e i r c r e d i t
i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e s are not on a sound
refused to recognize a n y b u s i n e s s as safe
business b a s i s ; otherwise he is too good a n
unless f o r e v e r y d o l l a r o f c u r r e n t l i a b i l i t i e s
a d v e r t i s e r not to use a p r o m i s i n g b a l a n c e there were two dollars of current assets.
sheet f o r a l l i t is w o r t h .
Today, since the war, they require three dol­
l a r s of c u r r e n t assets to e v e r y one of c u r ­
T h e r e has been one b a l a n c e sheet, pub­
rent liabilities.
The B l a c k S t a r L i n e had
lished J u l y 26, 1920, p u r p o r t i n g to g i v e the
J u l y 26, $16,485.21 i n c u r r e n t assets and
financial
c o n d i t i o n of the B l a c k S t a r L i n e
$130,764.14 i n c u r r e n t l i a b i l i t i e s , w h e n rec­
after one y e a r of o p e r a t i o n ; n e i t h e r profit
ognition by any reputable bank called for
or loss is s h o w n , there is no w a y to t e l l the
$390,000 i n c u r r e n t assets.
a c t u a l cash receipts or the t r u e c o n d i t i o n
M o r e o v e r , a n o t h e r s i n i s t e r a d m i s s i o n ap­
of the business. N e v e r t h e l e s s it does m a k e
p e a r s i n t h i s s t a t e m e n t : the cost of f l o a t i n g
some i n t e r e s t i n g r e v e l a t i o n s .
the B l a c k S t a r L i n e to date has been $289,T h e t o t a l a m o u n t of stock s u b s c r i b e d f o r
066.27. I n other w o r d s , i t has cost n e a r l y
is $590,860. O f t h i s $118,153.28 is not y e t
$300,000 to collect a c a p i t a l o f less t h a n
h a l f a m i l l i o n . G a r v e y has, i n o t h e r w o r d s ,
M r . G a r v e y b o a s t s F e b . 14, 1 0 2 0 :
spent m o r e f o r a d v e r t i s e m e n t t h a n he has
" T h i s week I present
y o u w i t h the
Black
Star
for his boats!
L i n e S t e a m s h i p C o r p o r a t i o n r e c a p i t a l i z e d at t e n m i l ­
l i o n d o l l a r s . T h e y t o l d U3 w h e n w e i n c o r p o r a t e d this
T h i s is a s e r i o u s s i t u a t i o n , a n d even
c o r p o r a t i o n t h a t we c o u l d n o t m a k e i t , b u t w e a r e n o w
g o n e f r o m a $ 5 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 c o r p o r a t i o n to o n e o f $ 1 0 , this does not tell the w h o l e s t o r y : the
ono.ono."
r e a l estate, f u r n i t u r e , etc., l i s t e d above, a r e
T h i s s o u n d - i m p r e s s i v e , but means almost n o t h i n g .
T h e fee f o r i n c o r p o r a t i n g a $ 5 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 c o n c e r n i n
p r o b a b l y v a l u e d c o r r e c t l y . B u t h o w about
D e l a w a r e is $350.
B y paying
$ 2 5 0 more the cor­
poration
may incorporate
with $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0
authorised
the b o a t s ?
T h e Yarmouth
is a wooden
capita! without having a cent of capital actually paid
s t e a m e r o f 1,452 g r o s s tons, b u i l t i n 1887in!
C f . " G e n e r a l C o r p o r a t i o n L a w s of the S t a t e o f
D e l a w a r e " , e d i t i o n of 1917.
I t is o l d a n d u n s e a w o r t h y ; it came n e a r

(An article in the December
CRISIS gave
Mr. Garvey's
personal history.
This
article
considers his industrial
enterprises
and the
feasibility
of his general
plans.)

2

2

1

112

MARCUS G A R V E Y
s i n k i n g a y e a r ago a n d i t has cost a g r e a t
d e a l f o r r e p a i r s . I t is s a i d t h a t i t is now
l a i d u p f o r r e p a i r s w i t h a l a r g e b i l l due.
W i t h o u t doubt the i n e x p e r i e n c e d p u r c h a s e r s
of t h i s vessel p a i d f a r more t h a n i t is w o r t h ,
and i t w i l l soon be u t t e r l y w o r t h l e s s unless
r e b u i l t a t a v e r y h i g h cost."
T h e cases of the Kanawha (or
Antonio
Maceo)
a n d the Shadyside are p u z z l i n g .
N e i t h e r o f these boats is r e g i s t e r e d as be­
l o n g i n g to the B l a c k S t a r L i n e at a l l . T h e
f o r m e r is recorded as b e l o n g i n g to C . L .
D i m o n , a n d the l a t t e r to the N o r t h and
E a s t R i v e r S t e a m b o a t C o m p a n y . Does the
B l a c k S t a r L i n e r e a l l y o w n these boats, or
is i t b u y i n g t h e m b y i n s t a l l m e n t s , or only
leasing them?
W e do not k n o w the facts
and have been u n a b l e to find out. U n d e r
the c i r c u m s t a n c e s they look like dubious
"assets".
T h e m a j o r i t y of the B l a c k S t a r stock is
a p p a r e n t l y o w n e d by the U n i v e r s a l N e g r o
I m p r o v e m e n t A s s o c i a t i o n . T h e r e is no r e a ­
son w h y t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n , i f i t w i l l and c a n ,
should not c o n t i n u e to p o u r money into its
c o r p o r a t i o n . L e t us therefore consider then
M r . G a r v e y ' s o t h e r resources.
M r . G a r v e y ' s income consists of (a) dues
f r o m members of the U . N . I. A s s o c i a t i o n ;
(b) s h a r e s i n the B l a c k S t a r L i n e and other
e n t e r p r i s e s , a n d (c) g i f t s a n d " l o a n s " f o r
specific objects. I f the U . N . I. A s s o c i a t i o n
h a s "3,000,000 m e m b e r s " t h e n the income
f r o m t h a t source alone w o u l d be c e r t a i n l y
over a m i l l i o n d o l l a r s a y e a r .
If, as is
more l i k e l y , i t has u n d e r 300,000 p a y i n g
members, he m a y collect $150,000 a n n u a l l y
f r o m t h i s source.
S t o c k i n the B l a c k
S t a r L i n e is s t i l l b e i n g sold.
Garvey
h i m s e l f tells of one w o m a n who h a d saved
about four hundred dollars i n gold: "She
b r o u g h t out a l l the gold a n d b o u g h t shares
i n the B l a c k S t a r L i n e . "
Another man
w r i t e s t h i s t o u c h i n g letter f r o m the C a n a l
Zone:
" I h a v e sent t w i c e to b u y shares
a m o u n t i n g to $125, ( n u m b e r s of certificates
3752 a n d 9 6 1 7 ) . N o w I a m s e n d i n g $35
for seven m o r e shares. Y o u m i g h t t h i n k I
h a v e money, b u t the t r u t h , as I stated be­
fore, is t h a t I h a v e no m o n e y n o w . B u t i f
I ' m to die of h u n g e r i t w i l l be a l l right be­
cause . I ' m d e t e r m i n e d to do a l l t h a t ' s i n

3

T e c h n i c a l l y the Yarmouth
does not belong to the
Black S t a r L i n e of D e l a w a r e , but to the " B l a c k Star
L i n e of C a n a d a , L i m i t e d , " incorporated in C a n a d a ,
M a r c h 23, 1920, with one m i l l i o n dollars capital.
This
capital consists of $500 cash and $999,500 "assets."
P r o b a b l y the B l a c k S t a r L i n e o f Delaware controls
this corporation, but this is not k n o w n .

113

m y p o w e r to better the c o n d i t i o n s o f m y
race.'"
In a d d i t i o n to t h i s he has asked f o r spe­
c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s . In the s p r i n g of 1920
he demanded f o r his c o m i n g c o n v e n t i o n i n
A u g u s t , " a f u n d of t w o m i l l i o n d o l l a r s
($2,000,000) to c a p i t a l i z e t h i s , the greatest
of a l l c o n v e n t i o n s . " In O c t o b e r he a c k n o w l ­
edged a t o t a l of s o m e t h i n g over $16,000 i n
small contributions.
I m m e d i a t e l y he a n ­
nounced " a c o n s t r u c t i v e l o a n " o f $2,000,000,
w h i c h he is p r e s u m a b l y s t i l l s e e k i n g to
raise.
5

From
these sources
of income M r .
G a r v e y has financed h i s e n t e r p r i s e s a n d
c a r r i e d on a w i d e a n d d e t e r m i n e d p r o p a ­
g a n d a , m a i n t a i n e d a l a r g e staff of s a l a r i e d
officials, c l e r k s a n d agents, a n d p u b l i s h e d a
weekly newspaper.
N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g this
considerable income, there is no doubt
that Garvey's expenditures
are
press­
ing
h a r d on his income, a n d t h a t h i s
financial
methods are so e s s e n t i a l l y u n ­
sound t h a t unless he speedily revises them
the i n v e s t o r s w i l l c e r t a i n l y get no d i v i d e n d s
and worse m a y happen".
H e is a p p a r ­
e n t l y u s i n g the f a m i l i a r method of " K i t i n g "
-—i. e., the money w h i c h comes i n as i n v e s t ­
ment i n stock is b e i n g used i n c u r r e n t ex­
penses, e s p e c i a l l y i n h e a v y o v e r h e a d costs,
for c l e r k h i r e , i n t e r e s t a n d d i s p l a y . E v e n
his boats a r e b e i n g used f o r a d v e r t i s e m e n t
more t h a n f o r b u s i n e s s — l y i n g i n h a r b o r s as
4

P. N . Gordon.
" T h e U n i v e r s a l N e g r o Improvement Association if
raising a constructive loan of two million Hollars f r o m
T h r e e hundred thousand dollars out of
its members.
this two m i l l i o n has been allotted to the N e w Y o r k
L o c a l as its quota, and already the members in N e w
Y o r k have started to subscribe to the loan, a n d in the
next seven days the three hundred
thousand dollars
will be oversubscribed. The great divisions of
Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, Boston. Chicago, Cleveland,
Wilmington, Baltimore and Washington will also over­
subscribe their quota to make up the two m i l l i o n dol­
lars.
January,
"Constructive
work
will be started i n
1921, when the first ship of the B l a c k Star L i n e on
the A f r i c a n trade will sail from N e w Y o r k with ma­
terials a n d workmen for this constructive work."
E l e v e n days later, November 6th, the Negro
World
is still "raising the l o a n " but there is no report of
the amount raised.
It might be argued th;it it is not absolutely neces­
sary that tilo Black Star Line, etc., should pay
financially. It is quite conceivable that Garvey should
launch
a business philanthropy,
and that without
expectation of r e t u r n , colored people should contribute
for a series of years to support N e g r o enterprise.
But
this is not Garvey's idea. He says plainly in a
circular:
" T h e Black Star L i n e corporation presents to every
Black M a n , W o m a n and C h i l d the opportunity
to
climb the great ladder of industrial and commercial
progress.
If y o u have ten dollars, one h u n d r e d dol­
lars, or one or five thousand dollars to invest for
profit, then take out shares in T h e B l a c k Star L i n e ,
Inc.
T h i s corporation is chartered to trade on every
sea and all waters.
T h e B l a c k Star L i n e will t u r n
over large profits a n d dividends to stockholders, and
operate to their interest even whilst they will be
asleep."
6

8

T H E CRISIS

114

e x h i b i t s , t a k i n g e x c u r s i o n p a r t i e s , etc. T h e s e
methods have necessitated m o r t g a g e s on
property and continually new and
more
g r a n d i o s e schemes to collect l a r g e r a n d
l a r g e r a m o u n t s of r e a d y c a s h . M e a n t i m e ,
l a c k i n g business m e n o f e x p e r i e n c e , h i s
a c t u a l business v e n t u r e s h a v e b r o u g h t i n
f e w r e t u r n s , i n v o l v e d h e a v y expense a n d
t h r e a t e n e d h i m c o n t i n u a l l y w i t h d i s a s t e r or
legal complication.
O n the o t h e r h a n d , f u l l c r e d i t m u s t be
g i v e n G a r v e y f o r a bold effort a n d some suc­
cess. H e has at least p u t vessels m a n n e d
a n d owned b y b l a c k men on the seas a n d
t h e y have c a r r i e d passengers a n d cargoes.
T h e difficulty is t h a t he does not k n o w the
s h i p p i n g business, he does not u n d e r s t a n d
the i n v e s t m e n t of c a p i t a l , a n d he has f e w
trained and staunch assistants.
T h e present financial p l i g h t o f a n i n e x ­
perienced and h e a d s t r o n g p r o m o t e r m a y
t h e r e f o r e decide the fate of the w h o l e m o v e ­
ment. T h i s w o u l d be a c a l a m i t y . G a r v e y
is the beloved l e a d e r o f tens of t h o u s a n d s
of poor a n d b e w i l d e r e d people w h o have
been cheated a l l t h e i r l i v e s .
His failure
w o u l d m e a n a b l o w to t h e i r f a i t h , a n d a loss
of t h e i r l i t t l e s a v i n g s , w h i c h i t w o u l d t a k e
g e n e r a t i o n s to undo.
M o r e o v e r , s h o r n of i t s b o m b a s t a n d ex­
a g g e r a t i o n , the m a i n lines of the G a r v e y
p l a n are p e r f e c t l y feasible.
W h a t he is
t r y i n g to s a y a n d do is t h i s : A m e r i c a n N e ­
groes c a n , b y a c c u m u l a t i n g a n d m i n i s t e r i n g
their own capital, organize industry, join
the b l a c k centers o f the s o u t h A t l a n t i c by
commercial enterprise and in this w a y ulti­
m a t e l y redeem A f r i c a as a fit a n d free home
f o r b l a c k m e n . T h i s is t r u e . I t is
feasible.
I t i s , i n a sense, p r a c t i c a l ; b u t i t w i l l t a k e
f o r i t s a c c o m p l i s h m e n t l o n g y e a r s of p a i n s ­
t a k i n g , s e l f - s a c r i f i c i n g effort.
It w i l l call
f o r e v e r y ounce o f a b i l i t y , k n o w l e d g e , e x ­
perience a n d d e v o t i o n i n the w h o l e N e g r o
race. I t is not a t a s k f o r one m a n o r one
o r g a n i z a t i o n , b u t f o r co-ordinate effort on
the p a r t o f m i l l i o n s . T h e p l a n is not o r i g i n a l
w i t h G a r v e y b u t he h a s p o p u l a r i z e d i t ,
made i t a l i v i n g , vocal ideal and swept thou­
sands w i t h h i m w i t h intense b e l i e f i n the
possible a c c o m p l i s h m e n t o f the i d e a l .

is no doubt b u t w h a t G a r v e y h a s s o u g h t to
i m p o r t to A m e r i c a a n d c a p i t a l i z e t h e a n t a g ­
o n i s m b e t w e e n b l a c k s a n d m u l a t t o e s i n the
W e s t Indies.
T h i s has been the cause o f
the W e s t I n d i a n f a i l u r e s to g a i n h e a d w a y
a g a i n s t the w h i t e s . Y e t G a r v e y i m p o r t s i t
into a l a n d w h e r e i t h a s n e v e r h a d a n y sub­
s t a n t i a l footing and where today, of a l l days,
i t is a b s o l u t e l y r e p u d i a t e d b y e v e r y t h i n k ­
i n g N e g r o ; G a r v e y capitalizes it, has sought
to get the c o o p e r a t i o n of m e n l i k e R . R .
M o t o n on t h i s b a s i s , a n d h a s a r o u s e d m o r e
b i t t e r c o l o r e n m i t y i n s i d e the r a c e t h a n has
ever before e x i s t e d . T h e w h i t e s a r e d e l i g h t ­
ed at the p r o s p e c t o f a d i v i s i o n o f o u r s o l i d i ­
f y i n g p h a l a n x , b u t t h e i r hopes a r e v a i n .
A m e r i c a n N e g r o e s r e c o g n i z e no c o l o r l i n e i n
o r out of the r a c e , a n d t h e y w i l l i n the end
p u n i s h the m a n w h o a t t e m p t s to e s t a b l i s h
it.
T h e n too G a r v e y i n c r e a s e s h i s difficulties
i n other d i r e c t i o n s . H e is a B r i t i s h subject.
H e w a n t s to t r a d e i n B r i t i s h t e r r i t o r y . W h y
t h e n does he needlessly a n t a g o n i z e a n d even
insult Britain? He wants to unite all
Negroes. Why then does he sneer at the work
of the p o w e r f u l g r o u p o f his r a c e i n the
U n i t e d S t a t e s w h e r e he finds a s y l u m a n d
s y m p a t h y ? P a r t i c u l a r l y , w h y does he decry
the e x c e l l e n t a n d r i s i n g business e n t e r p r i s e s
of H a r l e m — i n t i m a t i n g t h a t h i s schemes
alone a r e honest a n d s o u n d w h e n
the
flatly
contradict
him?
He
pro­
facts
poses
to
settle
his
headquarters
in
Liberia—but
has
he
asked
permission
of the L i b e r i a n g o v e r n m e n t ?
Does he
presume
to u s u r p
authority in a land
w h i c h has s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h s t o o d E n g l a n d ,
F r a n c e a n d the U n i t e d S t a t e s , — b u t is ex­
pected t a m e l y to s u b m i t to M a r c u s G a r v e y ?
How long does Mr. Garvey think that
President King would permit his anti-English
p r o p a g a n d a on L i b e r i a n s o i l , w h e n the gov­
e r n m e n t i s s t r a i n i n g e v e r y n e r v e to escape
the L i o n ' s P a w ?
A n d , finally, w i t h o u t a r m s , m o n e y , effect­
i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n o r base o f o p e r a t i o n s , M r .
Garvey openly and wildly talks of
"Conquest" and of telling white Europeans in
A f r i c a to " g e t o u t ! " a n d o f b e c o m i n g h i m ­
self a b l a c k N a p o l e o n !
7

T h i s is a great, h u m a n service; but w h e n
G a r v e y forges ahead and almost singleh a n d e d a t t e m p t s to r e a l i z e h i s d r e a m i n a
f e w y e a r s , w i t h l a r g e w o r d s a n d w i l d ges­
tures, he g r i e v o u s l y m i n i m i z e s h i s t a s k a n d
e n d a n g e r s h i s cause.
T o i n s t a n c e one i l l u s t r a t i v e f a c t :

there

7

He said in his "inaugural" address:
"The signal honor of being Provisional President of
Africa is mine. It is a political job; it is a political
calling for me to redeem Africa.
It is like asking
Napoleon to take the world. He took a certain por­
tion of the world in his time. He failed and died at
St. Helena. But may I not say that the lessons of
Napoleon are but stepping stones by which we shall
guide ourselves to African liberation?

MARCUS GARVEY
S u p p o s e M r . G a r v e y s h o u l d d r o p f r o m the
clouds a n d c o n c e n t r a t e on his i n d u s t r i a l
schemes as a p r a c t i c a l first step t o w a r d his
d r e a m s : the first d u t y of a g r e a t c o m m e r c i a l
e n t e r p r i s e is to c a r r y on effective commerce.
A m a n who sees i n i n d u s t r y the key to a
s i t u a t i o n , m u s t e s t a b l i s h sufficient business­
l i k e i n d u s t r i e s . H e r e M r . G a r v e y has f a i l e d
lamentably.
T h e Yarmouth,
f o r i n s t a n c e , has not been
a c o m m e r c i a l success.
S t o r i e s have been
p u b l i s h e d a l l e g i n g its d i r t y c o n d i t i o n a n d
the i n e x c u s a b l e conduct o f i t s c a p t a i n a n d
crew.
To this M r . G a r v e y m a y reply
t h a t i t w a s no easy m a t t e r to get efficient
persons to r u n h i s boats a n d to keep a sched­
ule.
T h i s is c e r t a i n l y t r u e , b u t i f i t is
difficult to secure one black boat c r e w , how
m u c h m o r e difficult is i t g o i n g to be to
" b u i l d a n d operate f a c t o r i e s i n the b i g i n ­
d u s t r i a l centers o f the U n i t e d States, C e n ­
t r a l A m e r i c a , the W e s t Indies a n d A f r i c a to
manufacture every marketable commodity"?
a n d a l s o " t o p u r c h a s e a n d b u i l d s h i p s of
l a r g e r tonnage f o r the A f r i c a n a n d S o u t h
A m e r i c a n t r a d e " ? a n d also to r a i s e " F i v e
M i l l i o n D o l l a r s to free L i b e r i a " w h e r e " n e w
b u i l d i n g s a r e to be erected, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e
b u i l d i n g s a r e to be b u i l t , colleges a n d u n i ­
v e r s i t i e s are to be c o n s t r u c t e d " ? a n d finally
to a c c o m p l i s h w h a t M r . G a r v e y c a l l s the
" C o n q u e s t of A f r i c a " !
T o s u m u p : G a r v e y is a sincere, h a r d ­
w o r k i n g i d e a l i s t ; he is also a s t u b b o r n ,

115

d o m i n e e r i n g leader of the m a s s ; he has
w o r t h y i n d u s t r i a l a n d c o m m e r c i a l schemes
but
he
is
an
inexperienced
business
man.
His
dreams
of
Negro
indus­
t r y , commerce a n d the u l t i m a t e
free­
dom of A f r i c a are f e a s i b l e ; b u t h i s methods
are b o m b a s t i c , w a s t e f u l , i l l o g i c a l a n d i n ­
effective a n d a l m o s t i l l e g a l . I f he l e a r n s by
experience, a t t r a c t s s t r o n g a n d capable
f r i e n d s a n d helpers i n s t e a d of m a k i n g need­
less enemies; i f he g i v e s up secrecy a n d sus­
p i c i o n a n d s u b s t i t u t e s open a n d f r a n k re­
ports as to h i s ' income a n d expenses, a n d
above a l l i f he is w i l l i n g to be a c o - w o r k e r
a n d not a c z a r , he m a y yet i n t i m e succeed
i n at least s t a r t i n g some of his schemes to­
w a r d a c c o m p l i s h m e n t . B u t unless he does
these t h i n g s a n d does them q u i c k l y he can­
not escape f a i l u r e .
L e t the f o l l o w e r s of M r . G a r v e y i n s i s t
t h a t he get d o w n to bed-rock business a n d
make income a n d expense b a l a n c e ; let t h e m
g a g G a r v e y ' s w i l d e r w o r d s , a n d s t i l l pre­
serve
his
wide
p o w e r a n d influence.
A m e r i c a n N e g r o leaders are not j e a l o u s of
G a r v e y — t h e y are not envious of h i s suc­
cess; they a r e s i m p l y a f r a i d of his f a i l u r e ,
f o r his f a i l u r e w o u l d be t h e i r s .
H e can
have a l l the p o w e r a n d m o n e y t h a t he can
efficiently a n d honestly use, a n d i f i n a d d i ­
t i o n he w a n t s to p r a n c e d o w n B r o a d w a y i n
a green s h i r t , let h i m — b u t do not let h i m
foolishly overwhelm with bankruptcy and
d i s a s t e r one of the most i n t e r e s t i n g s p i r i t ­
u a l movements of the m o d e r n N e g r o w o r l d .

FIVE GENERATIONS
The Faucett-Batie-Smith-Wilson Family of Durham, N. 0.

National A s s o c i a t i o n for
the
A d v a n c e m e n t of Colored-People.
A

G R E E T I N G

F R O M

T H E N E W

S E C R E T A R Y

I E N T E R u p o n m y n e w w o r k as s e c r e t a r y w i t h a f u l l r e a l i z a t i o n o f the i m p o r t a n c e of
the t a s k before me. I n m y f o u r y e a r s of w o r k as field s e c r e t a r y i t has been m y p r i v i ­
lege to meet a n d k n o w l a r g e n u m b e r s of the m e m b e r s a n d f r i e n d s of the A s s o c i a t i o n i n
a l l p a r t s o f the c o u n t r y .
B e c a u s e of the deep i n s i g h t g a i n e d t h e r e b y i n t o the l o y a l t y and
sincere d e v o t i o n of those w h o h a v e g i v e n so m u c h o f t h e m s e l v e s to the cause, I a s s u m e the
new r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i t h u n b o u n d e d hope a n d e n t h u s i a s m .
I feel s u p r e m e l y confident t h a t
w i t h y o u r s u p p o r t a n d c o - o p e r a t i o n , the N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the A d v a n c e m e n t of
C o l o r e d P e o p l e is destined to become the i r r e s i s t i b l e f o r c e i n A m e r i c a f o r f r e e i n g the
N e g r o f r o m the bonds w h i c h b i n d h i m .
T h e r e is no g r e a t e r cause t h a n o u r s — i t is a fight f o r the r i g h t s w h i c h b e l o n g to a l l
free men. F o r eleven y e a r s we h a v e been b u i l d i n g the efficient m a c h i n e f o r s u s t a i n e d a n d
o r g a n i z e d effort; w i t h l o y a l t y , s t e a d f a s t c o u r a g e a n d u n i t y the g o a l before us w i l l be
achieved.
T H E

JAMES WELDON
T H O M A S

R A Y

JOHNSON.

Sheriff L . P . P l a y e r , of W i l k i n s o n County,
G a . , a n d V . W . F a u l k n e r , a b r o t h e r of the
late D e w i t t F a u l k n e r . T h e y b r o k e i n t o the
house w i t h d r a w n r e v o l v e r s a n d a r r e s t e d
T h o m a s R a y , sent i n a r i o t c a l l a n d sur­
r o u n d e d the house w i t h police a n d detec­
t i v e s . R a y w a s n o t a l l o w e d to c o m m u n i c a t e
w i t h his f r i e n d s o r a t t o r n e y s f o r two days,
w h e n a r r a n g e m e n t s h a d been a l m o s t com­
pleted f o r t u r n i n g h i m over to Sheriff
P l a y e r a n d F a u l k n e r f o r r e t u r n to G e o r g i a .
In the meantime Attorneys Willis and
Hinton, of Detroit, had been retained to defend
Ray.
T h e case also w a s r e p o r t e d to the
D e t r o i t B r a n c h of the N . A . A . C . P . , w h i c h
W.
immediately associated
its a t t o r n e y ,
H a y e s M c K i n n e y , w i t h the t w o l a w y e r s and
s t a r t e d to r a i s e a f u n d f o r the fight to pre­
vent R a y ' s e x t r a d i t i o n to G e o r g i a .

C A S E

THE

D e t r o i t B r a n c h h a s been engaged
f o r s e v e r a l m o n t h s i n one of the most
s p e c t a c u l a r a n d i m p o r t a n t e x t r a d i t i o n cases
of r e c e n t y e a r s .
I n J u n e , T h o m a s R a y , a y o u n g colored
man, was living in Wilkinson County,
Georgia. While passing the home of Dewitt
F a u l k n e r , a w h i t e m a n of t h a t c o u n t y , he
w a s c a l l e d i n t o the house b y F a u l k n e r .
W h e n R a y entered the house F a u l k n e r stat­
ed t h a t he w a s not i n a good h u m o r a n d
felt like cutting Ray's throat.
R a y ran
f r o m the house a n d w e n t home. K n o w i n g
F a u l k n e r ' s v i c i o u s r e p u t a t i o n i n the c o u n t y
f o r m i s t r e a t m e n t of N e g r o e s , R a y avoided
an encounter w i t h h i m .
A few Sunday
n i g h t s l a t e r F a u l k n e r shot five t i m e s i n t o
R a y ' s home, b a r e l y m i s s i n g R a y ' s w i f e a n d
children. The following m o r n i n g F a u l k n e r
a p p r o a c h e d R a y i n the field w h e r e he w a s
w o r k i n g , t e l l i n g h i m t h a t he r e g r e t t e d h i s
a c t i o n a n d h a d come to apologize. H e t h e n
asked R a y i f he h a d a g u n a n d r e c e i v e d a
negative reply.
F a u l k n e r thereupon drew
his o w n g u n a n d declared t h a t he w a s g o i n g
to k i l l R a y , b u t R a y w h o , i n spite of his
statement did have a weapon, was quicker
a n d , firing five times, k i l l e d F a u l k n e r .
K n o w i n g t h a t he w o u l d be l y n c h e d i f
c a u g h t , R a y escaped f r o m the c o u n t y a n d
succeeded i n r e a c h i n g C a n a d a .
L a t e r he
w e n t to D e t r o i t a n d secured
employment
there.
O n S e p t e m b e r 5, the home o f R a y ' s
brother-in-law, where R a y was l i v i n g , was
r a i d e d s p e c t a c u l a r l y b y t w o officers of the
Police Department
of D e t r o i t , aided b y

Then the long legal fight was begun.
Application was made and approved for a hear­
i n g on the e x t r a d i t i o n w r i t before G o v e r n o r
A l b e r t E . Sleeper. A l t h o u g h the a t t o r n e y s
for R a y proved conclusively t h a t i f R a y was
t a k e n back to G e o r g i a he w o u l d u n d o u b t e d l y
be l y n c h e d , G o v e r n o r S l e e p e r g r a n t e d the
e x t r a d i t i o n u p o n the w a r r a n t f o r R a y ' s
a r r e s t w h i c h h a d been sent on f r o m G e o r g i a .
G o v e r n o r S l e e p e r d i d t h i s i n spite o f the
f a c t t h a t b u t a f e w m o n t h s before he h a d
g r a n t e d the e x t r a d i t i o n of a c o l o r e d m a n to
the state o f K e n t u c k y a n d t h a t m a n h a d
been l y n c h e d less t h a n t w e l v e h o u r s a f t e r
he h a d been r e t u r n e d to K e n t u c k y f o r t r i a l .
The lawyers thereupon applied for a w r i t
of h a b e a s c o r p u s f r o m the C i r c u i t C o u r t o f
Wayne County.
T h e h e a r i n g on the w r i t
w a s h e l d before J u d g e O r m o n d F . H u n t ,

116

N.

A. A.

who f o u n d the d e m a n d a n d r e n d i t i o n f o r
e x t r a d i t i o n not i n c o n f o r m i t y to l a w , g r a n t ­
ed the w r i t o f h a b e a s c o r p u s a n d ordered
the p r i s o n e r released f r o m custody.
The
officers, a c t u a t e d b y the r e w a r d o f $500
w h i c h h a d been offered b y F a u l k n e r ' s f a m ­
i l y , a t t e m p t e d to r e - a r r e s t R a y on a tele­
graphed communication f r o m Georgia stat­
ing that a n indictment was being forwarded
W i s h i n g to h a v e the case t h o r ­
by mail.
o u g h l y a i r e d , the a t t o r n e y s f o r R a y sub­
m i t t e d to h i s r e - a r r e s t , a l t h o u g h l e g a l l y he
w a s a free m a n .
A n e w d e m a n d w a s made u p o n G o v e r n o r
Sleeper f o r a new h e a r i n g on the w r i t o f
e x t r a d i t i o n based on the i n d i c t m e n t w h i c h
was held at Lansing on October 20.
Assistant Secretary Walter F. White, of the New
Y o r k office, a p p e a r e d at this h e a r i n g w i t h
the l a w y e r s f o r R a y a n d testified r e g a r d i n g
the vicious conditions in the state of
Georgia and the danger of lynching in the case
of R a y , these f a c t s b e i n g based on p e r s o n a l
i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w h i c h M r . W h i t e h a d made
i n the state.
G o v e r n o r S l e e p e r a g a i n declared t h a t he
s a w no r e a s o n w h y R a y s h o u l d not be re­
t u r n e d to G e o r g i a a n d a c c o r d i n g l y g r a n t e d
new extradition papers.
T h e n e x t step w a s the a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a n ­
other w r i t of habeas corpus i n the C i r c u i t
C o u r t of W a y n e C o u n t y . T h e h e a r i n g on
this application was held on Friday,
November 19, before Judge Goff, being ad­
j o u r n e d to T u e s d a y , N o v e m b e r 23.
The
a t t o r n e y s f o r R a y presented on the 2 3 r d a
n u m b e r of witnesses, i n c l u d i n g M r . W h i t e ,
w h o w a s b r o u g h t on f r o m N e w Y o r k , to
p r o v e t h a t R a y c o u l d not be g i v e n a f a i r
t r i a l i n G e o r g i a . J u d g e Goff stated t h a t he
h a d v e r y g r e a t s y m p a t h y f o r R a y ; t h a t he
f e l t t h a t t h e r e w a s d a n g e r of R a y ' s not re­
c e i v i n g a f a i r t r i a l , b u t t h a t he c o u l d o n l y
abide b y the C o n s t i t u t i o n a n d refuse the
writ.
J u d g e Goff a l l o w e d considerable l a t i t u d e
i n the g i v i n g of t e s t i m o n y so t h a t the l a w ­
y e r s f o r R a y c o u l d place sufficient m a t e r i a l
i n the r e c o r d s on w h i c h to base a n a p p e a l
to the S t a t e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f M i c h i g a n ,
a n d a l l o w e d u n t i l D e c e m b e r 13 to file a n ap­
There
p e a l to the S t a t e S u p r e m e C o u r t .
the m a t t e r rests. T h e case w i l l be f o u g h t
to t h e l a s t c o u r t of r e s o r t .
T h e D e t r o i t B r a n c h a n d the a t t o r n e y s f o r
R a y are not averse to R a y ' s b e i n g t r i e d , but,
b e i n g convinced t h a t conditions i n the state

117

C. P .

of G e o r g i a where, d u r i n g the p a s t t h i r t y two y e a r s 384 N e g r o e s h a v e been l y n c h e d by
lawless mobs a n d the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of a n y
N e g r o ' s r e c e i v i n g a f a i r t r i a l i n t h a t state
when accused of a c r i m e a g a i n s t a w h i t e
m a n , they are d e t e r m i n e d to save R a y f r o m
being r e t u r n e d . A p a t h e t i c note enters the
case i n connection w i t h the aged f a t h e r o f
R a y , a poor m a n , who has spent a l l t h a t he
has to p r e v e n t e x t r a d i t i o n of his son a n d
who is now s u i f e r i n g f r o m a n a t t a c k of
nervous p r o s t r a t i o n as a r e s u l t of the s t r a i n
he has u n d e r g o n e . T h e D e t r o i t B r a n c h h a s
done excellent w o r k , aided by the c h u r c h e s
a n d citizens of the c i t y , i n r a i s i n g a f u n d of
more t h a n one t h o u s a n d d o l l a r s f o r the
Messrs. Willis,
prosecution of this case.
H i n t o n a n d M c K i n n e y h a v e done s p l e n d i d
w o r k i n fighting the case. A l a t e r issue of
T H E C R I S I S w i l l t e l l of the final outcome.
LOUISVILLE

B R A N C H

B O N D

D E F E A T S

ISSUE

THE power of the Negro vote in
Louisville, Ky., in defeating a bond issue for
one m i l l i o n d o l l a r s f r o m w h i c h the colored
citizens w e r e to reap no benefit, f o r m e d one
of the b r i g h t e s t spots i n the recent election.
A g i t a t i o n w a s s t a r t e d i n M a y f o r the i s s u ­
i n g o f t h i s a m o u n t i n bonds f o r the p u r p o s e
of i m p r o v i n g the U n i v e r s i t y of L o u i s v i l l e ,
a w h i t e i n s t i t u t i o n s u p p o r t e d b y the c i t y .
B e i n g i n K e n t u c k y , i t does not a d m i t N e g r o
students. T h e r e is no i n s t i t u t i o n i n the c i t y
s u p p o r t e d by the c i t y ' s funds f o r the h i g h e r
e d u c a t i o n o f colored students.
T h e colored schools f o r the most p a r t are
in a d e p l o r a b l e c o n d i t i o n — p o o r l y housed,
i n a d e q u a t e l y v e n t i l a t e d a n d g r e a t l y over­
c r o w d e d . A l t h o u g h the colored p o p u l a t i o n
of L o u i s v i l l e f o r m e d o n e - f o u r t h of the p o p u ­
l a t i o n , t h e y w e r e to be t a x e d e q u a l l y w i t h
the w h i t e citizens f o r the s u p p o r t of the
U n i v e r s i t y of L o u i s v i l l e , and no p a r t of the
a m o u n t of the bonds was to be expended on
colored schools. T h e m a t t e r w a s first t a k e n
up b y M r . W i l s o n S. L o v e t t , C h a i r m a n o f
the E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e o f the L o u i s v i l l e
Branch.
In an extensive correspondence
with Dean J. L. Patterson, of the
University of Louisville, Mr. Lovett pointed out that
colored citizens of L o u i s v i l l e w e r e g l a d to
see the U n i v e r s i t y o f L o u i s v i l l e i m p r o v e , b u t
t h a t t h e y objected to b e i n g t a x e d to p r o v i d e
such b e t t e r m e n t of school c o n d i t i o n s f o r
whites w h e n the colored schools w e r e so
w o e f u l l y i n a d e q u a t e a n d i n f a r g r e a t e r need
t h a n the w h i t e schools. T h e d i s c u s s i o n pre­

118

T H E

c i p i t a t e d a b i t t e r fight w h i c h c u l m i n a t e d
i n the elections of N o v e m b e r 2.
T h e c h a r t e r of the c i t y of L o u i s v i l l e p r o ­
vides t h a t i n o r d e r to pass a b o n d issue,
t w o - t h i r d s o f a l l the votes cast m u s t be i n
f a v o r of the bonds.
A f t e r h a v i n g given
every
reasonable
opportunity
to
the
sponsors
of the bond issue to
make
provision
for
colored
schools
some
and
a f t e r h a v i n g been u n s u c c e s s f u l i n
s e c u r i n g a n y s u c h p r o v i s i o n , the colored
vote w a s cast s o l i d l y a g a i n s t the bonds. A
t o t a l o f 54,645 votes w a s c a s t ; the affirma­
t i v e vote w a s 32,214 w h i l e the n e g a t i v e vote
was 22,431. T h e n e c e s s a r y n u m b e r to se­
c u r e passage w a s 36,763 votes, so t h a t the
m a r g i n b y w h i c h the bond issue w a s defeat­
ed w a s 4,549.
T h e vote i n the so-called
" b l a c k w a r d s " w a s 12,000 a g a i n s t the bonds,
w h i c h means t h a t the N e g r o v o t e - d e c i s i v e l y
defeated the issue.
A s a r e s u l t of t h i s
achievement, the N e g r o e s of L o u i s v i l l e h a v e
p u t themselves on r e c o r d as b e i n g a unified
g r o u p w h i c h m u s t be r e c k o n e d w i t h a n d
w h i c h w i l l fight r e l e n t l e s s l y the d i s c r i m i n a ­
t o r y methods used i n d e n y i n g adequate edu­
cational institutions for their children.
M r . L o v e t t , w h o w a s most a c t i v e i n the
defeat of the bond issue, w a s l i k e w i s e a
c a n d i d a t e f o r the school b o a r d . T h i s b o a r d ,
w h i c h controls the schools of L o u i s v i l l e , is
composed of five members, c a n d i d a t e s f o r
w h i c h are u s u a l l y selected b y the School
E l e c t i o n L e a g u e . T h e m e m b e r s h i p s of these
e x p i r e at different times. T w o such p o s i ­
t i o n s w e r e to be filled i n the elections t h i s
y e a r ; since N e g r o e s compose one-fifth of the
p o p u l a t i o n the colored voters f e l t t h a t they
w e r e e n t i t l e d to one m e m b e r s h i p on the
board and nominated M r . Lovett for that
p o s i t i o n . T h i s w a s done a f t e r f o r m e r P o s t ­
master Robert E . Woods, who had shown a
p a r t i c u l a r l y p r e j u d i c e d a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s col­
ored people w h i l e p o s t m a s t e r , h a d an­
nounced his c a n d i d a c y as a n independent
c a n d i d a t e . T h e l o c a l w h i t e R e p u b l i c a n lead­
ers b i t t e r l y opposed M r . L o v e t t ' s n o m i n a ­
t i o n , s t a t i n g t h a t i f he w o n , the D e m o c r a t s
w o u l d use the t h r e a t of " N e g r o d o m i n a t i o n "
i n the n e x t election. Offers w e r e m a d e to
M r . L o v e t t to name his o w n p r i c e to w i t h ­
d r a w , but to his g r e a t a n d e v e r l a s t i n g
c r e d i t , M r . L o v e t t p r o v e d t h a t he w a s n o t
p u r c h a s a b l e and announced t h a t he w a s i n
the race to stay.
T h i s a c t i o n caused c o n s t e r n a t i o n a m o n g
the old line p o l i t i c i a n s . T w e l v e h o u r s before
election M r . W o o d s w i t h d r e w i n o r d e r to

CRISIS

m a k e s u r e the defeat of M r . L o v e t t . I n
s p i t e o f the v i c i o u s t a c t i c s used, M r . L o v e t t
p o l l e d 11,266 votes, b u t w a s defeated. T w o
a c h i e v e m e n t s s t a n d out, W o o d s w a s f o r c e d
to q u i t a n d the b o n d issue w a s k i l l e d . I t is
h i g h l y p r o b a b l e t h a t the N e g r o vote w i l l
n e v e r be d i s r e g a r d e d a g a i n i n L o u i s v i l l e .
T H E

M A U R I C E

M A Y S

C A S E

ONE of the r e g r e t s of the N a t i o n a l Office
is t h a t l a c k o f adequate finances pre­
v e n t e d i t f r o m a i d i n g i n the defense of
M a u r i c e M a y s , a c o l o r e d m a n of K n o x v i l l e ,
T e n n . , w h o , i n A u g u s t , 1919, w a s accused of
m u r d e r i n g M r s . B e r t i e L i n d s e y , w h i t e , of
the same c i t y . T h e r e a r e s t r o n g reasons f o r
d o u b t i n g M a y s ' g u i l t as subsequent i n v e s t i ­
g a t i o n s h o w e d t h a t at the t i m e o f the m u r ­
der, M a y s w a s a t h i s o w n home asleep,
m o r e t h a n a m i l e f r o m the scene o f the
crime.
The Chattanooga and Knoxville
b r a n c h e s , h o w e v e r , h a v e been a c t i v e l y at
w o r k s e e k i n g a n e w t r i a l , b o t h because
of the g a t h e r i n g o f a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n
since the t r i a l a n d because the mob s p i r i t
w a s v e r y intense at the t i m e M a y s w a s con­
v i c t e d a n d sentenced.
M o n e y has been
r a i s e d t h o u g h n o t e n o u g h to complete the
case i n the event t h a t i t is c a r r i e d to h i g h e r
courts.
O n S a t u r d a y , N o v e m b e r 20, the decision
of the lower court was reversed by the
Tennessee State Supreme Court and Mays re­
This encouraging
manded for a new t r i a l
step w a s secured on the g r o u n d t h a t the
j u r y s h o u l d h a v e n a m e d the p u n i s h m e n t i n ­
stead o f the p r e s i d i n g j u d g e . W h e n the p a ­
p e r s f o r the n e w t r i a l a r e filed, o p p o r t u n i t y
w i l l be g i v e n to p l a c e a l l o f the p o i n t s i n
c o n t r o v e r s y before the S u p r e m e C o u r t o f the
S t a t e of Tennessee.
A N O T H E R

V I C T O R Y

I N

A R K A N S A S

THE Supreme
Court of Arkansas
has
held that discrimination against
Negroes in the selection of both grand and
petit
juries
is in contravention
of
the
Amendment
and of the.
Civil
Fourteenth
Rights Act of 1875, and it has
consequently
reversed
the decision
of the lower
court
riots
in condemning
to death for the Elaine
Ed Ware, Will Wordlow, Albert Giles, John
Fox, John Martin and Alfred
Banks.
This
is the second time that the court has re­
of death passed on
versed
the sentences
these
Negroes.
Death
sentences
on six other
Negroes
Su­
which have been affirmed by the State

N. A . A . C . P.
prone
Court loill now probably
be held up
by the Governor
until the present cases are
decided.
Governor
Brough
has made every effort
to hang these Negroes,
even attempting
to
articles
in
influence the court by newspaper
which he cited the various Arkansas
organ­
their death.
izations which were demanding
A

L A WM A K I N G
F E D E R A L

L Y N C H I N G

A

O F F E N S E

S I N C E 1911, the N . A . A . C . P . has made
a concerted fight a g a i n s t l y n c h i n g .
Its
a p p e a l to the n a t i o n i n 1918, coupled w i t h
its publication of "Thirty Years of
Lynching in the United States," brought the at­
t e n t i o n o f the c i v i l i z e d w o r l d to t h i s c r i m e .
Our
figures
are
quoted
in
literature
e m a n a t i n g n e t o n l y f r o m the A m e r i c a s b u t
from Europe, A s i a and A f r i c a .
Having
a c q u i r e d t h i s d a t a we s h a l l n o w proceed to
put o u r w h o l e effort i n t o the s e c u r i n g of a
f e d e r a l l a w t h a t s h a l l i n s u r e the t r i a l of the
l y n c h e r i n a f e d e r a l c o u r t . A s l o n g as no
one is ever p u n i s h e d b y the state f o r l y n c h ­
i n g , w h i c h has been the case f o r o v e r t h i r t y
years c f l y n c h i n g i n the S o u t h , so l o n g
lynching w i l l continue.
Today any white
man of the S o u t h c a n k i l l a n y N e g r o w i t h
the p e r f e c t a s s u r a n c e t h a t the state w i l l
n e v e r mete out p u n i s h m e n t to h i m . It is to
puncture this assurance that the
Anti-lynching Law is pressed.
S E C U R I N G

119

b r a n c h a n d y o u believe t h a t a b r a n c h c a n
o p e r a t e in y o u r c o m m u n i t y , w i l l y o u not
e s t a b l i s h one there?
A b o v e a l l , w i l l not e v e r y person who reads
t h i s a n d believes i n w h a t the A s s o c i a t i o n
s t a n d s f o r , i f he is not a m e m b e r , send us
his one- o r five- o r t e n - d o l l a r m e m b e r s h i p ?
W e s h a l l w i t h the N e w Y e a r e n t e r upon
a d r i v e f o r a q u a r t e r of a m i l l i o n membERS.
W i t h t h a t n u m b e r we s h o u l d be a n i r r e s i s t i ­
ble force, able to affect l e g i s l a t i o n , : hie to
b r i n g to the t w e l v e m i l l i o n N e g r o e s of this
c o u n t r y j u s t i c e a n d common h u m a n i t y .

T H E V O T E

AS in the case of lynching, the
Association is first making a thorough study
of N e g r o disfranchisement.
It
expects
s h o r t l y to p u b l i s h a n a u t h o r i t a t i v e state­
m e n t on the subject. I t is d o i n g other i m ­
p o r t a n t w o r k r e g a r d i n g the recent vote
w h i c h i t c a n n o t yet g i v e to the p u b l i c .
These a r e the t w o m o s t i m p o r t a n t single
t a s k s t h a t we h a v e to a t t a c k w i t h the com­
i n g y e a r . T h e r e is w o r k s t i l l u n f i n i s h e d , —
the A r k a n s a s cases, the c o n d i t i o n s i n H a i t i ;
there a r e also the n e w cases t h a t w i l l i n ­
e v i t a b l y s p r i n g u p ; there i s the v i g i l a n t
s t u d y of t h e best means f o r p u b l i c i t y ; there
is the e v e r y - d a y - i n - t h e - w e e k t a s k o f k e e p i n g
t h i s g r e a t o r g a n i z a t i o n m o v i n g , of l o s i n g
no u n i t i n the m a s s t h a t s h a l l m a k e us i r ­
r e s i s t i b l e i n t h e end.
I t is t h i s l a s t t a s k t h a t we ask e v e r y
r e a d e r o f T H E C R I S I S to h e l p us to u n d e r ­
take. I f y o u b e l o n g to a b r a n c h , w i l l y o u
not help to m a k e t h a t b r a n c h a p o w e r ? I f
y o u a r e i n a c o m m u n i t y w h e r e there is no

THE

BISHOP OF NIGERIA A T T H E U N V E I L I N G
OF T H E A B R A H A M L I N C O L N STATUE,
LONDON, ENGLAND

T H I R T E E N NEGRO
Elected

i . Adelbert H . Roberts, Illinois, lawyer, Republican
yer, Republican. 3. Andrew F . Stevens, Pennsylvania
lawyer, Republican, re-elected. 5. H a r r y J . Capehart,
Sheadrick B . Turner, Illinois, lawyer, Republican, sec
publican, re-elected. 8. T . Gillis Nutter, West Virgin
New York, lawyer, Republican, second re-election. 10.
can. 11. J . H . Ryan, Washington, editor, Farmer-Lab

13. W . M . Moore, Missouri, R

120

AMERICAN
November 2,

LEGISLATORS

1920

re-elected. 2. John C. Asbury, Pennsylvania, lawyers
banker, Republican. 4. Warren B . Douglas, Illinois,
;st Virginia, lawyer, Republican, re-elected. 6 .
i re-election. 7. H a r r y E . Davis, Ohio, lawyer, Relawyer, Republican, re-elected. 9 . John C . Hawkins,
Walter G . Alexander, New Jersey, physician, Republi­
12. Frederick M . Roberts, California, Republican,
Republican. (Picture missing).

121

THE L o o k i n g G l a s s
LITERATURE

ANISE i n the S e a t t l e , W a s h . ,
Record:
W h e n the S U F F R A G E l a w
Was

Union

passed

*

*

*

A n d the colored w o m e n

*

*

*

*

*

*

impatient.
*
*
*
He shouted: " Y o ' niggers
*
•*
*
Get out and stay out!
*
*
*
A n ' i f y o ' don't s t a y out,
*
*
*
D e y ' l l be some B U C K - S H O T

*

O f the S o u t h

*
*

*

*

*

*

*



*

A n d somebody c r i e d : " W H O
*
*
*
STIRRED U P

*

*
*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

T h a t put i n man's soul
*
*
*
F r o m the v e r y b e g i n n i n g o f
*
*
*
DREAMS

*

*
And

hunger for

*

*

FREEDOM!

*

#

*

*

*

*

Anyway,
T h e y stretched out t h e i r hands
*
*
*
F o r the l i t t l e w h i t e b a l l o t ,
*
*
*
T h e first s l i g h t s i g n

*

girl,

*
*
Y o ' misponounced two
*
*
Y o ' g i t out o' h e r e !
*
*
Y o ' c a n ' t vote,—

*

B u t I guess i t w a s G O D ,
*
*
*
Or whatever power i t was

O n the second d a y
T h e y were e x a m i n e d
*
*
*
W i t h difficult questions,
On l a w and politics;
*
*
*
T h e y were tested i n r e a d i n g
*
*
*
A n d were yelled at:

*

*

T o come a n d r e g i s t e r ? "
*
*
*
A n d nobody told h i m W H O ;

them,

*

*

A l l these c o l o r e d w o m e n

W h i l e the w h i t e w o m e n
*
*
*
W e r e called f o r w a r d
*
*
*
A s f a s t as t h e y entered.
*
*
*
B u t s t i l l the colored w o m e n
*
*
*
K e p t on c o m i n g !

*

*

K e p t on coming.

To D I S C O U R A G E

*

*

*

M a n y hours in line

"Heah,

*

B u t s t i l l the c o l o r e d w o m e n

T h e y were k e p t s t a n d i n g

*

*

*

*

*

*

To K E E P you out!"

C a m e o u t to r e g i s t e r
*
*
*
M a n y were the h u m i l i a t i o n s
T h a t met them.
*
O n the first d a y
*

Grew

*

*
words.
*

*

*

*

T h a t t h e y w h o h a d been
*
*
*
T h e slaves of slaves
*
»
*
Were self-governing citizens!

*

A n d S O M E of them

*

Y o ' a i n ' t got sense e n o u g h ! "
*
*
*
B u t s t i l l the colored w o m e n
*
*
*
K e p t on c o m i n g !
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SUCCEEDED
122

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In getting registered,
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A n d the o t h e r d a y at e l e c t i o n

time

T H E

L O O K I N G

To

t h r o w the b a l l o t s O U T ,
»
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O n some t e c h n i c a l reasons,

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For

f e a r those colored w o m e n
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M i g h t r e a l l y come
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To B E L I E V E
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government

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EXISTS
In

America!

I n o u r N o v e m b e r n u m b e r the n a m e E . R .
J a c k s o n as quoted f r o m the Seattle
UnionRecord s h o u l d have been E . R . F r a n k l i n .

VIEWS AND REVIEWS
FRANZ
B O A S w r i t e s i n The Nation
on
S t o d d a r d ' s Rising
Tide of Color:
M r . S t o d d a r d ' s book is one of the l o n g
series of p u b l i c a t i o n s devoted to the selfa d m i r a t i o n o f the w h i t e race, w h i c h begins
w i t h G o b i n e a u ' a n d comes d o w n to us
through Chamberlain and, w i t h increasing­
ly passionate
appeal, through Madison
G r a n t to M r . S t o d d a r d . T h e n e w e r books
of t h i s t y p e t r y to bolster u p t h e i r u n s c i e n ­
tific theories b y a n a m a t e u r i s h a p p e a l to
m i s u n d e r s t o o d discoveries r e l a t i n g to he­
r e d i t y a n d g i v e i n t h i s m a n n e r a scientific
guise to t h e i r d o g m a t i c s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h
misleads the p u b l i c . F o r t h i s r e a s o n the
books m u s t be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as v i c i o u s
p r o p a g a n d a , a n d deserve a n a t t e n t i o n not
warranted by an i n t r i n s i c m e r i t in their
l e a r n i n g or t h e i r logic.
T h e f u n d a m e n t a l w e a k n e s s of a l l books
of this type, and eminently so of Mr.
Stoddard's book, is a complete lack of under­
s t a n d i n g o f the h e r e d i t a r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
of a race as a g a i n s t the h e r e d i t a r y c h a r a c ­
teristics o f a p a r t i c u l a r s t r a i n or l i n e of
descent.
E a c h race is e x c e e d i n g l y v a r i a b l e
in a l l i t s f e a t u r e s , a n d we find i n the w h i t e
race, as w e l l as i n a l l other races, a l l g r a d e s
of i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t y f r o m the i m b e c i l e to
the m a n o f h i g h i n t e l l e c t u a l p o w e r . I t is
t r u e t h a t i n t e l l e c t u a l p o w e r is h e r e d i t a r y i n
the i n d i v i d u a l , a n d t h a t the h e a l t h y , the
p h y s i c a l l y a n d m e n t a l l y developed i n d i v i d ­
u a l s o f a race, i f t h e y m a r r y a m o n g t h e m ­
selves, a r e l i a b l e to have o f f s p r i n g o f a
s i m i l a r e x c e l l e n c e ; b u t i t is e q u a l l y t r u e
t h a t the i n f e r i o r i n d i v i d u a l s i n a race w i l l
also have i n f e r i o r o f f s p r i n g . If, therefore,
it w e r e e n t i r e l y a question o f the eugenic
development o f h u m a n i t y , t h e n the a i m of
the e u g e n i s t w o u l d be to suppress not the
g i f t e d s t r a i n s o f o t h e r races, b u t r a t h e r the
inferior strains of our own race.
A se­
lection o f the i n t e l l i g e n t , energetic, a n d
h i g h l y e n d o w e d i n d i v i d u a l s f r o m a l l - over
the w o r l d w o u l d not b y a n y m e a n s leave the
w h i t e r a c e as the o n l y s u r v i v o r s , b u t w o u l d
leave a n a s s e m b l y o f i n d i v i d u a l s w h o w o u l d

GLASS

123

p r o b a b l y r e p r e s e n t a l l the different races
of m a n n o w in existence.
*
*
*
In a second e d i t i o n of her p a m p h l e t on
Southern
Women and Racial
Adjustment,
the a u t h o r , M r s . L . H . H a m m o n d , w r i t e s i n
the p r e f a c e :
One m u s t welcome the m u l t i p l y i n g s i g n s
t h a t the w o m e n themselves are g r o w i n g
r e a d y f o r l a r g e r concerted effort, i n b e h a l f
e s p e c i a l l y o f the N e g r o w o m a n a n d her
home. T h e s o u t h e r n P r e s b y t e r i a n a n d the
s o u t h e r n M e t h o d i s t w o m e n have both r e ­
c e n t l y t a k e n f o r w a r d steps w i t h i n t h e i r
own
organizations.
The
Presbyterians
at
have u n d e r t a k e n a g i r l s ' d e p a r t m e n t
S t i l l m a n I n s t i t u t e , a n d are p l a n n i n g a m u l ­
t i p l i c a t i o n o f the i n s t i t u t e s f o r w o m e n now
held y e a r l y at S t i l l m a n , as told i n the f o l ­
l o w i n g pages.
T h e M e t h o d i s t w o m e n have
j u s t created a C o m m i s s i o n to deal w i t h
t h e i r colored w o r k , the first body o f w h i t e
w o m e n so set aside b y a n y o r g a n i z a t i o n in
the c o u n t r y .
T w o f a r m schools, one f o r
boys a n d one f o r g i r l s , are to be operated
by these w o m e n , a n d the w o r k a l r e a d y
u n d e r t a k e n w i l l be e n l a r g e d a n d extended.
T h e C o m m i s s i o n is also c h a r g e d w i t h the
d u t y of c o o p e r a t i n g w i t h a n y a n d a l l agen­
cies w h i c h are w o r k i n g t o w a r d C h r i s t i a n
solutions of r a c i a l questions.
T h i s is one
of s e v e r a l i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t the t i m e is ap­
proaching when southern women w i l l unite
as the m e n are d o i n g , a n d w i l l create
t h r o u g h o u t the S o u t h points of c o n t a c t be­
tween the best w o m e n of both races f o r the
better p r o t e c t i o n of N e g r o w o m a n h o o d , a n d
to secure b r o a d e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r N e g r o
children.
*
*
*
A recent n u m b e r o f the F r e n c h m a g a z i n e
Le Correspondent,
i n a long and interesting
article entitled " T h e N e g r o Question and
T h e N e x t E l e c t i o n s , " shows h o w w e l l ac­
q u a i n t e d F r a n c e is b e c o m i n g w i t h the color
p r o b l e m i n the U n i t e d States. T h i s a u t h o r
k n o w s h i s subject a n d speaks of D u n b a r ,
B r a i t h w a i t e , J o h n s o n , D u B o i s and T a n n e r .
H e r e are some o f his v i e w s :
T o d a y , i n spite of e v e r y resistance a n d
e v e r y difficulty, the N e g r o has succeeded i n
b e c o m i n g a p a r t a n d a recognized p a r t of
the A m e r i c a n g o v e r n m e n t .
. . . Since
the e m a n c i p a t i o n N e g r o e s have
learned
self-organization
and
their
manner
of
l e a r n i n g t h i s is the more i n t e r e s t i n g f r o m
the f a c t t h a t the state of s e r v i t u d e i n w h i c h
they h a d been l i v i n g f o r more t h a n three
centuries w a s the v e r i t a b l e n e g a t i o n of i n ­
itiative and responsibility. . . .
T h e N e g r o is v e r y s e n s u a l a n d the w h i t e
w o m a n possesses a s p e c i a l a t t r a c t i o n f o r
him.
I t m a y be s a i d , h o w e v e r , t h a t the
b l a c k m a n possesses the same a t t r a c t i o n f o r
c e r t a i n w h i t e w o m e n as m a y be p r o v e d b y
the recent b r a w l s i n c e r t a i n h a r b o r s of
G r e a t B r i t a i n , L i v e r p o o l a m o n g others, a n d
i n the E a s t E n d of L o n d o n .
It might

124

T H E

e q u a l l y as w e l l be s a i d t h a t l i k e w i s e i n
the U n i t e d S t a t e s the colored w o m a n pos­
sesses t h i s a t t r a c t i o n f o r the w h i t e m a n .
P r o o f o f t h i s is f u r n i s h e d b y the c o n s i d e r ­
able n u m b e r of m u l a t t o e s .

HAITI
A D M I R A L M A Y S a n d his b o a r d h a v e
concluded t h e i r f a r c e i n P o r t - a u - P r i n c e
w i t h the f i n d i n g t h a t " a l l b u t 10 of the 1 , 1 4 2
H a i t i a n s k i l l e d i n the l a s t t w o y e a r s died i n
W i l b u r Forrest writes in
open b a t t l e . "
Tribune:
the N e w Y o r k
I t is a c e r t a i n t y t h a t the d e p a r t u r e of the
b o a r d of i n q u i r y leaves the s i t u a t i o n m o r e
m u d d l e d t h a n ever.
*
*
*
I t is u n d e r s t o o d t h a t the b o a r d acted on
the i n s t r u c t i o n s o f S e c r e t a r y D a n i e l s . B u t
S e c r e t a r y D a n i e l s r e p r e s e n t s the a t t i t u d e of
a people i n the m a i n h o s t i l e or at best i n ­
different to the i n t e r e s t s a n d w i s h e s o f a
d a r k race.
Senator
Medill
McCormick,
w h i l e b l a m i n g M r . D a n i e l s , sees the f a u l t of
the A m e r i c a n O c c u p a t i o n o n l y i n i t s m e t h ­
ods of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . H e w r i t e s i n The
Nation:
W e h a v e seized c o n t r o l of H a i t i a n d
S a n t o D o m i n g o a n d of t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .
Indeed, i n S a n t o D o m i n g o there is not even
a D o m i n i c a n president.
The constitutional
l e g i s l a t u r e s of the two c o u n t r i e s a r e not
f u n c t i o n i n g even b y fiction, as the E g y p t i a n
A s s e m b l y w a s p e r m i t t e d to f u n c t i o n u n d e r
the B r i t i s h o c c u p a t i o n . W e took over the
G o v e r n m e n t of the two c o u n t r i e s b u t i n r e ­
t u r n set up no r e s p o n s i b l e a u t h o r i t y — r e ­
sponsible i n l a w , r e s p o n s i b l e i n f a c t — e i t h e r
to the peoples of the i s l a n d or to p u b l i c
o p i n i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s .
A govern­
ment of a n o m a l i e s , s u c h as e x i s t s i n S a n t o
D o m i n g o or H a i t i , one w h i c h l i v e s b y the
v e r y c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of its b e i n g , one w h i c h
asserts the
present
s o v e r e i g n t y of the
q u o n d a m r e p u b l i c s w h i l e i t denies i t s a c t u ­
a l i t y , o u g h t to be staffed b y able a n d ex­
perienced m e n a n d g u i d e d b y a definite
p o l i t i c a l a n d economic p o l i c y . I n H a i t i we
Plenipotentiary, M r .
have
a Minister
B a i l l y - B l a n c h a r d , a n d a fiscal a d v i s e r , M r .
M c l l h e n n y , both o f L o u i s i a n a , both s o c i a l l y
attractive and personally c h a r m i n g , but
how o t h e r w i s e qualified to meet the difficul­
ties of t h e i r posts I a m not i n f o r m e d . T h e r e
is besides a n d independent of t h e m , the
C o m m a n d a n t o f M a r i n e s . W h o is respon­
sible i n H a i t i , as C r o m e r w a s i n E g y p t , or
as W o o d a n d T a f t were i n C u b a a n d the
P h i l i p p i n e s , or as L y a u t e y w a s i n M o r o c c o ?
W h o i n S a n t o D o m i n g o is r e s p o n s i b l e f o r
a fiscal p o l i c y w h i c h i n a n e r a of e i g h t per
cent i n t e r e s t p r e f e r s to a n t i c i p a t e the p a y ­
m e n t o f the n a t i o n a l debt i n s t e a d of r e d u c ­
i n g the b u r d e n o f t a x a t i o n a n d m o r e espe­
c i a l l y the D o m i n i c a n t a r i f f ? W h o i n H a i t i
is there who m a y be p u n i s h e d f o r a u t h o r ­
i z i n g the corvee,
a n d severely p u n i s h e d

CRISIS

t h e r e f o r e , because i t w a s a n e r r o r o f j u d g ­
m e n t c r i m i n a l i n i t s consequences?
Who
w a s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the w a n t o f a n y com­
p r e h e n s i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y i n the two
so-called r e p u b l i c s , f o r the f a i l u r e to t a k e
a d e q u a t e steps to i m p r o v e the l i v e stock of
the i s l a n d o r to i n c r e a s e the n u m b e r s of
swine, cattle, and draft animals?
There
a r e officers i n H a i t i a n d S a n t o D o m i n g o
w h o have f a i l e d i n t h e i r d u t y f r o m i n c o m ­
petence o r w a n t o f e x p e r i e n c e , a n d I a m
a f r a i d t h e r e a r e o t h e r s w h o h a v e abused
their powers.
B u t the g r o s s f a i l u r e , the
r e a l c u l p a b i l i t y , is t h a t o f the S e c r e t a r y of
the N a v y a n d the P r e s i d e n t o f the U n i t e d
S t a t e s , w h o t o g e t h e r f a i l e d to vest i n a
s i n g l e r e s p o n s i b l e officer i n e a c h of the
c o u n t r i e s the a u t h o r i t y to speak f o r the
U n i t e d S t a t e s i n a l l m a t t e r s , fiscal, m i l i ­
t a r y , p o l i t i c a l , o r d i p l o m a t i c . . . . W e are
t h e r e a n d i n m y j u d g m e n t w e o u g h t to
stay there for twenty years.
*
*
*
B u t do the H a i t i a n s w a n t us to s t a y there
twenty years?
O r do t h e y w a n t a u t h o r i t y
vested i n a s i n g l e r e s p o n s i b l e officer, or i n -

U. S. MARINE: "NOW, JACQUES, TELL THE
ADMIRAL HOW MUCH YOU LOVE ME"

deed a n y officer at a l l ? Does a n y A m e r i c a n
believe t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w o u l d stay
i n H a i t i t w e n t y d a y s i f she w e r e poor i n
trade and a g r i c u l t u r a l possibilities? There
is o n l y one j u s t a n s w e r a n d t h a t i s the one
m a d e to S e n a t o r M c C o r m i c k b y the editors
of The Nation.
T h e f a u l t lies n o t i n the
method o f the A m e r i c a n O c c u p a t i o n b u t in
that Occupation itself. W e r e a d :
W e feel t h a t S e n a t o r M c C o r m i c k i s m i s ­
i n f o r m e d on H a i t i a n h i s t o r y .
A n d when
he suggests t h a t the " g r o s s f a i l u r e a n d the
r e a l c u l p a b i l i t y " lie i n the f a i l u r e o f the
D e m o c r a t i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n to
vest
all
power i n H a i t i and Santo Domingo i n a
" s i n g l e r e s p o n s i b l e officer," a v i r t u a l die­

T H E

L O O K I N G

t a t o r , The Nation m u s t p a r t c o m p a n y w i t h
him.
T h e g r o s s c u l p a b i l i t y , the editors of
The Nation
believe, lies i n the f a c t o f o u r
a l i e n o c c u p a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n i n the d e t a i l s
of D e m o c r a t i c m a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .
They
are not c o n v i n c e d t h a t R e p u b l i c a n a d m i n ­
i s t r a t i o n w i l l solve the p r o b l e m ; t h e y do
not believe t h a t we s h o u l d s t a y i n H a i t i
for t w e n t y y e a r s . N o r c a n they agree w i t h
S e n a t o r M c C o r m i c k ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of the
H a i t i a n s as " p r i m i t i v e A f r i c a n p e a s a n t s
who have m a n a g e d to l i v e a n d to m u l t i p l y
despite the a n a r c h y i n t o w h i c h t h e i r coun­
try had fallen." M a n y H a i t i a n s are p r i m i ­
t i v e , b u t the n a t i o n w h i c h b u i l t the s p l e n d i d
G o t h i c c a t h e d r a l i n P o r t - a u - P r i n c e i n the
years 1903-12 c a n n o t be described as " b a r ­
barous."
T h e r e has been voodooism i n
H a i t i j u s t as there has been l y n c h i n g a n d
as there is s u p e r s t i t i o n a n d degeneracy i n
p a r t s of the U n i t e d S t a t e s .
T h e r e has been o c c a s i o n a l a n a r c h y i n
H a i t i , b u t n e v e r s u c h g e n e r a l a n a r c h y as
since the A m e r i c a n o c c u p a t i o n ; i t is gen­
e r a l l y believed t h a t a t least some of the
H a i t i a n r e v o l u t i o n s w e r e a i d e d by c a p i t a l
f r o m the c i v i l i z e d U n i t e d States.

AS EUROPE SEES US
IN v i e w of the f a c t t h a t t h e r e is t a l k of
s e n d i n g a c o m m i s s i o n f r o m the U n i t e d
S t a t e s to i n v e s t i g a t e B r i t i s h o u t r a g e s i n
Ireland, it is interesting to learn what
England and other countries think of our own
governmental methods. The San
Francisco, Cal., Call and Post says:
Stephen G r a h a m , an E n g l i s h w r i t e r who
has been t r a v e l i n g i n A m e r i c a , f o u n d the
n o r t h e r n a n d e a s t e r n S t a t e s v e r y l i k e his
own c o u n t r y . B u t he f o u n d the S o u t h e r n
States v e r y d i f f e r e n t — w i t h t h e i r w a r m ,
l a z y s o c i a l l i f e r e s t i n g on w h a t he calls "the
vast feudalism N e g r o labor." The Negroes
were m o r e i n t e r e s t i n g to h i m t h a n the w h i t e
people, f o r he f o u n d the w h i t e people con­
tent a n d N e g r o e s r e s t i v e .
A n d he also l e a r n e d w h y .
W h e n they
t r a v e l t h e y a r e c o m p e l l e d to s i t i n special
coaches.
T h o u g h N e g r o e s m a y have the
money to p a y f o r fine automobiles, agen­
cies refuse to s e l l to t h e m — s a c r i f i c i n g profit
to p r e j u d i c e .
N e g r o e s are excluded f r o m
C a r n e g i e l i b r a r i e s . N e g r o schools are d i n g y
and ill-equipped and, though Negroes pay
t a x e s , the streets of t h e i r sections are i l l paved and dangerous.
N e g r o e s m a y have
telephones i n t h e i r homes, b u t t h e i r color
is i n d i c a t e d i n the telephone d i r e c t o r y by
a n asterisk.
N e g r o e s are l y n c h e d
and
b u r n e d : w h e n the first c r i m e occurs 1,000
m o r e s u b s c r i b e r s are added to the c i r c u l a ­
t i o n of T H E C R I S I S , a r a d i c a l , courageous
a n d defiant N e g r o p e r i o d i c a l . T e n t h o u ­
s a n d n e w s u b s c r i b e r s are supposed to come
w h e n a N e g r o is b u r n e d . . . .
C i r c u m s t a n c e s l i k e these, v i s i b l e to a n y
s t r a n g e r , are not v e r y good t o u r i s t a t t r a c ­
tions f o r the U n i t e d States. T h e A m e r i c a n
people, s t u m b l i n g a n d g r o p i n g t h r o u g h the

GLASS

125

c r u d e but v i t a l y e a r s o f its h i s t o r y , has left
m a n y p a i n f u l p r o b l e m s f o r its c h i l d r e n to
solve. A n d "the N e g r o p r o b l e m " w i l l never
be a n y easier as l o n g as men are content
w i t h substitutes f o r j u s t i c e to t h i s race.

*
*
An Associated Press despatch from
Moscow shows a knowledge in Russia of
American a f f a i r s :
T h e note sent r e c e n t l y by B a i n b r i d g e
C o l b y , the A m e r i c a n s e c r e t a r y of state, to
the
Italian
Government
regarding
the
R u s s o - P o l i s h s i t u a t i o n , has been m u c h d i s ­
cussed i n official c i r c l e s .
T h e w r i t e r defends the t h i r d I n t e r n a t i o n ­
ale as l e g i t i m a t e p r o p a g a n d a , i n no wise
d i f f e r i n g i n methods f r o m the c o u n t e r - p r o p ­
aganda employed in capitalist countries.
H e r e p u d i a t e s the a c c u s a t i o n t h a t R u s s i a is
governed other t h a n by the w i l l o f the
w o r k e r s , p e a s a n t s a n d soldiers, a n d declares
t h a t the g r e a t A m e r i c a n d e m o c r a c y , " w h i c h
has p r a c t i c a l l y d i s f r a n c h i s e d the N e g r o
masses a n d a r r e s t s a n d persecutes r a d i c a l
p a r t i e s a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s , " has no r i g h t to
protest a g a i n s t "the b r u t e force o f the
Soviet Government."
T h e late J o h n R e e d at the M o s c o w meet­
i n g of the C o m m u n i s t I n t e r n a t i o n a l , w h e r e
both L e n i n e and T r o t z k y spoke, u r g e d the
U n i o n of A m e r i c a n N e g r o e s w i t h the r a d ­
icals of all nations to further world
sovietism.
D e s c r i b i n g the p o s i t i o n of the N e g r o i n
the U n i t e d States, e s p e c i a l l y i n the S o u t h e r n
States, as " t e r r i b l e , " R e e d declared, the
N e g r o offers a t w o - f o l d o p p o r t u n i t y to the
s p r e a d of c o m m u n i s m i n t h i s c o u n t r y , first,
a s t r o n g r a c e a n d s o c i a l movement, a n d ,
second, a s t r o n g p r o l e t a r i a n
movement.
R a c e consciousness has s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s e d
a m o n g the N e g r o e s , he s a i d , " a c e r t a i n sec­
t i o n o f w h o m are n o w c a r r y i n g on a p r o p ­
a g a n d a i n f a v o r of a n a r m e d r e v o l t a g a i n s t
the w h i t e s , " a n d S o c i a l i s t i c ideas are r a p ­
i d l y d e v e l o p i n g a m o n g the b l a c k s employed
in i n d u s t r i a l establishments.
W h i t e a n d N e g r o l a b o r i n both the n o r t h ­
e r n a n d s o u t h e r n p a r t s o f the c o u n t r y m u s t
be j o i n e d i n common l a b o r unions, R e e d
proposed as the q u i c k e s t w a y to d e s t r o y race
prejudice and develop class solidarity.
Until recently, Negroes "were not admitted to
m e m b e r s h i p i n the m a j o r i t y of u n i o n s w h i c h
c o m p r i s e w h a t is k n o w n as the A m e r i c a n
Federation of Labor," he said. "The
Communists must not, however, stand aloof
f r o m the N e g r o m o v e m e n t f o r s o c i a l a n d
p o l i t i c a l e q u a l i t y , w h i c h is d e v e l o p i n g so
rapidly at the present time among the
Negro classes," Reed told the meeting. "
Communists must avail themselves of this move­
m e n t i n order to p r o v e the emptiness of
B o u r g e o i s e q u a l i t y a n d the necessity f o r a
s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n , not o n l y to l i b e r a t e a l l
l a b o r e r s f r o m s l a v e r y , b u t also as b e i n g
the o n l y effective means of l i b e r a t i n g the
oppressed N e g r o people."

The O u t e r P o c k e t
WOOLASTON,

Mass.

I F E E L that a letter of endorsement m i g h t
encourage y o u , even i f f r o m a p l a i n c i t i ­
zen.
I w i s h to p r a i s e a n d t o s i g n i f y m y
entire agreement w i t h y o u r article i n the
N o v e m b e r C R I S I S o n " T h e S o c i a l E q u a l i t y of
W h i t e s a n d B l a c k s . " I do n o t see h o w the
case could be b e t t e r p u t , o r h o w a n y free
w h i t e m a n c a n look a t i t a n y o t h e r w a y .
H o w e v e r , t h e r e a r e forces a t w o r k i n the
w o r l d w h i c h w i l l b r i n g about a c h a n g e a n d
a n end o f h y p o c r i s y , a l t h o u g h p e r h a p s n o t
i n o u r day. F a c t s a r e s t u b b o r n t h i n g s .

I have wondered w h y couldn't A l i c e P a u l
who w a s c h a i r m a n of the N a t i o n a l Woman's
P a r t y — w h i c h picketed the W h i t e House
a n d whose m e m b e r s e n d u r e d p r i s o n sentence
—be e n g a g e d to f o r m a W o m a n ' s P a r t y to
stop l y n c h i n g s ? W o u l d t h i s be e f f e c t u a l :
to h a v e e v e r y N e g r o leave a t o w n i n w h i c h
a l y n c h i n g h a s t a k e n p l a c e — a t once—every
man, woman and child—without harming
a n y o n e o r t h i n g . W o u l d n ' t t h a t create, f o r
t h a t t o w n , a n economic p r o b l e m t h a t other
t o w n s w o u l d h e s i t a t e to b r i n g d o w n u p o n
themselves?

HELEN

BUCKMILLER.

C. H . B A R S T O W .
ARTESIA,

New

Mexico.

N e a r here i s a s e t t l e m e n t o f N e g r o e s — a
little town called " B l a c k d o m " , consisting of
f a r m e r s w h o h a v e w r e n c h e d e v e r y b i t of
good o u t o f o u r b i t t e r s o i l . T h e y a r e quiet,
good c i t i z e n s a n d m o l e s t nobody. T h e y h a v e
h a d l i t t l e chance f o r the c u l t u r a l t h i n g s o f
l i f e a n d I believe t h e y w o u l d welcome a n
o p p o r t u n i t y to t a k e y o u r p a p e r s a n d m a g a ­
zines. O f course, t h e y m a y a l r e a d y k n o w
about t h e m . T h e y have a l i t t l e school a n d
a church.
Once i n O m a h a , I h a d a n a r g u m e n t w i t h
a m a n who insisted that a n y woman's life
w a s i n d a n g e r w h o w e n t alone o n the streets
of the c i t y after n i g h t . I m a i n t a i n e d t h a t
the d a n g e r w o u l d be f r o m t h u g s o r m a s h e r s .
I h a v e been accosted b y w h i t e m a s h e r s on
the c i t y streets, b u t I h a v e n e v e r been no­
ticed b y N e g r o e s .
I n o r d e r to p r o v e m y
point, I offered to walk the length of

PARIS, France.
I a m l i v i n g w i t h a F r e n c h f a m i l y .and
m y F r e n c h i s i m p r o v i n g r a p i d l y . I a m told
t h a t I a m v e r y f o r t u n a t e as F r e n c h people
do n o t t a k e s t r a n g e r s i n t o t h e i r homes a n d
i f t h e y do t h e y n e v e r see t h e m e x c e p t to p a y
t h e i r b i l l s . I a m t r e a t e d as one o f t h e f a m ­
i l y and a m taken everywhere they go. The
d a u g h t e r i s m y o w n age a n d i s a m u s i c i a n .
It i s v e r y p l e a s a n t f o r m e .
A f t e r reading " D a r k w a t e r " I know that
y o u u n d e r s t a n d w h a t is i n m y h e a r t a n d
how g l a d I a m to g e t a w a y j u s t f o r a l i t t l e
w h i l e ; a n d to be t r e a t e d as a l i t t l e g i r l to
w h o m e v e r y o n e i s a n x i o u s to be k i n d a n d
not as " a c o l o r e d g i r l w h o t h i n k s she i s as
good as t h e w h i t e g i r l s i n t h e office."
BERTHA
NEW

MOXLEY.

YORK

CITY.

I h a v e j u s t finished r e a d i n g y o u r book
"Darkwater."
I a m t a k i n g a c o p y back
Cummings Street alone after nine o'clock. It is a w i t h m e , f o r I feel t h a t s o m u c h o f w h a t
street u p o n w h i c h a l a r g e n u m b e r o f colored
y o u h a v e s a i d a p p l i e s t o u s w h o a r e a n op­
people l i v e , p r e s u m a b l y o f t h e w o r s t class.
pressed people also, a n d I w a n t o u r people
F o r three n i g h t s I w a l k e d home the l e n g t h
to r e a l i z e t h a t to g a i n o u r r i g h t s w e m u s t
of t h i s street, before b o a r d i n g the street j o i n w i t h a l l w h o a r e s i m i l a r l y oppressed,
car f o r Pinckney, and met m a n after m a n
by the same causes.
of the colored race w i t h o u t the s l i g h t e s t
Y o u w i l l be i n t e r e s t e d to h e a r a l i t t l e i n ­
effort o n h i s p a r t to even t u r n a n d look
cident o n the t r a i n . T h e p o r t e r i n c h a r g e of
a f t e r me.
our c a r w a s a medical student w h o was
R U T H LOOMIS S K E E N .
w o r k i n g h i s w a y t h r o u g h college, a n d he
t o l d m e t h a t y o u r book h a d h e l p e d h i m to
D A Y T O N , Ohio.
see t h i n g s m o r e c l e a r l y , t h a t w h e r e a s be­
I am just sad and sick at heart over
fore he w a s conscious o n l y o f a b l i n d h a t r e d
Tuesday's lynchings. Will you
—tell
n ome
w why
h e scan't
a w definite g o a l s , a n d definite
a w a y be f o u n d to stop t h i s ? W h a t is i n the causes o p p o s i n g these. H e w a s v e r y i n t e r ­
w a y o f s t o p p i n g such r u i n o u s b a r b a r i s m ?
ested i n w h a t I t o l d h i m of I n d i a , a n d o u r
W i l l y o u t e l l m e w h a t I c a n do to h e l p stop
common struggle.
it?
LILA SINGH.
126

THE HORIZON
C O M P I L E D

B Y

M A D E L I N E

MUSIC A N D A R T
ETHEL H A R D Y S M I T H , s o p r a n o , a n d
K e m p e r H a r r e l d , violinist, have given
a recital at Morehouse College; F r e d e r i c k
H a l l was accompanist.
C Hazel H a r r i s o n , pianist, and W i l l i a m
Service B e l l , baritone, have appeared i n
D e t r o i t , u n d e r the i E o l i a n C o n c e r t C o u r s e ;
Lornetta Henderson was accompanist.
C T h e P r i n c e o f W a l e s a n d the D u k e of
Y o r k have a t t e n d e d the concerts of the col­
ored S o u t h e r n S y n c o p a t e d O r c h e s t r a
at
Philharmonic Hall, London.
The Prince
attended t w i c e d u r i n g one week.
C J u s t i n E l i e , a H a y t i a n p i a n i s t a n d com­
poser, has g i v e n a r e c i t a l a t C a r n e g i e H a l l ,
N e w Y o r k C i t y ; he w a s assisted b y M r .
Josef A d l e r .
O n the p r o g r a m of 11 n u m ­
bers, 8 were c o m p o s i t i o n s o f M . E l i e .
C " A n E v e n i n g W i t h Negro Composers"
has been g i v e n a t T e x a r k a n a , T e x . , b y a
c h o r u s o f 200 d i r e c t e d b y P r o f . H . B . P .
J o h n s o n , of N a s h v i l l e . T h e c o n c e r t w a s re­
peated at a w h i t e c h u r c h , F i r s t B a p t i s t ,
marking the first time for a chorus of

G

A L L I S O N

.

(1 N e l l i e M o o r e M u n d y a n d M i n n i e B r o w n ,
colored w o m e n of N e w Y o r k , g i v e r e c i t a l s
on Negro music for the Board of
Education. Miss Brown, soprano, is a pupil of
H a r r y A . W i l l i a m s and M r s . M u n d y , pian­
ist, is a p u p i l of L e o p o l d W o l f s o h n .
0 I n the H a r d i n g - C o o l i d g e p a r a d e i n N e w
Y o r k C i t y , the b a n d of the colored 15th
Infantry led the Music Publishers'

Protective Association, with Pace and Handy's
" A G o o d M a n Is H a r d to F i n d . "
T h e se­
lection c r e a t e d m u c h a p p l a u s e .
C M m e . R a c h a e l W a l k e r , a colored p u p i l
of M m e . M a r c h e s e , has s u n g i n C o l u m b u s ,
O h i o . M m e . W a l k e r is t o u r i n g the U n i t e d
S t a t e s before r e t u r n i n g to E u r o p e , w h e r e
she has s u n g before c r o w n e d heads.
G O f C h a r l e s S. G i l p i n , the N e g r o s t a r actor
i n " T h e E m p e r o r J o n e s " p r o d u c e d by the
Provincetown Players in New Y o r k City,
H e y w o o d B r o u n , of The
Tribune,
says:
" O n e p e r f o r m a n c e is n o t e n o u g h to entitle
a p l a y e r to the w o r d g r e a t even f r o m a
not too c a r e f u l c r i t i c , b u t t h e r e c a n be no
question w h a t e v e r t h a t i n ' T h e E m p e r o r
J o n e s ' G i l p i n is g r e a t .
I t is a p e r f o r m ­
Negro singers to appear before a white audi­ ance of heroic s t a t u r e . I t is so good t h a t
the f a c t t h a t i t is e n o r m o u s l y s k i l l f u l seems
ence.
o n l y i n c i d e n t a l . " M r . G i l p i n p l a y e d l a s t sea­
([ J. W. Boone, the well-known blind
son in John Drinkwater's "Abraham
Negro musician, is on his 41st tour. He is
Lincoln."
assisted b y M m e . M a r g u e r i t e D a y , s o p r a n o ,
0 F l o r e n c e Cole T a l b e r t , s o p r a n o ,
has
w h o s t u d i e d a t the K a n s a s C i t y S t u d i o of
given a recital at the University of
Music.
California, being the first Negro to appear at
C A m o n g Negro musicians appearing in
t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n . H e r n u m b e r s i n c l u d e d se­
r e c i t a l t h i s season a r e H a r v e y B a k e r , tenor,
lections i n F r e n c h a n d I t a l i a n . M a b e l l e C .
w h o is a g r a d u a t e o f the C i n c i n n a t i C o l l e g e
C l a r k , o f X e n i a , O h i o , assisted as p i a n i s t .
of M u s i c ; M m e . M . W a l l e r F r e n c h , so­
A correspondent says: " T h e Greek Theatre
prano, who has traveled extensively and
is a n open a i r s t r u c t u r e w i t h a s e a t i n g ca­
given recitals i n South A m e r i c a ; W i l l i a m
p a c i t y of 10,000, r e q u i r i n g a good s t r o n g
H o l l a n d , bass soloist, w h o received h i s m u ­
voice to fill i t .
M m e . T a l b e r t ' s voice n o t
s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a t the S c h o o l of M u s i c a l
o n l y filled i t w i t h ease, b u t h e r h i g h stac­
.Art i n N e w Y o r k ; W . A r t h u r C a l h o u n , a
cato notes showed the s u s t a i n i n g q u a l i t i e s
graduate
of
the O b e r l i n C o n s e r v a t o r y of
o f h e r voice. H e r a r t of p h r a s i n g a n d tone
Music,
who w o n first p r i z e f o r the best
p a i n t i n g p r o v e d she is a n a r t i s t .
She
execution on the pipe organ at the
Jamestown
Exposition,
and
for
many
years
was sang with soul and art combined."
Several thousand
dience.

bead of the Music Department at
Wilberforce University.
127

white

people

were

in

the

au­

THE

128
EDUCATION

C H E Y N E YT R A I N I N G S C H O O L F O R
TEACHERS,
at C h e y n e y , P a . , has
been r a i s e d to the s t a t u s of a state n o r m a l
school, w h i c h qualifies its g r a d u a t e s f o r
teachers in the public schools of
Pennsylvania. Leslie Pinckney Hill is principal of
the school.
C S i n c e 1912 the J o h n F . S l a t e r F u n d has
a i d e d i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f 331 c o u n t y
t r a i n i n g schools f o r N e g r o e s a n d p l a c e d
1,890 t e a c h e r s ; t h e r e have been 5,363 p u p i l s
i n h i g h s c h o o l g r a d e s . S a l a r i e s h a v e been
p a i d as f o l l o w s : f r o m p u b l i c t a x funds,
$577,996; t h r o u g h the S l a t e r B o a r d , $170,­
483.
S i n c e 1916 the G e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n
B o a r d has a p p r o p r i a t e d $110,381 f o r b u i l d ­
i n g a n d e q u i p m e n t of these schools.
C I n a contest between the j u n i o r a n d
sophomore hockey teams at Wellesley
College, the sophomore team won with Clarissa
M a e Scott, d a u g h t e r o f E m m e t t J . Scott,
playing "full back".
0 A l i c e M u n d a y , a g r a d u a t e of H o w a r d
U n i v e r s i t y a n d P r a t t I n s t i t u t e , has passed
the e x a m i n a t i o n of the S t a t e B o a r d of
I n d i a n a as S u p e r v i s o r i n D o m e s t i c Science
w i t h an a v e r a g e of 927c. M i s s M u n d a y is
21 years of age and a teacher of the
Vocational
School
at
Gary,
Ind.
G A series o f 14 F r e e P u b l i c L e c t u r e s is
b e i n g conducted at H o w a r d U n i v e r s i t y .
A m o n g the s p e a k e r s are 10 professors, 3
deans a n d P r e s i d e n t J . S t a n l e y D u r k e e .
G T h e Alpha
Kappa
Alpha
Sorority
at
H o w a r d U n i v e r s i t y has been g r a n t e d a so­
r o r i t y house on the c a m p u s .
0 M r . R . R . W r i g h t , S r . , has celebrated
50 y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n a l service.
H e is
president of Georgia State Industrial
College at Savannah.
G I n a contest w i t h p u p i l s f r o m 26 schools
of N e w Y o r k , t w o N e g r o e s , C o u n t i e P o r t e r
Cullen, of DeWitt Clinton, and Alma
Rochford, of Manual Training, were awarded
prizes b y the H i g h S c h o o l P o e t r y S o c i e t y
of N e w Y o r k .
C D r . George W . P r i n c e , a N e g r o s p e c i a l ­
i s t in diseases o f c h i l d r e n , has r e t u r n e d
from Europe to resume his practice in
Chicago. Dr. Prince is a graduate of
Northwestern University; he pursued post-grad­
u a t e s t u d y a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f V i e n n a
f r o m 1914 to 1915, a n d has s p e c i a l i z e d at
the U n i v e r s i t y o f P a r i s .
C F . E . C o r b i e , a N e g r o f r e s h m a n at the
C o l l e g e of the C i t y of N e w Y o r k , is w i n ­
ner of the h i g h e s t a w a r d in an oratorical

CRISIS
contest.
H i s subject w a s " J u s t i c e to the
N e g r o . " M r . C o r b i e is c a p t a i n of the de­
bating team.
C F i v e N e g r o e s h a v e been elected r e g u l a r
teachers i n the p u b l i c schools a t B a l t i m o r e ,
Md.,—the
Misses
Leonia
Hall,
Ruth
Brownley, F a n n i e R . Glascoe and Messrs.
W . D e a v e r B r o w n a n d L a w r e n c e Queen.
G T h e C o l o r e d T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n has
Professor
been o r g a n i z e d a t A i k e n , S. C .
A . W . N i c h o l s o n is p r e s i d e n t .
C P r o f e s s o r H a r r y T . P r a t t , p r i n c i p a l of
Benjamin Banneker School at Baltimore,
M d . , has r e t u r n e d to the U n i t e d States
after several months' study i n P a r i s .
C A n A l u m n i Association of Bordentown
I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l has been f o r m e d , w i t h
the R e v . J . F r a n k l i n J o n e s as president.
C After examination of 518 students,
Elliot Douglass, a Negro, has been placed on
the J u d g i n g T e a m of five m e m b e r s w h o w i l l
represent Ohio State University at the
International Live Stock Exposition in
Chicago.
G T h r o u g h Y . M . C . A . o r g a n i z a t i o n s and
the I n t e r - r a c i a l C o m m i t t e e o f K e n t u c k y ,
H o w a r d U n i v e r s i t y has been a w a r d e d 55
s c h o l a r s h i p s , a m o u n t i n g to $4,465, f r o m 19
s t a t e s ; the F e d e r a l B o a r d f o r V o c a t i o n a l
E d u c a t i o n has p r o v i d e d f o r the t r a i n i n g of
58 s t u d e n t s i n the college, m u s i c , architec­
t u r e , l a w , d e n t a l a n d m e d i c a l departments.
G G . C a l l o w a y has
played
t a c k l e on
Columbia
University's Varsity
Eleven.
C John
Shelbourne
Dartmouth's
Negro
f o o t b a l l f u l l back,
has gone to Seattle,
Wash.,
with
the
team. In the
Dartmouth
Brown
game,
Dartmouth
won
by
a
14-6
G.
C A L L O W A Y
score, with
Shelbourne
making
the
first
6
points.
G Howard
h a s h a d the c h a m p i o n football
t e a m a m o n g colored schools, h a v i n g defeat
ed S h a w , V i r g i n i a N o r m a l a n d I n d u s t r i a l ,
West V i r g i n i a Collegiate, Union, H a m p t o n
a n d L i n c o l n ; she w a s scored a g a i n s t but
once, b y V i r g i n i a N o r m a l a n d I n d u s t r i a l .
West Virginia
Collegiate
Institute
stands
second, h a v i n g p l a y e d 6 games, d e f e a t i n g
Louisville, Bluefield, V i r g i n i a N o r m a l and

129

T H E HORIZON

T H E

H O W A R D - L I N C O L N

I n d u s t r i a l a n d W i l b e r f o r c e . a n d b e i n g de­
feated by H o w a r d .
Talladega
apparently
stands next, h a v i n g defeated M i l e s , C l a r k ,
Atlanta, Florida and Tuskegee; only
Atlanta and Florida scored. Hampton played 5
games, w i n n i n g 2 f r o m V i r g i n i a N o r m a l
and I n d u s t r i a l a n d L i n c o l n , a n d b e i n g
defeated b y S h a w , H o w a r d and
Union.
Virginia
Union defeated St. P a u l , M o r g a n ,
Morehouse a n d H a m p t o n , a n d w a s defeated
by Greensboro a n d H o w a r d . Fish
defeated
Knoxville, Kentucky State, Lane, Rust,
Kentucky and Tuskegee, and was defeated by
Morehouse. Shaw defeated Hampton,
Virginia
Normal
and
Industrial,
Greensboro
a n d B i d d l e , a n d w a s defeated b y H o w a r d
a n d L i n c o l n . Colleges not l i s t e d above have
f a i l e d to a n s w e r o u r i n q u i r i e s .
MEETINGS
THE Delta Sigma
Theta Sorority
will
• hold its annual convention at
Wilberforce,
Ohio,
December
28-30.
w i l l h o l d its
C Omega Psi Phi Fraternity
9th a n n u a l c o n v e n t i o n D e c e m b e r 27-30 at
Fisk University and Meharry Medical
College, Nashville, Tenn.
C T h e a n n u a l c o n v e n t i o n of the Alpha
Phi
w i l l be held D e c e m b e r 27­
Alpha Fraternity
31 at K a n s a s C i t y , M o . T h e f r a t e r n i t y has
and
1,200
900 u n d e r g r a d u a t e members
g r a d u a t e m e m b e r s . A r e d u c e d r a t e of 1 1/3,
r o u n d t r i p f a r e , has been g r a n t e d b y r a i l ­
roads on the " C e r t i f i c a t e P l a n . "
Norman
L. McGhee, Howard University,
Washington,
D.
C,
is
secretary.
C T h e 36th a n n u a l session o f the C o l o r e d
T e a c h e r s ' S t a t e A s s o c i a t i o n has convened
at H o u s t o n , T e x . T h e o r g a n i z a t i o n has 366
members.
M r . A . E . H o l l a n d , p r i n c i p a l of
L i n c o l n H i g h S c h o o l , at P a l e s t i n e , T e x . , is
president.
C The Georgia State Baptist Convention

G A M E

has met w i t h 1,500 delegates. D u r i n g the
y e a r $110,226 w a s r a i s e d . T h e R e v . M . W .
R e d d i c k , o f A m e r i c u s , i s p r e s i d e n t , and the
Rev. C . T . W a l k e r , of A u g u s t a , v i c e - p r e s i ­
dent a t l a r g e .
C T h e r e has been a m e e t i n g of the officials
of the colored Land Grant Colleges at
Atlanta, Ga., at the call of the United States
Commissioner of Education.
The United
S t a t e s L a n d G r a n t funds, w h i c h f o r m e r l y
went to H a m p t o n I n s t i t u t e , have been t r a n s ­
f e r r e d over the protest of H a m p t o n to the
V i r g i n i a N o r m a l and I n d u s t r i a l Institute.
T h e y a m o u n t to about $27,000.
SOCIAL PROGRESS
AT T a l l a p o o s a , G a . , B i s h o p W . S a m p s o n
B r o o k s has preached i n a w h i t e c h u r c h
to a white congregation, being the first
Negro in that pulpit.
C G o v e r n o r M o r r o w at K e n t u c k y r e c e n t l y
designated a n " I n t e r - r a c i a l S u n d a y " , i n or­
der t h a t the r e l i g i o u s , m o r a l , p h y s i c a l a n d
e d u c a t i o n a l needs of the N e g r o m a y be d i s ­
cussed from the pulpit and receive
Christian consideration.
G T h e C o m m u n i t y S e r v i c e is c o n d u c t i n g a
"Play Leaders' Institute" at Howard
University.
Registrants
are
teachers,
church,
social and p l a y g r o u n d w o r k e r s a n d com­
m u n i t y center secretaries.
T h e w o r k is
u n d e r the d i r e c t i o n of L a w r e n c e A . O x l e y ,
who d u r i n g the w a r w a s the o n l y N e g r o
M o r a l e Officer i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s A r m y .
T h e courses i n c l u d e d e p a r t m e n t s i n s o c i a l
a n d p h y s i c a l education, d r a m a a n d pagean­
t r y and community music.
G A N e g r o fire c o m p a n y , N o . 8, has been
established in Atlantic City, N. J. The
Negro population of 10,698 is a gain of 864
since 1910.
G J u l i u s R o s e n w a l d has c o n t r i b u t e d $25,­
000 t o w a r d a Y . W . C . A . b u i l d i n g f o r c o l ­

130

THE

ored w o m e n i n P h i l a d e l p h i a , w h i c h is the
f o u r t h to be erected w i t h i n a y e a r ; the
other b u i l d i n g s are located i n N e w Y o r k
City, Washington, D . C , and L i t t l e Rock,
A r k . T h e Y . W . C . A . a t the b e g i n n i n g o f
the w a r h a d 16 centers f o r colored g i r l s ; i t
n o w has 58 centers w i t h a m e m b e r s h i p of
over 50,000, o f w h o m 2,000 are g i r l s o f
high school age who belong to the Girl
Reserves.
G T h e N a t i o n a l W a r R e l i e f C o m m i t t e e has
g i v e n $5,000 to the C i r c l e f o r N e g r o W a r
Relief.
C Harold E . Simmelkjaer, a Negro in New
Y o r k C i t y , h a s been a w a r d e d a v e r d i c t of
$50 a g a i n s t K e i t h ' s A l h a m b r a T h e a t r e f o r
discrimination.
G C o l o r e d n u r s e s have been i n s t a l l e d i n the
colored section of the C o u n t y H o s p i t a l at
Macon, Ga.
C I n the D i s t r i c t o f C o l u m b i a d u r i n g the
week e n d i n g O c t o b e r 30, 38 N e g r o e s died,
w h i l e b i r t h s t o t a l e d 4 6 ; a m o n g w h i t e people
there were 62 deaths a n d 98 b i r t h s .
O N e g r o e s at M o n t g o m e r y , A l a . , have suf­
fered a p r o p e r t y loss o f $100,000 t h r o u g h
" n i g h t r i d e r s " ; 3 N e g r o e s have been k i l l e d
a n d 11 a r r e s t e d i n a n effort to check a n
"uprising".
C M r s . A . L . T u r n e r , a colored w o m a n , has
been elected a m e m b e r of the C i t y B o a r d of
D i r e c t o r s of the D e t r o i t Y . W . C . A . O t h e r
cities h a v i n g colored r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on t h e i r
boards are N e w Y o r k and P h i l a d e l p h i a .
G The Herndon Social Center and D a y
N u r s e r y has been opened i n A t l a n t a , G a .
M r . H e r n d o n , a N e g r o , at a cost of $10,000
p u r c h a s e d p r o p e r t y a n d e q u i p m e n t f o r the
project w h i c h he has deeded to the G a t e
C i t y F r e e K i n d e r g a r t e n A s s o c i a t i o n ; he has
also assumed the s a l a r y of a w o r k e r .
G Philip A . Armstead, a Negro in New
Y o r k C i t y , has passed the p h y s i c a l e x a m ­
i n a t i o n f o r p a t r o l m a n w i t h 1009o. H e is
5 feet 1 1 % inches a n d w e i g h s 180 pounds.
G W i t h the d i s m i s s a l of the officers i n
c h a r g e of cadets at H o w a r d and H a m p t o n ,
the l a s t o f the colored A . E . F . officers have
been dismissed f r o m the U . S. A r m y .

THE CHURCH
MR. N . B . D O D S O N , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of
the S u n d a y S c h o o l of C o n c o r d B a p t i s t
C h u r c h , B r o o k l y n , N . Y . , has r e t i r e d a f t e r
28 years of service. M r . D o d s o n received
$100, the g i f t of the c h u r c h , and a gold
w a t c h and c h a i n f r o m the S u n d a y S c h o o l .
C A t Union Baptist Church, Baltimore,

CRISIS
M d . , the 4 8 t h a n n i v e r s a r y o f D r . H a r v e y
J o h n s o n , as p a s t o r , has been celebrated.
G St. P h i l i p s P r o t e s t a n t E p i s c o p a l C h u r c h
i n N e w Y o r k C i t y h a s c e l e b r a t e d its 100th
anniversary.
T h e R e v . H . C . B i s h o p has
served as r e c t o r f o r 40 y e a r s . T h e c h u r c h
has 2,500 c o m m u n i c a n t s a n d $8,000,000 i n
r e a l estate.
C T h e 91st a n n i v e r s a r y o f F i f t h
Street
B a p t i s t C h u r c h i n L o u i s v i l l e , K y . , a n d the
34th a n n i v e r s a r y o f its p a s t o r , D r . J o h n H .
F r a n k , h a v e been c e l e b r a t e d .
G St. M a r k s Methodist E p i s c o p a l Church
i n N e w Y o r k C i t y d u r i n g O c t o b e r h a d an
o f f e r i n g of $10,000; a t a S u n d a y e v e n i n g
r a l l y s e r v i c e , $9,092 i n c a s h w a s r a i s e d . A
new edifice w i t h a s e a t i n g c a p a c i t y of 2,000,­
a p a r i s h house a n d a p a r s o n a g e have been
c o n t r a c t e d f o r i n H a r l e m , o n Edgecombe
avenue. T h e p r o p e r t y is 34 feet i n the rear,
67 feet f r o n t a n d 200 feet deep. T h e Rev.
W i l l i a m H . B r o o k s is p a s t o r .
POLITICS
T H O U G H he w a s defeated, M r . J . H .
B l o u n t , the N e g r o a t L i t t l e R o c k , A r k . ,
who r a n f o r G o v e r n o r , o u t r a n h i s l i l y - w h i t e
opponent two-to-one to ten-to-one i n some
c e n t e r s ; i n P u l a s k i a n d Jefferson counties
he w a s r e t u r n e d w i n n e r b y a decided m a j o r ­
ity.
G At Brooklyn, 111., Negroes cast 641
Republican votes and one Democratic vote.
G M r . H . E . S c o t l a n d , a N e g r o , has been
elected f o r a t e r m of 5 y e a r s as J u s t i c e at
Irvington, N . J .
M r . S c o t l a n d has been
J u s t i c e o f the P e a c e f o r 16 y e a r s .
C D r . D a r r i n g t o n W e a v e r , a N e g r o a t St.
L o u i s , M o . , h a s been a p p o i n t e d post-mortem
p h y s i c i a n i n the office of C o r o n e r E d w a r d
R i c h t e r , elected on the R e p u b l i c a n ticket.
D r . W e a v e r , who is 31 y e a r s of age a n d a
g r a d u a t e of M e h a r r y M e d i c a l C o l l e g e , 1914,
w i l l receive a s a l a r y o f $5,000 per y e a r .
CRIME
following lynchings have
taken
place since o u r l a s t r e c o r d :
Johnson C i t y , Tenn., October 28—Cooksey
D a l l a s ; r e f u s a l to s e l l w h i s k e y to w h i t e
soldiers.
Ococee, F l a . , N o v e m b e r 2 — J u l y P e r r y
a n d others, shot a n d b u r n e d ; w o u n d i n g an
officer a t r e g i s t r a t i o n booth w h e r e P e r r y was
refused a b a l l o t .
Tylertown, Miss., November
6—Harry
Jacobs; assaulting a farmer.
Bristol, V a . , November 18—Dave H u n t ;
assaulting white woman.

THE

THE

D o u g l a s , G a . , N o v e m b e r 18 — M i n n i e
I v o r y , W i l l I v o r y , W i l l P e r r y ; accused o f
c o l l u s i o n i n the m u r d e r of a p l a n t e r .
INDUSTRY
C H A R L E S G A N T , a N e g r o l a b o r e r at
C a r b o n d a l e , 111., has e a r n e d $148 f o r 6
days' labor. The work was that of c a r r y i n g
5,927 ties, w e i g h i n g 150 pounds each, a d i s ­
tance o f f r o m 10 to 45 feet. H e w o r k e d 9
h o u r s a d a y a n d c a r r i e d over 100 ties p e r
hour.
C T h e D e p a r t m e n t o f the I n t e r i o r has ap­
p r o v e d p l a n s b y M r . W . T . B a i l e y , a colored
a r c h i t e c t a t M e m p h i s , T e n n . , f o r the $200,­
000 P y t h i a n B a t h h o u s e a n d S a n i t a r i u m a n d
the $125,000 W o o d m e n of U n i o n B a t h h o u s e
a n d S a n i t a r i u m at H o t S p r i n g s , A r k . M r .
B a i l e y w a s a w a r d e d the degree of M a s t e r of
Architecture from the University of
Illinois in 1910; for 9 years he was head of the
Architecture Department at Tuskegee
Institute; he now has more than a million dollars
w o r t h o f b u i l d i n g s u n d e r p l a n a n d i n the
course o f c o n s t r u c t i o n .
G J . F r a n c e s R i c k a r d s , a N e g r o at D e t r o i t ,
M i c h . , has been r e t i r e d b y the P o s t Office
D e p a r t m e n t a f t e r 40 y e a r s o f c o n t i n u o u s
service. Mr. Rickards is Supreme
Sovereign Grand Commander
Masonic Jurisdiction.

of

the

131

HORIZON

Northern

C Samuel L . Burton, a Negro in Baltimore,
M d . , s t a r t e d a c l o t h i n g business i n 1917; his
first y e a r ' s business a m o u n t e d to $17,000;
i n 1918, $35,000; 1919, $45,000; f o r 1920
his business is e s t i m a t e d at $60,000.
C Thomas R . C r a w f o r d , a N e g r o of St.
L o u i s , M o . , h a s been a n employee of the
H a n d l a n B u s h M a n u f a c t u r i n g Company for
53 y e a r s ; he w a s r e t i r e d r e c e n t l y a n d g i v e n
a $1,000 L i b e r t y B o n d f r o m h i s e m p l o y e r
and a gold watch f r o m his fellow workers.
M r . C r a w f o r d , w h o is the f a t h e r o f 3 c h i l ­
d r e n , has a c c u m u l a t e d r e a l estate a n d is
considered w e a l t h y .
G T h e R o c k I s l a n d R a i l r o a d has a s s i g n e d
T h o m a s J . J o h n s o n , a N e g r o of C h i c a g o ,
111., on a r e g u l a r r u n as a b r a k e s m a n .
C Negroes
at
B i r m i n g h a m , A l a . , have
opened a $25,000 steam laundry,—the
Climax Laundry and Dry Cleaning Company.
M r . C . W . C a r n s , J r . , is m a n a g e r .
C St. Luke Penny Savings Bank at
Richmond, Va., has completed 17 years of busi­
ness. A t the e n d o f the first y e a r there
w e r e resources o f $19,000. D u r i n g i t s ex­

istence the bank has p a i d to s t o c k h o l d e r s
$20,000 i n d i v i d e n d s a n d $51,000 i n i n t e r e s t
to d e p o s i t o r s ; i t has resources o f a h a l f
m i l l i o n d o l l a r s a n d u n d i v i d e d profits a n d
s u r p l u s t o t a l i n g $15,000.
G Colored farmers
at M a d i s o n County,
Ala., have organized a branch of the
American Cotton Association. Mr. W. A. Love is
p r e s i d e n t and the b r a n c h has 200 members.
G A t Florence, A l a . , Robert Buckingham, a
N e g r o , owns a store a n d 34 d w e l l i n g s .
G G r a n d L o d g e , K n i g h t s of P y t h i a s , at
assets:
office
Houston, Texas,
reports,
b u i l d i n g , $250,000;
cash i n
endowment
f u n d , $44,738; cash i n G r a n d L o d g e f u n d ,
$17,982, a total of $312,720; the l i a b i l i t i e s
are $2,000. M r . W . S. W i l l i s is g r a n d c h a n ­
cellor.
NATIONAL URBAN LEAGUE
THE Federal Bureau of Juvenile
Placement has appointed Mae B. Maxwell,
f o r m e r l y D i r e c t o r of S u r v e y a n d R o o m
R e g i s t r y f o r the A t l a n t a U r b a n L e a g u e , to
the p o s i t i o n o f V o c a t i o n a l C o u n s e l o r for the
colored p u b l i c schools of A t l a n t a , G a .
C Seventy-five w o m e n c l e r k s , bookkeepers
-and s t e n o g r a p h e r s c o m p r i s i n g a B u s i n e s s
Women's Association were recently organ­
ized i n A t l a n t a w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of the
A t l a n t a U r b a n L e a g u e , f o r the purpose of
d e v e l o p i n g themselves i n business a c u m e n ,
s e c u r i n g better r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s a n d
promoting friendly acquaintance.
C T h e o w n e r of T h e a t r e " 8 1 " on D e c a t u r
Street, A t l a n t a , a t h i c k l y p o p u l a t e d colored
d i s t r i c t , has t u r n e d the t h e a t r e over f o r use
on S u n d a y a f t e r n o o n s to the U r b a n L e a g u e .
A v a r i e t y p r o g r a m i s g i v e n , c o n s i s t i n g of
community singing, health and educational
movies a n d t a l k s .
G The Educational Department of the
National Urban League has made the follow­
ing placements: R. M . Moss (Columbia,
1918, Fellow at the New York School of
Social Work, 1920), Boys' Club Worker at
Frederick Douglass Recreation Center,
Toledo, Ohio; Anna L. Holbrook, Community
W o r k e r for Children's A i d Society, Buffalo,
N. Y. The workers placed by this
Department during the past 16 months received
s a l a r i e s t h a t a n n u a l l y t o t a l $28,400.
G T h e C a m b r i d g e U r b a n L e a g u e is e m p l o y ­
ing a full time Executive.
G T h e L o u i s v i l l e U r b a n L e a g u e has been
r e o r g a n i z e d , a p p r o v e d b y the C o m m u n i t y

THE

132

CRISIS

C h e s t a n d financed t h r o u g h its g e n e r a l b u d ­
get.
C D e p r e s s i o n i n i n d u s t r y caused b y p o s t - w a r
r e a d j u s t m e n t is r e s u l t i n g i n the d i s m i s s a l
of l a r g e n u m b e r s of N e g r o w o r k e r s a l o n g
w i t h white workers. The i n d u s t r i a l depart­
m e n t s o f the U r b a n L e a g u e s of C h i c a g o ,
Milwaukee, Detroit, Cleveland, Pittsburgh,
Philadelphia, A t l a n t a , N e w Y o r k , Boston,
a n d N e w a r k are e s p e c i a l l y b u r d e n e d w i t h
the p r o b l e m s of u n e m p l o y m e n t at t h i s time.
T h e y are h o l d i n g n o o n - d a y a n d e v e n i n g
meetings o f g r o u p s of employees i n a n effort
to s t i m u l a t e p r o d u c t i o n a n d i n c r e a s e d effici­
ency as a m e a n s of k e e p i n g the men on t h e i r
jobs.
PERSONAL
THE late Mr. J. C. Harrington, of
Osborne, N. C, was an agent of the North
Carolina M u t u a l Life Insurance Company,
a n d w r o t e $100,000 w o r t h o f i n s u r a n c e f o r
them.
C S c i p i o Y o u n g , a N e g r o 101 y e a r s of age,
is dead at K a n e , P a . H e leaves a n estate
v a l u e d at $50,000, w h i c h is w i l l e d to his 6
children.
O J o h n C . D a n c y , f o r m e r R e c o r d e r of Deeds
at W a s h i n g t o n , D . C , is dead.
C C h a r l e s R . D o u g l a s s , the o n l y s u r v i v i n g
son of Frederick Douglass, is dead at
Washington, D. C.
C B i s h o p E v a n s T y r e e , of the A . M . E .
C h u r c h , is dead a t N a s h v i l l e , T e n n .
(I T h e 4 sons of J o h n H . S e l b y , a N e g r o at
S e a f o r d , D e l . , took out $10,000 each i n w a r
r i s k i n s u r a n c e ; the 4 men were k i l l e d a n d
M r . S e l b y is beneficiary to $40,000 w o r t h of
G o v e r n m e n t i n s u r a n c e , w h i c h is p a i d to h i m
at a r a t e of $200 per m o n t h .
FOREIGN
THE Honorable Hector A. Josephs, a
Negro, has been appointed Assistant
Attorney General of Jamaica by Lord Milner.
M r . Josephs w a s educated at Y o r k C a s t l e
a n d at C a m b r i d g e a n d L o n d o n U n i v e r s i t i e s .
C W h e n the 372nd colored I n f a n t r y left
F r a n c e , a s u m of m o n e y w a s collected a m o n g
the men a n d g i v e n to G e n e r a l Q u i l l e t f o r
the e r e c t i o n of a shaft i n m e m o r y o f t h e i r
f a l l e n comrades. A t M o n p h o i s , on October
25, a stone monument was dedicated.
Cardinal Coadjutor Nevu of Rheims celebrated
mass on the field.

ADVERTISER

THE BROWNIES' BOOK
A monthly magazine designed es­
pecially for our children which at­
t e m p t s to b r i n g to t h e m :
1. The best in pictures and stories
of Negro life.
2. The life and deeds of famous
men and women of the Negro
race.
3. The current events of the world
told in beautiful language which
children can understand.
SPECIAL
OFFER:
Five
paid-up
yearly subscriptions to the B R O W N I E S '
B O O K sent i n at one time w i l l entitle
the sender to a year's subscription free.
T h i s offer holds good u n t i l midnight of
F e b r u a r y 15. 1921.
15 Cents per copy

$1.50 per year

Agents Wanted
Subscribers
Wanted
Sample copies sent on request.

D u B o i s and D i l l , Publishers
2 West 13th St., New York, N.Y.

THE

Crisis
Calendar
1921
C o n t a i n s excerpts from the
w r i t i n g s o f foremost a u t h o r s
of t h e N e g r o r a c e .
T h e r e is a c o v e r p i c t u r e b y
Battey.

Price 50 cents

THE

CRISIS

ADVERTISER

"1920
T h e S o u t h e r n A i d S o c i e t y of
V a . , Inc., has striven d u r i n g
1920, as a l w a y s h e r e t o f o r e , to
render to its policyholders a
superior service d u r i n g sick­
ness, a c c i d e n t s a n d t h e d a r k
hour of death.
A s a result of
i t s efforts to k e e p f a i t h w i t h t h e
people, the society has done a
larger a n d more satisfactory
b u s i n e s s d u r i n g 1920 t h a n ever
before.
T h e r e f o r e a t t h i s j o y o u s sea­
s o n o f t h e y e a r w e first g i v e
thanks to H i m f r o m w h o m Com­
eth a l l g o o d t h i n g s ; then to the
g o o d p e o p l e w h o h a v e so w i l l ­
i n g l y and consistently entrust­
ed t o o u r care a n d k e e p i n g t h e
sacred duty of protecting their
firesides i n t h e t i m e o f s i c k n e s s ,
a c c i d e n t s a n d d e a t h ; a n d last,
b u t n o t least, to t h a t b a n d o f
ever f a i t h f u l c o - w o r k e r s — o u r officers, s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s , a g e n t s
and clerks—for their loyal devotion to the interests of both
the p o l i c y h o l d e r s a n d t h e S o c i e t y .
T h e success o f 1920 i n s p i r e s a n d p r e p a r e s us f o r b i g g e r
a n d b e t t e r s e r v i c e d u r i n g 1921.
I f you l i v e i n V i r g i n i a — y o u s h o u l d h a v e t h e s u p e r i o r p r o ­
t e c t i o n p r o v i d e d only b y t h e u n m a t c h e d p o l i c y o f t h e

SOUTHERN AID SOCIETY OF VA., INC.
Home Office: 527 N. Second Street
R I C H M O N D , VA.
District Offices and Agencies Throughout the State
OFFICERS
A . D . P R I C E , Pres.
EDW.
STEWART,
ist
Vice-Pres.
J A S . T . C A R T E R , 2nd
Vice-Pres.
& Atty.

A N D BOARD

O F DIRECTORS
B. A . C E P H A S , 3rd VicePres.
A.
WASHINGTON
W . E . B A K E R , Treas.
C. N . J A C K S O N
B. L . J O R D A N , Sec.
W. E. R A N D O L P H
W. A . J O R D A N ,
Asst.
Sec.

Mention

T H E CRISIS.

133

134

THE

CRISIS

ADVERTISER

Are YOU a Man with a VISION?
C a n Y O U look into the future and see yourself
building E S T A T E S for unborn children?
Do Y O U understand the principle upon which
Life Insurance was founded?
If Y O U are - If Y O U can - If Y O U d o -

W E W A N T YOU
W e are literally searching the country for men
big enough to share their burdens and shoulder
responsibilities.
Not necessarily brilliant, but
sound, thinking men, who have grasped the
fundamental principles of Life Insurance; who
see it as the ultimate salvation of the race;
who can develop their ability to manage.
M a k e up your mind right now to acquire that
broad mastery of business as applied in modern
Life Insurance.
T h e n write to: —
W m . H. K I N G ,
STANDARD

Director of Agencies,

LIFE INSURANCE

Atlanta,

Mention

COMPANY,
Georgia.

T H E

CRISIS,

THE

CRISIS

ADVERTISER

Soothing the
" after-smart ofshaving

Madam C J. Walker's

Witch Hazel Jelly
<J A sharp razor and good lather are not enough
to prevent a tingling s m a r t n e s s after the
morning shave.
C[| A n application of M a d a m Walker's Witch
Hazel Jelly soothes the skin, prevents chap and
assures comfort after shaving.
35 cents of Agents and Druggists

Madebythe Mme. C. J.Walker Mfg. Co.,
640NorthWest St., Indianapolis. Ind

Mention

T H E CRISIS.

135

THE

136

CRISIS

ADVERTISER

MISS M A D E L I N E A L L I S O N
SHOPPER
H A V E y o u e v e r s h o p p e d b y m a i l ? I t is
easier a n d m o r e s a t i s f a c t o r y t h a n y o u
think. If y o u w i s h a n y of the articles listed
b e l o w , w r i t e m e a n d let m e e x p l a i n p r i c e s a n d
d e s c r i p t i o n s , q u a l i t i e s , etc.
K i d g l o v e s , $2.75-$3.39; c o t t o n , w o o l e n a n d suede,

$.2Q-$i.5o; mittens, $.35-$-89.
C o t t o n hosiery, $.35-5.69; lisle a n d silk, $.39~$4.25; w o o l , $.59-52.69.
T i e s , $ 4 9 - $ i . 6 5 ; collars, $.2o-$.35; shirts, $i.89-$5.25.
Slippers, $1.69-52.89; F l a n n e l g o w n s , p a j a m a s a n d n i g h t s h i r t s , $1.98­
$4-25 •
S i l k jersey petticoats, 57-i5-$8.79; b l o o m e r s , $ 7 . i 5 - $ 8 . 4 5 ; g l o v e silk
camisoles, $2.60; b l o o m e r s , $5-53-$7-15 ; vests, $4.55-$4.8g.
Sweaters, $2.88-$i5-6o; scarfs, $1.9846.95.
R u b b e r s , artics a n d boots, $.65-55.63; u m b r e l l a s , $ i . 8 5 - $ 4 . 7 9 .

W o o l e n underwear,
$i.49-$4.25 each.
A p r o n s and

u n i o n suits, $3.25-$4.89; shirts a n d d r a w e r s ,

housedresses, $.49-52.65 ; b o u d o i r caps, $.49-52.89.

P h i l i p p i n e e m b r o i d e r e d chemise a n d g o w n s , $4.42-55.85 e a c h ; m u s l i n
c h e m i s e a n d gowns, 5!-39-$3- 5 e a c h ; petticoats, $i.49~$3.89; d r a w e r s ,
$ . 9 8 - $ i . i 9 ; corset covers, $1.25-$:.49.
2

W a i s t s , $1.39-59.75; skirts, $5.98-514.50.
C h i l d r e n ' s coats, $4.29-518.85; j u n i o r s ' $11.50-523.40;
554.6o; men's 518.25-545.50.

ladies' 512.00­

M e n ' s suits, $19.50-539.00; b o y s ' k n i c k e r b o c k e r $5-25-$i6.58; t r o u s ­
ers, 54.55-59.43.
Infants' dresses, $1.19-52.99; caps, $.g8-$1.95.
Ladies'
54.68.

shoes,

$4.68-$9.88;

men's,

$3.50-511.50;

children's,

$1.59­

MISS M A D E L I N E A L L I S O N
R o o m 622, 70 F i l t h A v e n u e
(Refers

by

permission

Mention

NEW YORK, N. Y.
to

the

T H E

E d i t o r of

CRISIS.

the

Crisis.)

T H E CRISIS

137

ADVERTISER

THIS MAY BE YOUR LAST OPPORTUNITY
TO SECURE ORCHARDVILLE LOTS UNDER
OUR ATTRACTIVE DEVELOPMENT PLAN
FOR
ONLY

ON VERY
EASY TERMS

$56

A C T N O W B E F O R E IT'S T O O L A T E !
D o n ' t treat this a n n o u n c e m e n t l i g h t l y because w e
m e a n e v e r y w o r d of" i t . T h e r e m a i n i n g n u m b e r o f
l o t s s e t a s i d e f o r t h i s p r o j e c t w i l l s o o n be a l l s o l d
w h i c h means that o n l y those w h o act q u i c k l y w i l l
be a b l e t o g e t t h e m .
B e a r i n m i n d that w e plant. F I V E H I G H
GRADE
F R U I T T R E E S o n each o f these lots a n d take
care o f t h e m f o r F O U R Y E A R S W I T H O U T E X ­
T R A COST.
W h e n the trees c o m e into c o m m e r c i a l
bearing
they
should
earn
you
EXCELLENT
Y E A R L Y RETURNS O X YOUR
INVESTMENT
W I T H O U T A N Y EFFORT O NYOUR
PART.
T h e l o t s a r e s i z e 30 x 144 feet a n d h a v e p l e n t y
of r o o m f o r a house, g a r d e n , c h i c k e n y a r d , shed,
etc., b e s i d e s t h e r o o m t a k e n u p b y t h e f r u i t tree-'.
Each l o t is G U A R A N T E E D T O E E H I G H A N D
DRY UNDER A MONEY BACK GUARANTEE,
a n d the title to the property is A B S O L U T E L Y

CLEAR.
It is c o n v e y e d b y W A R R A N T Y
w i t h o u t e x t r a cost.

DEED

A l l those w h o v i s i t e d O r c h a r d v i l l e w e r e s o w e l l
pleased w i t h e v e r y t h i n g that o n their r e t u r n they
e i t h e r p u r c h a s e d m o r e l o t s t h e m s e l v e s or a d v i s e d
t h e i r f r i e n d s t o d o so, p r o v i n g t h a t t h e y f o u n d
conditions e x a c t l y as represented b y u s .
T h e t e r m s a r e o n l y $3.00 a m o n t h o n o n e l o t .
Smaller terms when more than one are purchased
NO INTEREST.
W e have a beautiful booklet
that gives a l l t h e details &f this offer, also o n e
that contains a n u m b e r o f letters f r o m people w h o
visited
Orchardville.
Send
for your
copies*
TODAY.
S i m p l y w r i t e y o u r n a m e a n d address o n the c o u p o n
below a n d mail it R I G H T A W A Y .
Don't wait
b e c a u s e the l i m i t e d n u m b e r o f l o t s m a k e s i t a
case o f F I R S T C O M E — F I R S T
SERVED.

Address

Arenson Realty Development Corporation
19 S. La Salle Street

CHICAGO, ILL.
WRITE

ARENSON R E A L T Y
Chicago, 111.

PLAINLY

D E V ' P T . CORP.

Date
, 1921
Gentlemen:—
I am interested in your Orchardville offer and would like to receive a copy of each of
your booklets without any obligation to me.

Name
Address
Town
CRI-1-21

State.

Mention

T H E

CRISIS.

THE

138

30-DAY

SYSTEM

Positions

CRISIS A D V E R T I S E R

RATIONAL

Secured

61 H a m i l t o n Place,

DERRICK
BUSINESS
The
The

S C H O O L

TOUCH
OFFICE

We
are n o w
BUILDING.

in

TYPEWRITING
TRAINING

O U R

O W N N E W

Spacious
class
rooms
equipped
e v e r y m o d e r n office d e v i c e .
Derrick
Students learn
quickly
earn w h i l e they are learning.

ENROLL
to

Health Conservation—Social Hygiene—Industrial Hygiene—
Personal and Sexual Hygiene—Child Hygiene—Drugless Treat­
ment of Disease—Birth Control—All Truths from all Medical
Schools—Fighting Dishonesty in all the Healing Professions—
Freedom in the Bringing Up of Children.
An Independent
monthly, scientific but popular. Saves you money.
Our December issue is sold out.
New subscriptions must
begin with the January issue which contains many inter­
esting articles.
Here are hut a few:
Fighting Disease in
Soviet Russia; Exercise, Good and B a d : Drugless Treatment;
Labor and Health; Stammering; The Breakfast; Sex Morality.
The
opinion of one reader: "I feel throughout the maga­
zine that it is directed with a sort of divine fury, that you
are raging, burning with fire and indignation and sarcasm."
A doctor writes: "I am gratified as well as amazed to dis­
cover that there is a doctor in New York with courage
enough to start such a magazine."
Forty cents a copy.
Four dollars a year everywhere in
U. S. "Value. Corresponding rates for shorter periods.
No
free sample copies.

School of Results
Only One of Its K i n d

SHORTHAND
BOOK-KEEPING

with
and

IMMEDIATELY

insure

Class

LIVING
New Y o r k , N . Y .

Placement

"The

Newspaper

of t h e

Hour"

Comfortable Dormitories for Young Women
Write

for

Catalog

14—
Fall

1514

Full
Term.

information

New York Dispatch

of

Featuring—
Less C r i m e
Less Scandal

P I N E ST., P H I L A D E L P H I A , P A .
M . J . D E R R I C K , Prin. &

Mgr.

M O R E S U B S T A N T I A L N E W S — B e l t e r Written

The

Stenographers'
Shorthand,
Bookkeeping,

Institute

Typewriting,
Commercial L a w

E d w a r d T . D u n c a n , P r e s . , 1 2 2 7 S. 1 7 t h S t . , P h i l a , P a .

A MONEY G E T T E R because it Is A CROWD G E T T E R .
Churches and Clubs looking for a play that will afford an
evening of Side-Splitting F u n , should have

The Slabtown Convention
A n entertainment In one act; full of wit
good humor.
Scores of churches have cleared from
to Two Hundred Dollars In One Night
P R I C E , 60c.
MISS N A N N I E H. B U R R O U G H S , Author
Lincoln Heights,
Washington, D. G.
and
One

ACT
QUICK
Snap op this profit smashing
bargain now. S E N D N O
M O N E Y , just your name, address, size and color.
We will send you delivery charges paid, 6 pairs of
the swell est heavy weight brown or clack genuine
duo-web mens* silk socks, worth $1.00 each.

SEND NO MONEY
S P a i r s of S i l k

S o c k s - G u a r . $6

Value

You pay S3.19 on arrival, delivery charges paid.
Don't wait. Get yours today. Limited quantity
left. Only 6 pairs to a customer. Money cheer­
fully refunded if you CAD match Lhem for $6.

SAMPLE

COPY

FREE

S u b s c r i p t i o n : $1.50 p e r Y e a r

NEW

YORK

DISPATCH

21 W . 134th S t r e e t , N e w Y o r k , N . Y .

AGENTS

WANTED

EVERYWHERE

Louise Reynolds Robinson
DRAMATIC READER
ENGAGEMENTS

EXTRA
QUALITY
-SILK

:-: R E C I T A L S

1515 S. W o o d s t o c k

St.

Philadelphia, P a .
Bell Telephone Dickinson 4140 R

6 prs. $3.19

BERNARD* HEWITT & C O .
Dept. L 044

Also—
Fearless E d i t o r i a l s
A W o m a n ' s Page
L i v e S p o r t i n g and
Theatrical N e w s

delivered Free

CHICAGO

TWO
NO

G R E A T B O O K S for $2.50
LIBRARY COMPLETE WITHOUT T H E M

(1)

T h e H i s t o r y of t h e N e g r o R a c e a n d N e g r o Soldiers In t h e
S p a n i s h - A m e r i c a n W a r , D a t i n g B a c k to E g y p t a n d the
P h a r o a s — 1 0 0 pages, 50 i l l u s t r a t i o n s .
(Retails alone for
$1.25.)
W a s a d o p t e d as a t e x t b o o k b y N o r t h
Carolina
State B o a r d of E d u c a t i o n .

(2)

T h e P i c t o r i a l H i s t o r y of the Negro in the Great
World
War,
giving a brilliant historical sketch, a description of
battle scenes by C o l o n e l H a y w o o d , o f the F i g h t i n g
Fif­
teenth N e w . Y o r k , Capt. M a r s h a l l , Sergeant Steptoe, R a l p h
T y l e r a n d o t h e r s , w i t h 160 e x c e l l e n t p i c t u r e s o f officers
and
men and war views.
( S e l l s a l o n e f o r $-2.00.)

Just

Think,

only

$2.60 f o r these

two great

books.

Agents wanted everywhere, large commissions paid
ADDRESS

E . A . J O H N S O N , 17 W e s t 132ND S t r e e t , N E W Y O R K ,

MentionTHECRISIS

N.Y.

THE

CRISIS

ADVERTISER

ESTABLISHED

139

1900

INVESTMENTS
CONSERVATIVE
SMALL

A N D PROFITABLE

INVESTORS.

FREE

INVESTMENTS

M A R K E T

HENRY

L E T T E R

FOR LARGE
ON

A N D

APPLICATION.

SACHS

(Formerly of Boston)

Member, N . A . A . C . P .
C.

FIRST

NATIONAL

M . B A L K A M

B A N K

References

M . A .

BUILDING,

furnished

from

various

BE INDEPENDENT!
Own a farm and enjoy the independent life of
the modern farmer. Get away from the tur­
moil of the city, the strikes, the lay-offs and
the high cost of living. If you act
QUICKLY
you can secure a Woodville country estate
consisting of 10, 20 or 40 acres in a fine lo­
cation in Michigan, for only

$32.50
per Acre
F R E E T O W N L O T with each 10 acre tract,
also a S P E C I A L A D V E R T I S I N G DISCOUNT
to those who act A T ONCE.
The tract is
well located, right on a railroad, with the
station right there.
The land is high and
dry and sold under a M O N E Y - B A C K GUAR­
ANTEE.
The T I T L E
IS
ABSOLUTELY
C L E A R and is conveyed by W A R R A N T Y
D E E D W I T H O U T E X T R A COST.
Send for
our beautiful booklet and get all the details
without any obligation on your part. Simply
ask for a W O O D V I L L E booklet and mention
the Crisis. Send for it T O D A Y because the
tracts are GOING F A S T . Address

Arenson Realty Development Corp.
Chicago, 111.

Send No Money
Snap this bargain up right now before it is too
late. Only limited quantity. Amazing underwear
bargain. Greatest offer ever made. T w o G u a r ­
a n t e e d $ 4 E a c h , W o o l Union s u i t s , $ 5 . 7 5 .
S a v e b i g m o n e y o n y o u r underwear. Send
postcard or letter today — this very minute, for
these2 beautiful perfect fitting heavy weight gray
elastic rib union suits. Full cut. Seams reinforced
and overcast. S e n d N o Money—pay only $5.75
on arrival, no more; we pay delivery charges.

We

sections

m o n e y if you can
match these 2 wonderful wool union suits for
$8.00. Order this amazing bargain this minute
before it is too late. Just give name, address
and breast measure.
D e p t . V 044

900

of the United

COLORADO

States.

WANTED

WANTED

Live Agents

A t Once To Sell

DUDLEY'S FAMOUS AUTO POLISH
for furniture, pianos, church pews, hard­
wood floors a n d hundreds of other things
that have a varnished surface. Makes them
look like new.
Agents can make $50.00 to
¥75.00 per w e e k selling Dudley's Polish to
furniture dealers,
d r u g stores, hardware
stores, churches, housekeepers, automobile
Btores, paint stores and grocery stores.
Special Offer: For 90 days we will ship to
all new agents $10.00 worth of Dudley's
Polish for $5.00.
Take advantage of this
special offer at once.

116 S O U T H

& COMPANY

ST.,

YOUR

MUSKOGEE.

VACATION

O K L

A

.

AT

Beautiful Idlewild
The most wonderfully Ideal spot where young a n d
old cast aside for the time a l l the cares a n d worries
of their strenuous, nerve-racking routine lire* a n d
romp a n d play once more as children a n d enjoy to the
full nature i n a l l her wondrous glory. T h e waters of
the lake and surrounding trout streams are fairly
teeming w i t h game fish of the best varieties.
Do y o u enjoy bathing, boating, fishing, hunting?
Do you enjoy roaming through the woods picking
w i l d flowers a n d w i l d berries T
Do you want a place to go where you can b u i l d up
your health, vitality, energy a n d business efficiency T
Do you enjoy m i n g l i n g w i t h the active, thinking,
progressive people of the day—people who do things T
Do you believe In progress a n d do y o u want to *
have a part In one of the most progressive move­
ments of the time? Surely I
Then you w i l l be Interested In, and want to
own a lot of your own In B e a u t i f u l Idlewild
Michigan. I f you act at once you can Be­
nin) a beautiful lot for only I 3 5 . M each;
$6.00 cash; $1.00 per week. When your
payments are completed the lot w i l l b i
transferred to you by an absolute
warranty deed w i t h abstract show­
ing clear title.

Good live energetic
agents wanted
Idlewild Resort
Company
1110 Hartford BIdg
So. Dearborn St.
Chicago, Ill.

W V a n Buren, Chicago
Mention T H E

MAIN

SPEND

G u a r a n t e etorefundyour

BERNARD •HEWITT

SPRINGS,

Dudley & Porter M a n u f a c t u r i n g C o .

ON V E R Y EASY T E R M S

19 So. L a Salle St.,

E S M I O L

COLORADO

Crisis

T H E CRISIS A D V E R T I S E R

140

Cleota J . Collins
Lyric

Soprano

''Judging
from
the
appear­
ance of a large n u m b e r of
m u s i c lovers, her sweet lyric
voice held
them
ipellbound.
She was applauded again and
again after each n u m b e r . " —

Boston

G E N U I N E $12.00 I M P O R T E D

VELOUR

HAT

A

$6.89
Delivered

Stunning,

Free

Stylish
Hat

Chronicle.
Address:

156

HAMILTON
COLUMBUS,

AVENUE,
OHIO

FULL OF JAZZ
AND PEP

Clarence C a m e r o n White

BECOMING
TO Y O U N G
AND
OLD

Violinist

Recitals, Concerts. Instruction

$12

W r i t e quick
for
this amazing
bar­
gain. Only limited
lot. Wonderful quality, imported velour,
record-breaking cot

Studio:
616 Columbus Avenue

PAY ON
ARRIVAL
ONLY
J6.89
FOR
THIS
GREAT

1

Boston, Mass.

Just send address
and size for this
wonderfu1 i m ­
ported genuine black velour hat. Beautiful fedora style. Flex­
ible b r i m . Oan be turned up or down. Made of the finest qual­
ity, very silky, imported black velour. F i n e wide grosgrain black
eilk ribbon band. Genuine leather, non-soilable sweat band. A
hat you can wear, season after season, for years. D o n ' t S e n d a
P e n n y — P a y onlv S6.89 O. O. D. We pay delivery charges. W e
G u a r a n t e e to refund your money immediately, i f you can match
it for less than §12.00. S a v e M o n e y — W r i t e T o d a y before this
astounding offer is withdrawn. Be sure to give size.

SEND

E. ALDAMA JACKSON
Graduate of Institute of Musical Art
Organist-Director
of M u s i c
of St. M a r k s M . E .
Church;
Concert
Accompanist;
Piano,
Voice,
Theory, Instruction, Conducting,
Coaching.
H a r m o n y t a u g h t f r o m b e g i n n i n g to c o m ­
pletion.
Private or correspondence.
Geothius system.
Studio:
250 W . 1 3 8 t h
St., N e w Y o r k ,
N. Y .
T e l e p h o n e M o r n i n g s i d e 1708.

HAT

NO

MONEY

BERNARD-HEWITT & COMPANY
Dept. H 044.

9 0 0 W . V a n B u r e n S t . , C h i c a g o , ILL.

$1.10—Get These Famous 'BLUES' For Your Player
SOMEBODY'S GOT MY M A N
The T o m Cat Blues - Pee Gee Blues - C a m p m e e t i n g Blues
Oh!

You Darktown
I'm

E a r l y M o r n i n ' Blues

Regimental

Band

G o i n ' B a c k T o M y Use T o Be

Y o u C a n ' t Keep A G o o d M a n D o w n
Blind

M a n Blues

-

Lonesome R o a d

Blues

Agents: Williams & Piron, 4404 So. State St., C H I C A G O , 111., or Pace
& Handy, 232 W . 46th St., N E W Y O R K , N . Y . , or sent direct from
our plant. Order today or send for general Bulletin.

OWENS PLAYER
Dept. 1 0 5

ROLL

C O M P A N Y , INC.

KANSAS CITY, M O .
REFERENCE:

DUNN
Mention

T H E

OR
CRISIS.

312 E a s t 12th St.

BRADSTREET

THE

CRISIS

141

ADVERTISER

Made to Measure
$15.00

EXPRESS OR POSTAGE PREPAID
This offer is one of the biggest, most gener­
ous ever made by any tailoring house. It's
your one big opportunity to get a finely tailored-to-measure 2-piece suit with box back,
superbly trimmed and cut in the latest city
style for only $13.50.

WE'RE OUT TO BEAT
HIGH TAILORING PRICES
Your own local tailor couldn't and wouldn't
m a k e you a suit for $13.50, let alone supply
the cloth, linings and trimmings. Why not
s a v e 5 0 % on your next suit? We have such
a tremendous business, buy all our materials
in such large quantities and have such a perfect organi­
zation that we can make these wonderful prices—and
remember we guarantee style, fit and workmanship or
your money back.

You S a v e$8to$11
This suit for S13.50 clearly proves our supremacy in the tailoring field. We offer
dozens of equally good values. L e t ' s tell
you about them. W e would rather you did

BIGSAMPLEOUTFIT

not send us any money until we send our
Write us today and we will mail you absolutely F R E E our beautifully illustrated
pattern book showing dozens of the latest city styles and designs, also many large
size cloth samples to choose from. You will be simply thunderstruck at the excep­
tional values we are offering this year. Don't delay; we urge you to act quick; today!

THE P R O G R E S S TAILORING CO.
Dept. 6 0 6 ,

CHICAGO
Mention

THE

CRISIS

THE

142

CRISIS

ADVERTISER

Xmas

Patti's

Suggestions

S e n d $2.50 and postage
4

PERFECTLY

MARVELOUS

for

SKIN TOILETTES

Or $2.25 for Patti's C o l u m b i a Record
Bleaching, Vanishing and Cold Cream. Also "La Traviata" Powder,
68 cents each. "Patti's Special" Perfume, $1.25 an ounce.
S e n d 10c p o s t a g e f o r m a i l i n g o n e

article.

2c e a c h a d d i t i o n a l .

$5.00 for 6 Toilettes and Patti's B e a u t y Secrets
B I G

M O N E Y

F O R

A G E N T S

Send

A . A. B R O W N ,

The

if ordered

CRISIS.

70

subscription

Fifth

Address
Avenue.

New

York.

o

r

t

w

o

Y.

$

Agents 8 5 Weekly
Get a Robinson Folding Bath Tub F R E E .
Big seller. Cost little, no plumbing. Weight
15 pounds, folds into small roll. Full length baths,
far better than tin tubs. Guaranteed 10 years. $15 to
$20 a day easily made. Write quick for special offer.
Robinson Cabinet Mfg. Co., Factories Bldg., Toledo, O

WANTED
Agents for T H E C R I S I S , Dignified Work
70 F i f t h Avenue, New Y o r k
Mention

C

A Real Holiday
Gift
T h e whole f a m i l y w i l l enjoy a
M y e r s Replayer a l l the year.
Re­
plays V i c t o r and C o l u m b i a Records.
Great for Dances,
Dinners
and
Farties.
$10.01) REPLAYER-HOLIDAY PRICE $7.50
Postage p a i d . Money back i f not
satisfied.
G e t your Replayer for
the holidays.
Order at once.
THE MYERS REPLAYER CO.
Toledo, Ohio
1125 Nicholas Bid?.,

Dr.
$3 00
1.50

N,

f

C

$3.50
$3.00

together

EMPORIUM

$4.59
finest quality, beautiful patterns
regular$3.50maaraadressshirts,$7.00value
—bent on approval, no money in advance, payable C . O. D . Madeofthe
anest quality Styltex C o r d e d M a d r a s , very durable, very dressy, cut
extra full, roomy armholes. coat front style, soft French turn back
cuffs, fine pearl buttons, double stitched, finest workmanship. In latest
s t r i p effects, lavender, blue and black stripes <f ast color) on white
background. Sizes 14 to 17lg. State size and color preferred.
W e G u a r a n t e e to return your money lo fall, if you can match these
c 7 T,
,
two fine S h i r t s anywhere for l e s s than $3.50 each,
bend no Money, just your name address and size, and we will ship at ODce, delivery
cnartrea prepaid. Pay only $4.69 on arrival, no more. Write today for thia won­
derful bargain. Be sure to state neck-band size.
BERNARD-HEWITT AND
COMPANY
Dept. S 044
9 00 W . V a n B l l r e n S t . ,
Chicago, III.

F i v e paid-up yearly subscriptions to
the
CRISIS sent i n at one time w i l l entitle the
sender to a year's subscription free. T h i s offer
holds good u n t i l midnight of
January
31,
1931.

Total
SPECIAL,

11

4 7 2 3 S t . L a w r e n c e A v e . , A p t . 3, C H I C A G O , I L L .

ONLY

Special CRISIS Offer

by

Q U I C K

to

)

S e n d us o r d e r s f o r A r t M a t e r i a l s a n d S c h o o l
S u p p l i e s of
all kinds.
\ Y e can
save
you
money.
I f y o u w i s h to earn m o n e y
during
vacation or in y o u r spare time write us. W e
c a n d i r e c t y o u to r e p u t a b l e f i r m s .
Address:
UP-REACH MAGAZINE,
wniu N. H u n t " , E d i t o r
4345 V i n c e n n e s A v e n u e ,
Chicago, IU.

W . E . B. DuBois
T h e C R I S I S , one y e a r ' s

Orders

SendNo Money

TEACHERS AND SCHOOLS

Extraordinary Special Offer
D A R K W A T E R ,
the new book

W R I T E

Money

Manager, P A T T I B E A U T Y

Phone K e n w o o d 9538

T y p e w r i t e r s are n e e d e d i n y o u r business.
We
f u r n i s h t h e m at l o w e s t c a s h p r i c e s o r o n de
ferred payments.
Free trial privilege granted.
Our Line
of D i p l o m a s , Certificates, C l a s s P i n s a n d Com­
mencement
Invitations
are
high
grade
and
cheaper
than
those y o u
have been
using.
Y o u can b u y o r r e n t C a p s a n d G o w n s f r o m us.
Our Supply Department
can furnish you with A N Y S C H O O L B O O K S
OR A N Y BOOKS B Y N E G R O
AUTHORS.
Ask
for
Brawley's
"Short
H i s t o r y of
the
American Negro"; Cromwell's "The Negro in
American
History," and
Huggins
"How
to
Study
and
Teach
Negro
History."
Yon
s h o u l d subscribe for
The Up-Reach
Magazine
A J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a n d S o c i a l W o r k D e ­
v o t e d to t h e I n t e r e s t s o f N e g r o T e a c h e r s a n d
S o c i a l W o r k e r s a n d P r o m o t i n g the S t u d y a n d
Teaching
of
Negro
History
in
Schools,
C h u r c h e s a n d C l u b s . $ 1 . 0 0 p e r y e a r , £0 c e n t s
per copy.

All

SEND NO MONEY
Write quick for this amazing sock bargain,
Only limited lot.
Men's fine quality black or
gray wool socks. Full seamless, double sole,
toe and heel. Guaranteed wear-proof.

6

PAIR O F G U A R A N T E E D
$1.00
WOOL SOCKS
Guaranteed Six M o n t h s

$3.00

S E N D N O MONEY—write quick.
Socks sent delivery charges paid.
P a y $ 3 o n arrival, no more. Money back if
not more than pleased. Give size, color.

BERNARD, HEWITT SCO.
THE

CRISIS.

Dept. X 044

New
Socks
FREE
If you
get
less
than
6 mos.
wear.

Chicago

THE

OUR
We

CRISIS

ADVERTISER

143

LATEST CATALOG WILL B E
MAILED TO YOU UPON REQUEST
are positively the only Manufacturers

specialize and cater direct

to the

Colored

of H U M A N

HAIR

G O O D S who

People.

O u r W i g s , Switches, Transformations, Bobs and Braids are strictly hand­
made—of the finest qualities of real H u m a n H a i r Goods and manufactured
under the supervision of M M E . B A U M , by the most skillful artists i n the
trade.
Try Mme. Baum's Celebrated
of the finest ingredients and
them.

Scalp and Face Preparations
which are made
are the most satisfying
to the person
using

We
Mme.
B a u m ' s Bob
gives the appear­
ance of wearing the
h a i r bobbed, but
makes cutting u n ­
necessary.
M ad o
of strictly Supreme
Quality
human
hair, with natural
waves,
sewed on
Velvet
Ribbon,
fitted
with
three
tuck C o m b s to
hold secure.
In
all shades.
Price,
{5.50.

carry the
dressers'

largest
Tools

selection

and

of

Hair­

Accessories.

MME. BAUM'S
MAIL ORDER HOUSE
O u r F a c t o r y is L o c a t e d at

80 F O U R T H

AVE.

When

writing,

Telephone,

NEWYORK,
mention this

Baring

N. V.

paper.

7794

ISADORE MARTIN
Real Estate and Insurance
Notary Public
6 N o r t h 42nd
TeL

Street,

6487 Fort Hill

Cable Address, Epben

E D G A R
ATTORNEY

84

School

Mortgages
Philadelphia, P a .

P.

B E N J A M I N

AND COUNSELLOB-AT-LAW

Street

Boston, Mass.

S O M E D O N ' T S For Holiday Gifts
T h e y have c o m m a n d e d t h e attention o f the peoples
of E a s t e r n a n d W e s t e r n C o n t i n e n t s . S e n d m e 10c f o r
a copy.
A . R . G i l l e s p i e , 2272 E i s t 97th S t . , C l e v e ­
land, Ohio.
2

for $5.25

The Colored Teachers' Bureau
Send No Money!
Will Help Yon Get a Better Paying
REGISTER

Two wonderful $4.00 shirts for only $5.25.
^
Save at least $2.75. Everybody wearing these semidress Gray Flannel Shirts for business, work and sport.
Cadillac
Two

Broadcloth

$4.00

Shirts

Flannel

for Only

90O

Desk
W.Van

SEASONABLE

Position.

TEEMS

Address: Colored Teachers' Bureau

Shirts

Box 22, Wilberforce, 0.

$5.25

Made o f fine quality Cadillac Broadcloth Gray Flannel.
Special Winter we i g l i t . One large pocket, f a c e d uleeve* m i d
matched pear] buttona C u t E x t r a F u l l . C o a t F r o n t S t y l e .
Double-St itched thru-out. Soft turn down collar with sateen
faced neckband. T h o r o u g h l y S h r u n k . T r y to match theBO
•hirt* in any store at (4.00. Yet we offer you two for only $5.25.
Write today. Shirts will be sent at
S e n d No M o n e y once, transportation prepaid. Pay only
$6.26 on arrival—no more. Money back at once If not more than pleased
with the wonderful value. Be sure to give neck-band size.
BERNARD-HEWITT 8 CO.

NOW

F . S. 044
B u r e n St.,

Badges, Banners, Lodge Regalia
For

a l l Lodge

CHICAGO

Societies

JOS. L. JONES, P R . . .
641 W . 9th S t .

Mention

and Church

CENTRAL REGALIA CO.

T H E

CRISIS.

Cincinnati, O h i o

THE

144

CRISIS

ADVERTISER

Kelly Miller's Authentic History of Negro in World War
A NEW A N D U P - T O - D A T E
WAR HISTORY

The
Only
War
History
That
Will
Folly
Satisfy
The
American
Colored
People

JUST OFF THE PRESS
200 p i c t u r e s

700 pages

Price, c l o t h . . $2.50
m o r o c c o $3.50
Sent

rjy

insured

parcel

post.

T h i s B o o k a p p e a l s to the C o l o r e d P e o p l e .
T h e y are
e a g e r to b u y it.
Why?
B e c a u s e it is the o n l y
War
B o o k p u b l i s h e d that t h r i l l i n g l y , g r a p h i c a l l y , yet faith­
f u l l y d e s c r i b e s the w o n d e r f u l p a r t the Colored Soldier
has taken i n the W o r l d W a r a n d is a b s o l u t e l y fair to
the N e g r o .
It relates to the w o r l d h o w 300.000 N e g r o e s c r o s s e d
the N o r t h A t l a n t i c , b r a v i n g the t e r r o r s of the Sub­
m a r i n e P e r i l , l o b a t t l e f o r D e m o c r a c y a g a i n s t the b l o o d ­
t h i r s t y h o r d e s of a w a r m a d L o r d of the H o u s e of
Hohenzollern.
M o r e t h a n fifty p a g e s of the B o o k d e v o t e d to the
A C H I E V E M E N T S
O F
T H E NEGRO
IN
T H E
AMERICAN
NAVY—Guarding
the
Trans-Atlantic
R o u t e to F r a n c e — B a t t l i n g the S u b m a r i n e P e r i l — T h e
Best S a i l o r s i n a n y N a v y i n the W o r l d — M a k i n g a N a v y
in T h r e e M o n t h s f r o m N e g r o S t e v e d o r e s a n d L a b o r e r s
— W o n d e r f u l A c c o m p l i s h m e n t s of O u r N e g r o Y o e m e n
and Y e o w o m e n .

AGENTS WANTED
Size

6'..

You

should

make

a

library;

x

8>;.

i n c h e s , 700

read

valuable addition
send

for

Pages

this book, i t
it

to

Millions of these books will be sold.
BIG MONEY is being made by our
sales people 30 000 <old in one month. Our offer will pay you from $3 to $9
per day. One agent made $317 last month. A G E N T S ' S A M P L E showing speci­
men pages and all the pictures and covers of book will be mailed to you
for 28 cents (stamps to pay postage. It represents exactly the complete book
Send 28 cents for outfit T O D A Y .

will

AUSTIN JENKINS CO.

your

today.
No.

523 9 t h

Mention

(Book
Street

T H E

CRISIS

and

Bible

Publishers)
Washington,

D . C.

Let
UsASend
You
Suit

Made to your measure, payable after
received, with the clear understanding that if
the fit is not perfect, or if you are not satisfied
in every w a y ; if you are not convinced that
you have received a fine, high-grade, stylish,
splendid-fitting tailored suit made to your
measure and have saved at least $15.00 to
$20.00, you are not under the slightest
obligation to keep it. Don't hesitate or
feel timid, simply send the suit back, no
cost to you. Y o u are not out one penny.
A n y money you may have paid us •
is refunded at once.
S E N D N O M O N E Y — just your
name and address for F R E E
samples and latest styles, beautiful
N E W samplebook all sent F R E E
— if you answer now.

All Wool Suits $25.00
SAMPLES FREE
A n y man, young or old, interested
in saving money, who wants to
dress well and not feel extravagant, is invited to answer at once and get our free
book of cloth samples and latest fashions, with everything explained. Simply mail
the coupon, or write letter or postal today, just say, "Send me your samples" and
get our whole proposition by return mail. Agents write too, we have a big NEW
agency deal for you.
Try it, costs you nothing—just a stamp, get the F R E E
S A M P L E S and low prices anyway. Learn something important about dressing
well and saving money. Write today.

KNICKERBOCKER TAILORING CO., Dept. 1083, CHICAGO, ILL
TEAR OUT H E R E - M A I L TODAY

FREE SAMPLE BOOK COUPON
Knickerbocker Tailoring Company.
Dept. 1 0 8 3 ,
C h i c a g o . 111.
Gentlemen:
Please send me your complete big book of Samples & Styles showing your all-wool
suits as low as $25.00, and Agents big new money-making deal.
Everything free and postpaid.
Name
Address

A WONDERFUL OPPORTUNITY
To
the

become a subscriber
to and own
most progressive Negro Chemical

part
of
Company.

T h e N I L E Q U E E N C O R P O R A T I O N w i t h a c a p i t a l of $ 2 0 0 , 0 0 0
is n o w b e i n g o r g a n i z e d u n d e r the l a w s of the State of I l l i n o i s to
p r o v i d e a greater scope a n d o p p o r t u n i t y for o p e r a t i o n i n the r i c h
field of c o m m e r c i a l c h e m i s t r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the m a n u f a c t u r e a n d
d i s t r i b u t i o n of toilet articles.

Acquire K a s h m i r Chemical C o m p a n y
T h e entire h o l d i n g of the K a s h m i r C h e m i c a l C o m p a n y of C h i c a g o ,
the w e l l k n o w n a n d successful leader i n this field, i n c l u d i n g i t s
b u i l d i n g , fixtures, furniture, m a c h i n e r y , accounts a n d assets of
every character, w i l l be t a k e n o v e r a n d f o r m the n u c l e u s of the n e w
o r g a n i z a t i o n , w h i c h w i l l be c o u n t r y - w i d e i n scope.

Sharing the

Profits

If a B e a u t y C u l t u r i s t , D r u g g i s t , A g e n t or P r i v a t e I n d i v i d u a l o w n s
a few shares of stock, n a t u r a l l y he or she w o u l d exert e v e r y effort
to m a k e N I L E Q U E E N P r e p a r a t i o n s supreme i n his p a r t i c u l a r
c o m m u n i t y . T o share the profits of the business w i t h those w h o
help to m a k e it a success is one of the basic ideas of this n e w or­
ganization.

Your Chance
Y o u are b e i n g offered this o p p o r t u n i t y to become a s u b s c r i b e r t o
this great n e w o r g a n i z a t i o n . D o not o v e r l o o k this u n u s u a l o p e n i n g
for a business i n v e s t m e n t w h i c h p r o m i s e s s u c h great returns. Safe,
c o n s e r v a t i v e — a n d yet e a r n i n g b i g d i v i d e n d s for y o u . G u a r a n t e e of
6 per cent. P r a c t i c a l c e r t a i n t y of m u c h greater r e t u r n s .

Price of Shares
T h e shares of the C o r p o r a t i o n are $ 2 5 . 0 0 each, p a y a b l e $ 5 . 0 0 d o w n
and $ 5 . ( 8 0 per m o n t h for four m o n t h s . S u b s c r i p t i o n s n o w b e i n g
received. P O S I T I O N S O P E N F O R C A P A B L E
REPRESEN­
TATIVES.
Send subscription or request for details to
NILE QUEEN CORPORATION

KASHMIR

INCORPORATORS,
or

CHEMICAL COMPANY

3423 INDIANA A V E .

CHICAGO, ILL.

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