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The ECOSYSTEM and Biogeochemical

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it describe kinds of ecosystem and how does biogeochemical occur.

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ENVIROMENTAL SCIENCE
THE ECOSYSTEM
AND
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLE
GROUP III
1. Dian Kurniati P. (091404166)
2. Fitri (091404168)
3. Masyitha Wahid (091404169)
4. A. Citra Pratiwi (091404170)
5. Musdalifah Saidung (091404171)
6. Gunawan Rahmil (091404174)

ECOSYSTEM


Ecosystems is a dynamic
interaction between biotic and abiotic
component in environment functioning
together as a unit.

ENVIRONMENT

Two components in environment

• Abiotic - nonliving chemical and physical factors.
Ex. Temperature, light, H20 and nutrients
-distribution of organisms limited by abiotic
conditions that the organisms can tolerate.
• Biotic -living organisms in any individual’s
environment.
Ex. A lizard living in the desert.

The scientific study of how organisms interact
with one another and their environments is called
Ecology.




INDIVIDU, POPULATION, COMMUNITY,
ECOSYSTEM, AND BIOSPHERE






Populations

Communities

Organism Ecosystems

Biosphere





INDIVIDU, POPULATION, COMMUNITY,
ECOSYSTEM, AND BIOSPHERE
Individu – an organism that lives in
particular geographical area on particular
time.
Population – aa group of organisms of the
same species, living in a particular
geographical area.
Community – organisms that inhabit a
particular area. Consists of populations of
different species.



INDIVIDU, POPULATION, COMMUNITY,
ECOSYSTEM, AND BIOSPHERE
 Ecosystem – dynamic interaction between
biotic and abiotic component in environment
functioning together as a unit.
 Biosphere – The global ecosystem-Earth
Major Abiotic Factors of biosphere:
- temperature -rocks and soil
-water -periodic disturbances
-sunlight -wind




WITHIN THE BIOSPHERE, THERE ARE TWO MAIN
HABITATS (TYPES OF ECOSYSTEM)

1. Terrestial – the terrestial is devided into
biomes. Biomes are characterized by
their dominant types of vegetation.
2. Aquatic – based on salt content the
aquatic habitat is devided into
freshwater ecosystem, marine
ecosystem, and the middle of them is
estuary ecosystem.

1. TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS (BIOMES)
Diagram below show dividing of terrestrial ecosystems
Terrestrial ecosystems
(Biomes)
desert grassland
Savanna steppe
Deciduous
forest
Tropical
forest
taiga
tundra
Alpine
tundra
Arctic
tundra
THE SPREAD OF BIOMES IN THE EARTH
DIVIDING OF HEMISPHERE IN THE EARTH
Nothern hemisphere is earth
hemisphere which located in upper
tropic cancer area.
Equator is earth hemisphere which
located between tropic of cancer and
tropic of capricorn
Southern hemisphere is earth
hemisphere which located in under the
tropic of capricorn area.
DIVIDING OF BIOMES
The biomes is divided based on
the location (region), where the
different location will influence to the
climate of that region. Automatically,
the climate will influence the types of
vegetations and animals which are
able to maintance their life in that
region.
DESERT ECOSYSTEM








 Location : Gobi dessert in China and Sahara dessert in Africa
 animals : Camel, Scorpio
 Plants : Succulent and some annual plants
 Climate : Subtropical climate at 20
0
– 30
0
NL and SL.

GRASSLAND ECOSYSTEMS
 savanna









 Location : Central Africa, Shouthern africa, North America
 Animals : Grazing mammal such as antelope and zebra
 Plants : Lianas
 Climate : Tropical Climate
 Steppe









 Location : Southwest Rusia , Asia, North America.
 Animals : Zebra, tiger, wolf.
 Plants : Orchid, Lianas, Deciduous shrubs.
 Climate : Continental and semi-arid climate.


DECIDUOUS FOREST ECOSYSTEMS









 Location : North america, North America, Japan
 Animals : Bear and wolf
 Plants : Elm tree, Oak, and Mapple.
 Climate : Subtropical climate
TROPICAL FOREST ECOSYSTEMS







 Location : South east Asia
 Animals : Elephant, monkey, various birds
 Plants : Ever green trees
 Climate : Tropical climate
TAIGA ECOSYSTEMS







 Location : North America and Eurasia
 Animals : lynx
 Plants : needleleaf, coniferous trees
 Climate : Subartic and cold continental climate
TUNDRA ECOSYSTEM
The general characteristic of tundra
ecosystem:
 Extremely cold climate
 Low biotic diversity
 Simple vegetation structure
 Limitation of drainage
 Short season of growth and reproduction
 Energy and nutrient in the form of dead
organic material
 Large population oscilations.


TUNDRA ECOSYSTEM
 alpine tundra







 Location : Mountain throught out the world at high
altitude
 Animals : marmoot, butterfly, Goat.
 Plants : Moss shrubs, dwarf trees, most similar arctic
tundra.
 Climate : Subartical climate
 arctic tundra










 Location : Northern hemisphere
 Animals : Mountain goat, sheep, and marmot
 Plants : Dwarf trees and tussock grasses
 Climate : Subtropical climate

 The arctic is known for its cold. The average winter
temperature is -34
0
Celcius, but the average summer
temperature is 3-12
0
Celcius which enable this biome to
sustain life.
 Yearly precipitation, including melting snow, is 15 to 25
cm. When water saturates the upper surface, bogs and
ponds may form, provinding moisture for plants.
 Dominant vegetation of this biome is the lichen. There is
no deep root systems in the vegetation of the arctic
tundra. However, the the variety of plants at arctic biome
are able to resist the cold climate.
 Because of the constant immigration and emigration, the
population of animals continually oscillates.


DISTINGUISH ARCTIC TUNDRA AND ALPINE
TUNDRA
Basically, the arctic tundra and alpine tundra are
almost same, the basic distinguish between them is
in their region.
 Arctic tundra is located at the north pole. Meanwhile
the alpine tundra is located on mountains throught
the world at high altitude.
 The summer gowing season at arctic tundra ranges
from 50-60 days, when the sun shines 24 hours a
day. Meanwhile, at the alpine tundra is
approximately 180 days.



THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ELEVATION,
LATITUDE, AND VEGETATION
5,500
Permanent snow

4,500



3,600






1,800








0




90°
80°
65°
60
o


50°

40°

30°

25°

20°


10°




North Pole
2. AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM

 Based on the salt content, aquatic ecosysytems are
divided into three types.
Aquatic
Ecosystem
Freshwater
ecosystem
Marine
ecosystem
Estuary
ecosystem
BASED ON THE GRADIENT OF MARINE, THREE
TYPES OF MARINE ARE AS FOLLOWS:
Marine
Littoral
ecosystem
Sub littoral
ecosystem
Coral reef
ecosystem
Estuary
Geomorphology
Drowned
river
valleys
Lagoon-type
or Bar-built
estuaries
Hydrography
Salt wedge
estuaries
Partially
mixed
estuaries
vertically
homogenues
estuaries
Inverse estuary
AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM
 Aquatic surfaces the earth occupy over 70% of the
total world area and support a great variety of living
things

AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM DIVIDED TO BE :


 1. Marine ecosystem

 2. Fresh water ecosystem

 3. Estuary ecosystem

MARINE ECOSYSTEMS

 There are three types of marine ecosystem based
on it’s gradients, they are :
 1. Littoral zone : the communities are those
associated with sandy beaches, rocky shores and
tide pools, and muddy bays.
 2. Sub littoral zone : extends from the low-tide mark
to the edge of the continental shelf, or to a depth of
about 200 meters.
 3. Coral reef communities : consists mainly of the
skeletons of dead corals, colonial coelenterates that
take minerals from the water to produce a stony
structure persisting after the animals have died.


FRESH WATER ECOSYSTEM
 There are three kinds of fresh water habitats :
 1. Lakes : limnetic zone, littoral zone, sub littoral
zone and profundal zone.
 2. Streams : arise from snow melt in mountains, from
or from drainage of surface water.
 3. Springs

ESTUARY ECOSYSTEMS
 Estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water, which
has a free connection with the open sea, and within
which sea water is measurable diluted with freshwater
derived from land drainage.
 Classification of Estuaries ecosystem
- Classification based on geomorphology
> Drowned river valleys
> Lagoon-type or bar-built estuaries
- Classification based on hydrograph
> Salt Wedge estuaries
> Partially mixed estuaries
> Vertically homogenous estuaries

ESTUARY ECOSYSTEMS
Human Impact
Estuaries are impacted by events far
upstream and concentrate materials such
as pollutants and sediments



B. BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLE
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLE
Biogeochemical cycle is series of chemical
alteration of chemical substances which involve
abiotic and biotic component in ecosystem.
Types of biogeochemical cycle are :
 Water cycle
 Phosphorous cycle
 Nitrogen cycle
 Carbon cycle
 Sulphur cycle

WATER CYCLE

The water cycle also known as hydrologic
cycle, describes the continous movement of water
on, above and below surface of the earth
The hydrologic cycle, showing the transfer of
water from the ocean to the atmosphere to the
continents and back to the ocean again.



WATER CYCLE
Different process in water cycle

 Evaporation
 Transpiration
 Evapotranspiration
 sublimation
 Condensation
 Precipitation
 Infiltration
 Runoff
WATER CYCLE

WATER CYCLE

PHOSPHORUS CYCLE
Phosphorus cycle is a cycle or cycles
involving phosphorus, in terms of input
or sources of phosphorus, a process
that happen to phosphorus-
phosphorus to produce back again.
THE ROLE OF PHOSPHORUS:
The advantages of phosphorus:
1. 1. Phosphorus is very important and
required by living organism.
2. 2. phosphorus use in the manufacture
of fertilizers and widely use in
explosive, matches, fireworks,
pesticides and etc.
 The harmful of phosphorus:
abuse the phosphorus into a terrible
bomb.

PHOSPHOROUS CYCLE
NITROGEN CYCLE
 Nitrogen is an element required by every living
being. Nitrogen is not required in the form of
elements, but in the form of compounds.
 Earth's atmosphere contains 79% nitrogen.
 Nitrogen is one of the amino acid-forming elements.
Amino acids are protein molecules forming
compounds. Protein is a useful compound as a
constituent body.


NITROGEN CYCLE
 Nitrate can be absorbed by plants for protein
synthesis by metabolism. The plants are food for
animals. The died plants and animals will be
decomposed by decomposer. The result of it such
as ammonium will be released to the environment.


NITROGEN CYCLE
CARBON CYCLE
 The carbon cycle is biogeochemical cycle by which
carbon is exchanged among the biosphere,
pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and
atmosphere of the earth.
 Carbon cycle has an important important position in
this earth since it is needed by all living things in
this Earth.
HOW DOES CARBON CYCLE OCCUR?
ENDING SLIDE


Thank’s for your attention

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