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The Labour Code of the Federal Union of Burma DRAFT

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zuf'&,f '&,fjynf jynfaxmif axmifpkpkjref jrefrmEk rmEk   dififiHiH tvkyfyform;Oya' orm;Oya' ¡rl=urf =urf;¢;¢ The Labour code of the Federal Union of Burma (DRAFT)

jrefrmEk rmEk   difiiHif tvk t H vkyfyorm;or*~ o f rm;or*~rs rsm;tzG   J @csKyf? Federation of Trade Unions – Burma (FTUB)

rmwdum um tcef;(1) ;(1) taxGaxG axGo k;oyf ;H oyfjcif jcif;

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General Provisions

tcef;(2) ;(2) tvkyfyform;opf orm;opf&S&mazG mS azGpkpaqmif kaqmif;jcif ;jcif;eS ;eS  hifif  tvkyfyfcef cef @tyfae&mcs ae&mcsxm;jcif; Recruitment and placement of workers

tcef;(3) ;(3) tvkyfyfoif oifrs rsm;uk   d tvk  tvkyfyay;jcif fay;jcif;/;/ avhvmol vmolrs rsm;eS  hifivk v f yfyk fief ief;cG ;cGifi tvk  f tvkyfyfoif oifrs rsm; Training and employment of Apprentices, Learners and Interns

tcef;(4) ;(4) ted  hrfrqH q f  kH;tvk ;tvkyfyorm;owf form;owfrSrSwf wcscf surs frsm; Minimum Labour Standards

jrefrmEk rmEk   difiiHif tvk t H vkyfyorm;or*~ o f rm;or*~rs rsm;tzG   J @csKyf? Federation of Trade Unions – Burma (FTUB)

tcef;(5) ;(5) trsKd;orD ;orD;/;/ uav;ES  hifif txl  txl;twef ;twef;tpm;0if ;tpm;0if  tvkyfyform;wk orm;wk   d @E  hSifif ywf  ywfouf oufaom vk   dtyf tyfcscsurs frsm;ES  fihitumtuG t h umtuG,f ,ay;xm;jcif af y;xm;jcif;

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Requirements Requirements Protections related to Gender, Childhood and Special Categories of Workers

tcef;(6) ;(6) or*~  JzGz @G pnf;jcif ;jcif;ES ;ES  hifi pk  f pkayg aygif;aph ;aphpyf pyf!S !  d  _EdES difi;jcif ;f jcif;/;/ Union Formation and Collective Bargaining

jrefrmEk rmEk   difiiHif tvk t H vkyfyorm;or*~ o f rm;or*~rs rsm;tzG   J @csKyf? Federation of Trade Unions – Burma (FTUB)

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

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rl=urf; (DRAFT) zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpjk refrmEd kiif /H tvkyo f rm; Oya' (rsm;) tcef;(1) taxGaxGo k;H oyfjcif; THE LABOR CODE OF THE FEDERAL UNION OF BURMA CHAPTER (1) GENURAL PROVISIATION

yk'fr (1) tyd k'(f 1)§yk'rf (1)- TtufOya'ud k “z,f'&,fjynfaxmifpjk refrmEk   diif . H tvkyo f rm; Oya'” (Oya'yk'rf rsm;) [lIud k;um;&nf!$e;f az:jy+yD; ,QKrSpI aemifwiG “f the code” “Oya'æ”[kom&nf !$e;f ac:qd kygv  hdrrf nf? yk'fr(2) T“Oya'”onf  &m;0ifxw k jf yefa=ujim+yD;(----)vaemufy kid ;f wGi f tusKd;oufa&muf twnfjzpfv  hrd rf nf? yk'fr (3) T“Oya'”onf zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpk (Federal Union-FU) .   JzG @pnf;tkycf sKyfy kH tajccHOya' tcef;(-) yk'rf —tcef; (--) yk'rf --wd k @wiG cf  kdirf mpGm xnf   hoiG ;f xm;aom t"du   JzG @pnf;yH k Oya'yg rl0g'rsm;. wd k;wuf¶iS o f efaeaomf ¶Si;f vif;zG  hiq f  kdcsu f jzpfv  hrd f rnf? ,if;od k @ avsmn f DpmG Tae&mY az:jyonf  h ta=umif;tcsufrmS wnfqEJ   hiS  f tem *wfumvwGi f jzpfay:vmrnf   h tvkyo f rm;rsm;. tcG  hit f a&;rsm;ES  hi f ygwo f wfaom urBm  huv k or*~ (UN) tjynfjynfq kid &f mtvkyo f rm;tzG   J @csKyf (ILO) wnfqEJ   hiS f tem*gwu f mvwGi f jzpfay:vmrnf   h ILO . jyXmef;csurf sm;/ qH k;jzwfcsufrsm;ES  hi f tajc

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

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cH  oabmw&m;rsm;tygt0if (od k @r[kwf) Federal Union (FU) rS  yg0ifv  hdrrf nf   h tjynfjynfq kid &f m tzG   J @tpnf;wd k @r S w&m;0ifxw k jf yef  a=unmxm;aom tjynfjynf qd ki&f m vrf;n$ecf suw f  k @d onf  T “Oya'”. tpdwt f yd ki;f tjzpf owfrw S v f   hdrrf nf? Tae&mwGif wckwnf;tjzpf  aygi;f pyfxm;a=umif; &nfn$e;f onf[k jcGi;f csurf   d&S ,H k=unf ,lqonf? tjynfjynfq kid &f mvrf;n$ecf surf sm;ud k  avsmfueftyfpyfaom udp&P yftm;vH k; wd k @wGif wd ku  d&f u k ftoH k;jyKEk   di&f rnf? FU ES  fih States tpd k;&ES  hi f w&m;¶H k;rsm;rS  w&m;qG  J qd kjcif; trludpt P &yf&yfw k @d tygt0ifwGi f jrefrmhOya'tjzpf cd kirf mpGmvd kuef map&rnf? xd k @jyif FU ES  fi h States wd k @. w&m;¶k   H;rsm;onf tvkyo f rm;rsm;. tcG  hit f a&;rsm;ES  hif ywfowfaom tjynfjynfq kid f&m "avhx kH;wrf; Oya'ud k todtrSwfjyK+yD; vufc H us  hif oH k;&vd  hrrf nf? T “Oya'”. &nf&G,cf sufrmS tajccHtvkyo f rm; vrf;n$ecf surf sm;ud k tcd kit f rmxlaxmif&ef/ taumiftxnfazmf  aqmif&u G f&efE  hiS  f Oya'pnf;urf; wus twd ki;f vd kufemap&ef tvkyo f rm;rsm;.tcG  hit f a&;rsm;t& ud k,yf  kid t f yk fcsKyfc  hGi  df¶Saom 'Dr ku d a&pD us  hio f  k;H onf  h tvkyo f rm;or*~w k @d E  hiS f yl;aygi;f qufq  dEH ik &f ef pkaygi;f Ivkyu f  kdif aphpyf nS   d  dEi_ ;f ajymqd k&mY yg0ifaqmif&Gu&f efwenf;wzH ktm;jzif   h vkyt f m;cudp/P tvkyv f ky&f onf  htcsde f / tvkyv f ky&f onf  h  tajc taeES  hi f vkyif ef;cGiv f  kHjcHKrlponf   h udpt P m;vH k;wd k @E  hiS  f ygwfowfjyD; xda&mufpmG xkwfazmf ajymqd k  dEik cf   hGif&&ef - vlrsK;d /tom;ta&mif/ vlrsK;d EG,/f vdi/f bmompum;/ ud k;uG,o f nf   h  bmom/ ,H k}unfcsu/f Zmwd/ tdraf xmif  d&§S r&S   d ud k,0f efaqmifjcif;ES  hif ywfowfaomtajctae/ touft&G,f/ od k @r[kwf vdiu f pd EP   hiS yf wfowfaom tajctaewd k @wGif   JcGjcm;jcif; r&S   dap&bJ  /tvkyv f kyyf  kid cf   hiG fE  hSif tvkyaf &G;yd kifc  hGiu f  kd &&S   d cHpm;Ek   diaf p&ef  (oif   hw  hif  avsmufywfjyD;) use;f rma&;ES  hif vH kjcHKa&; wd k @u kd &&S   dapaom vkyif ef;cGi f ywf0ef;usi f tajctaersm; &&S  dap&efw k @d jzpfonf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

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yk'rf (4) T “Oya' ”yg tcsut f vufrsm;ud k vufawG @taumiftxnfaz:&mY vnf;aumif;/ t"dy g` ,fz  hiG q f  k&d m vnf;aumif;/ pnf;rsO;f pnf;urf;rsm;ud k  us  hifo k;H &mY vnf;aumif;/ ,H krmS ;oHo,jzpfp&mrsm;&S   d  hcaJ omf TwGiaf z:jyjyD;aom tajccH  Jz @G pnf;yH kEiS f h jyXmef;xm; aom Oya'ES  hif rl0g'rsm;ud k  (taxmuftuljyK jrS  hiw f ifay;jcif;jzif   h) vnf;aumif;/ xda&mufI tcsde  Drf aS qmif&u G   dEf ik af om tvkyo f rm;wd k @. tcG  hit f a&;rsm;ES  hif pkaygi;f ta&;.qd kjcif;/ tvkyo f rm;. xkwfazmfajymqd koHw k @d . vky  dEf ik pf Gr;f aom tzG  J @tpnf; rsm;ES  hief nf;vrf;rsm;ud k  apmif   ha&Smuftm;ay;jcif;jzif   h vnf;aumif; ajyvnf&Si;f vif; oGm;ap&ef ajz&Si;f ay;&vd  hrrf nf? yk'rf (5) tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;XmeES  hif tkycf sKyfa&;wm0efE  hiS  f T “Oya'”ud kv ku d femap&ef wm0ef,x l m;&aom tpd k;&&H k;tzG  J @rsm; (od k @r[kw)f tpdwftyd ki;f Xmersm;wd k @onf tcsde  Drf v S  kdtyfI us  hifo k;H aeaom pnf;urf; pnf;rsO;f rsm;ud k  w&m;0if  a=unmay;& vd  hrrf nf? T Oya'ud k vd kuef m=uap&efq kad omtyd ki;f rS &Si;f vif;az:jyxm;ouJ   ho k @d jyKjyifay;&ayrnf? yk'rf (6) T “Oya'”yg tvkyo f rm;wd k @twGu f oabmwlc  hiG jf yKxm;aom tcG  hit f a&;&yd kicf   hiG f tm;vH k;ES  hi f tusK;d cHpm;cG  hiw f  k @d onf  twwfynmoifrsm;/ ynmavhvmolrsm;/ tvkyf oifrsm;[lI Tae&mY wenf;wzH ktm;jzif   h wduspmG owfrw S fjyXmef;xm;onf  h olrsm; rS  wyg; pd kufysK;d vkyo f m;/ tdrw f Gi;f vkyo f m;/ tdraf xmifpv k yk o f m;rsm;ES  hif vdiv f kyif ef; vky=f uolrsm; tygt0if  tm;vH k;aom tvkyo f rm;wd k @twGuf wlnDpmG &nfne$ ;f us  hif oH k;&vd  hrrf nf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

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yk'rf (7) trsK;d om;wd k @xkwaf zmfajymqd koo H nf ,ckrpS I a&S @avsmuf  trsK;d oR  D;wf   d k @ xkwfazmf ajymqd koH[k t"dy g` ,fz  hiG jf yD; oif  havsmfaom tcgwGif ruG   Jjym;bJ  woabm woH[lI ,lq&vd  hrrf nf? yk'rf (8) (rl=urf;jyD;qH k;oGm;jyDjzpfI oufq kid &f m t"dy g` ,zf   hiG q f  kcd sufrsm;ud k awG @  d&S&rnfjzpfygonf?) tcef;(2) tvkyo f rm;opfrsm;&SmazGjcif;ES  hi f tvkycf ef @tyfae&mcsxm;jcif; Chapter (2) RECRUITMENT AND PLACEMANT OF WORKERS

yk'rf (9) It is the policy of the Federation Union zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp(k ���. rl0g'jzpfonf? (u)vltrsm;qk   H;tvkyt f ud kif&  S&d&ef vlxk.0,f,t l m;ES  hif [efcsufnDaom pD;yGm;a&;   HzG @jzdK;wd k;wufrw l  k @d u k d aumif;rGew f  kd;wufjyD;aom vlt&if;tiftm;ud k oif=um;avhvm ay;jcif;ES  hi f toH k;csjcif;rS wqif   hjrS  hiw f ifay;&ef? (c) (FU) twGi;f (od k @r[kw)f wd ki;f wyg;wd k @Y tvkyu f  kdiv f  kad om ol§olrwd k @twGuf taumif;qH k;vkyif ef; pnf;urf;csurf sm;ES  hif vkyif ef;cGiftajctaewd k @u kd &,lay;jyD; jynfwGi;f jynfy tvkyt f ud kifw k @d wiG f tvkyo f rm;topfrsm;ES  hi f ygwo f wfjyD; zd  dEyS f vkyaf qmifavh  d&o S nfw k @d u kd &Sif;vif;z,f&mS ;ay;um jrefrmwd ki;f &if;om;wd ki;f ud kumuG,f ay;&ef? (*) tvky&f mS azGaeolrsm;twGu f &&S   d  dEik af omtvkyt f ud kiu f  kd vGwv f yfpmG a&G;cs,fvkyf yd kicf   hiG f   d&Sapzd k @ taxmuftulay;&ef?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

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(C) tvkyo f rm;rsm; v_y&f mS ;rlu kd ‚if;wd k @.tusK;d aus;Zl;twGuf pnf;urf;owfrw S f xde;f csKyfay;&ef ? (i) a&$ @ajymif;vkyo f m;rsm;. tvkyt f ud kiu f  kd pnf;urf;owfrw S fxed ;f csKyfay;&ef? yk'rf (10) Definitions; t"dy g` ,fz  hiG q f  k&d Si;f vif;azmfjycsufrsm;// (u) “tvkyo f rm;”[laom a0g[m&toH k;tE_  H;onf tvkyv f uf  d&S  jzpfap (od k @r[kwf) tvkyv f ufr @J jzpfapES  hif tvkyt f ud ki&f   d&S&ef  avsSmufxm;olw kid ;f (od k @r[kwf) tvkyo f rm;opftjzpf tvky&f   d&So/l tvkyo f rm;xk0if rnfo @l u krd qd k &nfne$ ;f ap&vd  hrrf nf? (c) “tvkyo f rm;opfrsm;&SmazGjcif;ESifh tvkycf ef @tyfae&mcsxm;jcif;”qd konf   h toH k; tE_   H;. &nfne$ ;f qd kv kdonfrmS tvkyt f ud kiEf iS fh ywfowfI rnfonf   h vkyaf qmif csurf qd k aoG;aqmifjrLqG,jf cif;/ trnfpm&if;xnf  hoiG ;f jcif; oabmwlpmcsKyf  csKyfay; jcif;/ yd k @aqmifay;jcif;/ toH k;jyKjcif;/ iSm;&rf;jcif;/ (od k @r[kw)f tvkyo f rm;&&S   d&ef }udK;yrf; &SmazGjcif;wd k @jzpfonf? ‚if;tjyif  tjrwftpGe;f &&S   d&ef (od k @r[kw)f rjrwfr,lbJ jynfwGi;f ES  hijf ynfywd k @wiG f tvkyt f ud ki&f   d&S  dEik o f nf[k *wday;jcif; (od k @r[kw)f a=umfjim ay;jcif;jyKvkyaf y;onf   hvrf;n$ejf yolrsm;/ uefx  d&ku f tusKd;aqmifvyk if ef; wd k @yg0ifonf? vly  d*k K~ vfwOD;OD;rS rnfonf   henf;jzih   frqd k  tjcm;ol(2) OD;ES  hi f txufvrl sm;ud k tvkyf tud ki&f   d&S&eftwGuf  tca}u;aiG,ljyD; aqmif&Guaf y;rnf[k uwday; ajymqd k  jyKvky  hcf J vsiS f ‚if;tm; “tvkyo f rm; opfrsm;&SmazGjcif; ES  hif tvkycf ef @tyfae&mcsxm;jcif; ” vkyif ef;wGi f aqmif&Guaf eonf[k ,lq&ayvd  hrrf nf? (*) “yk*v ~ duyd kif tvkyftud ki&f SmazGa&; ud k,fpm;vS,&f  kH;vkyif ef; ”qd konfrmS tca=u;aiG,o l nf  jzpfap r,lonfjzpfap jrefrm (od k @r[kw)f jyify tvkyt f ud kif twGuf  “tvkyo f rm;opf &SmazGjcif;ESifh tvkycf ef @ tyfae&mcsxm;jcif;” tvkyf orm;opf &SmazGjcif;ES  hif tvkycf ef @tyfae&mcsxm;jcif; wGiaf qmif&u G f vkyu f  kdiaf eaom rnf   honf   h vl/ yk  d*K~ vf/ vkyif ef; od k @r[kwf �������� jzpfonf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

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(C) “vd kipf if” qd konfrmS tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;Xme rSaeI “yk*v ~ u d tvkyt f ud kif &SmazGa&;ud k,fpm;vS,f ” vkyif ef;ud k vkyu f  kdiaf qmif&Gu  dEf ik fc  hGi f w&m;0ifay;xm; aom cG  hijf yKcsujf zpfonf? (i) “oabFmom;”qf   d konfrmS yifv,fa&a=umif; oGm;vmaeaom oabFmay:wGif tvkyv f yk u f  kdi&f olu k d qd kv ko d nf? (p) “jyifytvkyt f ud ki”f od k @r[kwf “Ed kiif jH cm;tvkyt f ud kif ” qd konfrmS zuf'&,f jynfaxmifp k (FU) jyifywGifv  fky&f aom tvkyt f ud ki f ud kq kv d  ko d nf? (q) “Ed kiif jH cm;Y oGm;a&muftajcpd kufaexd kio f l ”qd konfrmS tvkyo f rm; (od k @r[kw)f tjcm;olwOD;OD;rS Ed kiif jH cm;rS a&$ @ajymif;vmoltaejzif   h  jynf0ifc  hGif&aoma}umif   h vnf;aumif; (od k @r[kw)f ‚if;uJ  ho k @d wlnDaom cG  hijf yKcsuu f  kd a&$ @ajymif;vmrnf  h Ed kiif rH  S &&d  SjyD; jynfyY tajcpd kuaf exd kio f ljzpfonf? yk'rf (11) Employment promotion: tvkyt f ud ki f wd k;wufjrS  hiw f ifay;jcif; T “Oya'” abmiftwGi;f ES  hif tjcm;aom oufq kid &f m Oya'rsm;ES  hif pnf;rsO;f rsm;t& tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;wGi f =oZm tm%m   S&d&vd  hrrf nf/ (u) tvky&f mS azGaeolrsm;wd k @twGuf &&d   SE kid af om tvkyrf sm;owif;ay;&efE  hiS f tvkyf tvG,fwul&  S&dap&ef tvkyt f ud ki&f SmazGa&;&H k;rsm;ud k zG  hiv f pS w f nfaxmifay;&ef? (c) jynfwGi;f tjcm;a'orsm;Yvnf;aumif;/ jynfyYvnf;aumif;/ tvky&f   S&dE kid o f nf   h tcG  hit f vrf;  S&da=umif;ud k oufq kid &f m tvkyt f ud ki&f SmazGa&;&H k;Y rSwfy kw H ifpm&if;oGi;f xm;aom tvkyaf v#muforl sm;tm; owif;ay;yd k @E kid &f ef  “tvkyt f wGu f axmufcH csuaf y;jcif;ES  hi f owif;ay;ta=umif;=um;onf  h  pepf”ud k Ed kiif w H 0Sr;f vH k;wGif wnf axmifE kid &f ef? (*) tvkyEf   hiS f ywfoufYvnf;aumif;/ pufrv _ kyif ef;ES  hif ywfoufYvnf;aumif/ wd ki;f jynf. yx0Dtae txm;&vnf;aumif; tvkyo f rm;rsm;onf rdrw d  k @d }udKuf&mud k tcuftcJr  S&d a&G;cs,Ef  kid cf   hiG f&&efE  hiS f tvkyo f rm;rsm;tm; wae&mrS  wae&mod k @ a&$ @ajymif;aexd ki&f mY ulnaD xmuf  hyaH y;&ef vkyif ef;pOfwck   JzG @pnf; jzpfxeG ;f vmap&ef?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

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(C) rnfonf   hy*k K~ v d f/ tzG   J @tpnf;/ tpnf;t&H k;(od k @r[kwf) Xmeud krqd k tvkyt f ud kiEf iS fh ygwo f ufaomowif;ud k vk   d tyfovd k wifjyay;zk   d @ awmif;qd k&ef? yk'rf (12) Bureau of Employment Services: tvk f ud ki&f SmazGay;a&;0efaqmifr_Xme? tv kyt (u)

a.

tvkyt f ud ki&f SmazGay;a&;0efaqmifrX_ meud k tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;XmetwGi;f Y wnfaxmifv  hrd rf nf? xd kro S mv#if yk'rf (11)wGi f =oZmtm%m tyfEiS ;f xm; +yD;jzpfaom vkyif ef;pOfrsm;ud k yd kr kd xda&mufatmifjrifap&ef  aqmif&GuEf  kid f rnf? ‚if;0efaqmifrX_ mewGiv f nf; vkyyf  kid cf   hGiftm%mES  hi f wm0ef  S&d&vd  hrrf nf? a.1.jynfwi G ;f jynfytvkyt f ud kit f wGuf tvkyo f rm;opfrsm; pkaqmif;jcif;/ ae&mcsxm;jcif;wd k @u kd vkyu f  kid &f mwGif yk*v ~ u d tcef;u¾ tpdwftyd ki;f rS yg 0ifqif   $ErJ u _  kd rSwyf  kw H if/ pm&if;oGi;f / xde;f odr;f ay;jcif;ESifh vkyyf  kid fc  hGiv f   dkipf if xkwfay;r_pepfu kd pnf;urf;Oya't& xde;f csKyfay;jcif;jyK&efE  hSif cH0efcsKyfjzif   hvkyf ud kiaf om jrefrmtvkyo f rm;wd k @twGuf tvkyt f ud kiEf   hiS  f ygwo f ufaom t aumif;qH k; pnf;urf;csurf sm;ES  hi f tajccHv kt d yfcsurf sm;ud k&,lay;&ef? a.2.jrefrmEd kii fo H m;a&$ @ajymif;tvkyo f rm;rsm;ud k  apmif   ha&SmufumuG, f ay;&ef (FU). Ed kii f jH cm;a&; 0ef}uD;&H k;/ oH& kH;rsm;ES  hi f aumifppf0ef& kH;rsm;wd k @E  hiS f wufnv D ufn D - oabmwlnpD mG vkyu f  kdi f aqmif&Gu&f ef –

rSwfcsuf?

? "Overseas" “yifv,f&yfjcm;” qd kaom &nf!Ge;f csurf sm;ud k ajymif;vJay;&efE  hiS f “abroad” Ed kiif jH cm; (od k @r[kw)f “jrefrma&$ @ ajymif;tvkyo f rm;rsm;” [laom toH k;tE_e;f wd k @jzif   h  tpm;xk  d;oH k; &ef?

jrefrma&$ @ajymif;tvkyo f rm;rsm;/ oabFmom;rsm; tygt0ifE  hiS yf wfouf +yD; w&m;Oya't& (od k @r[kw)f yËd^mOfYoabmwlpmcsKyfygawmif;qd kc  hiG rf sm; tay:wGi f T (AsL&d k) XmewGi f rlvtp w&m; pD&ify kid cf   hGi  df&S&vd  hrrf nf? ‚if; b.

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -8

aemuf  awmif;qd ky kid cf   hiG rf sm;tm;vH k;ud k  tcsuftvufrsm;ay: rlwnf+yD; Oya' t& pnf;urf;vd kuef map&ef  jyKvkyv f   hrd rf nf? tcsuftvufrsm;ES  hi f w&m; Oya' wd k @u kd oif   havsmpf mG   JcGjcrf;pdwfjzm avhvmoH k;oyf+yD;aemuf  ay;qyf&ef aiG  S&  hdcaJ omf az:jy+yD;v#i f oif  hw  hifaom ouf!Smonf  h trde @f rsm;ES  hi f *wdpmcsKyf rsm;ud k  jyifqif  hyyH  kd;ay;I T (AsL&d k)rS  tcsde  Drf S qH k;jzwfcsuEf   hiS f trde @f xkwfjyef ay;vd  hrrf nf? ‚if;onf  w&m;pD&ifcsufE  hiS  f w&m;&H k;trde @f w k @d u  ho J  k @d xd  a&muf aom tusKd;  S&d&apvd  hrrf nf? rnfonf   hq k;H jzwfcsufE  hiS t f rde @f u krd qd k xd  a&muf aom vd kuef mr_  S&ad p&ef (AsL&d k)ES  hi f awmif;qd kolw k @d onf awmif;cHE kdiv f   hrd  f rnf? (AsL&d k). qH k;jzwfcsufrsm;ES  hif trde @f rsm;wd k @tay: t,lc0H ifE kid v f   hdrrf nf? oif  h avsmaf omf  w&m;&H k;Y tkycf sKyfa&;yd ki;f qd ki&f m at*sifprD sm;/ &H k;rsm;wGif t,lcH 0if&jcif;ta=umif;wd k @E  hiS f ud kun f yD gonfq kad om ta=umif;jycsujf zif   h t,lcH 0ifE kid v f   hdrrf nf? jrefrma&$ @ajymif;vkyo f m;wOD;. rnfonf   hy kid cf   hGif  awmif;qd kjcif;ud krqd k oif   h avsmaf om ‚if;.yd kicf iG fu h  kd wifjy+yD;aemuf (-)&ufowWygwftwGi;f (AsL&d k) rS p wif  ta&;,laqmif&u G fay;&ef  ysuu f u G   hfcaJ omf ‚if;awmif;qd kol (od k @r[kwf) ‚if;. ud k,fpm;vS,o f nf T“Oya'” yg Oya'vd kuef map&ef tyd k' f wd k @u kd ud k; um;I w&m;pG  Jq kEd  kid af yrnf? xd ko k @d tm;jzif   h  (AsL&d k) . w&m;pD&ify kid cf   hGif&yfpaJ p vd  hrrf nf? (AsL&d k)onf (FU) . oH& kH;rsm;ES  hi f aumifppf0ef& kH;rsm;wd k @E  hiS f !d   S  _Eid ;f +yD;v#if &yd kicf   hiG rf sm;ud k wifjy&efae&mrsm;ES  hif enf;vrf;rsm;ud k !$ejf ya=umfjim ay;vd  hrf rnf? xd k @jyif  (AsL&d k) onf  jynfwiG ;f Y rus  hifo kH;Ed kiaf om jynfy  S&d  jrefrm w&m;&H k;rsm;. pD&ifcsurf sm;ES  hif trde @f rsm;ud ku  h sio f  k;H &ef  awmif;cH  tm;xkwf vd  hrrf nf? Ttyd k'u f  kd taumiftxnfaz:&ef rnfonf   hysuu f u G fjcif;rsKd;ud krqd k “Oya'” . Oya'vd kuef m ap&ef tyd k'rf sm;ud k ud k;um;I jyKjyifo kH;oyfE kid o f nf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -9

tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;onf  (AsL&d k). axmufccH suu f  kdtajccHaomE_e;f xm;jcif; tca=u;aiGu kd pnf;=uyfjcif;ES  hi f aumufcjH cif; tm%m&d  Sv  hrd rf nf? ‚iftca=u; aiGrsm;tm; (AsL&d k). &nfreS ;f csurf sm;ud k wd k;jrS  hiaf y;&eftwGuf “taxGaxG&efy kH aiG” tjzpf txl;aiGpm&if;t& Ed kiif aH wmfb¾ aiGw kduYf tyf  SE&H ayrnf? c.

yk'fr (13) Private recruitment: yk*v ~ du tvkyo f rm;opf &SmazGpak qmif;jcif;? T --- wGiaf z:jyxm;aom --- rSwyg; rnfonf   hy  d*k K~ vf (od k @r[kw)f Entrity rqd k  jynfo @l tvkyo f rm;a&;&m &H k;rSm;rSv   JI G tvkyo f rm;opfrsm; &SmazGpak qmif; jcif;ES  hi f ae&mcsxm;jcif;wd k @u kd vkyu f  kid jf cif;rjyK&? tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;XmerS xkwfjyef  xm;aom pnf;urf;enf;vrf;rsm;t&ES  hif tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;XmerS xkwfay;aom vd kipf ifc  hiG jf yKcsuf&  S&d+yD;rSom yk*v ~ du tvkyftud ki f (at*sipf )D rsm;/ ud k,fpm;vS,f tzG   J @rsm;wd k @onf  jynfwiG ;f ES  hifjynfywd k @wGiftvkyo f rm;opf &SmazG jcif;ES  hi f ae&mcs xm;jcif; tvkyu f  kdyg0ifvkyaf qmifE kid rf nf? tvkyt f ud ki! f $e=f um;ay;aom&H k;rsm; (od k @r[kwf) oabFmom;opf&SmazGa&;&H k;rsm; (od k @r[kwf) tvkyo f rm;or*~. w&m;pD&ify kid ef ,fajrwGi;f   S&dtjcm;tvkyo f rm;&H k; rsm;ES  hif pkaygi;f !d  S  _Eid ;f awmif;qd kr _ oabmwlnDcsuf&  S&dap&eftvkyo f rm;or*~rS }udK;yrf;vkyaf qmifaom&H k;rsm; (od k @r[kw)f tvkyo f rm;or*~.  JzG @pnf;tkycf sKyfy kH tajccHOya'wd k @onf  Ttyd ki;f yg vk  dipf ifc  hiG jf yKcsuf&a&; vd ktyfcsurf sm;twGi;f t}uHK; yg0ifjcif;r&d   S&ay? od k @aomfjim;vJ TwGi&f Si;f vif;wifjyxnf   hoGi;f xm;aom owfrw S cf surf sm; w&m;r0ifawmha=umif; a=ujimEd kijf cif;rsm;ES  hi f jypf'g%rf sm;wd k @u kd txufaz:jyyg& k;H rsm;ay:wGif toH k;jyKEd kifv  hrd rf nf? xd k @jyif ‚if;&H k;rsm;ES  hiyf wfoufI TwGif &Si;f vif;wifjy xnf  hoiG ;f xm;aom pnf;urf;owfrw S fE kid jf cif;ES  hi f tjcm; tm%mrsm;rSm 0ef}uD;&H k;Y   S&d&ayvd  hrrf nf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -10

yk'fr (14) Ban on direct hiring: wd kuf& ku d ftca=u;aiGay;I iS g;&rf;jcif;ud k ydwyf ifwm;jrpfjcif;? (AsL&d k) rSwqif   h iS g;jcif;rSwyg; rnfonf   htvky&f Sirf  S jrefrmEd kiif o H m;wOD;tm; yifv,f &yfjcm;wGif tvkyv f yk &f ef iS g;&rf;jcif;rjyK& (od k @r[kw)f atmufwiG cf iG fjh yKxm;aom oHwref tzG   J @0ifrsm;ES  hi f tjynfjynfq kid &f m tzG   J @tpnf;0ifrsm;jzpf  hcv J #i f jrefrmtvkyf orm;rsm;ud k wk   du&f  kdut f ca=u;aiGay;I iS g;&rf;  dEkio f nf? aiGa=u;jrif   hrm;pGm oH k;xm; ay;&aom ynmonfrsm;ES  hif todynm&Sif tvkyo f rm;ud k aiGa=u;ay;IiS g;&rf;jcif;ud k TOya'rS uif;vwfc  hiG jf yK&vd  hrrf nf? yk'fr (15) Travel agencies: c&D;oGm;vkyif ef;at*sipf rD sm; ava=umif;ukr% ` rD sm;rS c&D;oGm;vkyif ef;at*sipf rD sm;ES  hi f ta&mif;at*sipf rD sm;tm; yifv,f&yfjcm;wd ki;f wyg;twGuf aiGa=u; tjrwftpGe;f &onfjzpfap r&onfjzpfap tvkyo f rm;opfrsm;&SmazGpak qmif;jcif;ES  hi f ae&mcsxm;a&;vkyif ef; rvkyu f  kdi&f ef  wm; jrpfyw d fyifxm;onf? yk'fr (16) rnfonf   hy*k v ~ du at*sifprD qd k vkyif ef;aqmif&GuEf  kid &f ef tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;rS xkwjf yef aom pnf;urf;enf;vrf;rsm;txJwGi f at*sipf yD  kid &f Sifrsm;ES  hit f vkyo f rm;wd k @. cd kirf m vH kavmufaom rnfolrnf0gjzpfa=umif; az:jy&eftwGu/f vkyif ef;twGuf&if;  DES;rwnf aiGu kd vH kavmufpmG az:jyef&eftwGuf  aemufct H wdw&f mZ0ifu kd oif   havsmo f vd k pH kprf; ppfaq;&eftwGufE  hiS f oif   havsmfaom uwdpmcsKyfrsm;twGuf owfrw S fay;&vd  hrrf nf? pnf;urf;enf;vrf;rsm;wGi f yg0ifaomowfrw S cf surf sm;ES  hif vH kavmufpmG ud kun f Daom at*sipf rD sm;omv#i f vd kipf ifc  hGifjyKcsu&f ayvd  hrrf nf? &mZ0ifrt _ wGu f jypf'g%pf &D ifjcif;cH &ol (od k @r[kwf) T “Oya'” ud k  ,cifu csLd;azgub f ;l a=umif; rSww f rf;  S&dol yd kiq f  kid f aom (od k @r[kwf) tvkyo f rm; cef @xm;aom rnfonf   hat*sipf u D  kdrS vd kipf ifvkycf   hGif xkwaf y;vd  hrrf nfr[kw?f

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -11

yk'fr (17) T Oya'abmiftwGi;f rSxkwfay;aom cG  hijf yKcsu&f vd kipf ifu kd xkwfay;cH&olrt S y rnf olwOD;rS wd ku&f  ku d f  aomfvnf;aumif; oG,  d0f u k I f aomfvnf;aumif; roH k;&? vd kipf if wGiaf z:jyxm;aomae&mrS vG   JI tjcm;rnfonf   hae&mYrSroH k;&? rnfow l OD;wa,muf (od k @r[kwf) Entirety od k @ vd kipf if   $ vaJ jymif;jcif;rjyK&? tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;XmerS o abmwlnDcsuf&  S&d+yD;rSomv#if tvkyXf mevdypf majymif;vJjcif;/ vd kipf if&+yD;rS xyf avmif;I tvkyo f rm;rsm;cef @xm;jcif; (od k @r[kw)f rnfonf   hae&mYrqd k &H k;rsm; wd k;cs @J z  hGiv f Spjf cif;wd k @u kd jyKvkyEf  kid rf nf? yk'fr (18) vd kipf ifc  hiG jf yKcsuf (od k @r[kwf) vkyyf  kid fc  hGi&f   S&dE kid &f ef  av#mufxm;olrsm;tm;vH k; rSwfy kw H if pm&if;oGi;f a=ujimvd  hrrf nf? yk'rf (19) yk*v ~ duyd kif tvkyt f ud ki&f SmazGay;aom at*sipf . D aqmif&Guaf y;jcif;ud k vufco H  kH; aomol rnfolrqd ktm; ‚if;at*sipf . D }udK;yrf;r_jzifh tvky&f   S&d+yD;trSew f u,f tvkyf pwif0ifa&mufrvky&f rjcif; tusKd;aqmif  tca=u;aiGawmif;cHjcif;rvky&f ? TuJ  ho k @d aom oabmwlpmcsKyfrsm;tjzpf oH k;  dEki&f ef0ef}uD;Xme. txuftrde @f yg pmyd k'rf sm;tm; vH k;yg0if+yD; oabmwlpmcsKyfygtwd ki;f aqmif&Guf+yD;jcif;rSwyg; tca=u;aiGrawmif;cH&? tvkyo f rm;tm; at*sifprD aS iGvufc&H   S&d+yD;jzpfa=umif; xif&mS ;pGma&;om;xm;aom aiGaygi;f rnfIrnfr#[o l nf   h aiGajypm jzwf  dyik ;f ud k xkwfay;&vd  hrrf nf? xd kaiG&ajypm rdwWLwpH ku kd a&$ @ajymif;vkyo f m;tm; awmif;cH  hcaJ om tca=u;aiGE  hiS f ywfoufI rqd ki;f rwG (AsL&d k) od k @y k @d ay;&rnf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -12

yk'fr (20) tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;Xmeonf cG  hijf yKEd kiaf omtca=u;aiGZ,m; ‚if;aiGa=u;onf rnf onf   hta=umif;a=umif   h rS vkycf aiG. --µ xufrausmv f eG &f [lI trsm;odap&ef w&m; 0ifa=ujimvd  frrh nf? xd k @tjyif ‚if;uJ   ho k @d aom tabmwlpmcsKyftwGuf yH kpH pm&GuEf   hiS  f tcsuftvufyg pmyd k'rf sm;tpH ku kyd g a=ujimvd  hrrf nf? a&$ @ajymif; tvkyf orm;rsm;udpw P iG f xGucf mG rnf   h tvkyo f rm;twGuf tvky&f Sirf S vufrw S x f  k;d xm;+yD; tumtuG,f  ay;xm;aom atmufygtcsut f vufrsm;yg 0ef}uD;XmerS vufcx H m; aom yH kppH m&Guw f Gif tvkyt f ud kiEf   hiS fygwfoufaom oabmwlpmcsKyfu kd yk*v ~ dut vkyt f ud kiaf t*sipf rD S &,lay;&rnf? tumtuG,af y;xm;aom &Si;f vif;az:jycsuf wd k @rmS – 1? ay;rnf   hvyk cf aiG/ ykwfjywfvyk cf   _EH;/ aumfr&Si;f c/ o'N ga=u;(abmufq;l ) ES  hif tyd kay;abmewf qkaiGE  hiS  f y&Dr, D Hay;oGi;f &aiG  tm;vk  H;wd k @tygt0if ‚if;wd k @u kd tvkycf iG   S&f d&mt&yf. w&m;pD&if yd kief ,fajrYus  hio f  k;H aom “vkycf ES  hif tvkyf csed o f wfrw S fOya'rsm;”yg   _EH;xm;xufrenf; owfrw S af y;ap&ef[al om &Si;f vif; az:jycsuf? 2? c&D;p&dwf/ wnf;cd k/ pmaomufp&dwfE  hiS f vkycf xJrS E_wf,rl nf   h  tjcm;aom ukeu f sp&dwf (od k @r[kw)f rnfonf   henf;ES  hirf qd k tvkyo f rm;xHr S jyefvnf awmif;,lrnf   h p&dwfaiG[al om &Si;f vif;az:jycsu?f 3? tusKd;cHpm;cG  hiaf y;xm;or# usef;rma&;twGufwm0efco H  k;H   JpGay;jcif; (‚if;ud k jynfytvkyt f ud ki f pmcsKyfrsm; wGix f nf   hoiG ;f &vd  hrrf nf) ponfw k @d u kd &Si;f vif; az:jycsu?f 4? rnfo @l bufr S c&D;oGm;ukeu f sp&dwt f wGu f wm0ef  S&da=umif;ES  fi h emruse;f I aomfvnf;aumif; (od k @r[kw)f ta&;ay:udp P jzpfay:vmIaomfvnf;aumif; trdE kid if o H  k @d jyefy k @d ay;&v#i f tvky&f Sizf ufr S wm0ef,&l ef  S&donf[laom tmrcH csut f ygt0ifw k @d u k d &Si;f vif;az:jycsu?f 5? tvky&f SiEf   hiS t f jiif;tcH kjzpfv#i f =um;aetzG  J @rw S qif   h rnfonf   henf;vrf;jzif  h ajyvnfap&ef &Si;f vif;rnfq ko d nfu k d wduspmG az:jy&ef?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -13

6? teD;uyfq kH;  S&d jrefrmoH& kH;§aumifppf0ef& kH;ud kqufo, G f&efrnfonf   henf; vrf;  S&donf ud k &Sif;vif;pGm az:jy&ef? a&$ @ajymif;tvkyo f rm; rxGucf mG rD  oabmwlpmcsKyfu kdjynf  hp kpH mG jznf   hpu G f+yD;ay;&efE  hiS f rdwWLwpH ku kd rqd ki;f rwGb J (AsL&d k)od k @ ay;yd k @&rnf? jynfytvkyt f ud kiEf   hiS yf gwfoufIrnf onf   hta=umif;a=umif   hr S aiGEw _ , f ljcif; (od k @r[kwf) awmif;cHjcif;onf vkycf aiG. (-) µ xuf rausmv f eG &f ? yk'fr (21) (u) rnfonf   hy  d*k K~ vf/ tvky&f Si/f yk*v ~ duvlopf&SmazGaomat*sipf  D (0g) cG  hijf yKvd kipf if ud kiaf qmifo(l 0g)tvkyo f rm;(0g) ‚if;. ud k,pf m;vS,f(0g)txufaz:jyyg yk  d*K~ vfrsm; (Entirety) rsm;ES  hif pdwfwo l abmwlvkyaf qmifaom rnfonf   hy  d*k K~ vfrqd k wd k @twGuf (‚if;vky&f yfonf) ‚if;onf  rw&m;pGm vlopf&SmazGonf   hvyk af qmifjcif;ES  hif  Oya'u cG  hirf jyKaom vky&f yfomjzpfv  hrd rf nf? 1? tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;&H k;rS wduspmG az:jy+yD;jzpfonf   h cG  hijf yKxm;onf   h tc a=u;aiGZ,m;yg aiGxuf wd ku  d&f ku f aomfvnf;aumif;/ oG,  df0u k I f aomfvnf;aumif;/ awmif;cHjcif;(0g)vufcjH cif; (jyKvky  hcf aJ omf) (0g) tvkyo f rm;wOD;OD;tm;/ ‚if;trSeaf cs;,laiG  (0g) rnfr#yif  w&m; 0ifaom taºuG;aiGjzpfygap ‚if;taºuG;aiGu k d r&§ t& ay;qyfap&ef oabmjzif   h  (rnfonf   h) tvkyo f rm;wOD;OD;. c&D;oGm;cG  hi f pm&Gupf m wrf;rsm;ud k xde;f csKyfxm;jcif;/ odr;f qnf; jyKvky  hcf aJ omf(0g) rnfr#yif w&m;0ifaom taºuG;aiGjzpfygap ‚if;taºuG;ud k  r&t& ay;qyfap &ef  oabmjzif   h  (rnfonf   h) tvkyo f rm;wOD;tm; vGwfvyfpmG oGm; vmv_y&f Sm;Ed kirf u _  k d [ef @wm;jcif;/ wm;jrpfjcif; (jyKvky  hcf aJ omf)? 2? tvkyt f ud kit f wGuf tvkyo f rm;opf &SmazGpak qmif;jcif;ES  hif ywf ouf+yD; rrSeaf omowif;jzef @jzL;jcif;(0g) rSm;,Gi;f pGm xifjrif,lq vmap&ef wifjyxm;jcif; (0g) rrSeu f efaom todrmS ;apEd kio f nf  h a=umfjimpm (0g) pm&Gu f pmwrf;&d ku  dEf yS x f kwfa0jcif; (0g) (rnf onf   h)

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -14

tvkyo f rm;ud krqd k zd  dEyS jf cif; (0g) vdrv f nfvnh   fjzm; y&d,m,fo kH; jcif;[laom tvkyrf sK;d wGi f wenf;wzH ktm;jzif   h  yg0if vkyaf qmifjcif; (jyKvky  hcf aJ omf)? 3? tvkyt f ud kit f wGuf tvkyo f rm;opf &SmazGpak qmifjcif;ES  hif ywf ouf+yD; t"rRjyKvkyjf cif;/ t=urf;zufjcif;(0g)t=urf;zufjcif;wr# +cdr;f ajcmufjcif; (0g) rnfr#yifw&m;0ifaom taºuG;aiG  S&dap ‚if;taºuG; ud k  ta=umif;jyKI (rnfonf   h) tvkyaf v#mufxm;ol tvkyo f rm; opftjzpf  yg0ifol(0g)tvky&f   S&d&eftwGuf  oabmwlvufrw S fx k;d xm;olu kdrqd k aESm  hifaES;=uef @=umap&ef qG   Jxm;jcif; (jyKvky  hcf aJ omf)? 4? T“Oya'”twGuf vd ktyfonf   h  oabmwlpmcsKyfrsm;ud k&  S&dE kid &f ef aqmif&u G fay;&efE  hiS f vd ktyfonfu k d jznf  hqnf;ay;&efw k @d wiG  f ysuf uGufjcif; (&d   S  hcaJ omf)? 5? T“Oya'” abmiftwGi;f xkwaf y;aom vd kipf ifvyk yf  kid fc  hGi&f   S&dap &ef [laom &nf&, G fcsufjzif   h  rrSeu f efaom a=ujimcsuftaxmuf t xm;/ owif;(0g)pm&Gupf mwrf;xkwaf y;jcif(0g) rSm;,Gi;f pGm xifjrif ,lqvmap&ef vkyaf qmifjcif; (jyKvky  hcf aJ omf)? 6? tvkyt f ud ki&f   S&d&ef ‚if;.at*sipf rD w S qif   h  av#mufxm;jcif;rjyK aom rnfonf   htvkyo f rm;ud krqd k tvkyrf cef @&ef/ tjcm;yk  d*K~ vf  (0g) Entity tm; =oZmv$r;f jcif; (0g) =oZm v$r;f Ed ki& f ef }udK; yrf; tm; xkwfjcif; (jyKcJ   haomf)? 7? tvkyo f rm;opfrsm; &SmazGpak qmifjcif;(0g) ae&mcsxm;jcif;wd k @jyK vky f &mwGif ovkyo f rm; or*~. *k%fou d mQ ud k xdc ku d fjcif;(0g) t rsm; jynfow l  k @d . use;f rma&;(0g)tus  fio h u d Qmwd k @u kad b;tEW&m,f jzpfapaom tvkyt f rsK;d tpm;wd k @wiG  f yg0ifaqmif&Gufjcif; (jyKvky  hcf J aomf)? 8? tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD; (0g) ‚if;.w&m;0if  tm%m& ud k,pf m;vS,rf sm; . ppfaq;jcif;ud k aESmuf,u S f[ef @wm;jcif; (0g) [ef @wm;&ef}udK;yrf; jcif; (jyKvky  hcf aJ omf)?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -15

9? tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;rS vd ktyfovd kawmif;qd kaom tvkyt f ud ki. f tajctaetqif   htwef; vpfvyfvsu  S&f daom ae&mcsxm;jcif;rsm;/ vkycf tjzpf&aom Ed kiif jH cm;aiGv   Jy$  k @d jcif;/ tvkyrf u S if;uGmjcif;/ xGuf cGmjcif;rsm;ES  hi f tjcm;oufq kid &f m tcsuftvufrsm; (0g) owif;rsm; ud k tpD&ifcaH y;yd k @&ef ysuu f u G fjcif; (&d   S  hcaJ omf)? 10? yg0ifywfoufaomtzG   J @w k @d vufrw S af &;xd k;csed rf pS I oufwef;ukef qH k;onf  htcsdet f ygt0if 0ef}uD;XmerS ppfaq;+yD; rSeu f efa=umif; axmufcx H m;aom oabmwlvufrw S f  a&;xd k;xm;onf  hpmcsKyfrsm; ud k tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;. oabmwlc  hiG jf yKcsufr&&d   Sb J tpm;xk  d;jcif; (0g) ajymif;vJjcif; (jyKvky  hcf aJ omf)? 11? c&D;oGm;at*sipf v D kyif ef;aqmif&u G faeaom aumfy kad &;&Si;f wckc. k bkwt f   JzG @0ifv}l uD;(0g) t&m&d   S  jzpfvmcJ   haomf(0g) c&D;oGm;at*sipf D wck . pDrt H yk cf sKyfrw _ Gif wd ku&f  kduaf omfvnf;aumif; yg0ifaqmif &Guaf ecJ   haomf? 12? T“Oya'”t& 0ef}uD;Xme trsm;odap&ef  w&m;0if  a=ujimxm; aom rnfonf   h pnf;urf;rsm;ES  hif owfrw S cf surf sm;ud krqd k  csK;d azmuf jcif;(jyKvky  hcf aJ omf)? (c) T“Oya'”. txufwiG yf g yk'rf (21). u(1)-(12) wGi f wm;jrpfyw d yf ifxm; aom rw&m;pGm vlopf&SmazGpak qmif;onf  h vkyaf qmifjcif;rsm;tyg0if rnfonf   htvkyf orm;opf&SmazGpak qmif;onf  h vkyaf qmifcsufrsm;wGirf qd k  yg0ifvyk af qmifaom rnf onf   hy  d*k K~ vf tvky&f Si(f 0g)w&m;0ifc  hiG jf yKvd kipf if  hrJ tvkyo f rm;opf &SmazGpak qmif;onf  h at*sipf  D (0g) tvkyo f rm;/ uk   d,fpm;vS, f (0g) txufazmfjyygE  hiS f pdwfwo l abm wl vkyaf qmifaom olw k @d u k d Oya'ES  hif qef @usio f nf[k,q l I T “Oya'”. (u)- t& jypf'%fay;Ek   div f   hdrrf nf? tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;&H k;/ rnfonf   hOya'xde;f odr;f onf  h  t&m&d  S rqd k rnfonf   hxdc ku d fepfemcH&onf  h olrqd k  (0g)ol. ud k,pf m;vS,rf sm;. tvkyo f rm; or*~(0g) rnfonf   h  tjrwfr,lonf   h tzG   J @rqd k tvkyo f m;rsm;.tusK;d aus;Zl;twGuf yk'rf (0g) T“Oya'”. taxGaxGpnf;urf;csurf sm; vd kuef map&efq ko d nf   h  tcsufrsm; t& rnfonf   hw kdiw f ef; csufrud krqd k OD;aqmifO;D &GufjyKEk   dio f nf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -16

1? vltpkt  JzG @wck(0g) qif'u D w d fac: tusLd;wlvyk if ef;wck(0g) }uD;rm;aom twd ki;f twmwckr S rw&m;aom (0g) Oya'ES  hif qef @usiaf om vlopfv_y&f SmazG pkaqmif; jcif;ud k  usL;vGe  hcf aJ omf ‚if;vky&f yfu k d jypfru _ sL;vGeo f nf[ kk ,lq+yD; Tyk'rf (25)yg tcsuEf   hiS t f nD  tjypf'%fay;vd  hrrf nf? Oya'ES  hiq f ef @usiaf om tvkyo f rm;opfrsm; &SmazGpak qmif;jcif;ESifyh wfoufonf   h  w&m;Oya'rSc  hiG rf jyKaom rnfonh   fvyk if ef; udp P (0g) t}uHtpnfu kdrqd k qif'u D dwaf c: tusKd;wlvyk if ef;wck. vl  (3) OD; (0g) (3)OD;xufy kad om tkypf rk S wOD;csi;f }uHpnftm;xkwjf cif;ES  hi f (0g) wOD;ES  hiw f OD; yl;aygi;f }uHpnf+yD; aqmif&Gujf cif;jyKcJ   haomf  Oya'ES  hiq f ef @usifaom tvkyo f rm; opf&SmazG pkaqmif;jcif;ud k  jyKvkyu f sL;vGeo f nf[k ,H k=unf,q l onf? tu,fI vl (10) OD;ES  hif ‚if; txufO;D a&wk   d @tay: usL;vGe  hcf aJ omf  Oya'ES  hiq f ef @usifaom tvkyo f rm;opf&SmazG pkaqmif;jcif;ud k }uD;rm;aomtwd ki;f twmtm;jzif   h  jyKvkyf usL;vGeo f nf[, k q l vd  hrrf nf? 2? tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD; (0g)ol§olr. w&m;0if vkyyf  kid fc  hGif v$   Jtyfay;jcif;cH&aom ud k,fpm;vS,o f nf rnfo @l u krd qd k pH kprf;ppfaq;+yD;aemuf ‚if;. vkyaf qmifrr_ sm; onf tvky&f mS azGorl sm;/ a&$ @ajymif;tvkyo f rm;wd k @. tusK;d twGuf  jynfol trsm; +idr0f yfrt _ wGuf tEW&m,fjzpfonf  (0g) tvky&f SmazGorl sm; (0g) a&$ @ajymif; tvkyo f rm;wd k @tay: acgi;f yH kjzwfjcif; qufvufjzpfay:apEk   dio f nf   h  oabmouf a&mufonf[k qH k;jzwf  hcaJ omf ‚if;oltm; zrf;qD;jcif;jzpfap&efE  hiS  f csKyfaESmif xde;f odr;f xm;&ef  tm%m&d   S&vd  hrfrnf? cG  hijf [email protected] kid pf ifr  S&dbv J su f jynfytvkyu f  kdif twGuf tvkyo f rm;opfrsm; pkaqmif;&SmazGjcif;tvkyu f  kd vkyaf qmifaeonf  h xlaxmifxm;aom tzG  J @pnf;rsm;ES  hif Entities &SmazG&efE  hiS  f w&m;Oya'ES  hif qef @usifaom tvkyo f rm;pkaqmif;a&; tvkyt f ud kirf sm;wGif toH k;jyKaom pm&Gu f pmwrf;rsm;/ tvkyEf   hiS q f  kid af om u&d,mwefqmyvmrsm; ypPn;f OpPm rsm;ES  hi f wjcm;ud&, d mypPnf;rsm;ud k odr;f ,lxm;jcif;ES  hif xd kwnfaxmifxm;aom tzG   J @ tpnf; ES  hif Entities wk   d @u k d ydwfxm;&ef trde @f ay;vd  hrrf nf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -17

yk'rf (22) 0ef}uD;&H k;rS xkwx f m;aom pnf;rsO;f pnf;urf;rsm;(0g) (vd ktyfI Provisions) xnf   h oGi;f xm;aom pnf;urf;csurf sm;)ES  hif toH k;jyKEk   diaf om tjcm;Oya'rsm;ud k  csK;d azmuf jcif;a=umif   h  (tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;wGi)f tvkyt f ud kit f wGuf tvkyo f rm;opfrsm; &SmazG pkaqmif;&ef rnfonf   hc  hiG jf yKcsuf vd kipf ifu krd qd k &yfq  dik ;f xm;&ef  (0g)y,fzsuf &k kyo f dr;f &ef tm%m&d  Sv  hdrrf ,f? yk'rf (23) tvkyo f rm;twGi;f 0efwiG f T Title (Oya')abmiftwGi;f at*sifpt D m;vH k;. tvkyf orm;opf&SmazGjcif;ES  hi f ae&mcsxm;jcif; vkyu f  kid af qmif&Gurf r_ sm;wd k @tay: pnf;urf; uef @owfjcif;ES  hif pnf;urf;xde;f csKyfonf   h  tm%m&d   Sv  hrd rf nf? T Title  (Oya'). &nf&, G fcsurf sm;ud k  atmifjrif&efaqmif&u G af &;ES  hi f Oya'yg pnf;urf;csurf sm; Provisions ud k  taumifxnfazmf&ef trde @f rsm;xkwjf cif;ES  h if pnf;urf;rsm;ES  hif pnf;rsO;f rsm;ud k  trsm;odap&ef  w&m;0ifa=ujimjcif;wd k @u k d jyKvky  dEf ik &f ef  Ta=unmcsufjzif   h tm%mtyfEiS ;f xm;jcif;cH&ygonf? yk'rf (24) yk*v ~ du tvkyo f rm;opf &SmazGpak qmif;a&; at*sifprD sm;.rSwfwrf;rsm;ud k xde;f odr;f xm;&d  Sjcif;ES  hi f wm&Snfxm;&d   S  apmif   ha&Smufjcif;wd k @E  hiS pf yfvsO;f I tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;onf pnf;urf;rsm;ud k  trsm;odap&ef  w&m;0ifa=unm vd  hrrf nf? ‚if;tjyif T Title Oya' abmiftwGi;f (t}uHK;0ifaom) yk  d*K~ vf§ Entity wOD;OD;. rSww f rf;rsm;ES  hipf m&if; &Si;f wrf;rsm;/ taqmuftODy&k 0k%w f  k @d u kd rnfonf   htcsderf qd k ppfaq;Ek   dijf cif;/ jyXmef; xm;aom yH kppH m&Gufrsm;jzif   h tpD&ifcpH mrsm;ud k rSerf eS w f ifjy&ef  awmif;qd kjcif;ES  hif T Title  (Oya'). rnfonf   hpmyd k' f tcsuv f ufu kdrqd k  csK;d azmufjcif;  S&d  hcaJ om ta&;,l aqmif&u G jf cif;wd k @u k d jyKvky  dEf ik f&ef tm%mtyfEiS ;f xm;vd  hrrf nf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -18

yk'rf (25) wouftusO;f csxm;jcif; jypf'%fE  hiS 'f %faiG ---- wd k @u k d pnf;=uyfjcif;cH&rnf? (u) yk'rf (21)atmufwiG yf g  S&donf   h  rw&m;aom tvkyo f rm;opf &SmazGpak qmif;onf  h vkyaf qmifjcif;rsm;(0g) Oya'ES  hiq f ef @usiaf omtvkyo f rm;opf&SmazGpak qmif;onf  h v_y&f Sm;r_w k @d u kdaqmif&u G faoma=umif   hjypf'%fp&D ifjcif;cH&onf  h(qif'u D dw)f tusK;d wl vkyif ef;pk(0g) }uD;rm;aom twk  di;f twmay: tajccHaomvkyif ef; tay:od k @? (c) rnfonf   hc  hiG jf yKrde @f t& vd kipf ifu kdiaf qmifolu krd qd k T Title  (Oya')yg pnf;urf; rsm;ES  hipf nf;rsO;f rsm;ud k vufawG @toH k;jyKtaumifxnfaqmif&mwGi f (0g) TTitle (Oya') yg tcsut f vufwpH kwcku k d csK;d azmufaeonfu k d (0g) tjcm;olwOD;tm; csK;d azmuf&efjzpfaponfu kd  jyKvkyaf ea=umif;ud kawG @&I xd kta=umif;rsm;a=umif   h jypf'%f pD&ifjcif;cH&aomf &H k;awmf. qifjcifo kH;oyfvyk yf  kid fc  hGift& (2)ESpx f ufrenf; (5)ESpx f ufrrsm;aom tusOf;csxm;jcif;/ jypf'%f(0g)aiG--xufrenf;/aiG—xuf rrsm;aom '%faiGay;aqmifjcif; (0g) tusOf;csxm;jcif;ES  hif '%faiGay;aqmif&jcif;/ jypf'%f (2)rsK;d pvH k;ud k wG   JI cH&vd  hrrf nf? (*) rnfonf   hc  hiG jf yKrde @f rrS &bJ vd kipf ifu kdifc  hGirf   S&dolu kdrqd k  TOya' (Title)yg pnf;urf; rsm;ES  hif pnf;rsO;f rsm;ud k vufawG @toH k;jyKtaumifxnfazmf&mwGi(f 0g)TTitle (Oya') yg tcsuv f ufwpH kw&mud kcsK;d azmufaeonfu kad wG @  S&d&I xd kta=umif;rsm; a=umif   h  jypf'%fp&D ifjcif;cH&aomf &H k;awmf.qifjcifo k;H oyfvyk yf  kid fc  hGit f & (4)ESpf xuf  renf; (8)ESpx f ufrrsm;aom tusOf;csxm;jcif;/ jypf'%f  (0g) aiG--xufenf;/ aiG---xufrrsm;aom '%faiGay;aqmifjcif;(0g) tusO;f csxm;jcif;ES  hif '%faiGay; aqmif&jcif;/ jypf '%f(2)rsK;d pvH k;ud k wG   JI cH&vd  hrrf nf? (C) tu,fI jypfru _ sL;vGeo f o l nf  aumfy kad &;&Si;f tzG  J @tpnf;/ tpkpyfvkyif ef;/toif; tzG   J @(0g) Entity wckjzpfaeaomf  Oya'csK;d azmuf&mwGi f wm0ef  S&daom xd kaumf yd ka&;&Si;f tzG  J @tpnf;/ tpkpyfvkyif ef;/ toif;tzG  J @ (0g) Entity .t&m&d  S (0g)t&m&d   S rsm;tay: jypf'%fay;&vd  frrh nf? ‚if;jyif xd kt&m&d   S onf   dEkiif jH cm;om;jzpfaeaomf olonf  T Oya'wGi f azmf!e$ ;f xm;aom jypf'%frsm;ud k cH&rnf  htjyif a&S @quf vufI w&m;pG  Jq k d &ifq  dik &f ef rvkyaf wmhb J jynfEiS 'f %fay;jcif;ud k cH&vd  frrh nf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -19

(p) udp&P yfw  dik ;f wGi f jypf'%fpD&ifjcif;cH&onfq kv d #iyf if T Title (Oya')ygtcsut f & vly  d*k K~ vf(0g) Entity xd ko k @d xkwfay;xm;aom cG  hijf yKrde @f &vd kipf if/ cG  hijf yKygrpfvufrw S f rsm;ES  hi f tcG  hix f l;rsm;tm;vH k;onf tvd ktavsmufzsuford ;f +yD; jzpfv  hrd rf nf? ‚if;jyif AsL&d k twGuf  repfemap&efay;oGi;f xm;&aom aiGE  hiS t f mrcH uwdpmcsKyfvufrw S frsm;wd k @u kd pGe @f v$w&f rnf? xd kaiGrsm;ud kvnf; AsL  d&kraS eI‚if;.vkyif ef;ES  hifwm0efw k @d u kd jrS  hiw f ifay;&ef &nf&, G f+yD; oD;oef @o k;H   JpGc  hGiftm%m &&d  S+yD;jzpfonf? TOya't& tm;vH k;aom '%faiG rsm;ud k wefz k;d pDppf+yD;v#i f w&m;&H k;rSaeI AsL&d ko k @d ‚if;.&nf&G,cf suftwGuf aiGv  J $ ay;yd k @ &vd  frrh nf?

tcef;(3) tvkyfoifrsm;ud ktvkyfay;jcif;/ avhvmolrsm;ES  hi f vkyfief;cGit f vkyfoifrsm; Chapter 3 TRAINING AND EMPLOYMENT OF APPRENTICES, LEARNERS AND INTERNS A. Apprentices

tvkyo f ifrsm; yk'rf (26) Definition of Terms – As used in this Titles; pum;vH k;toH k;tE_e;f rsm;. t"dy g` ,f&iS ;f vif;csu?f TOya'wGi f oH k;  JpGy k?H (u) "Apprenticeship"   “tvkyo f ifb0”qd konfrmS tvkyv f kyaf evsuf vufawG @ avhu  h siaf y;jcif;ES  hif ‚if;tvkyEf   hiS yf wfoufaom tajccH,q l csu f oabmw&m;ud kyg jznf  hpu G fy k @d csay;jcif; jzpfonf? (c) "Apprentice"   “tvkyo f if”qd konfrmS tvky&f iS Ef   hSif tvkyo f ifb0taejzif   h oabmwla=umif;vufrw S fa&;xd k; cH0efcsKyfjyKvk kyx f m;aom tvkyo f rm;jzpfonf? (0g)Ttcef;wGi f todtrSwjf yKxm;aom rnfonf   hy  d*k K~ vf §Entities wk   d @rqd kjzpfonf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -20

(*) "Apprenticeship occupation" “tvkyo f ifb0vkyif ef;” qd konfrmS rnfonf   h toufarG;ynm rnfonf   hy kpH   SH&ad om tvkyt f ud ki(f 0g)vkyif ef;ud krqd k tvkyv f yk af epOf vufawG @avhu  h siaf y;jcif;ES  hi f ‚if;tvkyEf   hiS  f ywfoufaom tajccH,lqcsuw f  k @d u k d (3) v xufy kI d oif=um;&ef vd ktyfaomvkyif ef;jzpfonf? (C) "Apprenticeship occupation" “tvkyo f ifb0oabmwlncD suf” qd konfrmS Ttcef;Y todtrSwjf yKxm;aom tvky&f Si f (0g) tjcm;aom Entity rS  pmcsKyfyg t a=umif;csut f & tvkyo f ifu kd avhu  h siaf &;pnf;urf;csufrsm;ud k vufco H nf   h tvkyt f ud kiEf   hiS yf wfoufaom oabmwlpmcsKyfjzpfonf? yk'rf (27)

Qualifications of apprentices

tvkyo f if. t&nftcsi;f rsm; tvkyo f ifjzpfE kid &f ef vd ktyfaomt&nftcsi;f rsm;rSm 1? tenf;qH k;touf (14) ESp  S&f d&rnf? 2? toufarG;0rf;ausmif;ES  hiyf wfoufaom txH k§0goem&d   S+yD; oif  hw  hifaom ppfaq;jcif;ud k &ifq kid Ef  kid af om ^m%ftpGr;f tp&S  d&rnf? 3? E_wjf zif   hvnf;aumif;/ pma&;Ivnf;aumif;/ oif=um; yd k @csay;onfw k @d u kd vd ku  Dfr+S yD; oabmaygufem;vnfE kid o f nf   h pGr;f &nf  S&d&rnf? toD;oD;aomvkyif ef;rsm;twGuf oif   havsmfaom ynm&nftcsi;f vd ktyfcsuf rsm;ud k tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;xHo k @d ukeo f , G af &;ES  hif pufrv _ kyif ef;toif;rsm;ES  hif tvkyo f rm;or*~rsm;rS axmufct H }uHjyKEd kiv f   fdrrh nf? yk'rf (28) Employment of apprentices tvkyo f ifrsm;ud ktvkycf ef @xm;jcif; tvkyo f rsm;0ef}uD;rS  oabmwlc  hiG jf yKI tvkyo f ifrsm;ud ko k;H Ed kiaf om vkyif ef;rsm;ES  hif uG sr;fusijf cif;ES  hif pufrv _ ufry_ nmES  hif ywfoufaome,fy,frS tvky&f Sirf sm;omv#if tvkyo f ifrsm;uk   d tvkycf ef @xm;Ek  div f   fdrrh nf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -21

yk'rf (29) Contents of apprenticeship agreements tvkyo f ifb0 oabmwlnDcsufw  d @k wiG  f yg0ifaom ta=umif;t&mrsm;? tvkyo f ifrsm;. t"du   _EH;xm;rsm;yg0ifaom tvkyo f ifb0 oabmwlnDcsufrsm; wk   d @ onf tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;rS xkwfxm;aom pnf;rsO;f rsm;ES  hif vk   dufavsmnDaxGjzpfap &rnf/ tvkyo f ifb0vky&f aom tcsdeu f mvonf  ajcmufvxuf ryk   dap&? tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;rS oif   hw  hifavsmufywfpmG oabmwlxm;jyD;aom tvkyo f ifb0 vkyif ef;pOfrsm;ES  hif vk   duaf vsmnDaxGr  d&_ rS o S mv#i f w&m;0if ted  hrq f  k;H vkycf xufenf; aom   HE_;xm;rsm;uk   d owfrw S fay;aom tvkyo f ifb0 oabmwlncD sufrsm;uk   d xnf   hoiG ;f ay;Ek   div f   fdrrh nf? rnfonf   h udpw P iG rf qk   d oif  hawmfaom ted  hrq f  k;H vkycf . 75 µ xufe  hrd I f pjyD; ay;Ek   div f   hdrrf nf r[kwaf y? yk'rf (30) Signing of apprenticeship agreements tvkyo f ifb0 oabmwlnDcsufvufrw S fa&;xk   d;jcif;? tvkyo f ifb0 oabmwlncD sufw   dik ;f wGif tvky&f Si f (0g) tzG   J @tpnf;rsm;/ toif; tzG   J @rsm;/ tvkyo f rm;or*~rsm; (0g) tkypf rk sm;wckc. k w&m;0iftm%m vG  Jtyfxm; aom uk   d,pf m;vS,fe  hiS  f tvkyfoifw   d @k toD;oD;vufrw S af &;xk   d;&vd  hrrf nf? w&m;0if t&G,fra&mufao;aom oltwGuf tvkyo f ifoabmwlncD suu f   dk 4if;. uk   d,pf m; rd§b wOD;OD;/ tkyx f de;f ol(0g) tkycf sKyforl   d&Saomtvkyo f rm; 0ef}uD;&H k;rS tm%mtyfEiS ;f ay;aom uk  d,fpm;vS,w f OD;u vufrw S  f a&;xk  d;ay;&vd  hr f rnf? T“Oya'”wGi f pm&if;yg0ifxnf   hoiG ;f xm;aom tvkyfoifb0oabmwlncD sufw  dik ;f uk   d oif   hawmfaom tvkyo f ifb0aumfrw D Drsm; (&S   d  hcaJ omf)rS  aeI w&m;0if  twnfjyK ay;&rnf? 4if;rdwWLwpH kpu D   dv k nf; tvky&f iS Ef   hiS  f tvkyo f if(2)OD;pvH k;tm; ay;tyf& vd  hrf rnf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -22

yk'rf (31) Venue of apprenticeship programs tvkyo f ifb0vkyif ef;pOfrsm;twGu f aqmif&u G f&efae&m? rnfonf   hp;D yGm;a&;tzG   J @tpnf;/ tvky&f Si/f tkypf  k (0g) toif;tzG  J @/ pufrv _ kyif ef;/ tzG   J @tpnf;/ tvkyo f rm; or*~(0g) [email protected] rk qk   d tvkyo f ifb0vkyif ef;pOfrsm;   JzG @pnf; wnfaxmifv   dak omf tvkyo f ifw  d @k twGu f avhu  h sifay;aom ae&mtjzpf atmufazmfjy yg tvkyo f ifb0 vkyaf qmify kHpepfrsm;xJr S a&G;,lE kid o f nf? (1) wm0efcu H ruxðyaompD;yGm;a&;tzG  J @tpnf;xlaxmifxm;aom tzG   J @tpnf; (0g) H yk cf sKyfuGyu f Jxm;aom ‚wd k @. yd kief uf twGi;f ������wd k @rS vH k;vH k; vsm;vsm; pDrt Y ðyvkyaf om tvkyo f if b0vkyif ef;/ (2) tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;XgewGi;f rS avhus  hifa&;Xge(0g) tjcm;jynfo @l avhu  h sifa&; tzG   J @ tpnf; XgeY ðyvkyaf om tvkyo f ifb0vkyif ef;/ (0g) (3) vufry_ nmtajccHoabmw&m;rsm;ud k rlvtprSpI oif=um;avhu  hsiaf y;aom avhu  h sifa&;Xge wck  (0g) avhus  hifay;jcif;. aemufq kH;tqif   htcsed t f wGif; wm0efcH aompD;yGm;a&;tzG   J @tpnf; (0g)  ������wGif  aemiftcgY trSew f u,f tvkyf yg0ifvyk u f  kdi&f onf   h tjcm;aomynmay;&mXgewck? yk'rf (32) Sponsoring of apprenticeship program tvkyo f ifb0vkyif ef;pOfu kd wm0efc H uruxðyjcif;? TOya'wGif todtrSwfðyxm;aom rnfonf   h tvkyo f ifb0 vkyif ef;pOfu kdrqd k tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;XgerS  oabmwlvufcaH om tvky&f iS f§tkypf  k (0g) tvky&f Sirf sm; toif;/ tvkyo f rm;or*~(0g) tvkyo f rm;or*~rsm;toif;/ ò[email protected] ki&f m tzG   J @tpnf;/ c&pf,mefbk&m;ausmif; �������� (0g)tjcm;aom ������ rSaeI wm0efc H urux ðyvky  dEf ik o f nf? tvkyo f ifrsm;tm; trSeaf vhu  hsiaf y;jcif;ud k  aqmif&Gu  dEf ik o f nf   h ae&mwGi-f

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -23

(1) wOD;csi;f tvkyo f ifb0vkyif ef;pOfrsm;ud k avhus  hifay;&onf   hupd w P iG f  wm0efcaH om tvky&f Siyf  kid af om tdr/f &H k;/ tvkyXf gewGi-f (2) tvky&f Sifrsm;toif;or*~rsm;ES  hi f tjcm; �������� wd k @u wm0efcHaom vkyif ef;pOf udpjP zpfv#if/ owfrw S fay;xm;aom pD;yGm;a&;tzG  J @tpnf;wck  (0g) trsm;yd kif aomtdr/f &H k;/ tvkyXf gewGif(3) tvkyo f rm;Xge. avhu  hsiaf &;Xge (0g)w&m;0ifaomynma&;qd ki&f m (0g) avhu  hsif a&;XgewGi-f (4) tvkyo f ifb0wGuaf vhu  h sifay;aom ae&mXme.tajctaewGif vufeufu&d,m rsm;/ pufu&d,mrsm;/ ypPn;f rsm;ES  hif oif=um;yd k @csa&;twGuf vd ktyfaom tjcm;ypPn;f rsm; jynf   hp kpH mG   d&S&vd  hrrf nf?

yk'rf (33) Investigation of violation of apprenticeship agreement tvkyo f ifb0 oabmwlnDcsufu  dk csK;d azmufaomtcg pH kprf;ppfaq;jcif;? pdwf0ifpm;aom yk  d*K~ vfwOD;OD;.wd kiw f ef;csuft& (0g)‚. ud k,fy kid af   ›&Saqmifr_ taejzif   h tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;Xge(0g)‚. w&m;0ifu k, d fpm;vS,o f nf pH kprf;ppfaq; jcif;ud k  ðyvkyaf y;+yD; tvkyform;0ef}uD;XmetwGi;f 0ef. jyXmef;xm;aom pnf;rsO;f pnf;urf;rsm;twd ki;f rnfonf   htvkyo f ifb0 oabmwlcsufu krd qd k csdK;azgufonf  d&S aomf rSeu f efr  d&_ S&ef ðyjyif aqmif&u G fay;vd  hrrf nf? yk'rf (34)

Appeal to the Minister of Labor.

tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;xH toem;cHpm (t,lc)H wifoiG ;f jcif;? tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;XgerS ud k,fpm;vS,. f qH k;jzwfcsufu kd epfemonf[lI rauseyfaom rnfonf   hy  d*k K~ vfrqd k/ tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;xHo k @d qH k;jzwfcsuu f  kd vufc&H   d&S+yD;aemuf (5)&uftwGi;f toem;cH  pmwifoiG f;Ed kio f nf? T“Oya'”wGiyf g0ifaom Oya' vd kuef map&ef pnf;urf;csuft& (oD;oef @) �������� ������� w&m;pG   Jq kd&ef  tpðyjcif; r&S   d  hcv J #if tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;.qH k;jzwfcsufonf t+yD;owf aemufq kH;jzpf&vd  hrrf nf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -24

yk'rf (35) tvkyo f rm; 0ef}uD;onf pkaygi;f I tm;xkwx f m;&aom tvky&f Si/f or*~ yl;wG   Jaom tvkyo f ifb0 vkyif ef;pOfrsm;uk  d  tm;ay;jcif;ES  hif   HzG @[email protected]  d;k wuf&efE  hiS  f wm&Snf xde;f odr;f xm;Ek   dif&ef tultnDjyK&rnf? tvkyo f ifrsm;uk   d  xm;Ek   diaf om vkyif ef;rsm;twGuf yk*v ~ duukr% ` Drsm;rS   dEkiif jH cm;om;/ pufrv _ ufr _ ynm&Sirf sm; . tr_xrf;jcif;uk   d toH k; jyK&v#if 4if;ukr% ` rD sm;onf oif   havsmfaom tvkyo f ifb0 vkyif ef;pOfrsm;uk   d xlaxmif&efE  hiS  f jrefrmwk   di;f &if;om;rsm;uk  d xk   dvyk if ef;pOfrsm;wGif oifwef;om;rsm; tjzpf pkaqmif;vufc&H efv  dktyfonf? yk'rf (36) Apprentices without compensation vkycf a=u;aiGr&&S  daom tvkyo f ifrsm; tvkyEf   hiS w f   JGIavhu  hsiaf y;&jcif;onf  ausmif;wausmif; (0g) avhu  h sifa&;tpDtpOf. oif& k;d !$e;f wrf;yg vd ktyfcsufjzpfv#if  (0g) bJ  G @/ 'D*&D/ 'Dyvd krm atmifvufrw S &f ap&ef (0g) bkwft  JzG @.pmar;yG   J  atmifjrif&ef vd ktyfaomt&m jzpfaeygu/ tvkyo f rm; twGif;0efonf vkycf aiGr&aom tvkyo f ifrsm;ud k Xg;&rf;jcif; tm%mv$   Jay;vd  hrrf nf? B. Learners and Interns

tvkyo f if=um;aeolrsm;ES  fi h tvkyo f ifrsm; (tqif   hjrif   h) yk'rf (37) Learners=

oif=um;aeolrsm;qd konfrmS / tcsdew f  kd  3vxuf ryd kbJ tvkycf iG w f Gi;f vufawG @avhu  hsiaf y;jcif;jzif   h wwfajrmufvmrnfjzpf+yD; (ES  fi)h tvkyo f if rsm;xm;Ir&aom tawmftwefu|rf;usiEf   hiS  f tjcm; pufrv _ ufr_ vkyif ef;rsm;wd k @wiG f oifwef;om;rsm;tjzpf Xg;xm; aomolrsm;jzpfonf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -25

tvkyo f ifrsm; (tqif   hjrif   h) qd konfrmS pufrv _ ufr _ ynm&yfE  hiS f tawmftwefywfoufaom toufarG;0rf; ausmif;ynmES  hiq f  kdif aom taxmuftul(0g) tvm;wl vkyif ef;rsm; (0g) w&m;0ifvufcH xm;aom ynma&;qd ki&f m oif& k;d !$e;f wrf;. wpdyw f yd kif; vd ktyf csuft&/ tcsdew f  kdrsm;(6)vxufryd kapbJ/ tvkycf iG w f Gi;f avhus  hifay; jcif;wd k @twGu f oifwef;om;rsm;tjzpf iS g;xm;ol rsm;jzpfonf?

Interns �

yk'rf (38) tvkyo f if=um;aeolrsm;ES  hit f vkyo f if  (tqif   hjrif   h)rsm;wd k @u k d tawG @tñuH&  hifaom tvkyo f rm;rsm; r&&S   dE kid faomtcg tvkycf ef @xm;Ed kifonf? tvkyt f ud kif &&S   d&ef tcG  hit f a&;rsm;ud k  jzwfawmufjcif;rS  wm;qD;&ef tvkyo f if=um;aeolrsm;ud k tvkyf cef @&ef vd ktyfayonf? xd ko k @d tvkycf ef @xm;ay;jcif;onf rnfonf   h pkaygi;f !S   d  dEi_ ;f oabmwlcsuu f  krd S csdK;azgujf cif;r&S   d/ (0g) wenf;tm;jzif   h tvkyo f rm; ukeu f s p&dwfE  hiS f ywfouf+yD; rw&m;aom,SOòf yifru _  kd zefw;D jcif; r[kwf  (0g) ,d k,Gi;f xdc kdu f tm;enf; apjcif;r&S  d (0g) tvkyv f yk &f aom tqif  htwef;ud k ed  hru f sapjcif; r[kwaf y? yk'rf (39) tvkyo f if=um;aeolrsm; (learners) ES  hit f vkyo f iftqif   hjrif   hrsm; (interns) wd k @u kd tvkyf cef @xm;vd kaomrnfonf   htvky&f Sirf qd katmufwiG fyg0ifaom tcsufrsm;ud k  oabmwl vufcH us  hifo kH;&vd  hrrf nf? (1) tvkyo f if=um;aeolrsm;ES  hif tvkyo f if  (tqif   hjrif   h)rsm;wd k @. trnfrsm;ES  hi f ae&yf vdypf mtjynf   htpH k/ (2) tvkycf ef @xm;onf   htcsed u f mv/ tvkyo f if=um;aeolrsm;ud k  (3)vxuf  ausmf vGeI f ‚/ tvkyo f iftqif   hjrif   hrsm;ud k  (6)vxufausmfveG I f ‚/ tvkycf ef @xm;I r&?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -26

(3) tvkyo f if=um;aeolrsm;ES  hif tvkyo f if  (tqif   hjrif   h) rsm;wd k @. vkycf ES  hif  vpmE_   H; xm;rsm;ud k owfrw S t f oH k;ðyaeaom ted  hrq f  kH; vkycf . (75µ) xuf red  hraf vsmhbJ pwifay;&efE  hiS /f (4) xd kvyk if ef;tpDpOf+yD;qH k;oGm;csdeYf ‚wd k @qEN  d&  hScJaomf tvkyo f if=um;aeolrsm;ES  hif tvkyo f if (tqif   hjrif   h) rsm;wd k @u kd yH kreS t f vkyo f rm;rsm; taejzif   h cef @xm;ay;&ef[o l nf   h tmrcHcsufay;&ef/ oif=um;aeol.trSm;tjypf/ r[kwfbJ  tu,fI avhu  hsif oif=um;ay;jcif;ud k tvky&f SifrS  oabmwlpmcsKyfyg owfrw S cf  sd ef rukeq f  kH;rD &yfq kdi;f apcJ   haomf  yxr (2)vtvkyv f yk cf iG f&h   hcJaom tvkyo f if=um;aeolrsm;ES  hif tvkyo f if (tqif   hjrif   h) rsm; tm;vH k;wd k @u kd yH kreS  f tvkyo f rm;rsm;tjzpf owfrw S , f q l vd  hrrf nf?

‚if;oabmwlncD suo f nf tvkyo f rm;twGi;f 0ef  (0g) ‚if;.avsmfuefpmG tm%mv$  Jtyfxm;aomud k,fpm;vS,. f ppfaq;jcif;ud k cH,al p&rnf? yk'rf (40) Leaners and Interns in piecework  ykwfjywfvyk if ef;cGirf  S tvkyo f if=um;aeolrsm;ES  hi f tvkyo f if (tqif   hjrif   h) rsm;? ykwfjywfvyk if ef;ES  hif rufavmufz, G   HfE;_ xm;ay;aom vkyif ef;rsm;wk  d @wiG f tvkyf vkyaf e=uaom tvkyo f if=um;aeolrsm;ES  hif tvkyo f if(tqif   hjrif   h) rsm;wk   d @tm; avhu  h siaf y;aeaom tcsdeu f mvtwGi;f vkyu f   dik af y;&aom vkyif ef;twGuf vkycf aiGu  dk tjynf  ht0ay;&vd  frrh nf? yk'rf (41) “yËdnOfysuu f Gucf sdK;azgufygu ay;avsm&f efpmcsKyfwiG yf gonf   htcsu”f Ttcef;ygrnfonf   hpnf;urf;pnf;rsOf;rsm;ud krqd k csKd ;azgufjcif; (0g) ‚wd k @u kd taumiftxnfaz:&mY csdK;azgujf cif;  d±S  hcaJ omf ---------- ud kcH,al p&rnf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -27

tcef; (4) ted  hrq f  k;H tvkyform;owfrSwcf sufrsm; Chapter (4) Minimum labour standards A. Hours of work

tvkyv f kyaf om em&Drsm; yk'rf (42) - jcHKiH kyg0ifjcif;? Coverage

Tacgi;f pOfatmufY xnf  hoiG ;f xm;aom tcsuftvufonf tkycf sKyfa&;rSL; rsm;ES  hi f ynmonftjzpf  toufarG;0rf;a=umif;jyKolrsm;rSty tvky&f Si f tm;vH k;ES  hif tvkyo f rm;tm;vH k;wk   d @twGu f &nfneG ;f oH k;  JpG  dEik o f nf? pDrt H yk cf sKyfa&;yk   di;f qk   di&f m tvkyo f rm;rsm;onf vkyt f m;twGuf vkycf aiG jrif   hrm;pGm &&S   d=uolrsm;jzpfjyD; vkyif ef;wckv k;H (0g) vkyif ef;}uD;xJrS (,lepf)wck. rl0g' csrw S f&mwGiEf   hiS f 4if;rl0g'uk   d taumiftxnfazmf&mwk  d @Y yg0ifaqmif&Gu=f uonf? 4if;wk   d @. wm0efrsm;uk   d xrf;aqmif&mwGiv f nf;aumif;/ vky  d&f k;vkypf Of twk   di;f qifqif jcifjcif csed q f jyD; vkyu f   dkio f nf? ynmonftjzpf  toufarG; vkyif ef;wGif rdrw d  k @d . uk   d,  dyf ik f qH k;jzwfcsuEf   hiS f qifjcifcsed fqr_w  d @k u  dk vky&f  k;d vkypf Of toH k;jyKvkyu f  kdio f lrsm; jzpfonf? yk'rf (43) tvkycf sde f w&ufv#if (8) em&D? rnfonf   h tvkyo f rm;rqk   d 4if;. omreftvkyv f kycf sed  f em&Daygi;f onf  w&ufv#if (8)em&Dxuf rausmv f eG af p&?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -28

yk'rf (44) pkpak ygi;f tvkycf sed ?f tvkyv f ky&f aom tcsed ef m&Daygi;f wGi f xnf   hoiG ;f yg0if&rnfrSm (u) tvkyo f rm;wOD;. vk  dtyfaom wm0efxrf;aqmifcsed  f umwav#mufv k;H (ok   d @r[kwf) tvkyrf nfr# jyD;pD;&rnf[k  yrm% xm;&efrvk   dy J 4if;. owfrw S fxm;aom tvkyaf e&mY   d&Sae&efv kad omtcsed ?f (c) tvkyo f rm;wOD;. vk  dtyfaom tvkyw f m0efxrf;aqmifae&csed  f (0g) tvkyv f kyf &ef owfrw S fay;xm;csed  f wav#mufv k;H wGif tvkyaf e&mXmeY tvkyv f kyaf eaom tcsdet f wGi;f wk   dawmif;onf   h  em;csed u f   dv k nf; tvkyv f ky&f aom em&Daygi;f Y xnf  hoiG ;f a&wGu&f rnf? yk'rf (45) tpmpm;csed f rnfonf   htvky&f iS rf qk   d 4if;. tvkyo f rm;rsm;uk   d tvkycf sdef(8)em&DtwGi;f rdepf  (60) xufrenf;aom tcsdeu f   dk yH kreS t f pmpm;Ek   di&f ef tvkyef m;cG  hiaf y;&rnf? rnfonf   h tvkyo f rm;rS  tpmpm;&ef  tcsderf &yJ  (5) em&DxufausmfveG jf yD; qufvuf tvkyf vky&f ef  t"rRapck   di;f jcif; rjyKap&? w&m;0iftvkypf nf;rsO;f tjzpf rnfonf   htvkyo f rm; rsm;uk   dr# uk   d,fvufokwo f ifjcif;tcGifrh  S wm;jrpfjcif; rcHap&? yk'rf (46) nyk   di;f wm0eftwGu f jcm;em;aomvkycf ? n (10) em&DrS eHeuf  (6) em&DtwGi;f vkyaf qmif&aom nyk   di;f tvkyef m&Dw  dki;f twGuf yH kreS v f kycf . (--µ) xufrenf;aom nyk  di;f wm0eftwGuf jcm;em;aom vkycf taejzif   h tvkyo f rm;wk   di;f uk   d ay;&rnf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -29

yk'rf (47) tcsde  dyf t k vkyf tcsde  dyf t k vkyt f wGu f wem&D vkycf E_e;f . (50) &mck   diEf e_ ;f uk   d tyk   da=u;tjzpf tvkyf orm;tm; xyfaqmif;ay;cJ   haomf  [email protected]#if  (8) em&Dxuf  dyI k tvkyv f yk   dEf ik af yrnf? tvkyyf w d f&uf (ok   d @r[kw)f em;&ufwGi f (8) em&Dxuf  dyI k tvkyv f yk &f v#if qka=u;aiG (Premium) ay;&aom E_e;f xm;. (1²5) q ES  hif nDr#aom tyk   dxyfaqmif;a=u;aiGu  dk tvkyyf w d f&ufu k d yxr (8)em&D vky&f aom tvkyt f wGuf ay;acs&rnf? yk'rf (48) tvkycf sdeaf vS smv h yk af omtcsed u f   d k tcsde  dyf v k ky&f aom tcsdeEf   hiS f nDr#oGm;&ef !d   Say;cG  hif r&S   d? rnfonf   [email protected]&ufwGirf qk   d  w&ufv#i f (8)em&DxufavsmI h vky&f aom “tcsdef avsmt h vky”f ud k  tjcm;rnfonf   [email protected] rf qk   d vky&f aom “tcsde  dyf t k vky”f ES  hif nDr#ap&ef !S   d   Say;cG  hirf   d&S? tvkyo f rm;wOD;tm; wywftwGi;f tjcm;w&uf&uf uk   d cG  hio f mG ;ap&ef cG  hijf yKjcif;a=umif   h tvky&f iS o f nf  Ttcef;yg vk  dtyfaom tyk   dxyf aqmif;a=u;aiGu  dk ay;&jcif;rS uif;vGwfc  hiG &f   dEkirf nf r[kwaf y? yk'rf (49) tyk   dqak =u;aiGu  d k wGufcsufay;jcif;? Ttcef;wGif vk   dtyfcsut f jzpf  azmfjyxm;aom tcsdeyf  kEd   hiS  f tjcm;qkvm'frsm; vkyt f m;crsm;uk   d wGufcsuaf y;&eftwGuf tvkyo f rm;. yH kreS v f yk cf rSm aiGom;ES  hif azmfjyxm;aom vkycf om jzpf&rnfjzpfjyD; rnfo  d @k aom E_wf,al iGu  dkr# ryg  d&aS p&?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -30

B. REST PERIODS

tvkyef m;csed u f mvrsm; yk'rf (50) tygwpf Of em;&uf  d&S&rnf   h tcG  hit f a&; (u) tjrwftpGe;f &onf   htvkyjf zpfap/ r&onf   htvkyjf zpfap/ tvky&f iS w f   dki;f onf rdrw d   d @k tvkycf iG rf S tvkyo f rm;wOD;pDtm; wywfv#if yH kreS (f 6) &uf qufw  du k ftvkyf apck   di;f jyD;wk  di;f (24)em&D qufw  du k x f ufrenf;aom em;aecsdeu f   dk  ay;&rnf   h  wm0ef  d&S onf? (c) pkaygi;f aphpyf!  S  _dEid ;f xm;aom oabmwlnDcsuf (ok   d @r[kw)f TOya'abmiftwGi;f   JzG @pnf;xm;aom aumfrwD. oabmwlncD suEf   hiS f tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;. owfrw S f xm;aom pnf;rsO;f pnf;urf;rsm;uk   d vk   dufemcH,lu  h sio f  k;H &rnf? tvky&f Sio f nf tvkyf orm;rsm;tywfpOfem;&ufu  dk qH k;jzwfay;jcif;ES  hi f tcsdeZf ,m;qG   J  jcif;rsm; jyKvky&f rnf? ok   d @aomfjim;vnf; tvkyo f rm;rsm;. bmoma&; ta=umif;tcsuf (ok   d @r[kw)f ,H k=unfr _ ta=umif;jycsurf sm;tvk   duf 4if;wk   d @  dyrk  kd vk   dvm;ESpo f ufonf   h  tywfpOf em;&ufu  dk tvky&f Siu f twwf  dEik q f  k;H vk  dufavsm nDaxGjzpf&ef owfrw S af qmif &Guaf y;&rnf? yk'rf (51) tvky&f Sit f m; tvkyef m;&ufwGi f tvkyv f kyaf y;&ef vk   dtyf  hcaJ omf – tvky&f Sio f nf rnfonf   [email protected] f rqk   d  4if;tvkyo f rm;rsm; tvkyq f if;=u&ef vd ktyf vmEd kio f nf? (u)   dpk;&drzf , G &f m rawmfwq jzpfymG ;jcif;/ rD;avmifjcif;/ a&v#Hjcif;/ avrkef wk   di;f jzpfay:jcif;/ ajrivsifvy_ jf cif;? a&m*guyfq  d;k jzpfay:jcif;wk   d @a=umif   h trSejf zpf wu,fjzpfay:aeaom (ok   d @r[kw)f trsm;jynfot l ay:ok   d @ usa&mufvmawmhrnf   h ta&;ay:udp&P yfrsm;wGif (ok   d @r[kw)f tjcm;aom ab;'kurQ sm;ES  hif uHq  d;k   drk;arSmif usjcif;wk   d @wGi f toufE  fiS h OpPmypPn;f rsm; qH k;  _&H;r_w  d @k u   dv k nf;aumif; trsm;jynfol wk   d @tay: ab;tEW&m,fusa&muf&ef eD;uyfaeaom tajctaersm;wGif vnf;aumif;/

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -31

wm;qD;umuG,fay;&ef vk   dtyfaom tcsdeu f mvwGif (yH kreS f r[kwaf om) tvkyq f if; =u&ef rjzpfraevk   dtyfvmed kiyf gonf? (c) pufu&d d,mrsm;/ vufeufwefqmyvmrsm; (0g) pufu&d , d mrsm; wyfqifjcif; ponf  h udp&P yfrsm;tm; ta&;w}uD; aqmif&Gu&f efv  dak omtcgwiG f tvkyt f wGuf   dpk;&drzf , G f&m qH k;  _&H;r_u  dk a&Smifwdr;f &ef  (tvkyq f if;=u&efv  dt k yfvm   dEkio f nf? xk   do  d @k r[kwu f tvky&f iS o f nf qH k;  _&H;r_u  dk cH&ayrnf? (*) txl;tajctaersm;a=umif   h  omrefr[kwaf om tvky0f efyjd cif;/ jzpfay: vmjyD;/ tvky&f Sirf mS vnf; tjcm;omrefaqmif&u G fenf;uk   d  tm;uk  d;ed ki&f ef  ar#mv f   hifp&m r&S   daom tcgwGi f (tvkyq f if;=u&ef vk   dtyfvmEk   dio f nf)? (C) ysupf ;D ykwfo k;d   dEkiaf om ukeyf pPn;f rsm;/ xd  dcu k fysupf ;D r_  (0g) qH k;  _&H;r_u  dk  wm;qD; umuG,f&ef vk   dtyfaomtcgwGi f (tvkyq f i;f=u&ef vd ktyf  dEik o f nf)? (i) vkyif ef;. obm0uk  du tqufrjywf qufw  dkuv f yk Ef  kid rf _ vnfygwfrw _  k @d vk   dtyfaev#iEf   hiS f vkyu f   dik rf _u  dk &yfq   dik ;f vk  duaf omf  jyefvnfjyifqif&ef  rjzpfe kid o f nf  h xd  dcu k fysufp;D r_ (0g) tvky&f iS ftm;vH k; qH k;  H&_;apr_ &vm'fu k d ay:ayguaf paomtcgY? (p) tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;. qH k;jzwfcsut f & txufazmfjyygE  fiS  h qifwal om tjcm;tajc taersm; ay:vmv#if  (tvkyq f if;=u&ef vk   dtyfvmEk  dio f nf?) yk'rf (52) em;&uf we*FaEG (0g) tvkyyf w d &f ufw  d @k twGuf ay;aom tca=u;aiG? (tpm;ay;§avsmaf =u;ay;aiG) (u) tvkyo f rm;wOD;. tvkycf sed Zf ,m;t& 4if;. em;&ufY tvkyv f ky  dcf ik ;f jcif; cH&v#if  (0g) tvkyv f yk &f eftcG  hi&f I tvkyv f yk &f v#if xyfaqmif;vkycf a=u;aiG (avsmaf =u;)tjzpf 4if;. yH kreS ftajccHvkycf xuf  (tenf;qH k;) ESpq f   d&Saom a=u;aiGu  dk ay;&rnf? tvkyo f rm;rsm;onf tvkyo f abmobm0t& 4if;wk  d @wGi f yH kreS t f vkyq f if;&ufrsm; r&S   djcif;eS  hif yH kreS ef m;&ufrsm;uk   d Z,m;jizh   f owfrw S f&ef  rjzpf  deik v f #if  trsm; jynfol tvkyyf w d f&ufrsm;wGif tvkyv f ky&f v#iEf   hiS  f wywfv k;H (6)&uftvkyv f kyf jyD;v#if

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -32

aemufw&uf (ok   d @r[kw)f em;ae&rnf   h &ufwiG yf g tvkyv f yk af y;&aomf 4if;tvkyf orm;tm; (tenf;qH k;) yH kreS fvkycf aiG. ESpq f uk   d xyfaqmif;ay;&rnf? yk'rf (53) pkaygi;f aphpyf!  S  _dEid f;jcif;? pkaygi;f aphpyf!  S  _dEid f;jcif; oabmwlncD suft& (0g) tjcm;aom tkvyftuk   di f pmcsKyft& pnf;urf;owfrw S fjcif;jyKv#if tvky&f Sio f nf  TOya'wGi f jyXmef;xm;aom vkycf E_e;f xm;xuf omvGerf sm;jym;aom E_e;f xm;uk   d tvky&f Siu f ay;&rnf? yk'rf (54) tvkyyf w d f&uf vkycf &yk   dicf   hiG f (u) tvkyyf w d &f ufjzpfapumrl  tajctaeta=umif;a=umif;t& tvkyo f rm; rsm; tvkyq f if;ay;&ef vk   dtyfvmEd kiaf yrnf? tvky&f iS ftaejzif   h Tok   d @aom tajctaersK;d wGif tvkyo f rm;rsm;tm; yH kreS v f cE_e;f xm;. (2)qjzif   h nDr#aom vkycf ay;&rnf? (c) TOya'wGi f yg  d&aS om “tvkyyf w d &f uf” twGuyf g tusKH;0ifonf? yk'rf (55) vkyo f uf cHpm;Ek   dicf   hiG f (u) vkyo f uftenf;qH k; wESpw f m0efxrf;aqmifjyD;aom tvkyo f rm;wk   di;f onf ESppf Ofvkyo f ufc  hiG  f ig;&ufu  dk  vpmtjynf  h cHpm;cG  fi  d&h Sap&rnf? vkyo f uf(--) ESpjf ynf   hw  dik ;f ES  hif (--) jcif;ES  hi f vpmjynf   h vkyo f ufc  hiG u f   dk pkaygi;f &&S  dap&rnf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -33

C. Wages

vkycf aiGrsm; yk'rf (56) vkycf aiGrsm; t"dy g` ,fz  hiG q f   dck su?f ? TOya'wGi f oH k;E_e;f xm;onf  htwk   di;f (u) Person - vly  d*k K~ vfq  do k nfrmS wOD;wa,mufjcif;rStp tvky&f Si/f tpkpyf vkyif ef;/ tzG   J @tpnf;/ toif;tzG  J @ aumf  dyak &;&Si;f . w&m;0ifu  d, k pf m;vS, f (0g) vltyk pf rk  S   JzG @pnf;xm;aom rnfonf   h tzG   J @tpnf;0ifrqk   djzpfonf? (c) Employer – tvky&f Si f - TOya'wGif t"dy g` ,zf   hiG q f   dx k m;aom rnf   honf   htvky&f Sirf qk   djzpfygonf? (*) Employer - vkyo f m;- TOya'wGif t"dy g` ,zf   hiG q f   dx k m;aom (rnfonf   h  dpu k fysK;d a&;ES  hif oufq  dik af om) rnfonf   htrd af xmifpk rnfonf   htrd w f Gi;f (0g) rnfonf   hvdit f vkyo f rm;uk  drqk   d &nfneG ;f onf? (C) Agriculture -   dpkuyf sK;d a&;/   dpkufysK;d a&;xJwiG f v,f,mvkyif ef;ES  hif4if;. wk   di;f §XmecG   Jrsm;tm;vH k;yg0ifonf? xk   d @tjyif   dpkufysK;d a&;ES  hiyf wfoufaom rnfonf   h vkyif ef;rqk   d opfo;D yef;ref   dpkuyf sK;d jcif;eS  hif qk   diaf om a&mif;ukeyf pPnf;rsm; wd&p>m  ef arG;jrLa&; (0g) =uuf/ bJ/ ief; arG;jrLa&;vkyif ef;wk   d @E  hiS f yl;wG  Jaeaom (0g) qufpyf  DE;S EG,f aeaom v,f,mjcHY awmifo/l ,morm;wOD;rS vkyu f  kdiaf om rnfonf   hvkyif ef;uk   d rqk   djzpfonf? ok   d @aomf  o=um;/ tke;f / aq;&guf/ emewfoD; (0g) tjcm;v,f,m xGuyf pPn;f trsm;tjym;tm; pufjzif   h ukepf nfxw k v f kyjf cif; (0g) vkyef nf;tpDtpOfjzif   h tqif  hq  hifxkwfvyk jf cif;rsm; ryg0ifay? (i) Employ -tvkyv f kyu f   dik fc  hGijf yKonf? tvkyv f kyaf ponf? (p) rnfonf   htvkyo f rm;rqk   d  ay;&onf  h (vkycf ) - qk   donfrmS tr_xrf;&Gufay;cJ   h&jcif; (0g) tr_xrf;&eftwGuf vkyu f   dkiaf y;cJ   h&aom tvky f (0g) vky&f rnf   htvkyt f wGuf tvkyt f uk   diEf   hiS f ywfoufaom uefx  d&ku f oabmwlpmcsKyfa&;xm;onfjzpfap/ ra&;xm;onfjzpfap/ 4if;pmcsKyft&/ tvky&f iS rf S tvkyo f rm;uk  d  ay;&rnfjzpfonf   h aiGa=u;/ 4if;uk   dtcsde/f vkyif ef;wm0ef/ ykwjf ywftvky/f tvkyf qka=u; (0g) aumfr&Sif tvkyu f   dk rlwnfjyD; yH kaoowfrw S fxm;jcif; (0g) 4if;tvkyt f wGu f tjcm; aom wGucf sufenf;jzif   h  jzpfap/ vkyt f m;cay;jcif; (0g) vkyfu kdi&f aom tvkyt f wGuf tca=u;aiG(0g)rnfo  d @k yifac:apumrl vkycf aiG.wpdww f   dyki;f yifjzpfonf? xk   d @jyif vkycf

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -34

xJwiG f tvkyo f rm;twGi;f 0ef.qH k;jzwfay;onf   hw  dik f tvkyf&iS rf S tvkyo f rm;twGuf xH k;pH"avht&ay;&rnfjzpfaom w&m;r#wI avsmfuefaom wef  dz;k   d&Sonf   h  tpm; tpm/ aexk   di&f efae&mES  hi f tjcm;vk  dtyfaom ypPn;f wk  d @vnf;yg0ifonf? pm&if;yg ypPnf;wk   d @. w&m;r#wI av#mfuefaomwef  dz;k onf tvky&f Sirf S tvkyo f rm; twGuf ukeu f s p&dwu f   d k jyojcif;jzpfI tvky&f Si f (0g)4if;.tzG   [email protected] rnfo @l tjrwftpGe;f rS yg0ifjcif;r&S   d&? aiG r[kwb f J ukeyf pPnf;jzif   h  tca=u;ay;jcif;uk  d  TOya'ES  hif tnDvkycf rsm;[lI rSwf,l rnfr[kwfay? T Oya'abmifrS cG  hijf yKEk  diaf om vcxJrS E_wf,jl cif;wk   d @onf tvkyo f rm; rsm;. (6)v twGi;f trSe&f   d&Saomvkycf a=u;uk  d qDavsmaf omtenf;qH k; E_e;f xm;xuf ed  hru f s oGm;&ef rjzpfapEk   diyf g? yk'rf (57) All Burma Wage Equity Board

jrefrmEk   diif v H  kH;qk   di&f m vkycf a=u;aiG Oya'jyKbkwt f   JzG @ ABWEB[k 

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zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -35

oe jyKvkyjf cif; tm;vH k;uk   d “bkwt f   JzG @”onf yH k  dEyS x f kwaf 0jcif;ES  hi f jynfot l rsm;. vuf0,fa&muf  d&S toH k;jyKEk   dif&ef jyKvkyaf y;&rnf? yk'rf (58) tvkyo f rm;wk   d @onf qDavsmaf om ted  hrq f  k;H vkycf uk   d cHpm;&rnf? tvkyef m;csed u f mvES  hif tvkyyf w d f&ufw  d @k wiG f tvkyv f ky&f aomtvkyt f wGu f txuf wGif &Si;f vif;wifjyxm;jyD;onf  h qka=u;rsm; E_e;f rsm;§(yD&Dr, D )H a=u;aiGEe_ ;f xm;rsm; twk   di;f oufq  dik af om ted  hrq f  k;H vkycf uk   d xk   dtcsdeu f mvtwGi;f cHpm;&aom(0g) tvkyf vkycf iG &fh I tvkyv f kyu f   dik v f su  df&Saom tvkyo f rm;twGuf &nfnGe;f toH k;jyK&rnf? tcsderf t S y tjcm;ta=umif; tcsufrsm;a=umif   h&  d&Saom tca=u;aiG 4if;wd k @vpOf &&S   d aom ykwfjywfEe_ ;f xm;a=u;aiGrsm;/ aumfr&Siaf =u;rsm;/ abmeyfpq f ak =u;aiGrsm;/ vkyo f ufqak =u;rsm;eS  hif o'N ga=u;rsm;jzpfjyD; 4if;wk   d @onf xk   dvtwGuf pkpak ygi;f &&S   daomtca=u;aiGu  d k txufyg(--) wduspGm azmfjyxm;jyD;jzpfaom tvkyef m; csdeEf   hiS f tvkyyf w d f&ufw  d @k wiG  f tem;r,ly/J tvkyt f   dykvkyI f &aom qka=u; (premium pay)tygt0if tvkyv f yk cf sdet f wGuf &&S   daom ted  hrq f  k;H vkycf xuf ed  hru f soGm;&ef rjzpfap&? rnfonf   htvky&f iS u f rS tvkyo f rm;cHpm;xk   duaf om tusKd;cHpm;cG  hirf sm;uk   d &Si;f vif; z,f&Sm;jcif; rjyK&? (0g) TOya'rS  w&m;0if xkwjf yefa=unmcsed t f wGi;f &&S  dcpH m;ae aom rnf   honf   hvyk cf aiGEe_ ;f xm;ud kr S avsmhrcs&? yk'rf (59) jrefrmEk   diif v H  kH;qk   di&f m Oya'jyKbkwt f   JzG @ (ABWEB) tpk   d;& vkyif ef;&Sit f oif;rsm;ESifh tvky f orm;or*~rsm;oH k;  JzG @pvH k;rS owfrw S fcef @xm;ay;aom uk   d,pf m;vS,f  (2) OD;pDw  d @k jzif   h  yg0if  Jz @G pnf;xm;&rnf? xk   do k;H   JzG @pvH k;rS uk   d,pf m;vS,w f OD;pDonf  tqif   h jrif   hynm&yfwckcw k iG f wufu|r;f a=umif;todtrSwjf yKaxmufcjH cif; cH&oljzpfjyD;/ vkycf wGucf sufonf   h bmom&yf e,fy,fwiG v f nf; tawG @t}uHK  d&Saomoljzpf&rnf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -36

ted  hrq f  k;H vkycf ud k owfrw S fjcif;ES  hi f jyefvnfo k;H oyf&mwGif “bkwt f   JzG @onf rdrt d vky. f v_y&f Sm;r_taejzif   hvnf;aumif; (0g) pdw0f ifpm;olwOD;OD;.awmif;qd kcsuft&vnf; aumif; =um;em;ppfaq;jcif; jyKvkyaf y;&rnf? ‚if;tjyif rnfonf   henf;jzif   hrqd k awG @  S&d& aomtcsuftvufrsm; jynf  hp kpH yG g  S&donf   h rSww f rf;ES  hiq f  k;H jzwfcsucf srw S f&ef  tusKd;oif  h ta=umif;oif   h qifjcifo k;H oyfr/_ ‚if;txJwGif bkwt f   JzG @u kd wifjyonf  hoabmxm;/ t ,ltqtygt0ifw k @d u kd odomxif&Sm;vmap&ef  jyKvky&f rnf? ted  hrq f  k;H vkycf rsm;ud k wd k; jrS  hiaf y;&efrvd k[laom bkwt f   JzG @. qH k;jzwfcsufu kd pDrt H yk cf sKyfa&;tyd ki;f ES  hiq f  kdiaf om aqmif&u G t f a&;,lcsufw k @d u k d jyefvnf;oH k;oyf&ef  rsm;aomtm;jzif  h tcG  hit f a&;&&d   Sa&; aom ta=umif;t&may:r_wnfI w&m;&H k;Y toem;cH§t,lcH wifoiG ;f Ed kio f nf? T Oya'ygpnf;urf;vd kuef map&ef[laom tcsuftvufrsm;t& wm0efxrf;aqmif&ef (0g) pnf;urf;Oya'ud k vufawG @u  hsio f  kH; taumiftxnfaz:jcif;wGi f ysuu f u G jf cif;  S&d onfq ko d nf   h  ta=umif;rSty bkwt f   JzG @. rnfonf   hq k;H jzwfcsuu f  krd  S w&m;&H k;wGi f jyef vnfqifjcifo kH;oyfE kid jf cif; r&d   Say? yk'rf (60) Oya'ud kv ku d femonh   ftaejzif   h tvky&f iS rf sm;onf vH kavmufaom rSww f rf;rsm;ud k xdr;f odr;f apmif   ha&Smufxm;&ef vd ktyfonf [lI tvkyform;0ef}uD;rS pnf;rsO;f pnf; urf;rsm;ud k w&m;0ifxkwjf yefa=ujimjcif;ES  hi f vd kufemap&ef jyKvky&f rnf? yk'rf (61) aiGay;acsonf   henf;yH kprH sm;? rnfonf   htvky&f iS u f rS tvkyo f rm;wOD;.vkycf rsm;ud k  (aiGom;rSv  JI G ) tvkyo f rm; zufrS odomxif&mS ;pGm awmif;qd kapumrl aiGay;rnf[al om pmcsKyfvufrw S /f aiG&ajy pmabmufcsmrsm;/ jzwfy kid v f ufrw S frsm;/ trSwv f uQ%m-wd kuifrsm;/ vufrw S frsm;/ pm &Gut f axmuftxm;(0g) tjcm;aom &ky0f wWKrpPn;f ud kay;onf  henf;vrf;rsm; toH k;jyK I ray;ap&? TOya' tusKd;oufa&mufaom&ufwiG  f jyKvkyaf y;aeus xH k;pH  S&  hdcaJ omf vkycf rsm;ud k csuv f ufrw S  f (0g) aiGy k @d v$mjzif   h ay;acs;jcif;jyKEd kifonf? (0g) tvkyo f rm;0ef }uD; (Xme)rS xkwjf yefrnfjzpfaom oif   havsmo f nf   hpnf;rsO;f wGi f wduspGmaz:onf   htwd   f ki;f

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -37

(0g) wG   JzufaumfrwD. oabmwlncD suf  (0g) pkaygi;f !d  S  _Eid ;f ta&;qk  donf   hoabmwlnD csuw f   d @k wGif pnf;urf;csut f jzpf owfrw S fonf   htwk   di;f xl;jcm;aomtajctaersm;wGif vnf; aiGay;acsjcif;pepfu kd toH k;jyKEd kio f nf? yk'rf (62) aiGay;acsonf   htcsed ?f vkycf aiGrsm;ud k  tenf;qH k;(2)ywf  v#ifw}udr(f 0g) wv v#if  (2) }udrf &Si;f ay;&rnf? T “Oya'yk'rf ” wGi f az:jyxm;ouJ  ho k @d vkycf aiGrsm;ud k  =oZmtm%m v$r;f rd k; r_a=umif   h vnf;aumif;(0g) tvky&f Si. f xdr;f csKyfE kid pf Gr;f r&d  Sawmhaom tajctaersm; a=umif   h vnf;aumif;/ tcsde  Drf Say;&ef  rwwfE kid   hcf aJ omf tvky&f Sio f nf xk   d=oZmtm%m v$r;f rd k;r_  (0g) tajctaersm;r&d  SyJ &yfq kid ;f oGm;onfE  hiS  f csujf cif;ay;&vd  hrrf nf? tvkyf &Sio f nf rnfonf   htajctaewGirf qd k/ wvv#i f w}udr;f xufenf;+yD; vkycf ay;jcif;ud k rjyKvky&f ? tvky&f Sio f nf tvkyo f rm;wOD;tm; tvkyx f w k fy,f& aomudprP sK;d wGif tvky&f Sio f nf tvkypf wifjzKwfv ku d fonf   htcsderf  S pwifItvkyrf qif;&aom &uf tygt0if/ w&uftwGi;f / T “Oya'yk'rf ” t& (0g) tjcm;oabmwlncD sut f & tvkyrf x S GufcmG ojzif   h  &oif  haomaiGy kt d yg0if tvkyo f rm;tm; ay;&ef  S&daeaom aiGtm;vH k;aygi;f ud k ay;&rnf? ESpyf wftwGi;f +yD;qH k;&ef rvkyfE kid af om vkyif ef;wckwGif tvkyo f rm;rsm;. vkycf aiGu kd ay;&ef pkaygi;f !d  S  dEi_ ;f oabmwlcsu f (0g) cH k& kH;  JzG @jcif; pD&ifq k;H jzwfjcif;r&d  S  hcaJ omf atmufaz:jyyg tajctaersm;ay: rlwnfI vkyaf qmif&rnf? (1) +yD;ajrmufatmifvkyaf omvkyif ef;. tcsK;d tqt&/ &oif  haomvkycf aiGrsm;ud k (16) &ufxufryd kaom =um;umvwGi f ay;acs&rnf? (2) vkyif ef;+yD;qH k;onfE  hiS  f aemufq k;H vkycf aiGtm; ay;acs&rnf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -38

yk'rf (63) aiGay;acsonf   hae&m vkycf aiGrsm;ud k yd kr kv d  kH+cHKr_  d&S&ef  tumtuG,fay;&ef  tajctaersm;jzpfay:vmygu tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD; (Xme) rS  jyXmef;aom pnf;rsO;f rsm;t&rSv  JGI vkycf aiGrsm;ud k tvky f ae&mwGi f od k @r[kw f teD;tyg;wGio f mv#i f ay;acs&rnf? yk'rf (64) vkycf aiGrsm;ud k wd kuf& ku d af y;jcif; vkycf rsm;ud k ay;tyf&rnf  h tvkyo f rm;rsm;ud kom wd kuf& kduaf y;&rnf? (atmufyg cG si;f csurf sm;rSty) (u) tm%m zd  dEyS v f r$ ;f rd k;r_jzpf  hcv J #if (od k @r[kw)f oif   hav#maf omfpnf;rsO;f rsm;t& tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;rS qH k;jzwfay;rnf   h/ tjcm;aom txl;tajctaersm; jzpfay:aeI/ vkycf xkwaf y;&efrjzpfE kid v f #i/f tvkyo f rm;. vkycf aiGu kd xkwf,cl   hiG af y;&ef  um,uH &Si f ud k,fw kid rf  S tm%mv$  Jpma&;ay;xm;olu ko d mv#i f vkycf aiGxkwaf y;vd  hrrf nf? tvkyo f rm;uG,v f Ge  hcf aJ omf tvky&f Sio f nf uG,v f eG o f ltvkyo f rm;. vkycf aiGu kd ‚if;. tarGpm; tarGcrH sm;tm; raoqH k;rDa&;xm;aom aowrf;pmud k toH k;jyK&onf  h vkyef nf;vky[ f efrvd kyEJ   hiS f xkwaf y;Ed kio f nf? vkyyf  kid cf   hGi  Sf&daom awmif;cHolrsm;tm;vH k; onf t&G,fa&muf+yD;olrsm;jzpfygu uG,v f Geo f El   hiS f aqGrsKd;awmfpyfy krH eS u f efa=umif;ES  hif tjcm;rnfolrrS oufq  dik yf J ‚if;wd k @omv#i f tarGpm;tarGcHrsm;jzpfonfq ko d nf   htcsuf ud k  usr;f usdev f $mjzif   h  Oya't& twnfjzpfap&ef  a&;om;csKyfq k&d rnf? tarGpm; tarGco H lonf t&G,rf a&mufao;oljzpfygu aqGrsK;d xJrS tkyx f dr;f ol (0g) aoG;teD;qH k; aqGrsK;d rS usr;f usdev f $mjzif   h ‚if;. ud k,fpm;vS,t f jzpf aqmif&Gucf sKyfq kad y;&rnf? xd kusr;f usdev f m$ ud k tvky&f Sit f m; ay;tyf&rnf// tvky&f Sio f nfvnf; tvkyo f rm;

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -39

0ef=uD;(0g)‚if;.ud k,pf m;vS,rf w S qif   hom aiGxw k fay;vd  hrfrnf// tvkyo f rm;0ef=uD;. ud k,pf m;vS,o f nf  tarGpm; tarGcw H  k @d t=um; &&S   dvmaomaiGu kd cH korm"d 'd kiv f l =uD;tjzpf pDrcH ef @  JcG  a0iSay;&rnf// ay;jyD;aom aiGyrm%ES  hif ywfoufI T yk'rf wGif yg  d&Saom vkycf rsm;ay;acs qk   donf   htcsuft&/ tvky&f Sio f nf a&S @qufjyD; ay;qyfp&m wm0efrsm;rS uif;&Si;f vGwjf idr;f cG  hi&f   d&Srnf// yk'rf (65) pmcsKyf csKyfq ko d lE  hiS  f pmcsKyfq kdo. l vufaxmuf// rnfonf   h  tcsderf qd k tvky&f Siw f OD;onf  tjcm;olwOD;ES  hif ‚if;tvky&f Si. f vkyif ef;ud k aqmif&u G af y;&ef  oabmwlpmcsKyfcsKyfq kcd Jah omf xd koabmwlpmcsKyf. uefx±d kuw f m od k @r[kwf ‚if;.vufaxmuf uefx±d kufwm&S  d  hcaJ omf olw k @d .tvkuform;rsm;ud k/ TOya'yg pnf;urf;csurf sm;twd ki;f vkycf ay;&rnf// xd kuefx±d kufwmES  hif vufaxmufuefx±d kuw f mwd k @onf tvkyo f rm;rsm;. vkyfcaiGu  d kf  T “Oya'yk'rf ” ES  hif vd kufavsmnDpmG ay;aqmif&ef  ysuu f u G   hcf aJ omf tvky&f Sio f nf rdru d   d, k fw  d kif f wd ku&f  ku d fimS ;&rf;aom tvkyo f rm;rsm;ay:wGi f Oya't&wm0ef  d&Sonf   htwd ki;f uefx±d kuw f mES  hif vufaxmufuefx±d kufwmwd k @  ly;l wG   JIvnf;aumif;/ oD;jcm;ud k,pf D ud k,if t S aejzif   hvnf;aumif;/ xd ktvkyo f rm;rsm; vkyaf y;cJ   haom vkyif ef;twd ki;f twmt& oabmwl pmcsKyfyg twd ki;f vkycf ay;&ef Oya't&wm0ef  d&Sonf// T“Oya'yk'rf ”yg rnfonf   hpnf;urf;csufu kdrqd k  Oyg,w f r#ijf zif   h  tompD;&&ef vkyaf qmif&ef(0g) csKd ;azmufjcif;ud k  wm;qD;&ef  T“Oya'yk'rf ”wGiyf g  d&Saom tvkyo f rm;rsm;. tcG  hit f a&;rsm;ud k  umuG,&f ef tvkyo f rm;0ef=uD;. oif  havsmf aom pnf;rsO;f t& xd ktvkyo f rm;ES  hi f csKyfq  dak om pmcsKyfu ku d ef @owfjcif;(0g) wm;jrpf jcif; jyKvkyEf  kid o f nf// tvkyf&iS . f oabmwlpmcsKyf  (0g) wqif   hcpH mcsKyf. t"du tusdK;cHpm;&olrmS tvkyo f rm;ES  hif uefx±d kufwmES  hif vufaxmuf uefx±d kuf wmwd k @. tvkyo f rm;rsm; t=um;jzpfay:onf  h udp&P yfrsm;wGif uefx ±d kuw f mES  hif vufaxmuf uefx±d kuw f m wd k @u kd tvky&f Si. f ud k,fpm;vS,t f jzpfom rSw, f l &vd  hrrf nf// tvky±f iS o f mv#if tvky f orm;rsm;tay:wGif rdru d  kd,fw kid f wd ku  d¶f u k f tvkycf ef @xm;onf   h tvkyo f rm; enf;wl twd   d ki;f twm ulnpD mG wm0ef  d¶v S   hrd rf nf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -40

yk'rf (66) oG,0f  ku d ftvky¶f iS  f ? teD;uyfq k;H a¶S @wiG af z:jycJ   haom yk'rf yg pnf;urf;csurf sm;onf  tvm;wlpmG yif rnfonf   hoG,0f  ku d f tvky¶f iS fu kdrqd k &nfn$e;f &rnf? oG,0f  ku d t f vky¶f iS f wduspmG az:jy &aomf rnfonf   hy  d*k K~ vf  /tpkpyfvkyif ef; toif;(0g) aumfy kad &;&Si;f jzpfap tvky¶f iS f r[kwyf J rnfonf   htvkyt f ud kiv f kyif ef; /tvky f (0g) pDru H ed ;f vkyif ef;ud k rqd k vkyaf qmif &efvw G v f yfaom uefx  d¶kufwm wOD;ES  hio f abmwlpmcsKyfcsKyfq ko d lyif jzpfonf? yk'rf (67) tmrcHaiGxm;¶S   djcif;? tvky¶f iS (f 0g)oG,f0 ku d t f vky¶f iS o f nf uefx  d¶kuw f m (0g) vufaxmufuefx  d¶kuw f m xHro S abmwl  pmcsKyfyg vk  fyo f m;c ukeu f sp&dwf ES  hif nDr sS aom tmrcHaiGu kd xm;&S  day;&ef vd kvm;vd  hrrf nf? Tu,fIuefx  d¶kufwm (0g)vufaxmufuefx¶d kuf wd k @rt S vkyo f rm; rsm;tm;ay;&ef  d&aS om vkycf aiGrsm;ud k  ay;acs&ef  ysuu f u G fonf   hudpP jzpfay:cJ   haomf  /‚if;(tpd k;&) aiGacs;pmcsKyfonf  wm0ef,lonf [laom tmrcHonf   h pnf;urf;csujf zif   hxm;&S   d&efjzpfonf? yk'rf (68) rnfonf   hOya' rqd k ,if;csuEf   hiS q f ef @usiv f sucf ck jH cif;rjyKvS   S sif tvky¶f iS (f 0g) oG,0f  ku d f tvky¶f iS w f  kdi;f onf ‚if;.uefx  d¶kuw f m (0g) vufaxmufuefx  d¶kufwm ES  hit f wl/ T“Oya'yk'rf ”ygrnfonf   h pnf;urf;csucf sKd ;azmufru _  krd qd k  wm0ef  d&Sonf[k cH,o l wf rSwf&rnf? Ttcef;Y ‚if;wd k @rnfonf   htwd ki;f twmtxd  (w&m;r) Oya't& wm0ef  d&Sa=umif;uk   d qH k;jzwf&ef&nf&, G cf sufjzif   h/ 4if;wk   d @u  dk wk   du  d&f kuf tvky&f Sirf sm;[lI owfrw S  f ,lqrnf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -41

yk'rf (69) ta=uG;rqyf  dEik af om vl  JrpG m&if;0if (a'0gvcD )H &vsif tvkyo f rm;tm; OD;pm;ay;jcif;? tvky&f Si. f vkyif ef;ud k/ ta=uG;rqyfE kid I f vl  JrpG m&if;0if  (a'0gvcD )H &vsSif (0g) pD;yGm; a&;vkyif ef;pm&if; &Si;f zsuo f rd ;f &onftjzpfE  hiS f }uHK&vsSif ‚if;.tvkyo f rm;rsm;onf vkycf rsm;/ tjcm;aiGa=u;ES  hiq f  kid af om &yd kicf   hiG rf sm;Oya'yg rnfonf   hpnf;urf; csufrqd k qef @usiv f siS f ckcw H Ge;f vSejf cif;rvkyv f siS /f tvkyo f rm;rsm;. vkycf twGuf/ yxr OD;pm;ay;tjzpf  aqmif&Guaf y;&rnf? tvky&f Sirf rS ay;acs&ao;aom vkycf aiGrsm;ES  hif aiGa=u;qd ki&f m&yd kicf   hiG rf sm;ud k tpd k;&ES  hi f tjcm;jrD;&Sirf sm;. aiGa=u;&yd kicf   hGifrsm; xufapm I tvsifO;D pGm/ jyD;jynf  hp kaH tmifay;acs&rnf? yk'rf (70) TwGiyf g  d&Saom/ vd kuef mapmif   hxde;f tyfaom 0wW&m;rsm;ud k tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD; (0g) T“Oya'yk'rf ”. vd kuef map&ef  aqmif&Gu&f jcif;[laom tyd ki;f Yxnf   hoiG ;f xm;onf  h twd ki;f / vd kuef maqmif&Gu&f rnf? 0ef}uD;. Tta&;,laqmif&u G fjcif;ES  hif yk*v ~ du. wjydKifeuf  ta&;,laqmif&u G jf cif;rsm;ud k  (w&m;Oya't&) &yfwef @ qkw, f kwrf oGm; ap&ef jzpfonf? yk'rf (71) atmufyg ydwyf ifwm;jrpfcsufrsm;ES  hif vd ktyfcsurf sm;ud k csKd ;azmufygu‚if;vky&f yfonf rw&m;aom (od k @r[kw)f w&m;r0ifaom vkycf ay;jcif;om jzpfv  hrd rf nf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -42

(u) (1)vkycf aiGpw d f}udKufo kH;  JpGc  hiG u f  kd 0ifa&mufpw G fzufjcif;rjyK&? rnfonf   htvky&f Siu f rS rnfonf   htvkyo f rm;. rdrpd w d f}udKufvyk cf aiGu kd oH k;  JpG   dEkio f nf   h vGwv f yfc  hiG t f m; uef @owfjcif;(0g)wenf;tm;jzif   h0ifa&mufpw G zf ufjcif; rjyK vky&f ? tvky&f iS o f nf‚if;.tvkyo f rm;rsm;tm;ukepf nfa&mif;ukeyf pPnf; (0g) tjcm; aomypPn;f wd k @u kd rdrx d Hr S (0g) tjcm;olwOD;xHr S (0g) wenf;wzH ktm;jzif   h ‚if;tvky&f Sif (0g) tjcm;olwOD;. od kavSmifypPnf; (�����)(0g) 0efaqmifrw _  k @d u kd oH k;  JpGap&ef rnfonf   h enf;ES  hirf sSt"rR apcd ki;f jcif;/ r&rucd ki;f jcif; (0g) 0wW&m;t& vkyaf pjcif;wd k @u kd rvky&f ? (2) vkycf rS ESKwf,jl cif;? txufwiG af zmfjyxm;jyD;jzpfaom/cG  hijf yKcsuaf y;xm;onf   hudprP v S   JGI/ tvky&f Sif wOD;onf4if;ud k,w f  kdit f m;jzif   h  (0g)wpH kwa,mufu kd ud k,fpm;jyKonf   h  taejzif   h ‚if; tvkyo f rm; rsm;. vkycf aiGrsm;xJr/S rnfo  d k @f aomE_w, f jl cif;ud krrS jyKvky&f ? od k @aomf c|if;csuftm;jzif   h (u) tvkyo f rm;.oabmwlnDcsu-f tvky&f Sirf  S tmrcHxm;ay;onf   h udpP rsm;wGi/f tmrcH(y&Dr, D aH }u;)tjzpf ‚if;ay;oGi;f xm;aomaiGtwdtusu kdom tvky&f Siu f  kdjyefay;qyf&eftaejzif   h E_wf,  dEl ik af omudprP sm;wGi?f (c) or*~xHay;oGi;f &efaiGrsm;ud k/ tvky&f iS rf pS pk ak ygi;f aphpyfn   d  dES  kiS f;oabmwlnD csut f & (0g) oufq kid &f mtvkyo f rm;. w&m;0ifpma&;om;/ tm%mv$  Jtyf jcif;ES  hif nDpmG tvkyo f rm;.tcG  hit f a&; (0g) ‚if;or*~raS iGEw _ f,lxm;cG  hif ay;jcif;ud k todtrSwjf yKxm;jyDaomudp&P yfrsm;wGi?f (*) tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;rSxw k jf yefaomOya'(0g)pnf;rsO;f rsm;t&/ tvky&f Sif tm; tm%mv$  Jtyf ay;xm;aomudprP sm;wGiEf w _ f,  dEl ik o f nf? (3)qH k;  H¶S k;r_ (0g) xdc ku d fysufp;D r_twGuf pay:aiG§p&HaiGay;jcif;? avS smfa}u;ay;&aiGrsm;jym;jcif;ES  hif aiGu kd E_wf,x l m;jcif; jyKvkyaf vh  d&aS om (0g) a,bl,stm;jzif   h p&HaiGay;oGi;f xm;&ef vd ktyfaom (0g)r&S   drjzpfv kd tyfaom (0g)

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -43

vd kvm;tyfonf[k tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;rS avS   S smfuefaom pnf;urf;pnf;rsO;f rsm;t& qH k;jzwfowfrw S fay;xm;onf   h xd ko k @d aom toufarG;0rf;ausmif; tvkyt f ud kiv f yk if ef; (0g) tvkyrf sm;wGiv f kyu f  kdiaf eonf   h tvkyo f rm;xHrS tvky&f Sirf x S kwaf y;xm;aom vufeufud&, d mrsm; ypPn;f rsm; (0g) ud&d,mwefqmyvmrsm; aysmufq k;H jcif; (0g) xdc ku d fysufp;D jcif;jzpfv sS ipf &HaiGxJr S tavS smt f pm;E_w, f   dEl ik &f ef rnfonf   h tvky&f Siu f rS ‚if;.tvkyo f rm;tm;aiGp&H ay;oGi;f xm;&ef vd ktyfonf[lI rawmif;qd k&? (4) uef @owfcsuf ? tvkyo f rm;wOD;. p&HaiG§pay:aiGxJrS qH k;  H¶_;r_  (0g) xdc ku d fysupf ;D r_twGuf trSef wu,f ukeu f sonf   hyrm%ud k  wm0ef  d¶o S  l (0g) tvky&f Sirf S ¶Si;f vif;pGm raz:jyrjcif; (0g) (w&m;0if) todray;rjcif; avS smaf }u;aiGEw _ f,jl cif; rjyKvky&f ? (5) tvkycf aiGrsm;ud kray;jcif;ES  hi f =um;rStusdK;aqmifc§yG   Jpm;cay;&jcif;ud k  wm;jrpf ydwfyifxm;onf? rnfolrqk   d tvkyo f rm;wOD;. vkycf aiGxrJ rS nfr sS aom aiGyrm%ud krqd k wd kuf& ku d f jzpfap (0g) oG,f0 ku d I f jzpfapray;yJ xdrcf sex f m;jcif;jzif   haomfvnf;aumif; (0g) jcdr;f ajcmufjcif;jzif   h  aomfvnf;aumif;/ a=umuf& @G o H Gm;apjcif;jzif   haomf vnf;aumif;/ cd k;a=umifc k;d 0Sujf yKjcif;jzif   haomf vnf;aumif;/ t"rRenf; toH k;jyKjcif;jzif   h  aomfvnf; aumif;/ ‚if;.vkycf xJrS aiGa=u;tcsKd @w0uf od k @r[kw f tm;vH k;ud kay;tyfap&ef jzm;a,mif;aoG;aqmifv sS i f (0g) tjcm;aomrnfonf   henf;ES  hirf qd k ‚if;tvkyo f rm;. oabmwlncD surf ,lb J jyKvky  hcf aJ omf ‚if;vky&f yfonf  w&m;Oya'rS cG  hirf jyKaom vky&f yf jzpfonf? (6) tvkyt f ud ki&f ap&ef tmrcHay;I aiGEw _ , f jl cif;? tvkyo f rm;wOD;.vkycf aiGxrJ aS eI tvkyt f ud ki&f   d&Saprnf [laom cH0ef uwday;I (0g) qufvuf  JpjG rJpmG tvkyv f kyu f  kid cf   hGif&&ef [laomtvky&f Si f (0g) ‚if;. ud k,pf m;vS, f (0g) =um;rStusdK;aqmif. tusdK;tjrwftwGuf aiGEw _ , f ljcif;onf w&m;Oya't& cG  hirf jyKaom vky&f yfjzpfonf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -44

(7) rnfonf   h vdi§f umrES  hio f ufq kid af om? rsufEmS om&&S   d&ef  aus;Zl;jyKjcif;rsm;ES  hif rnfr sS tzd k;xd kuw f efaom OpPmypPn;f ud k ay;urf;rS tvkyt f ud ki&f aprnf tvkyq f ufvufjrJjrHpmG vkycf iG f&h   dEkirf nf tvkycf iG f wGi;f tusdK;aus;Zl; (0g) tcG  hit f a&;omr_&aprnf[laom uwday;jcif; (0g) tvkyf tud kif ES  hiyf wfowfI tjcm;aomtcG  hix f l;&&S  drnf[al om owfrw S cf sufrsm;ES  hif tvm;wl  tajctaersm;twGuf tzd k;tctaejzif  h  (rnfol wOD;wa,mufxrH )S twif;t}uyf awmif;qd kjcif;rjyK&? (8) vufw k @H jyefonf   htaejzif   h ta&;,lvyk af qmifcsufrsm;? rauseyfcsu  d&f SI wd kiw f ef;jcif;jyKvkyaf om (0g) Tacgi;f pOfatmufraS eI w&m;pG   Jq  d&k ef pnf;  H¶k;&ef ulnaD y;aom (0g) oufaocHxu G fq kad y;aom (0g) oufaocH xGuq f  k&d ef  d&aS om rnfonf   htvkyo f rm;ud krqd k tvky&f iS w f OD;onf vkycf ay;&ef jiif;qd k jcif; (0g) vkycf rsm;ES  hi f &oif  honf   h  tusdK;cHpm;r_rsm;ud k avS smhcsv ku d jf cif;(0g) tvkyrf S xkwyf ,fjcif; (0g) wenf;enf;jzif   h   JcG  JcjG cm;jcm;owfrw S jf cif;rsm;ud k  jyKvky  hcf yJ gu ‚if;jyKvkyjf cif;onf w&m;Oya'u cG  hirf jyKaom aqmif&Gujf cif;jzpfonf? (9) rrSeu f efaom owif;ay;jcif;? (u) rnforl qd k rnfonf   hxu G q f  kcd suf  owif;ay;jcif; (0g) rSwfwrf;wd k @u krd qd k T“Oya'yk'rf ” ygpnf;urf;csufrsm;ES  hif vd kuaf vsmnDpmG rSwfwrf;wifjcif; (0g) xm;&S  djcif; wd k @u kd  jyKvkyjf yD; ‚if;xGuq f  kcd sufowif;ES  hif rSwfwrf;wd k @onf rnfonf   h tcsuEf   fiS h ywfowfIrqd k rrSeu f efa}umif;ud k odvsufE  hiS jf yKvky  hcf jJ cif; jzpf  hcaJ omf ‚if;.jyKvkyjf cif; onf w&m;Oya'u cG  hirf jyKaom vkyaf qmifjcif;jzpfonf? (c) Tvd ktyfcsufrsm;ud k a&S kmifwrd ;f &ef&nf&, G fI rnfonf   hw&m;aom vkycf ay; aqmif&u G jf cif; (0g) t}uHtpnfjyKvkyjf cif;/ aqmif&Gujf cif; (0g) vkyif ef;rqk   d  twnf rjzpf  ysujf y,fjcif;ES  hif cd kiv f  kHwnfjrJjcif;r&S  day? yk'rf (--) wGif t"dym` ,f zGiq f  kx d m;onf  h toH k;tE_   H;rsm;twd ki;f t}uD;tus, f jyKvkyjf cif;(0g) tusdK;wl vkyif   fef;pktay: tajccH jyD; jyKvkyaf omrnfonf   ht}uHtpnf/ aqmif&Gujf cif; (0g) vkyif ef;rqd k  (--) ESpx f uf renf; (--)ESpx f ufrrsm;aomumvwGit f usO;f csxm; cH&jcif;ES  hi f TOya'yg pnf;urf; vd kuef mapjcif;[lonf   htcsuft& w&m;pG  Jq k&d mwGi f jyefvnf&  d&SaptyfaomavS smaf =u;

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -45

aiG  yrm%.(10)qES  hif trSeu f ek u f saom w&m;p&dwf  tygt0if'%faiGu kd  ay;aqmif ap&rnf? (*) rw&m;aomvkycf ay;aqmif&u G fjcif;wd k @u k d jyKjyifaumif;rGev f map&efatmufwiG f ¶Si;f vif;wifjyonf   htwd ki;f ES  hi f T“Oya'yk'rf ”yg pnf;urf;Oya' vd kufemapjcif;[lonf   h tcsut f &jzpfap&rnf? ���������������� ��� ������������

pDrcH ef @cGt J yk cf sKyfjcif;ES  hi f Oya'vd kufemapjcif; yk'rf (72) ���������� ��� ����������� �����

w&m;0ifppfaq;&ef oGm;a&mufjcif;ES  hi f Oya'vd kufemapjcif;tm%m? (u) tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;(0g)‚if;.oufq kid &f mtm%m v$  Jtyfxm;aom ud k,pf m;vS,f rsm;wGif tvky&f iS . f rSww f rf;rsm;ES  hi f aetdr/f taqmuftOD; tvkyXf me/ yk&0k%f twGi;f od k @ [email protected]&G;(0g)tvkyv f kyaf ecsed Yf oGm;a&mufomG ;a&mufawG @ qH k}unf   h&c_   hiG f   d&Sonf? ‚if;tjyifOya'ud k csKd ;azmufjcif;  d&S§r&S   dowfrw S fq k;H jzwf&ef vd ktyfvmvS sif (0g)T“Oya'yk'rf ”ES  hif xd ko k @d tnDowfrw S fxw k jf yefxm;aomrnfonh   f tvkyo f rm; Oya' (0g) pnf;rsO;f pnf;urf;rsm;ud krqd k vd kuef mapmif   ha&S kmufap&ef  taxmuft  hyH jzpfapa&; twGuf xd kae&mrS ul;,ljcif;rnfonf   htvky f orm;ud krqd k  ar;jref;  dEkijf cif;ES  hif rnfonf   h ta}umif;t&mtajctaeES  hiu f dpw P  k @d u kdrqd k pH kprf;ppfaq;Ek   dicf   hGi  df&Sonf? (c) tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD; (0g) ‚if;.tm%mukev f   Jt $ yfcef @xm;aom ud k,pf m;vS,w f  k @d wGi f T “Oya'yk'rf ” ygtvkyo f rm;wd k @twGuf owfrw S x f m;aom pnf;urf;csurf sm; xda&mufr  d&_ aS p&efE  hiS  f Oya'vd kufemap&ef  aqmif&Guaf om t&m&S  drsm;ppfaq;csed f tawmtwGi;f awG @  d&Scsufw k @d tay: tajccHI tjcm;tvkyo f rm;Oya'wd k @u kd vd kufemap &rnf   h trde @f rsm;xkwjf yef&eftm%m&S  donf? tvky&f Sio f nf  Oya'vd kufemap&ef aqmif&u G af omt&m&S  d. awG @  d&Scsufrsm;ud k ckcjH iif;qd kjcif;ES  hif ppfaq;csed t f awmtwGi;f xnf   h  rpOf;pm;cJ   haomjyomemrsm;ud k cd kiv f  kaH om taxmuftxm;jzif   hwifjyvmaom udp P rsm;rSty twGi;f 0ef  (0g) ‚if;. tm%mukev f   Jt $ yfxm;aom ud k,fpm;vS,rf sm; wGif ‚if;wd k @trde @f rsm;ud k vd kuef map&efo  hifawmfaom tm%myd kix f Ho k @d trde @f pmay;&ef [laom tm%m&S  donf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -46

(*) Tyk'rf atmufwiG f xkwfjyefaom tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;. w&m;0ifu k, d fpm;vS,. f trde @f u kd tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;xHE  hiS 0f ef}uD;rSwqif   h  w&m;¶k   H;od k @ pDrt H yk cf sKyfa&;ES  hif qd kif aom aqmif&Gucf sufu k d jyefvnfpOf;pm;oH k;oyf&ef [laomta}umif; jycsufE  hiS f qd kio f nf   h  aqmif&u G fcsufrsm;ud k  jyefvnfpOf;pm; oH k;oyf&ef[laom ta}umif;jycsuf ES  hit f nD ud k;um;I toem;cH (t,lc)H wif  dEik o f nf? 0ef}uD;trde @f jzpfap/ 4if;. uk  d,pf m;vS,f. trde @f jzpfap TOya'wnf  d&SpOfE  hiS  f 4if;trde @f ajymif;jyef  rjzpfrcsi;f atmufwGi f azmfjyaom (i) tcsufygtwk   di;f vk  duef m&rnf? tu,fI xk   dxw k fjyefxm;aom trde @f onf aiGa=u;ES  hiq f   dik af om pD&ifcsufe  hiS f ywfouf aev#i/f tvky&f iS w f ifoGi;f aom toem;cHcsufonf  toem;cHonf   h xkwfxm;aom trde @f yg aiGyrm%ES  hif nDr#aom aiGu   d k tmrcHwifxm;jcif; (0g) *k%o f wif;aumif;I odumQ   d&Sonf   h aiGacs;pmcsKyfvufrw S f xkwaf y;onf   h ukr% ` DrS aiGacs;pmcsKyf vufrw S f wifoiG ;f jcif;uk   d tvky&f Siu f jyKvkyrf o S mv#if txajrmufE kid fonf? (C) tvm;wlyif tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;onf tzG   J @tpnf;rS wnfaxmifxm;aom vkyif ef;wck. rnfonf   h Xme (0g) ,lepfrqk   d Oya'uk   d vk   dufemjcif; r&S   djcif;/ (0g) pnf;rsO;f rsm; taumifxnfazmf&mwGif tvkycf iG . f vH kjcHKr_E  hiS  f use;f rma&;uk   d xd  dcu k jf cdr;f ajcmuf r_tm; odomavmufatmif  jy\emjzpfapv#if tvky&f yfwef @apjcif;/ (0g) vkyu f   dik f ywfvnfr _ &yfq  dik ;f apjcif;/ (ydwx f m;jcif;trde @f ) trde @f u  dk  csrw S Ef  kid o f nf? tvky&f yfwef @ apjcif; (0g) vkyu f   dkiv f nfygwfr_ &yfq  dik ;f xm;apjcif; [lonf   htrde @f u kd &kwford ;f ay;&ef oif   h§roif   h qk   donfu   dk qH k;jzwfe kid &f ef  (24) em&DtwGi;f =um;emppfaq;jcif;uk   d aqmif&u G af y;&rnf? tu,fI csK;d azmufjcif;onf tvky&f Si. f trSm; (ok   d @r[kw)f tjypf[k  ta=umif;jy rSwf,  dEl ik af omf tvky&f Sio f nf xk   do  d @k aom tvky&f yfwef @aecsed f (0g) tvkyt f ud kiv f nfywfjcif;rS &yfwef @csed u f mv twGi;f oufq  dik &f m tvkyo f rm; rsm; &oif  haom vpmaiGrsm;ES  hi f vkycf aiGrsm;ud k ay;&rnf? (i) rnfonf   hy  d*k K~ vf Entity qk   d tvkyo f rm;twGi;f 0ef  (0g) 4if;. w&m;0if  tm%m vG   Jtyfxm;aom uk  d,fpm;vS,rf sm;u Tyk'rf atmufwiG f ay;xm;aom tm%mES  hif tnDxkwjf yefaom trde @f rsm;uk   d ydwq f  k @d &ef/ wm;qD;&ef/ =uef @=umap&ef/ (0g) wenf;tm;jzif   h  tusKd;xda&mufr_ r&S   dap&ef  jyKvky  hcf v J #if 4if;vky&f yfonf  Oya'u cG  hirf jyKaom vky&f yfjzpfonf? 4if;tjyif yk*v ~ durS  Oya'vk   duef map&ef  w&m;&H k; trde @f

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -47

xkwjf yefap&ef qk   donf   h  &vm'fu   d k &apcJ   honf  (0g) &aprnf qk   donf   h udprP v S   JGI rnfonf   hw&m;&H k; (0g) Entity urS 0ef}uD;. trde @f u  dk 0ifa&mufpu G zf ufaponf  h rnfonf   htrde @f u  dk rS rxkwfjyef&? 0ef}uD;. trde @f u  d k 0ifa&mufpu G fzufaprnf   h rnfonf   h trde @f u  dkr S rxkwfjyef&? (p) TOy'wGi f yg  d&aS om w&m;0ifppfaq;&ef oGm;a&mufjcif;ES  hif  Oya'vk   duef mapjcif; tm%mrsm;ud k  taxmuft  hyHjzpfap&ef vk   dtyfrnfjzpfaom tvkyt f uk   di. f rSwfwrf; rsm;uk   d xm;&S  d&efE  hiS f xdr;f odr;f xm;&ef/ tvkyo f rm;twGi;f 0efrS qDavsmaf om pnf;rsO;f rsm;t& tvky&f Sirf sm;tm; awmif;qk   dE kid o f nf? yk'rf (73) vkycf aiGrsm; &oif  h&xk   duo f nf   h aiG&if; (Simply-Money )ES  hi f tjcm;tusKd; cHpm;cG  hirf sm; jyefvnf&  d&S&ef? vkycf aiGrsm; jyefvnf&  d&Sa&;ES  hi f tjcm;aiGa=u;qk   di&f m &oif  honf   hawmif;qk   djcif;ES  hif tjcm;tusKd;aus;Zl; cHpm;cG  hifrsm;/ w&m;0ifuek u f spm;&dwf (Legal Intrest)tygt0if wk   d @E  hiS yf wfoufaeaom rnfonf   hupd u P   dkrqk   dTtcef;wGiyf g  d&Sonf   hted  hrq f  k;H tvkyo f rm; twGuf owfrw S cf surf sm;ES  hif ywfoufjyD; tvkyo f rm;uk   d  ay;&ef   d&Sor#w  d @k twGuf rnfonf   hpw d 0f ifpm;Ioufq  dik faomolxrH &S   d&Saomwk  diw f ef;csut f ay:rqk   dtvkyo f rm; 0ef}uD; (0g) 4if;. tm%mv$  Jtyfjcif;cH&aom 0ef}uD;XmerS rnfonf   h  t&m&S  drsm;rqk   d tusO;f &H k;ppfaq;jcif;eS  hif oif   hawmfaom owday;pmay;jyD;v#i f =um;emjcif;ES  hif qH k;jzwf jcif;wk  d @u  dk jyKvky  dEf ik o f nf   h vky  dfyik cf   hiG t f m%m&S   donf? wk  diw f ef;csuu f   d k pwif rSwfwrf;wif pm&if;oGi;f jyD;onf  [email protected] I &ufaygi;f (30) twGi;f =um;emppfaq;aom t&m&S  donf wk   diw f ef;csuu f   dk qH k;jzwf&rnf  (0g) ajyvnf  ap&ef  ajz&Si;f &rnf? rnfonf   h tvkyf orm;twGufrqk   d jyefvnf&  d&Sonf   h aiGrnfr#yifjzpfap/ tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;. trde @f t& txl;aiGpm&if;wGif xnf   hoGi;f xm;jyD;rS oufq  dik &f m tvkyo f rm;vufo  d @k wk   du  d&f kuf ay;&rnf? vH k @v 0D&d,  dpkufI oif   hawmfaom }udK;yrf;tm;xkwrf j_ zif   h &SmazGaomfvnf;/ ta=umif;a=umif;a=umif   h &SmazGr&aoma=umif   h tqk   dygtvkyo f rm; ray;Ek   di  hcf aJ om

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -48

4if;aiGtm;/ uav;rsm; (0g) rd§b wOD;OD; (0g) ud k,fpm;vS, f (0g) yk'rf - 64 (c) wGif &Si;f vif;wifjyxm;onf  h vkyfx kH;vkyef nf;twk   di;f vkyaf qmifay;&rnf? T “Oya'”atmifwiG  f &oih  fonf   h  awmif;qk   djcif;uk   d 0ef}uD;onf rnfonf   hta=umif; a=umif   hrqk   d  Oya't& ay;&ef  d&Saom aiGyrm%ES  hif xk   dvuf  d&Stajctae ukeo f , G fa&; ayguaf ps;t&xuf  (--µ) jrif   haom twk  d;aiGu kdyg aygi;f jyD; 4if;xufenf;I ay;&ef ajz&Si;f ay;jcif; rjyK&? pDrt H yk cf sKyfa&;. aqmif&u G cf suu f   dk  jyefvnfo kH;oyf&ef[lI cG  hijf yKxm;onf   h  ta=umif; jycsujf zif   h/ Tpnf;urf;csuaf tmufrS rnfonf   hq k;H jzwfcsuf  (0g) ajyvnfap&ef/ ajz&Si;f csuu f   drk qk   d  toem;cH  (t,lc)H wifoGi;f   dEkio f nf? ok   d @aomf xk   do  d @k toem;cHjcif;onf ay;qyf&rnf[laom trde @f u kd qk   di;f   hiHrxm;ap&? yk'rf (74) jypf'%ftjzpf tvky  dcf ik ;f I ta=uG;qyfapjcif;ES  hi f csKyfcs,x f m;jcif;? rnfonf   htvkyo f rm;uk  drqk   d tjypf'%ftjzpf vkyt f m;jzif   h ta=uG;qyfap&efapck   di;f enf; tm;vH k;wk  d @onf  T Oya'jzif   h  w&m;r0ifa=umif;a=ujimonf ? T yk'rf atmufwGif rnfonf   hta=umif;a=umif   hrqk   d umrvkyo f m;rsm;ud k tvkyo f rm;rsm;tjzpf owfrw S f &rnf? tjypf'%fay;qyf&eftvkyaf pck   dif;jcif;/ tvkyo f rm;rsm;uk   d ppfwyfxo J   d @k r0ifrae &[k trde @f ay;xkwjf yefjcif; acsmqG   Jjcif;/ (ay:wmqG   Jjcif;)ESi fh tvkyo f rm;rsm;uk   d wm;jrpf [ef @wm;&efzt d m;oH k;jcif;/ t"rRjyKrljcif;/ jcdr;f ajcmufjcif;ES  hi f rw&m;jyKrljcif; (0g) tvkyf orm;wk  d @tm; o,f,  dyl  @k aqmifay;olwpH kwOD;. vGwv f yfpmG oGm;vmv_y&f mS ;r_u  dk  jzwf awmufjcif;tm;vH k;wk   d @onf yk'rf (--)tjypf'%fcx H   dkuaf om &mZ0wfr}_ uD;yifjzpfonf? tu,fI TOya'wGi f wm;jrpfxm;onf  hvyk af qmifcsuw f ckonf txufyg yk'rf (--) wGiaf zmfjyxm;onf   htwk   di;f /tusKd;wlvkyif ef;pk(0g)twk   di;f }uD;rm;aomvkyif ef;wcktay: tajccHIjyKvkyaf qmif&u G   hfcaJ omf  jypfru _ sL;vGeo f t l m; axmif'%fwouftxd  tjypf ay;Ek   dijf cif;ES  hix f   dkol.ypPn;f OpPmrsm; &yk   dicf   hiG  f tm;vH k;wk   d @u k d tpk   d;&rS odr;f ,l&rnf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -49

yk'rf (75) pmcsKyf csKyfq  d  dyk ik o f nf  h tcG  hit f a&; vlw  dik ;f wGif tvkyEf   hiS yf wfoufI rdrt d vky&f Sirf S vufrw S af &;xk   d;xm;aom oabmwl pmcsKyf  csKyfq  d  dyk ik fciG fh   d&S&rnf? xk   doabmwl  pmcsKyfxJwiG f tvkyt f ud ki. f pnf;urf;csuf rsm;/ tajctaersm;/ vkycf rsm;/ vkycf &rnf   h umvtyk   dit f jcm;/ tvkycf sed /f wm0efrsm;/ tusK;d cHpm;cG  hirf sm; ay;aqmif&rnf   h aiGE  hiS f vkycf xJr S jzwfawmufjcif;rsm;onfvnf; yg0if&rnf? 4if;oabmwlpmcsKyfu  dk tvkyv f yk &f onf  h wk   di;f jynf.   dEkiif aH wmfo k;H bmompum;jzif   h  a&;om;&rnf? TpmcsKyfu  dk tvkyform;tm; tvkypf wif0if a&mufonf   h  [email protected]  f (0g) awmif;qk   daom tcgwGi f ay;tyf&rnf? tu,fI xk   dtvkyu f  kdio f nf pkaygi;f !S  d  _Eid ;f oabmwlncD su. f xdr;f csKyfra_ tmufwGi f jzpfaeygu oabmwlpmcsKyfu  dk tvkyv f yk &f onf  h wk   di;f jynf.   dEkiif o H  kH;bmompum;jzif   h  a&;om; xm;jyD; tvkypf wif0ifa&mufonf   h  [email protected]  f (0g) awmif;qk   daom tcgwGi f ay;tyf &rnf? yk'rf (76) trde @f tm%mjzif   h jyXmef;xm;aom tcsufyg pmyk'rf sm;? pmcsKyfw  dik ;f wGi f txufygtcsurf sm;tjyif atmufyg tcsuw f   d @k u  dkvnf; xnf  hoiG ;f xm; &rnf? (u) oif   hawmfaom owday;pmray;yJ tvkyjf zKwfjcif; udprP w S yg; tvkyjf zKwfypfjcif; ES  hif ywfoufI xnf  hoGi;f &rnf  htcsurf sm;rSm w&m;&H k;wGi f =um;emppfaq;cH  dyik fciG Efh   hiS f w&m;Oya'ES  hit f nD  jzpfapjcif;jzpfonf? tvky&f Si  dyf ik q f   dkiaf om ypPnf;tm;   dck;,ljcif;/ tjypf'%fp&D ifc&H jcif;a=umif   h tvkyrf  S ysuu f Gujf cif; ESp}f udrw f   dik w f   dkif owday;jyD; aemufwiG  f w&m;0ifjzpfaom tvky. f pnf;urf;uk   d qufvufcsK;d azmufjcif;/ T “Oya'” yg tcsuw f   d @k u   d k csK;d azmufjcif; oH k;}udro f  k;H cgajrmufatmif owday;jyD;ygvsuf tvkyw f m0efu  d k a=uyGepf mG xrf;aqmif&ef  rjzpf  dEik af wmhaom tjcm; }uD;av;onf  h jypfru _ sL;vGejf cif;rsm;onf  w&m;Oya'ES  hit f nD  jyKvkyo f nf   h  w&m;aom ta=umif;wGif

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -50

yg0ifonf? tvky&f Sit f aejzif   h tvkyo f rm;/ tvky&f iS  f aumfrwD (0g) pkaygi;f nS   d  _Eid ;f jcif; vky  d&f k;vkypf Of wk   d @u kd aphpyfaocsmpGm   Hpkprf;ppfaq;jcif;rsm;tm; rjyK rvkyrf jcif; tvkyjf zKwfypfjcif;rjyKvky&f ? (c) atmufyg yk'rf -----ES  hiftnD pD;yGm;a&;tajctaea=umih   f tvky, f m,D &yfq  dik ;f xm;jcif; udpu P   d k pnf;rsO;f t& xde;f csKyfjcif; jyKvky&f ef qk   donf   htcsuu f  k d xnh   foGi;f &ef? (*) vkyo f uf  (1) vwGif (1.5) &ufpm vkycf tjynf   hay;I (vkyo f uft&) pkaygi;f jyD; vkycf aiG (6) vpm txdu  dk ay;&ef? (C) tvkyrf x S Gu&f I avsmfa=u;aiG&oih  faiG pkpak ygi;f (6) v vkyo f uf  d&Sw  dik ;f (7) &ufpm vkycf aiGu  dk  (1) ESppf mtwGu f avsmfa=u;ay;&ef xnf   hoiG ;f &rnf? tu,fI &mZ0wfr _ usL;vGeI f jypf'%fo  fihaoma=umif   h tvkyv f yk cf iG fh &yfq  dik ;f apcJ   h&vS sif avsmaf =u;aiG ay;&efrvd kay? (i) Tyk'rf wGiyf g  d&Sonf   h trde @f tm%mjzif   h  jyXmef;xm;aom tcsufwcsufpw D   d @k onf w&m;Oya't& vd ktyfonf   h ted  hrq f   H;k owfrw S cf surf sm;. wpdwfwa'ojzpfonf? tvky&f Sit f aejzih   f  Ttcsufw k @d u kd  Oya't& vk   dufemtyfaom 0wW&m;rsm;[k ,lqI tvkyo f rm;ES  hi f oabmwlw&m;0if  pmcsKyfjyKvkyx f m;jcif;r&S   d  hcaJ omf vk   duef mus  hio f   H;k & rnf   h tcsufrsm;jzpfonf? yk'rf (77) tvky&f Sio f nf yk'rf (75-76) ygtwk   di;f pmcsKyf  csKyfq  dk&ef  (0g) pmcsKyfay;tyf&ef ysuu f u G   hcf aJ omf T “ Oya' ” wGi f zG  fiq h   dak &;om;xm;onf  h udpt P &yf&yfw k @d tay:wGif Oya'tjzpf wnf  d&  dSEik af om pmcsKyfr sd K;ESit fh vkyXf mersm;wGif tvkyo f rm;rsm;tay: tcG  hit f a&;omaprnf   h  jyKvkyef nf;rsm;yg0ifonf   h  pmcsKyfrsK;d   d&Sonf[I l t"dy g` ,f oufa&mufap&rnf? tvkyt f ud kiEf   hiS  f ygwo f ufI tvky&f iS rf  S csKyfq  dak &;om;xm;onf   h pmcsKyftwd ki;f aqmif&Gu&f ef  (0g) pmcsKyf  ay;tyf&ef  ysufuGujf cif;a=umif   h tr_udpP wpk   HwckwiG f oHo,yGm;rsm;jcif;  d&SvmvS sif tvkyo f rm;bufo k @d tcG  hit f a&;tompD; &ap&ef ajz&Si;f ajyvnfap&rnf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

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yk'rf (78) txufazmfjyyg tvkyo f rm;rsm;twGuf owfrw S fcsufrsm; (0g) tumtuG,af y;xm; csurf sm;xJrS rnfonf   htcsuu f  krd qk   d vGwu f if;oGm;ap&ef  (0g) avsmyh g;oGm;ap&ef &nf&, G fjyKvkyaf om rnfonf   hoabmwlnDcsufu kdrS todtrSwfrjyKvky&f ? tvkyf orm;wk  d @twGuf yd k  drt k a&;om&aprnf   h  oabmwlnDcsufrsm; (0g) vkyu f  kid jf cif;rsm; wpk   Hw&m avS smyh g;oGm;ap&ef xk   dowfrw S fcsufrsm; (0g) tumuG,fay;xm;csurf sm; tay: trS   DrjyK&?

tcef; (5) trd sK;orD;/ uav;ES uav;ES  hif txl;twef;tpm;0if tvkyo f rm;wk  d @E  hSif oufq  dkifaom vk   dtyfcsurf sm;ES ;ES  hif tumtuG,f ay;xm;jcif;rsm;/ Chapter (5) REQUIREMENTS AND PROTECTIONS RELATED TO GENDER, CHILDHOOD AND SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF WORKERS. A. Gender

trd sK;orD;rsm; yk'rf (79) Facilities for women trd sK;orD;wk  d @twGuf vd ktyfcsufrsm; tvkyo f rm;0ef=uD;onf trd sL;orD;tvkyo f rm;rsm;twGu f use;f rma&;ES  fih vk   HjcHKr_ tjynf  ht0&&S   dap&ef owfrw S cf surf sm;ud k  xm;&S  day;&rnf? rnfo   d @k q kad p 0ef=uD;onf oih   favsmaf om pnf;rsO;f rsm;uk   d csrw S af y;jyD; tvky&f Sirf sm;uk   d vk   duef map&rnf? (u) trd sK;orD;rsm;twGuf oih   fawmfaom xk   di  Hcf rk sm;uk   d  xm;&S  day;&efE  fiS h tvkycf sdef twGi;f 4if;wk  d @u k d xd kicf   hiG jf yK&ef?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

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(c) trsKd ;om;§trd sL;orD; oD;oef @a&tdro f mrsm;/ ud k,v f ufoef @pifcef;rsm;ud k  xm;&S  d ay;&efE  fiS h trd sK;orD;wd k @twGu f t0wftpm;vJv, S cf ef; (tenf;qk   H;) wcef;ay;xm; &ef? (*) tjynfjynfq  dik &f mrS todtrSwjf yKxm;aom tqif  htwef;rD  cav;xde;f cef; ae&m ud k tvkyXf mexJwiG  f (0g) teD;tyg;wGif xk   dXmeY tvkyv f kyaf om trd sK;orD;rsm;. tusdK;iSm xm;&S  dap&ef? yk'rf (80) Maternity leave benefits rD;zGm;cG  hi f cHpm;Ek   dif&ef (u) tvky&f Siw f   dki;f onf vGe  hcf o J nf   h  (12) vtwGi;f tenf;qk   H; (6)v tvkyv f kyf   hcJaom ud k,f0efaqmif trd sK;orD; tvkyo f rm;rsm;tm; rD;rzGm;rD &ufowWywf  (2) ygwEf   hiS f   HykreS f rD;zGm;jyD;aemuf  (0g) om;ysujf yD;aemuf &ufowWygw f (4) ygwt f wGuf   HykreS f rD;zGm;jyD;aemuf  (0g) om;ysujf yD;aemuf &yfowWygw f (4) ygwftwGuf   HykreS  f (0g) tygwpf Of  ysr;f rS s vkycf aiG  tjynf  hjzih   f rD;zGm;cG  hiaf y;&rnf? rD;zGm;cG  hi f awmif;vmol trsK;d orD;xHr S (2) ygwt f wGi;f rD;zGm;vd  hrrf nfq ko d nf   h aq;vufrw S f/ q&m0ef. axmufcpH muk   d wifjy&ef tvky&f Siu f awmif;qk   d  dEik o f nf? (c) rD;zGm;cG  firh w S   dk;I wqufwnf; ud k,f0efaqmif&I/ rD;zGm;&I/ om;ysufI (ok   d @r[kwf) ud k,0f efysuI f vkyif ef;cGio f   d @k 0if&ef  roih   fawmfao;a=umif; aq;vufrw S f axmufcpH m wifjyI vpmrJ   hjzif   h cG  fiq h ufvuf ,l  dEik &f rnf? olrwGif cG  hifr,lbJ pkaqmif;xm;onf  h vkyo f ufc  fiG &h ufrsm;r&S   d  hcv J  sS if xk   d cG  hiq f ufvuf&onf  htwGuf vkycf aiGu kd awmif;cH  dEkirf nf r[kwaf y? (*) T “Oya'” pwiftwnf  fjzpfonf   h  aemuf  dyik ;f rSpwifI Tyk'rf (-) t& rD;zGm;cG  hiaf y;jcif;wGif tvky&f Sifonf trd sK;orD; tvkyo f rm;. yxr av;=udrf rD;zGm; cG  fiah y;jcif;twGufom vkycf ay;&rnf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

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yk'rf (81) Wage Discrimination prohibited tvky  Jcf jG cm;owfrw S jf cif;ud k wm;jrpfyw d yf ifjcif; tusdK;wefz k;d wlnDaom tvkyt f wGuf trd sK;orD;tvkyo f rm;wd k @u kd trd sK;om;tvkyf orm;wk  d @E  hiS f ,SOjf ydKifI vkycf ES  hiv f yk cf wGi f t=uHK;0ifonf  h  vpm/ tusKd ;cHpm;cG  hirf sm; (ok   d @r[kwf) tjcm;vkyt f m;c/ qkvmbf  tygt0ifw  d @k u kd  ay;&mwGif   dyk  drkenf;yg;onf   h vkycf ay;jcif;ud k wm;jrpfyw d yf if&rnf? yk'rf (82) Stipulation against marriage tdraf xmifjyKjcif;ud k qef @usio f nf   h pnf;urf;owfrw S fjcif; tvkyt f ud ki&f   d&S&ef (od k @r[kwf) tvkyq f ufvufvyk u f   d  fik cf   fGih&  d&S&ef tvk   d @imS trd sK;orD; tvkyo f rm;onf tdraf xmifrjyK&[lI vd ktyfaom tajcw&yftjzpf  awmif;qk   dv sS if (ok   d @r[kwf) tdraf xmifjyKjyD;vS sif tqk   dyg trd sK;orD;tvkyo f rm;onf tvkyrf t S vk   d tavsmufEw _ x f u G jf yD;jzpfonf(ok   d @r[kw)f   JcGcmG om;jyD;jzpfonf   htaejzih   f ,lqowfrw S f &rnf[k xif&Sm;odompGm pnf;urf;xkwjf cif; (ok   d @r[kw)f zG  firh ajymbJ od  d&S  em;vnf apjcif; (ok  d @r[kw)f trSew f u,f tvkyjf zKwfjcif;/ tvkyf xkwjf cif;/   JcGcjGJ cm;jcm; owfrw S jf cif;/ (ok   d @r[kw)f wenf;tm;jzih   f trd sK;orD;tvkyo f rm;tm; tdraf xmifjyK onf   h  ta=umif;oufoufa=umif   h  (tmCmwxm;jyD;) epfem apjcif;wk   d @u kd tvky&f Sirf S jyKvk kyv f  sS i f w&m;r0ifay? yk'rf (83) Prohibited Acts. wm;jrpfyw d fyifxm;onf  h tufOya'rsm;? (u) rnfonf   h tvky&f Sit f wGurf qk   d w&m;r0ifjzpfapjcif;rSm(1) T “Oya'” yg tusdK;aus;Zl;cHpm;cG  fiw h  k @d u kd tvkyo f rm;tm; ray;bJ  jiif;qk   djcif; (ok   d @r[kwf) tvkyrf S xkwfypfjcif;/ T “Oya'” yg tusdK;aus;Zl;cHpm;cG  fiw h   d @k u kd trd sK;orD; tvkyo f rm;taejzih   f cHpm;cG  fi h r&Ek   diaf p&ef  ta&;ygaom tmCmwxm;   d&Sjcif;/ (2) trd sK;orD;wOD;tm; ud k,f0efaqmifaoma=umif   h vnf;aumif; (ok   d @r[kwf) rD;zGm;cG  hif oGm;aecsed w f iG  f 4if; tvkyrf  S xkwyf pfjcif;/

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

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(3) rD;zGm;cG  hirf S tvkyjf yef0ifvmolu kd  aemufw=udrf ud k,f0efaqmifrnfu kd pd k;&dro f jzif   h tvkyjf yef0ifc  hiG  f ray;jcif; (ok  d @r[kw)f tvkyrf  S xkwyf pfjcif;/ yk'rf (84) Classification of certain workers [email protected] tvkyo f rm;rsm;tm; trd sK;tpm;owfrw S fjcif;? rnfonf   h  nuvyf/ tES   dycf ef;/ t&ufq  dik f (ok   d @r[kw)f tvm;wl vkyif ef;XmewGirf qk   d tvky&f Siw f OD;. xda&mufaom tkyx f ed ;f r_ (ok  d @r[kw)f =uD;=uyfuyG u f rJ a_ tmufY tvkyo f rm;0ef=uD;rS owfrw S af y;xm;onf   h  tcsdeu f mvtwGi;f vkycf &onf  jzpfap§ r&onfjzpfap (tvkyv f kycf   fiG &h aom rnfonf   h tvkyo f rm;ud krqk   d) tm;vk  H;aom tvkyo f rm;ES  fih vlra_ &;qk   di&f m w&m;Oya' jyXmef;jcif; ta=umif;a=umif   h xk   dvyk if ef; Xme. tvkyo f rm;wOD;taejzif rSwf,&l rnf? B. Employment of Minors

w&m;r0if t&G,rf a&mufao;olrsm;ud k tvkycf ef @tyfjcif;? yk'rf (85) Minimum employable age. tvkycf ef @xm;Ek   dio f nf   h ted  hrfq  H;k touf? (u) touf (16) ESp f rjynf   hao;aom rnfonf   huav;ud k rqk  d 4if;. rdb (od k @r[kw)f tkyx f de;f ol. wk   du  df&kuw f m0ef,al om tvkyEf   hiS f ol.tvkyo f nf  ausmif;pmoif=um; jcif;uk  d rnfonf   henf;ES  firh  S taESm  hift,Su f rjzpfapaom tvkyrf  S wyg; tjcm;rnfonf   h ae&mwGirf  S tvkyrf cef @ap&? (c) tvkyo f rm;0ef=uD;Xme.oih   fawmfqaD vsmaf ompnf;rsOf;rsm;atmufwiG f owfrw S f ay;onf   [email protected]@. tyd ki;f tjcm;umvES  hif tvkycf sed ef m&Daygi;f (tuef @ towf)jzih   f omvS si f touf (16)ESp f ES  hi f (18) ESp=f um;   d&S rnforl qk   d tvkyv f yk  f   dEkio f nf? (*) tvkyo f rm;twGi;f 0efrSaeI vkyif ef;wm0efwckonf  oabmobm0tm;jzif   h tEW&m,f  d&Sonf (ok   d @r[kw)f ab;jzpfapwwfonf[k owfrw S   hcf aJ omf  txufwiG f xnf   hoiG ;f xm;onf  h owfrw S fcsurf sm;onf rnfonf   h  ta=umif;a=umif   hr S touf(18) ESpaf tmuf  d&Sou l  kd xd ktvkycf ef @&ef cG  hirf jyK&?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

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yk'rf (86) Prohibition against child discrimination uav;oli,fjzpfI   JcGjcm;jcif; rvky&f ef wm;jrpfyw d yf ifjcif;? rnfonf   h  uav;vli,ftay:wGirf qd k 4if;. touft&G,af =umif   h tvkyt f uk   diEf iS fh ywfoufjyD; pnf;urf;csurf sm;ES  fi h tajctaersm;ud k rnfonf   htvky&f Siu f rS   JcGjcm;jcif; rjyKvky&f ? C. Employment of House helpers

tdrrf u _ dpu P n l Daqmif&u G o f lrsm;tm; tvkycf ef @xm;jcif;? yk'rf (87) Coverage t=uHK;yg0ifjcif;? Ttyd ki;f onf tdraf xmifprk sm;wGif vkycf a=u;aiG,I l tvkyv f kyaf y;=uoltm;vk  H;ES  hif oufq  dik o f nf? “tdrrf u _ dpP (ok   d @r[kwf) tdraf xmifpu k pd EP   fiS o h ufq  dik af om vkyif ef;” qk   donfrmS tvky&f Si. f rdom;pktrd w f iG f vkyu f   dkiaf y;&aom vkyif ef;/ tvky&f Si. f tdraf xmifp0k ifoltm;vk  H; oufoufomom&S  dapr_/ tqifajyapr_w  d @k twGuf ulnD vkyu f   dkiaf y;&aom vkyif ef;rsm;ES  hif rdom;pktwGu f ,mOfarmif;ay;&onf  h vkyif ef;tyg t0if wk   d @jzpfonf? T “Oya'” . taxGaxGpnf;urf;csurf sm;ud k avS smyh g;ap&ef (od k @r[kwf) uef @owfap&ef[I l Ttyd ki;f ud k t"dy g` ,fraumuf,lap&? yk'rf (88) Contract of "Domestic service" “tdrrf u _ dpEP   fiS q h   dik af om vkyif ef; ” . oabmwlpmcsKyf? “tdrrf u _ dpEP   fiS q h   dik af om vkyif ef;”. rlvoabmwlpmcsKyfonf (2) ESp f umvxufy kI d r=umjrif   hap&? od k @aomf ESpOf ;D ESpzf uf  oabmwlonf   h  umvwk  diaf tmif  pmcsKyfu kd qufvufI tcsdew f   d;k jrS  hi  dEf kio f nf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

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yk'rf (89) Minimum wage. ted  hrq f  k;H vkycf tdrrf u _ dpu P n l Daqmif&u G &f olrsm;tm; tenf;qH k;(����) rS owfrw S fxm; aom ted  hrq f  k;H vkycf E_e;f xm;twd ki;f &&S  dap&rnf// yk'rf (90) Minimum cash wage. ted  hrq f  k;H vkycf aiG tdrrf u _ dpu P n l Daqmif&u G &f olrsm;tm; ae&mxd kicf if;/ tpm;taomufE  hiS f aq;0g;ukoay;jcif;wd k @u kd pDpOfaqmif&Guaf y;&onf  htjyif T“Oya'yk'rf ” wGif jyXmef;xm; aom ted  hrq f  k;H vyfcE_e;f xm;twd ki;f &ap&rnf// yk'rf (91) Assignment to non-household work. tdrrf u _ pd v P kyif ef;r[kwfaom tvkyw f m0efay;jcif;// T“Oya'yk'rf ” wGi f jyXmef;xm;aom pd kufysK;d a&;qd kuf&m (od k @) pd kufysK;d a&;ES  hif rqd kiaf om tvkyo f rm;rsm;twGuf  vpm (ok   d @) vkycf xufenf;I rnfonf   hupd P ulnD aqmif&u G af y;r_u krd  S a&mif;0,fa&;/ pufrv _ ufr(_ od k @) pd kuyf sKd ;a&;ES  hif qd kiaf om vkyif ef; rsm;wGi f wm0efay;I rvkyaf p&// yk'rf (92) Opportunity for elementary education . rlvwef;ynm oif=um;cG  hiaf y;jcif;// tu,fI tdrrf u _ dpaP qmif&u G af y;olonf  touf(18)ESpx f ufi,faeaomf tvky&f Sio f nf ol @tm; tenf;qH k;rlvwef;ynmud k oif=um;cG  hiaf y;&rnf// ynmoif ukeu f sp&dwfrmS vkycf wpfpw d f wpfa'o jzpfap&rnf//

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -57

yk'rf (93) Board, lodging and mediacal attendance . pm;a&;/ aexd kiaf &;ES  hi f aq;ukoay;jcif;// tvky&f Sio f nf tdrrf u _ dpu P n l Day;oltwGu f oef @&Si;f oif  hawmfaom ae&mxd kif cif; vH kavmufaom tpm;tpmES  hi f aq;ukoay;jcif;wd k @u k d tcrJ   hjyKvkyaf y;&rnf// yk'rf (94) Indemnity for unjust termination of services . rw&m;ojzif  h tvkyrf S&yfq kid ;f jcif;twGuf avsmfa=u;aiG// tdrrf u _ dpu P n l Dvyk af y;oltwGuf iS g;&rf;pOfuyif  pmcsKyfxYJ iS g;&rf;onf  h  tcsdef umv owfrw S x f m;cJ   haomf tvky&f SiEf   hiS f tvkyo f rm; ESpOf ;D ESpzf ufpvH k; xd kumv rukeq f  k;H rD  oabmwlpmcsKyfu kad zgufzsuI f tvkyu f   d kf&yfq kid ;f &ef txufaz:jyyg (yk'rf --) yg rSeu f efjyD; w&m;aomta=umif;a=umif   hrv S   JI G rjyKvkyEf  kid af y// tdrrf u _ dpP vkyaf y; olonf  rw&m;pGm ajymqd kjyKr_c&H aomf ol @tm; av#mfa=u;tjzpf  &oif  honf   h aiGtjyif &ufaygi;f (30)twGu f vkycf ud kyg ay;av#m&f rnf// yk'rf (95) Service of termination notice . tvky&f yfq kid ;f &ef =udKIowday;jcif;// tu,fI tdrrf u _ dpt P ulvkyif ef;rwGu f oabmwlpmcsKyfcsKyfq kjd cif;ESifh vkyif ef;. obm0taetxm;a=umif   h  tcsdeu f mvuef @owfxm;jcif;r&S   d  hcaJ omf tvky&f yfem;&ef &nf&, G fxm;onf  h &uftvd k(5)&ufrS =udKwifI tvky&f Siaf omfvnf;aumif;/ tvkyf orm;aomfvnf;aumif; owday;(Ed k @wpf) ay;xm;Ed kio f nf// yk'rf (96) Employment certification. tvkyt f ud kiyf wfoufI taxmuftxm;vufrw S fay;jcif;// tdrrf u _ dpt P ulvkyif ef;wm0efjyD;jywfomG ;aomtcsed w f iG f tvky&f Sio f nf ‚if; tvkyo f rm;twGu f vky  hcf o J nf   htvky. f oabmobm0vky  hcf o J nf   h tcsdeu f mvES  hif

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -58

‚if;.vky&f nfu kid &f nf  ponf   hta=umif;rsm;yg0ifonf   h  taxmuftxm; vufrw S af &; ay;&rnf// yk'rf (97) Employment records . tvkyt f ud kirf w S fwrf;// tvky&f Sio f nf rdrt d rd rf u _ dpPtvkyo f rm;ud k iS g;&rf;&mY owfrw S cf sufrsm;ES  hif tajctaet&yf&yfu  dk  az:jy&efv kt d yfaom rSwfwrf;rsm;uf   d kxm;&S   d&rnf// tvky&f Si. f awmif;qd kcsut f & tvkyo f rm;zufrv S nf; tcsuftvufrsm;rSeu f efa=umif; vufrw S f a&;xd k;ay;jcif; (ok  d @) vufryH kp  dHEyS af y;jcif;jyK&rnf// D. Homeworks

tdrfwiG f;tvkyform;rsm;// yk'rf (98) tdrw f pftrd Yf ykwfjywftvk kyv f yk af y;olrsm;(od k @) tdrw f pftrd Yf tusdK;oufa&mufr_   d&Saom vkyif ef;wpfcpk u D  k d tca=u;aiG,I l vkyaf y;olrsm;tm; ta=umif;a=umif;ud k &nf&, G fI ykwjf ywfaiGxkwaf y;ol (od k @) vkyif ef;wpfcpk u D  kd zefw;D ay;ol. tvkyo f rm; rsm;tjzpf  T“Oya'yk'rf ”atmufwiG o f wfrw S f&rnf// tdrw f iG ;f tvkyo f rm;rsm; =uHKawG @& onf  h xl;jcm;aomtajctaersm;uf   d k xde;f csKyfay;&ef tvkyo f rm;0ef=uD;onf pnf;urf; csufrsm;ud k  w&m;0ifxkwjf yefa=ujimay;&ef  taumiftxnfaz:jcif;rsm; jyKvky&f rnf// tdrw f Gi;f tvkyo f rm;rsm;ud k tvkyaf pcd ki;f apaomtvky&f Sirf sm;tm;vnf; T“Oya'yk'rf ” twd ki;f vd kufema=umif;odomap&ef xif&Sm;vH kavmufaom rSww f rf; rsm; xm;&S  dap &rnf//

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -59

tcef;(6) or*~  Jz @G pnf;jcif;ES  hi f pkaygi;f aphpyfn  S  ddEi_ ;f jcif;// Chapter-6 UNION FORMATION AND COLLECTVE BARGALING A. Policy

rl0g' yk'rf (99) Declaration of Policy

yk'rf – rl0g'a=ujimjcif;? ? zuf'&,fjynfaxmufp. k rl0g' (taejzif   h) onf (u) pkaygi;f aphpyfn  d  _SEid ;f onf   h  tavhtus  hirf sm; &Sio f ef  Hz @G jzdK;vmapa&;twGu f w&m; Oya'abmif  Jz @G pnf;ay;&ef// (c) 'D  dr ku f a&pDa&;/ vlra_ &;/ w&m;r#wjyD; wnfjidraf om pD;yGm;a&;wd k;wufrw _  k @d twGuf t"du aomhcsuftjzpf 'Dr ku d a&pDpepfu  h sio f  k;H aom tvkyo f rm;or*~0g'uf   d k jrS  hiw f if tm;ay;&ef// (*) tvkyo f rm;rsm;ES  hif tvky&f Sirf sm;t=um;wGif wef;wlnDr#u k, d fpm;jyKI tvkyf tuk   diEf   hiS f ywfoufaom tjiif;tckerf sm;ud k oif   hav#mfaom ajz&Si;f jcif;taejzif   hpak ygif; aphpyf!  d  _ES id ;f jcif;ud k wnfaxmifay;&ef? (C) tvkyo f rm;rsm;ES  hif pDrt H yk cf sKyfolrsm;=um;wGi f owif;ES  hirf eS u f efpmG   DES;aESm t=uHjyKjcif;wd k @u kd tjyeftvSefjyKvkyEf  kid &f eftwGu f aqmif&Guaf y;&ef// (i) tvkyo f rm;rsm;ES  hif rdom;pkrsm;. tusdK;oufa&mufaprnf   h qH k;jzwfcsucf srw S f &mwGi f tvkyo f rm;rsm;uk   d,w f  kid  f rvG   JraoG yg0ifvmap&ef// B. Definitions

t"dy g` ,fz  hiG q f  kcd surf sm;// yk'rf (100) B. Definitions

yk'rf – t"dy g` ,fz  hiG q f   d kcf surf sm;// “tvkyo f rm;” [laoma0:[m&ud k  txufwiG yf g  d&Saom yk'rf (--)twd ki;f zG  hiq f  k&d rnf// od k @aomfT“Oya'yk'rf ”rSwu d spmG az:jyrxm;v#iftvky&f Siw f pfO;D . tvkyo f rm;rsm;

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -60

ud kom uef @owfxm;onfr[kw f rsufarSmufumvtvkyo f rm;rsm; jiif;ckerf E_   hSif ywfoufI ‚if;(0g)w&m;r#wr_r  d&Saom vkyaf qmifrr_ sm;twGufa=umif   h  (0g) T“Oya' yk'rf ” ud kcsKd ;azguf onf   htwGufa=umif   h‚if;/ tvkyrf &S yfq kid ;f vd kuo f nf   h tvkyo f rm; rsm;vnf; yg0ifonf// “tvkyo f rm;tpnf;t±H k;” qd konfrmS wpfpw d fwpfa'ojzpfap wpf  Jz @G pnf;vH k;jzpfap tvkyo f rm;rsm;yl;aygi;f jcif;(od k @)tvkyo f rm;or*~jzpfItvkyt f ud kiEf   hiS yf wfoufaom tajctaersm;/tcsut f vufrsm;ud ktvky&f iS Ef   hiS fpak ygi;f nS   d  _Edi;f &eftwGu&f nf&, G fonf// “rSwyf  kw H ifxm;aom tvkyo f rm;tpnf;t±H k;” qd konfrmS tvkyo f rm;0ef=uD; Xme wGif rSwfy kw H ifxm;aom rnfonf   htvkyo f rm;tpnf;t±H k;ud krqd k ‚if;.e,fajrcG   J/ Xme   JcGw k @d tygt0if tm;vH k;ud kq kv d  kdonf// “ukr% ` Dor*~”qd konfrmS tvkyo f rm;ES  hiyf wfoufI rw&m;pGmjyKus  hijf cif;(od k @) T“Oya'yk'rf ”yg rnfonf   hOya'ud krqd k csKd ;azgujf cif;jzpfonf[ k az:jyaom Oya' wpfp krH  S axmufcx H m;onf  h tvkyo f rm;tpnf;t±H k;ES  hif ‚if;.zG   J @pnf;jcif; vkyaf qmif jcif;ES  hi f pDr H cef @  JcjG cif;wd k @yg0ifonf// “tvkyo f rm;jiif;ckerf y_ ÉdyuQ” - wGif tvkyt f ud kit f ajctaeES  hi f tcsuftvufrsm; ay:wGi f jiif;ckejf cif;/ toif;  JzG @&mwGi f jiif;ckejf cif;” jiif;ckejf cif;rsm;onf tvky&f Sif (od k @) tvkyo f rm;ES  hif rnfo k @d yif eD;pyfapumrl tvkyt f ud kit f ajctaeES  hi f tcsuftvuf rsm;ud k pDpOf&ef/ ajymif;vnf;&ef/ ud kun f Day;&ef/ xde;f odr;f &ef/ aphpyfn  S  f   _dEid ;f &eftwGuf ud k,pf m;vS,af &G;cs,&f mwGi f jiif   f;ckefjcif;rsm;vnf;yg0ifonf// “refae*sm od k @r[kwf tkycf sKyfa&;qd ki&f mtvkyo f rm;”-onf tkycf sKyfa&;yd ki;f qd ki&f m ay:vpDcsrw S &f mwGiEf iS f h jyKpk&mwGiyf g0if&ef  tm%m(0g) txl;vkyyf  kid cf   hGif  ay;tyfjcif; cH&oljzpfjyD; tvkyo f rm;rsm;ud k pnf;urf;csrw S fay;jcif; (0g) tvkyo f wfrw S af y;jcif;/ tvkyrf yS ,fxkwjf cif;/ tvkyjf yefcef @jcif;/ tvkyrf  S acwW,m,D&yfq kid ;f jcif;/ a&$ @ajymif; jcif;/ iSm;&rf;jcif;wd k @u  d kfjyKvkyEf  kid fonf//

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -61

“=uD;=uyfuyG u f aJ &;qd ki&f mtvkyo f rm;” - qd konfrmS tvky&f Si. f tusKd ;iSm pDrH tkycf sKyfa&;qd ki&f m uGyu f Jjcif;jyKvky&f mwGi f orm;±d k;usvyk x f  k;H vkypf Ofr[kwfyJ vGwv f yf pGm qH k;jzwfcsucf s&ef vd ktyfaomtcsed w f Gif xda&mufpmG t=uH^m%fay;oljzpfonf// txufyg &Si;f vif;csucf sufrsm;wGi f ryg0ifaom tvkyo f rm;tm;vH k;ud k  Ttcef;wGif omreftvkyo f rm;tjzpf ,lqowfrw S &f rnf// “cH korm"dt  JzG @0ifvl=uD;” - qd konfrmS w&m;0ifcef @tyfxm;aom rnforl qd k/ tzG   J @tpnf;rsm;rS cH korm"dt  JzG @0ifvl=uD; tjzpfaqmif&u G fE kid f&ef pkaygi;f nS   d  _Eid ;f oabmwl jcif;jzif   h a&G;cs,o f wfrw S fc&H aom rnfolrqd k  (0g) pkaygi;f nS  d  _Eid ;f oabmwlcsufwGif yg0ifaom a&G;cs,rf v _ kyx f  k;H vkypf Oftwd ki;f a&G;cs,jf cif;cH&ol(0g)T“Oya'yk'rf ”wGif cH korm"d tzG   J @0iftjzpf  aqmif&Gu&f ef tvkyo f rm;0ef=uD;rSw&m;0if  tm%mv$   Jtyf xm;aom t&m&S  djzpfonf// “oydwfarSmufjcif;”- qd konfrmS tvkyo f rm;tjiif;yGm;r_a=umif   h tvkyo f rm;rsm;rS wnDwn$wfwnf; ,m,Dtvky&f yfq kid ;f xm;jcif;jzpfonf// “tvkyyf w d fxm;jcif;”- qd konfrmS tvkyo f rm;tjiif;yGm;r_a=umif   h tvky&f Sirf S tvkyf zG  hiaf y;&ef ,m,Djiif;qd kxm;jcif;jzpfonf// “or*~twGi;f tjiif;yGm;r_”wGi f T“Oya'yk'rf ”twGi;f ay;tyfxm;aom or*~0if. tajctaersm;ES  hif tcG  hit f a&;rsm;ud k csKd ;azgujf cif;rsm;yg0ifjyD; tvkyo f rm;or*~. xkwjf yefxm;aom Oya'rsm;ES  hi  Jzf  @G pnf;tkycf sKyfy kHtajccHOya'yg tcsufwpfcsuu f  kd csdK;azgujf cif; (0g) oabmrwljcif;a=umif   h jzpfay:vmaom jiif;ckerf j_ zpfonf// “oydwfzsuo f ”l qd konfrmS pkaygi;f nS   d  _Eid ;f jcif;(0g) uk   d,yf  kid t f   JzG @tpnf;. tcG  hit f a&;ud k us  hio f  k;H jcif;(0g) tvkyt f ud ki. f tajctaersm; tcsuftvufrsm;ES  hiyf wfoufI tvkyo f rm;rsm;. jidr;f csr;f pGmqENjyaecsed u f mvtwGi;f “[ef @wm;jcif; wm;qD;jcif; (0g) 0ifa&mufpu G fzufjcif; zsufjcif;wd k @u kdjyKvkyo f ”l jzpfonf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -62

(-----)aumfrwD - onf rnfonf   hy;l wG   Jtvkyo f rm; pDrcH ef @  JcjG cif;ud krqd k (0g) TOya' wGi f ay;xm;aom usef;rma&;ES  hi f vH kjcHKa&; qd ki&f maumfrwD ud krqd k &nfn$e;f Ed kio f nf? C. National Labour Relations Court

  dEkiif aH wmf tvkyo f rm; (qufqaH &;) w&m;±H k;// yk'rf (101) National Labour Relations Court   dEkiif aH wmf tvkyo f rm; (qufqaH &;) w&m;±H k;// w&m;ol=uD;csKyfwpfO;D ES  hif wG   Jzufw&m;ol=uD;(14) OD;wd k @jzif   hyg0if  Jz @G pnf;xm;aom “Ek   diif aH wmftvkyo f rm; (qufqaH &;) w&m;±H k;wpf± k;H ”   d&S&rnf? tvkyo f rm;or*~rsm;rS  trnfpm&if;wifoiG ;f ol  w&m;ol=uD;(5)OD;ES  hif tvky&f iS rf sm; tzG   J @tpnf;rS  trnfwifoiG ;f ol  w&m;ol=uD; (5) OD;wd k @u kd zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpk orRwrS cef @tyfxm;&rnf? obmywdE  hiS  f usew f &m;ol=uD;(4)OD; wd k @onf  jynfow l  k @d xJr S ynmwwf  uír;f usit f   JzG @xJrS orRw.a&G;cs, f trnfpm&if;wifoiG ;f cH&ol jzpf&rnf? wd ki;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;pkxJr S w&m;ol=uD;(--)OD;yg0if&rnf? tajccH  Jz @G pnf;tkyf csKyfy kt H & w&m;ol=uD;rsm;ud kcef @tyfI twnfjyKap&rnf? &mxl;vufcv H   dkufonf   h tcsderf pS I tvkyo f rm;or*~E  hiS f tvky&f Sit f   JzG @tpnf;rsm;rS  trnfwifoiG ;f jcif; cH& onf   h  w&m;olrsm;onf rdrw d  k @d .or*~tzG @t J pnf;rsm;ES  hif rdryd g0if  hcaJ om toif;tzG  J @ rsm;wd k @wGif pdwf0ifpm;jcif;ES  hif qufoG,jf cif;wd k @rS uif;uGmap&rnf? w&m;±H k;tr_ tenf;trsm;ES  hi f a'otav#muf vkyaf qmif&ef  d&Saom ‚if;. tvkyf 0wW&m;rsm;ud k jynf  h0pGmaqmif&u G fE kid &f ef  w&m;±k   H;onf(--)oabmwlnrD a_ y;&rnf   h pnf;rsO;f rsm;t& tzG   J @0if(3)OD;yg0ifonf  h cH kt  JzG @tpnf;uf   d k   JzG @pnf;aqmif&u G &f rnf? cH kt  JzG @wpf  Jz @G v#if “or*~/ tvky&f SiEf   hiS  f jynfow l  k @d ”.u¾ wpfcpk rD  S w&m;ol=uD;wpfO;D pD yg0if&rnf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -63

yk'rf (102) Jurisdiction of the Labour Court. tvkyo f rm;w&m;±H k;.w&m;pD&ify kid cf   hiG ?f T“Oya'yk'rf ”atmufwiG o f D;jcm;az:jyxm;jcif;r&S   d  hcaJ omEk   diif aH wmftvkyo f rm;qd kif &mw&m;±H k;wGit f vkyo f rm;tm;vH k;ES  hiyf wfoufaomatmufaz:jyygtr_upd w P   d @k u k=d um; emItqH k;tjzwfay;&eftxl;oD;oef @w&m;pD&ify kid cf   hiG   d&f S&rnf?oufq kid &f mtr_q kid af e& =uaomtzG  J @rsm;rStr_u  dfpu P  kq d  k;H jzwfay;&efwifoiG ;f vmjyD;jyuQ'ed &f ufaygi;f (90)&uft wGi;f &ufw kd;ray;bJ vufa&;xd k;rSwfpak &;jcif; r&S   donf   hw kid  f =um;emqH k;jzwf ay;&rnf? 1? ? tvkyo f rm;ay: rw&m;vkyaf qmifjyKus  hio f rl sm;? 2? ? tpkt  JzG @tvk   duf tvky&f yfpjJ cif;qd ki&f mjiif;ckerf r_ sm;? 3? ? oydwaf rSmufjcif;ES  hif tvkyf&iS rf S tvky, f m,Dyw d fv ku d fjcif;wd k @E  hiS f ywfouf aom &yd kicf   hiG af wmif;qd krr_ sm;? 4? ? tvkyo f rm;or*~rsm; yl;wG   Jtvkyo f rm;pDrcH ef @  JcrG a_ umfrwDrsm;(0g) use;f rm a&;ES  hif vH kjcHKr_aumfrwDrsm;zG   J @pnf;jcif;ES  hif vkyif ef;aqmif&Gufjcif;wd k @E  hiS f ywfoufI &yd kif cG  hiaf wmif;qd krr_ sm;? 5? ? pkaygi;f aphpyfn  S  _dEid f;oabmwlnDcsufrsm;ud k t"dy g` ,zf   hiG q f  k&d m(0g) vufawG @ taumiftxnfaz:&mrS  ay:ayguv f maom&yd kicf   hGifrsm; (0g) cH k± k;H tzG  J @. rnfonf   h pD&if qH k;jzwfcsufu kdrqd k  jyefvnfo k;H oyfay;&mrSay:ayguv f maom &yd kicf   hGifawmif;qd krr_ sm;/ tjiif;tckeaf jz&Si;f ajyvnfaponf   h vkyx f  kH;vkyef nf;rsm;&S   dor#u kd toH k;jyKI tjcm; enf;vrf; r&S   dawmhrw S yg; w&m;±H k;onf rnfonf   hpak ygi;f nd   S  _Eid ;f oabmwlncD sufu   d krf S t"dy g` ,frzG  hiq f  k&d ? wenf;tm;jzif   h  taumiftxnfaz:&ef  r=udK;yrf;&? cH k± k;H tzG   J @. qH k;jzwfcsufonf qifjcifw kHw&m;uif;  hrJjcif;/ vdrv f nfvSn  hjf zm;jcif;/ (0g) vm'fay; vm'f,jl yKvkyjf cif;/ (0g) jynfaxmifpk wpf0rS ;f vH k; twGu f ta&;ygt&ma&mufaom tajccHOya'rS aoG;znfjcif; jzpfaeonfrw S yg;/ w&m;±H k;onf cH k± k;H tzG   J @. qH k;jzwfcsuf ud k jyefvnfo k;H oyfay;jcif;rjyK&? 6? ?   JcGjcm;owfrw S fjcif;ES  hi f ywfoufaom &yd kicf   hGifawmif;qd krr_ sm;? 7? ? tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;. ydwyf ifxm;jcif;trde @f rsm;uk   d  jynfvnfa0zef oH k;oyf &ef }udK;yrf;r_rsm;?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -64

tvkyo f rm;pDrcH ef @  JcrG  _ (qufqaH &;) qd ki&f mtzG   J @tpnf;rsm; yg0ifywfoufae aom tr_rsm;ES  hif tvkycf ef @tyf&mY   JcGjcm;r_  d&Saom tr_w k @d u kd qH k;jzwfajz&Si;f ay;Ed ki&f ef uír;f usiyf nm&Siw f  k @d u kd xnf   hoGi;f yg0ifap&efrmS   dEkiif aH wmftvkyo f rm;(qufqaH &;) w&m;±H k;. wm0efvkyif ef;jzpfonf  htav#muf  T“Oya'yk'rf ”atmuf  d& S tjcm;&yd kicf   hiG f awmif;qd kr _ tm;vH k;wd k @u  dk wduspGm n$ejf yxm;aom oif  hav#mo f nf   hw&m;&H k;Y vkyu f  kid f aqmif&u G &f rnf? ‚if;.w&m;pD&ify kid cf   hGiftwGi;f rS tr_rsm;ud k  “trsdK;om;tvky f orm; (qufqaH &;)w&m;±H k;” onf  tjcm;aomenf;vrf;aumif;rsm;tjyif  T“Oya'” . taxGaxGOya' owfrw S fcsufrsm;uf   d k xnf   hoiG ;f aom enf;vrf;aumif;rsm;ud kyg toH k; jyK&rnf? yk'rf (103) The Court shall have the power and authority. w&m;±H k;wGi f wefc k;d tm%mES  hi f =oZmtm%m&S  d&rnf? (u) tr_rsm;=um;emppfaq;jcif;ud k xde;f csKyfxm;Ed ki&f ef cH kw&m;ol=uD;tzG  J @0ifw k @d . aqmif&u G cf sufrsm;/ w&m;±H k;twGi;f aqmif&Gu&f onf  h vkyif ef;aqmifwmrsm;ES  hif T“Oya'”.&nf&G,cf sufw k @d u k d taumiftxnfazmf&ef vd ktyfvmv#if pnf;rsO;f pnf;urf;rsm;ud k  w&m;0ifa=ujimEd kio f nf   h  tm%m&S   d&rnf? w&m;±H k;Yvkyyf  kid fc  hGiEf   hSif tm%mrsm; wd k;jrS  hiaf y;&rnf? tb,fa=umif  hq kad omf (Ed k @wpf) a=ujimpmxkwjf yD;I tr_=um;emppfaq;jyD;aemufwiG  f ‚if;.w&m;pD&ify kid ef ,ftwGi;f t"dujy\emwk   d @u kd pD&ifq k;H jzwfajz&Si;f jyD;csed f ‚if;ajz&Si;f csuaf y: jzpfay:vmv#if pnf;rsO;f pnf;urf;rsm; xkwjf yefc  hiG t f m%m&S   d&rnf? twnfjyKaxmufccH sufay;jcif;ES  hi f aumfrwDa&G;cs,jf cif; wd k @wGif rJqENay;Ed kio f nf   h  t&nftcsi;f owfrw S fcsufay;Ed ki&f ef pnf;rsO;f rsm; xkwjf yefciG fh tm%m&S  d&rnf? TuJ  ho k @d a&G;cs,  Jyf rG sKd ;ESifh ywfoufI w&m;±H k;.pnf;rsO;f rsm;(od k @) T“Oya'” ud ktoH k;jyK&mY jynfaxmifpt k 0Sr;f ud k odomxdc ku d   dfEik af om ta&;=uD; onf   h trSm;rsm;tay:wGif xif&Sm;ap&ef qH k;jzwfay;&aom tvkyo f rm;0ef=uD; (od k @) ‚if;rS cef @tyfxm;aom cH korm"dv=l uD;(rsm;). qH k;jzwfcsuf rnfonf   htcsufu kdrqd k w&m;±H k;rS jyefvnfo kH;oyfxm;jcif;uk   d uef @owfxdr;f csKyf xm;&rnf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -65

(c) usr;f used jf cif;ud k =uD;=uyfaqmif&u G fay;&ef? tr_onfrsm;tm; qif   hac:&ef T“Oya'”atmufwiG  f t=uHK;0ifaom rnfonf   h  w&m;   JpGq kjd cif; (ok   d @) pH kprf;ppfaq;jcif;Yrqd k  yg0ifaom oufaorsm;(ok   d @) uGeyf sLwm vrf; a=umif;rS &&S   daom tcsuftvufrsm; tygt0if  pm&Gupf mwrf;rsm;ud k ±H k;awmfo k @d vma&muf&efE  hiS  f wifjy&efq  hifac:pmuf   d kxkwjf yefE kid o f nf  h tm%m&S   d&rnf? (*) ‚if;.w&m;pD&ify kid ef ,ftwGi;f jzpfay:aomta=umif; udp(P ok   d @) tjiif;tckef udpw P  k @d u kd pH kprf;Ed ki&f ef/ w&m;±H k;od k @ vma&muf&ef orŠmefpm qif   hac:jcif; (ok   d @) Ed k @wpfpmay;yd k @jyD;ygvsu f vma&muf&ef  ysuu f u G fow l  k @d . rsuu f G,w f iG  f tjiif;yGm;r_ ud k=um;emI qH k;jzwfppD Ofay;&ef  Oya't&ta&;,lw&m;pG   Jq  d kjf cif;wd k @ ud kaqmif&Gu&f ef ynmyd ki;f qd ki&f mudp P ta=umif;t&mwd k @u kd usrG ;f usio f lrsm;xHwifjy&efw&m;pG  Jq k&d ifq kid f &mwGiyf g0ifa&; (ok  d @) ryg0ifa&;twGuf tr_onfEpS zf ufpvH k;wd k @tm; vrf;n$erf a_ y;&ef &ifq kid af e&aom tr_udpt P wGuf tqH k;tjzwfay;&mwGif taxmuftul  jzpfE kid zf , G f   d&Sonf[k ,H k=unf,lq&aom vrf;n$ecf sufrsm;uk   d  ay;&efE  hiS f a&S @qufvufI w&m; &ifq kid Ef  kid &f ef rvd ktyfawmhaomtr_ (od k @) ta&;rygvaS om tao;tzG  Jtr_ (ok   d @) ‚if;w&m;pD&ify kid cf   hiG f e,fy,ftoD;oD;Y r[kwaf om tr_w k @d u k d y˜vyfay;&ef  tm%m   d&S&rnf? (C) w&m;±H k;awmftm; rxD  hrjJ rifjyKygu rnfo @l u krd qd k xde;f csKyfta&;,lxm;&efE  hiS f xd k @twGuaf =umif   h  w&m;Oya'ES  hit f nD oif   havsmo f nf   h  jypf'%fcsrw S fay;&ef  tm%m   d&S&rnf? (i) rnfonf   htvkyo f rm; jiif;ckerf _Yrqd k  wzufzuftm;av;eufaom (ok   d @) jyKjyifI r&Ed   d kiaf om qH k;  H±_;epfemr_jzifhvnf;aumif; (od k @) w&m;±H k;awmf. qH k;jzwfcsuu f  kd t=unftnKdysufapEd kirf nf   h tvkyo f rm;jiif;ckerf Y_ rqd k tufOya'wpH kw&mtm; csrSwf us  hio f  k;H &ef (ok   d @) rcsrw S &f eftrde @f xkwjf yefE kid o f nf  htm%m&S  d&rnf? (p)oif   havsmfavsmufywfaom owday;(Ed k @wpf) pmay;yd k @jyD; oufaorsm; xGufq kEd  kid f cG  hiEf   hiS f tjyeftvSeo f ufaorsm;ud k ppfaq;ar;jref;jcif;jyKvkyfE kid &f ef tcG  hit f a&;&S  donf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -66

w&m;±H k;rS  =um;emppfaq;jcif;rsKd; rjyKvky  hcf aJ omf rnfonf   h tvkyo f rm;jiif;ckerf Y_ rqd k txufygpmyd k'(f i)t& rnfonf   htrde @f u kdr S rxkwjf yef&? (q) w&m;&H k;rS tr_udpEP   hiS f ygwo f ufor#u  d k =um;emppfaq;jyD; Oya'csK;d azmufI rw&m;aom jyKrljcif;jzpfay:aeonf   h (ok   d @r[kwf) jzpfay:vm&ef  tvm;tvm   d&Sonf [k   dckiv f  kHaom om"u rawG @  d&Srjcif; rnfonf   htvkyo f rm; jiif;cH krY_ rqk   d  txufyg pmyk   d' f (i) t& rnfonf   htrde @f u kdr S rxkwjf yef&? (Z) TuJ   ho  d @k aom Oya'csK;d azmufI rw&m;onf  h vky&f yfrsm;uk   d  usL;vGeaf eaom/ usL;vGe&f ef }uHpnfjcdr;f ajcmufaeaom ol/ yk  d*K~ vf/ toif;  JzG @w  d @k tay:od k @ om tusK;H 0if oufa&mufaom trde @f xkwjf yef&rnf? (ps) tr_upd EP   hiS  f ygwo f ufI w&m;&H k;rS =um;emppfaq;jyD; w&m;vk  d. ypPnf;OpPmrsm; uk   d txl;xd  dcu k fapI jynfvnfjyKjyif&ef  r&Ek   diaf wmhonf   h epfemr_jzpfay:vmrnf[lI w&m;vd k. epfemr_u  d k jyefvnfjznf  hpnf;&ef oufomr_jzpfap&ef  tjcm;aom vH kavmufaom enf;vrf;r&S   d[lI qH k;jzwftrde @f xkwfjyef&jcif;tm;jzif   h  w&m;cHtm; epfepfaponf[I l ES  hi f Oya't& aqmif&u G }f uD;=uyfvyk u f  kid &f onf  h  t&m&S  drsm;onf vnf; xk   dypPnf;OpPmrsm;uk   d  tumtuG,fay;&ef  rwwf  dEik jf cif;iSm (ok   d @r[kw)f raqmif &Guv f   djk cif;iSm[lI w&m;&H k;rS  rawG @rcsi;f rnfonf   htvkyo f rm; jiif;cH kr_Yrqk   d  txufyg pmyk   d' f (i) t& rnfonf   htrde @f u kdr# rxkwjf yef&? (n) w&m;&H k;rS trde @f wpH kw&muk  d xkwjf yefv#i f vk   dtyfcsut f aejzif   h awmif;qk   d&rnfrmS tu,fI xkwjf yefv  du k af om trde @f onf rSm;,Gi;f pGm xkwjf yefjcif;jzpfonf[k aemufq k;H wGif qH k;jzwfcsucf   hscv J #i f w&m;cHtm; epfemI tav#mftpm;ay;Ek   di&f ef vH kavmufaom tmrcHaiGa=u; (ok  d @r[kw)f tmrcHcsu f uwdu  dk  w&m;vk  draS eI xm;&S  d ay;&rnf?

zuf'&,f '&,fjynf jynfaxmif axmifpkp jref  k jrefrmEd rmEd kififiHiHtvkyfyorm;Oya' o f rm;Oya' (rl=urf =urf;);)

pmrsufESEmS -67

yk'f'rf (104) w&m;&H k; (ok  d @r[kwf w)f 4if;rS ;rS  tm%mv$  Jtyf tyfcef cef @xm;cH&ol &olonf onf tvkyfycscf sefed twG t f wGifi;f jzpfap ap (ok   d @r[kwf wf) tvkyfycscf sdefejyif jf yifyYjzpf yYjzpfap ap tcsefed ra&G rf a&G; tvkyfyXme/ Xf me/ taqmuftOD tOD;/;/ oabFm/ m/ avS/ ,mOf/ ae&m (0g)   dykifieuf ef ufrs rsm;/ vkyfyief if ef;pOf ;pOfoH o kH; ypPnf n;f ud&d&d,m ,m wefqmyvmrs qmyvmrsm;uk   d rnfonf onf   htcs tcsdefeYrqk Yf rqk   d ppfaq;Ek aq;Ek  difionf o f nf? 4if;tjyif ;tjyif rnfonf onf   htvk tvkyfyorm;(0g o f rm;(0g) [email protected]; vkyfyom;rs o f m;rsm;ES  hifif rnfol o @l u  drqk rk qk   d  owif;&&S ;&&S  d&ef &ef (ok   d @r[kwf w)f tcsuftvuf tvuf&&S &  d&S&ef &ef ar;jref;Ek ;  dEkifionf o f nf? D. Labor Organizations

tvkyfyorm;tzG o f rm;tzG   J @tpnf;rs ;rsm; yk'f'rf (105) Requirements of registration. rSwf wfyHy kwif w H if&ef &ef vk  vk   dtyf tyfcscsurs rf sm;? rSwf wfyHy kwif w H if&ef &efav# av#mufxm;aom xm;aom rnfonf onf   htzG t  JzG @tpnf;§toif ;§toif; (ok  d @r[kwf wf) or*~rsrsm; tkyfypkpf k (ok   d @r[kwf w)tvk )f tvkyfyorm;rs o f rm;rsm; rqk   d  w&m;0ifyky  d*~*k Kvf K~ vf  (Oya')ynm&Sifi§f a&S @ae) rsm;uk   d  xm;&S  d  dEkEifik onf o f nf? 4if;tjyif ;tjyif  atmufazmf azmfjyyg jyygv  dktyf tyfcscsurs rf sm;uk   d  tajcjyK xm;aom rSwf wyHyf  kwif w H ifvuf vufrSrwf w S uk u f   dk xkwf way;jyD af y;jyD;cs ;csefed rSrf pI pS I rSwf wfy kwif w H ifjyD jyD;xm;aom ;xm;aom tvkyfyf orm; tzG  J @tpnf;rs ;rsm;ud k  ay;tyfxm;onf xm;onf  h &yk   dificGcf   hifiG rs rf sm;ES  fih txl;tcG ;tcG  hifita&;rs t f a&;rsm;uk   d cHpm;&ef pm;&ef tcG  tcG  hifita&;&S t f a&;&S  donf onf? (u) rSwf wyHyf  kwif w H ifa=u; a=u; pkpkpayg ak ygi;f (---) ay;tyfjcif jcif;?;? (c) oufqk q  difik &m &f m tr_aqmif aqmifvl v}uD }l uD;rs ;rsm;. trnfrs rsm;/ ae&yfvd vyfyd pmrs pf mrsm;/ tvkyfyorm; o f rm; or*~. t"duvd uvdyfypm/ pf m/ tzG   J @tpnf;qk ;qk   difi&m &f m tpnf;ta0;. ;ta0;. qH k;jzwf ;jzwfcscsufrs rsm;ES  hifif 4if;wk ;wk  d @ uk   d uk   d,f ,pm;jyKaom pf m;jyKaom tvkyfyorm;OD o f rm;OD;a&. ;a&. tenf;qH ;qH k; (20) &mck   difiE_Ef efe_ ;rS ;f rSaeI aeI ,ckrSrwf w S fyHy kH wif&ef &ef av#   av#mufxm;aom xm;aom or*~onf onf rdrdrwk w d   d @k u  dk uk   d,f ,pm;jyK&ef fpm;jyK&ef owfrSrwf w S fygygonf[l [aom laom tr_aqmif aqmifrs rsm;. usrf;}ud ;}udrfrxG x f uf u G fqk q  dxm;onf x k m;onf  h oufaocH aocH  taxmuftxm;rs txm;rsm;tm; wifjy&ef jy&ef? (*) avS smufxm;aom xm;aom or*~onf onf (1)ES  (1)ESpfpESEf   hifiS  txuf  f txufESEpfpS rs rf sm;uwnf;uyif ;uyif zG    JzG @pnf;wnf ;wnf

zuf'&,f '&,fjynf jynfaxmif axmifpkp jref  k jrefrmEd rmEd kififiHiHtvkyfyorm;Oya' o f rm;Oya' (rl=urf =urf;);)

pmrsufESEmS -68

axmifxm;jyD xm;jyD;jzpf ;jzpfyg ygu 4if;. ;. ESpfppOf pf Of b¾ma&;jyef  b¾ma&;jyefwrf wrf;rs ;rsm;/ rSwf wwrf w f rf;&H ;&H k;/;/ vufcHc rd  H rdwW wLrs LW rsm; eS  hifif (C) av#mufxm;aom xm;aom or*~. tajccH  JzGz @G pnf;tk ;tkyfycscf sKyfyHy k H Oya'ES  hifi f a'oqk   difi&m &f m Oya' rsm;uk   d &H k;vuf ;vufcHcrdrH wW w d LW (4) pH ktm; tm; yl;wG ;wG   Jwif wifoG oGifi;&ef ;f &ef  (3)ESpfpv# v f #i f w}udrfrtr_ t f r_aqmif aqmifrs rsm; a&G;cs ;cs,&ef &f efESE  hifiS  f tajccH  JzGz @G pnf;tk ;tkyfycscf sKyfyHy k H Oya'Y v# @Kd 0uf u S frJray;a&; aJ y;a&; (ok  d @r[kwf w)f qENcHc,l , H   JyGyl G usi;ya&; ;f ya&; tpDtpOf tpOfrs rsm; (Plans) uk   dvnf vnf; xnf  hoG oifiG ;yg ;f yg  d&&rnf &S rnf? yk'f'rf (106) txufazmf azmfjyyg jyyg vk   dtyf tyfcscsurs rf sm;tm;vH k;uk ;uk   d tvkyfyorm;a&;0ef o f rm;a&;0ef}uD }uD; (ok  d @r[kwf wf) 4if;. ;. tm%mv$  Jtyf tyfxm;aom xm;aom uk  d,f ,pm;vS pf m;vS,f ,fxH xH wifjy&rnf jy&rnfjzpf jzpfjyD jyD; 4if;wk ;wk   d @rvnf v S nf; rSwf wfyHy kwif w H if&ef &eftwG twGuf u av#  f av#mufv$ vmtm;vH m$ tm;vH k;uk ;uk  d  pwifav# av#mufxm;onf xm;onf  [email protected] [email protected] pS I &ufayg aygi;f (30) twGifi;ta&;w,l ;f ta&;w,laqmif aqmif&G&Guf uay;&rnf af y;&rnf? vk  dtyf tyfaom aom pm&Guf upmwrf pf mwrf;rs ;rsm;tm;vH k;uk ;uk   d tzG   J @tpnf;. ;. twGifi;a&;rS ;f a&;rSL;L; (ok  d @r[kwf w)f b¾ma&;rSL;wk L;wk  d @u twnfjyK jyK usrf;}ud ;}udrfrxG x f uf u G f qk   djyD jyD; OuUXrS XrSvnf vnf; rSefeuef u f efa=umif a=umif; xyfqif q  hifaxmuf axmufcHcvuf v H ufrSrwf w S a&;xk af &;xk   d;&rnf ;&rnf? registration: appeal yk'f'rf (107) Denial of registration: rSwf wyHyf  kwif w H ifcGc  hifiG  jiif  f jiif;y,f ;y,fcHc&jcif &H jcif;ES  hifi toem;cH  f toem;cHjcif jcif;?;?

tvkyfyorm;0ef o f rm;0ef}uD }uD;rS ;rS aeI   aeI rSwf wyHyf  kwif w H ifcGc  hifiG ay;&ef af y;&ef jiif   jiif;y,f ;y,fonf onf   h rnfonf onf   hqH q k;jzwf ;H jzwf csuuk u f   drqk rk qk   d  av#mufxm;aom xm;aom or*~rSraeI aS eI 4if;jiif ;jiif;y,f ;y,fonf onf   h  dEkE @k wpfpmuk pmuk   d vufcHc&jyD &H jyD; (10) &uftwG twGifi;f Ed kifiiHif awmf aH wmftvk tvkyfyorm;quf o f rm;qufqH qa&; aH &; w&m;&H k;ok ;ok   d @ toem;cH wif  wifoG oifiG ;Ek ;f   dEkifif onf?

zuf'&,f '&,fjynf jynfaxmif axmifpkp jref  k jrefrmEd rmEd kififiHiHtvkyfyorm;Oya' o f rm;Oya' (rl=urf =urf;);)

pmrsufESEmS -69

yk'f'rf (108) Additional requirement for federaltions or national unions. jynfe,f e,frs rsm; (ok   d @r[kwf w)f trsK;om;or*~ ;d om;or*~rs rsm;twGuf uf xyfavmif avmif; vk   dtyf tyfcscsufrs rsm;? tu,fI rSwf wyHyf  kwif w H if&ef &ef av#   av#mufxm;ol xm;olonf onf jynf   jynfe,f e,f (ok   d @r[kwf w)f trsK;om; ;d om; or*~rSr S jzpf  hcJcaom aJ om txufwG wifiG  f azmfjyxm;aom jyxm;aom yk'f'rwG rf wGifi f yg  d&aom Saom vk  dtyf tyfcscsurs rf sm; tjyif atmuf  atmufyg ygw  d @k u  dkvnf vnf; wifoG oifiG ;&rnf ;f &rnf? (u) av#mufv$ v$mwif mwifxm;aom xm;aom jynfe,f e,f (ok   d @r[kwf w)f trsK;om;or*~ ;d om;or*~. rSwf wfyHy kwif w H ifjcif jcif; uk   d  axmufcHcEdEH  kifid &ef &f ef  tenf;qH ;qH k; &yfuG uGuf uf (ok   d @r[kwf w)f a'opdyfy f or*~q,f q,fckcESEk   hifiS f  tquf EG,f ,  df&S&a=umif aS =umif; tzG  J @0ifrs rsm;jzpfa=umif a=umif; oufaojy aojy axmufcHcv$ v H m$ wifoG oGifi;&rnf ;f &rnf? 4if;&yf ;&yf uGuf uf (ok   d @r[kwf w)f a'opdyfyor*~ o f r*~wck wckpDponf o D nf rSwf wyHyf  kwif w H ifxm;jyD xm;jyD; jzpfI 4if;wk ;wk   d @vyfy_ &S&f Sm;&m m;&m tvkyfyXme Xf me (ok   d @r[kwf w)f pufr_rtvk t _ vkyfy&H&f  kHwG wGifif vkyfyud u f  kdifiaom af om tvkyfyorm;rs o f rm;rsm;uk   d wuf=uG =uG pGm uk   d,f ,pm;jyKaeonf pf m;jyKaeonf   h or*~  or*~jzpf jzpf&rnf &rnf? (c) &yfuG uuf u G  (0g  f (0g) a'opdyfyor*~ o f r*~rs rsm; v_yfy&S&f m;&m Sm;&m tvkyfyXmers Xf mersm;. tvkyfy&S&f Sifiwk w f   d @k . trnf rsm;ES  hifi ae&yf  f ae&yfvd vyfyd pmrs pf mrsm;uk   d wif  wifoG oifiG ;&rnf ;f &rnf? Tvk   dtyf tyfcscsurs rf sm; jynf  hpHp kI H rSwf wyHyf  kwif w H ifcGc  hifiG f &&S   djyD jyD;aom ;aom jynfe,f e,f  (0g) trsK;om;or*~ ;d om;or*~onf onf &yfuG uuf u G fESE  hifiS  f a'opdyfyf tzG   J @tpnf;rs ;rsm;uk   d rSwf wfyHy kwif w H ifay;jcif ay;jcif;rjyKyJ ;rjyKyJ 4if;wk ;wk   d @u  dk pnf  pnf;&H ;&H k;jcif ;jcif;ES ;ES  fihi tzG  h tzG   J @0iftjzpf tjzpf od  odrfr;oG ;f oGifi;Ek ;f   dEkificGcf ifiG   df&S&h Sonf onf? (*) jynfe,f e,f  (0g) trsK;om;or*~ ;d om;or*~. tajccH   JzG @pnf;yH ;yH kOya'wG Oya'wGifif tzG   J @0iftm;vH tm;vH k;wk ;wk   d @. wk   duf u  d&k&f uf u k fv# v @#Kd 0uf u S rJrf qEN q J ENay;a&G ay;a&G;cs ;cs,fr_rjzif j_ zif   h a&G  a&G;cs ;cs,fwif wifajrS ajrSmuf mufvk v  dkuaom af om uk  d,f ,pm;vS pf m;vS,f ,rs rf sm; . rJqEN qENay;jcif ay;jcif;vnf ;vnf;aumif ;aumif;/;/ tr_aqmif aqmif  t&m&S  drs rsm;uk   d a&G;cs ;cs,f&ef &ef xnf   hoG oGifi;xm;& ;f xm;& rnf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -70

yk'rf (109) tzG   J @tpnf;. aiGpm&if;&Si;f wrf; (0g)aiGaumufcjH cif;tm; pDrcH ef @cjGJ cif;/ aiGxkwaf y;jcif;/ &efy kaH iGrsm;/ tjcm;aiGrsm;ES  hi f tjcm;aomypPn;f rsm;ud kapmif   ha&Smuf xde;f csKyfjcif;jyKvky&f ef  wm0ef  S&daomrnfonf   ht  JzG @pnf;rsm;. b¿ma&;rSL;rqd kE  hiS f xd kt  JzG @. trlaqmift&m&d  Sw kdi;f onf ‚if;&mxl;vufcw H m0ef,laom tcsderf pS I (0g) ‚if;wm0efxrf;aqmif&aom aemufq k;H [email protected] kid af tmif ‚if;rSvufc&H   S&daiGE  hiS f xkwfay; onf   haiG/ ‚if;tm; xde;f odr;f apmif   ha&Smuf&ef ,H k=unfpmG tyf  HEx S m;aom aiGa=u;tmrcH pmcsKyfrsm; (bonds) tjcm;tmrcHpmcsKyfrsm;tm;vH k;ES  hif tzG   J @pnf; yd kiyf pPnf;rsm;/ rSeu f ef aom aiGpm&if;&Si;f wrf;rsm;ud k atmufygtwd ki;f &Si;f vif;ay;&rnf? (1) bÀma&;ESpu f keq f  k;H +yD;aemuf &ufaygi;f (30)twGi;f tenf;qH k; wESpv f #if w}udr f ay;&rnf? (2) tzG   J @tpnf;0iftrsm;pkr S vd ktyfovd kq k;H jzwfonf   htcsdet f cgw kid ;f wGi f ES  hif (3) rdrw d m0efr S a&$ @ajymif;aomtcsed w f iG  f ay;&rnf   haiGpm&if;&Si;f wrf;ud k aiG pm&if;ppfrS ppfaq;jcif; [kwrf eS af =umif; usr;f used v f $mjzif   haxmufcaH y;&rnf? ‚if;rdwWLwpH ku kd tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;tm; ay;yd k @&rnf? rnfonf   h tvkyo f rm; tzG   J @tpnf;rqd k aiGpm&if;pmtkyrf sm;ES  hiaf iGa=u;oH k;  GpJjcif;qd ki&f m wjcm; rSwfwrf;rSwf&mrsm;ud k rnfonf   htr_aqmif  t&m&d  S  (0g) tzG   J @0ifrqd k &H k;csed f twGi;f ppfaq;Ed ki&f ef tqifo  hif xm;&d  S&rnf? yk'rf (110) aiGa=u;tyd kaumufc&H ef [laom &nf&, G fcsufjzif   h  ac:,laom oufq kid af om tpnf;ta0;wGif   JzG @pnf;tkycf sKyfy k H tajccHOya'ES  hit f nD qH k;jzwfcsuf  csrw S x f m; +yD;onf  htwk   di;f aqmif&Gujf cif;r[kw  hfcaJ omf tzG   J @0ifrsm;xHrS   JzG @pnf;tkycf sKyfy kH tajccHOya'ESif h a'otm%myd kiw f  k @d u xkwjf yefxm;onf  h  Oya'wd k @wGi f tao;pdwf twdtus azmfjyxm;onf  h  tca=u;aiGrsm;ES  hi'f %faiGrsm; ay;aqmif&ef owfrw S cf suf wd k @xuf vGeu f +J yD; tjcm; txl; tca=u;aiG  (0g) txl;owfrw S fa=u;wd k @u kd pnf;=uyf

zuf'&,f '&,fjynf jynfaxmif axmifpkp jref  k jrefrmEd rmEd kififiHiHtvkyfyorm;Oya' o f rm;Oya' (rl=urf =urf;);)

pmrsufESEmS -71

jcif;rjyK&? ;rjyK&? tzG  J @pnf;.ttwG ;.ttwGifi;a&;rS ;f a&;rSL;onf L;onf tpnf   tpnf;a0; ;a0; rSwf wfwrf wrf;yg ;yg tcsuf tvuf   tvufrs rsm; tpnf;ta0;wuf ;ta0;wufaom aom yk  d*~*Kvf K~ vfwd w @ kd . trnfpm&if pm&ifrs rsm;tm; qENjyK jyK xnf  h0if 0ifxm;aom xm;aom rJpm&if pm&if;rs ;rsm;txl;owf ;owfrSrwf w S a=u;(0g af =u;(0g) tca}u;aiGud u kd rnfonf onf   h &nf&G&G,f ,cscf sujzif jf zif   h aumufcHc&ef &H ef ‚if;txl ;txl;a=u;aiG ;a=u;aiGrs rsm;ud k vufcHc&&S &H   d&Sol ors lrsm;tm; rSwf wwrf w f rf;wif ;wifxm;&rnf xm;&rnf? xd krSrwf w S fwrf wrf;rS ;rSefeuef u f efa}umif a}umif; OuUX taxmuftxm;jyK txm;jyK vufrSrwf w S fxd x k;&rnf ;d &rnf? T “Oya'yk'f'r”wG rf ”wGifi yg  f yg0ifaom aom vkyfyief if ef;aqmif ;aqmifwmrs wmrsm;twGuf urSrf S v$   JjyD jyD; tvkyfyorm;wOD o f rm;wOD;. ;. tm%mukefev$ v f   Jtyf t $ yfa}umif a}umif; pmr¶S   dyJyJ ‚if;tvk ;tvkyfyorm;rs o f rm;rsm; &oif  h&xd &xd kuf uaom faom aiGtca=u; tca=u; aiGxJ xJrSrS rnfonf onf   htxl txl;owf ;owfrSrwf w S a=u; af =u; (0g) tjcm;txl;tca=u;aiG ;tca=u;aiGud u krSrd  S jzwfawmuf awmuf E_wf wf,l ,jcif jl cif; rjyK&? aiGE_Ewf w _ f,l ,&ef &l ef  tm%mv$  Jtyf tyfpmwG pmwGifif aiGa=u;pk a=u;pkpkpayg ak ygi;tm; f;tm; rnfonf onf   h twGuf ua=umif fa=umif   h vnf;aumif ;aumif;/;/ xkwf w,l , f aiG al iGud u kd rnfol otus t l usK;cH dK;cHpm;cG pm;cG  hifi  d¶S¶f Sa=umif a=umif;ud ;ud k wdwd wus u d sus az:jy&rnf? yk'f'rf (111) tzG   J @0ifrsrsm;tay: txufazmf azmfjyyg jyyg tcG  hifita&;rs t f a&;rsm;ES  hifif vd ktyf tyfcscsu f tajctae rsm;ud k cs kK;azmuf Kd ;azmufjcif jcif;¶S ;¶S  hcJcd aomf aJ omf jyKjyif   jyKjyifr_r  d¶S¶_ vmap&ef v S map&ef  or*~tzG t  JzG @0ifODO;a&. ;D a&. tenf;qH ;qH k; (20) &mcd kifiE_Ef efe_ ;¶S ;f   d¶Saom aom OD;a&.ud ;a&.ud k,f ,pm; pf m; tvkyfyorm;0ef o f rm;0ef}uD }uD;xH ;xHod o @ kd wd kifiwef w f ef;Ek ;  dEkifionf o f nf? 0ef}uD }uD; onf rnfonf onf   hcscsK;azmuf Kd ;azmufr_rud u _  kdrqd rqd k  avsmfuef uefaom aom *¶kpdp kuf u d a0zef af 0zefoH o k;oyf ;H oyfjcif jcif;jyKjyD ;jyKjyD; aemuf =um;em ppfaq;jyD aq;jyD;aemuf ;aemuf oif   hawmf awmfonf onf   h oufomr_ omr_ud u kd OD;wnf ;wnftaumif taumiftxnf txnfay: ay: ap&ef qH k;jzwf ;jzwfcscsucscf say;Ek   difionf o f nf  h  tm%m¶S   donf onf? 0ef}uD }uD;. ;. qH k;jzwf ;jzwfcscsufcscsjyD; &ufayg aygi;f (30) twGifi;/;f / tkyfycscf sKyfa&;ES a&;ES  hififq kifid aom af om aqmif&G&uf u G cscf sufud u k d a,bl,s ,stm;jzif   h  jyefvnf vnf oH k;oyf ;oyfcGc  hifiG   d&S&f Sonf onf[l [aom al om ta}umif;jycs ;jycsujzif jf zif   h   dEkifiiHif Hawmf awmftvk tvkyfyorm;quf o f rm;qufqH qa&; aH &; w&m;   H¶k;od ;od @ k toem;cHwif wifjyEk jyEk   difionf o f nf? xd @ k jyif oufomr_ omr_&ap&ef &ap&ef  toem;cHjcif jcif;ud ;ud k  tcsdefe  DrSrf S }udKwif KwifI or*~tk tyfyk cscf sKyfa&;tzG a&;tzG   J @xH wifjyjyD jyjyD;yg ;ygvsu/f jiif;y,f ;y,fcHc&jcif &H jcif;/;/ vspfvs vsL¶_jcif jcif; cH& aomf tvG   JoH o k;pm;jyKxm;onf ;H pm;jyKxm;onf   h aiGa=u; a=u; (0g) tjcm; OpPmypP mypPnf n;&yd ;f &yd kificGcf   hGifrs rsm;ud k  or*~od o @ kd jyefvnf vnfay;tyf ay;tyf&ef &ef/ tvkyfyorm;tzG o f rm;tzG   J @tpnf;. ;. tzG  J @0ifODO;a& ;D a& (20)&mcd kifiE_Ef efe_ ;onf ;f onf ‚if  ‚if;wd ;wd @ k .trnfrs rsm;(0g)or*~. ud k,f ,pm;vS pf m;vS,f ,rs rf sm;taejzif   h   dEkifiiHif awmf aH wmftvk tvkyfyorm;quf o f rm;qufqH qa&; aH &;   H¶k; wGifi ta&;,l  f ta&;,lw&m;pG w&m;pG   Jqd q k  dEkEd ifik fonf?

zuf'&,f '&,fjynf jynfaxmif axmifpkp jref  k jrefrmEd rmEd kififiHiHtvkyfyorm;Oya' o f rm;Oya' (rl=urf =urf;);)

pmrsufESEmS -72

w&m;vd kbuf bufrSrS tEd kifi&cJ &f   hcJaomf aomf ‚if;wd ;wd @ k . a&S @aep&dwf w f rsm;ES  hifif ukefeus u f sp&dwf wf wd @ k u kd or*~   or*~.&ef .&efyHy kaiG aH iGxJ xJrSrS ukefeus u f sc&rnf &H rnf? tb,fa=umif a=umif   h qd kaomf aomf ‚if;w&m;pG ;w&m;pG   Jqd q kr_rd onf o _ nf tzG   J @tpnf;wck ;wckvH v k;tm; ;H tm; tusdK;aus K;aus;Zl;&S ;  d&Sapjcif apjcif;a}umif ;a}umif   h  jzpfonf onf? oydwf wfarS arSmuf mufaepOf aepOf umv (od @ k r[kwf w)f tjcm;aom tvkyfyorm;jiif o f rm;jiif;ck ;ckefer_rf  jzpf  _ jzpfyGm;aecsdefewG w f ifiG f TuJ   hod o @ kd aom w&m;pG   Jqd q kjcif jd cif; rjyK&? xd @ k tjyif oydwf waepOf af epOfumv umv (od @ k r[kwf w)f tjcm;aom tvkyfyf orm; jiif;ck ;ckefer_rf jzpf j_ zpfyGym;aecs mG ;aecsefed fwGifi f w&m;pG  Jxm;&if xm;&if;jzpf ;jzpfaom aom tr_ud udpPptm; t P m; &yfqd q kifid ;ap& ;f ap& rnf? &mZ0wfr_rjzwf j_ zwfxH x k;H “Oya'yk'f'fr”wGifi f vmbfay;,l ay;,lr_r/_ or*~OpP OpPmypP mypPnf nf;tm; ;tm; tv$   J oH k;pm;r_ ;pm;r_ESE  hifiS f tzG   J @0ifrs rsm;tm; zd  dESEyfyS r_rf ponf p_ onf   h  jzpfr_rus u _ sL;vGefejcif jf cif;wd ;wd @ k u kd jypf   jypf'%f '%fcwf cwf&ef &ef jznf  hpGpuf u G fxnf xnf   hoG oifiG ;xm;&rnf ;f xm;&rnf? E.Right of Registered Labour Organizations

rSwf wfyHy kwif w H ifjyD jyD;aom ;aom tvkyfyorm;tzG o f rm;tzG   J @tpnf;rs ;rsm;.tcG  hifita&;rs t f a&;rsm;? of  registered labour organization yk'f'rf (112) Rights of registered rSwf wfyHy kwif w H ifjyD jyD; tvkyfyorm;tzG o f rm;tzG   J @tpnf;wck ;wckwG wifiG  &S  f   d&S&rnf &rnf  htcG tcG  hififta&;rsm;rSmm-

(u) tpd k;&/ ;&/   dEkifiiHif a&;yg aH &;ygwrs Drsm; (0g) tvkyfy¶S¶f ifiS rs rf sm;wd @ k .uef @owfxd xdefe;cs ;f csKyfr_r ryg  _ rygy/J vkyfycaiG cf aiG rsm;/ tvkyfycscf sefed em&D ef m&Drs rsm;/ tvkyfycef cf ef @xm;jcif;ES ;ESifif h ygwfowf owfaom aom owfrSrwf w S fcscsurs rf sm;ES  hifif tajctaersm;/ vlrlra&;qd al &;qd kifi&mw&m;rS &f mw&m;rS swr_rs rsm;/ tvkyfyorm;rs o f rm;rsm;ES  hifivl v f  @l t  JzG @tpnf;xJ ;xJrSrS tjcm;aom tzG  J @tpnf;rs ;rsm;ES  hifi yg  f ygwowf o f wforS orS saom jy\emtm;vH k;ES ;ES  hifif Ed kiiHif a&;qd aH &;qd kifi&m &f m jy\em (tygt0if) wd @ k u   f kd tzG   J @0ifwd w @ kd . ud k,f ,fpm;vS pm;vS,f ,tjzpf t f jzpf/ vkyfyud u f  kifid aqmif af qmif&G&Guf uEdEf  kifid f &eftcG tcG  hifita&;? t f a&;? (c) tvkyfy¶S¶f ifiS wOD w f OD;. ;. tvkyfyorm;rs o f rm;rsm;twGuf uf txl;oD ;oD;oef ;oef @payg ak ygi;f aphpyf pyfnS n  d  dSE_Eifi_ ;ay; ;f ay; onf   h ud k,f ,pm;vS pf m;vS,f ,ftjzpf tjzpf  aqmif&G&uf u G &ef &f efESE  hifiS  f T“Oya'yk'f'fr”wGifif xnf   hoG oGifi;az:jyxm; ;f az:jyxm; aom aumfrwD rwDtzG t  JzG @rsm;wGifi yg  f yg0ifaqmif aqmif&G&Guf u&ef &f ef? (*) T “Oya'yk'f'r”wG rf ”wGifif xnf   hoG oifiG ;az:jyxm;aom ;f az:jyxm;aom owif;zvS ;zvS,f ,fjcif jcif;ES ;ES  hifif   DES;aES ;aESm wd kifiyif yf ifjcif jcif; vkyfyief if ef;pOf ;pOfwd w @ kd wGifiyg yf g0ifaqmif aqmif&G&Guf u&ef &f ef?

zuf'&,f '&,fjynf jynfaxmif axmifpkp jref  k jrefrmEd rmEd kififiHiHtvkyfyorm;Oya' o f rm;Oya' (rl=urf =urf;);)

pmrsufESEmS -73

(C) tvkyfyorm;tzG o f rm;tzG   J @tpnf;ES ;ES  hifi f ‚if;.tzG  J @0ifwd w @ kd toH k;jyK&ef ;jyK&efESE  hifiS tus t f usK;&S dK;&S   dap&ef ap&ef  ajr/ taqmuftOD tOD;ponf ;ponf   hra&$ ra&$ @ajymif;Ek ;  dEkifiaom af om ypPnf n;rs f;rsm;omru a&$ @ajymif;Ek ;  dEkifiaomud af omud k,f ,ydyf  kifid f ypPnf n;rs f;rsm;ud k yd  yd kifiqd q f  kifid   dEkEf ifik f&ef &ef? (i) ‚if;rS ;rSwf wfyHy kwif w H ifxm;aomtrnf xm;aomtrnfjzif jzif   h w&m;pG  w&m;pG   Jqd q k  dEkEd ifik &ef &f ef ES  ES  hifiw&m;tpG w f &m;tpG   JcHcEdEH  kifid &ef &f ef? (p) tzG   J @tpnf;ES ;ES  hifi‚if ‚f if;/;/ tzG   J @0ifrs rsm;jzpfaom aom tvkyfyorm;tm;vH o f rm;tm;vH k;twG ;twGuf uf jcHKiH KiH kI Oya' t& aqmif&G&uf u G f&ef &ef  d&S&aom Saom udpPpt00 t P 00 uk   dwm0ef wm0efcHcaqmif aH qmif&G&Guf u&ef &f ef? rnfonf onf   hOya'jyXmef Oya'jyXmef;cs ;csufud u krSrd S qef @usiI f rcsK;azmuf Kd ;azmuf rckcHcyJyH J rSwf wyHyf  kwif w H ifxm;jyD xm;jyD;aom ;aom tvkyfyorm;tzG o f rm;tzG   J @tpnf;rs ;rsm;. ypPnf n;rs ;f rsm; ES  hifif 0ifaiG aiGrs rsm;/ jynfwG wifiG ;f (0g) jynfyrS yrS tvm;wl nDtud tud ktzG t  JzG @tpnf;rs ;rsm;xHrSrS &&S   daom aom ay;urf;vS ;vSL'g L'gef;jcif ;jcif;/;/ vufaqmif aqmiftjzpf tjzpf &jcif;/;/ tvSLaiG LaiGrs rsm;/ xnf  h0if 0ifaiG aiGrs rsm; tygt0if tm;vH  tm;vH k;onf ;onf tcG  tcGefetaumuf t f aumufpDp;=uyf ;D =uyfjcif jcif; ES  hifi tjcm;aom&mjzwf  f tjcm;aom&mjzwfjcif jcif;wd ;wd @ k rS vGwf wuif u f if;&rnf ;&rnf? Tae&mwGifixnf x f nf  hoG oifiG ;az:jyxm;onf ;f az:jyxm;onf   h “uif;vG ;vGwf wjcif jf cif;”ud ;”ud k txl;Oya' ;Oya' rS xif&S&Sm;pG m;pGmaz:jyjyD maz:jyjyD; ¶kwfod odrfr;ay;&ef ;f ay;&efawmif awmif;qd ;qd krSrom o S m vS siz,f zf ,f&S&Sm;Ek m;Ek   d kifirnf rf nf? F.Coverage

t}uHK;0if K;0ifjcif jcif; yk'f'r(113) rf (113) Converage and employment right to self-organization tvkyfyorm; o f rm; or*~rs rsm;./ ud k,f ,ydyf  kifid tzG t f   [email protected];zG ;  JzG @y kifid fc  hGifiESEf   hSi t}uH  f t}uHK;0if K;0ifjcif jcif;rs ;rsm;? rnfonf onf   htvk tvkyfy¶S¶f ifiS . f tvkyfyorm;rs o f rm;rsm;rqd k ul;oef ;oef;a&mif ;a&mif;0,f ;0,fa&;/ a&;/ pufr_rvk v _ yfyk ief if ef;/;/ pd kuf ufys ysK;a&;ES Kd ;a&;ES  hifif Ed kifiiHif ydyH  kdivk v f kyfyief if ef;rs ;rsm;/ trsm;jynfol owd w l  @ kd twGuf uf   HzG @jzdK;a&;vk K;a&;vkyfyief if ef;rs ;rsm;ESififh bmoma&; t& ukod o kdvf vtvS t f vSL'g L'gejyKa&; (0g) ynma&;vkyfyief if ef;rs ;rsm;/ tjrwftpG tpGefe;&onf ;f &onf jzpfap/ ap/ r&onfjzpf jzpfap/ ap/ yg0ifaqmif aqmif&G&Guf uvk v f yfyk ud u f  kdifivS v f  sS u  d&S&f aom Saom vkyfyief if ef;tm;vH ;tm;vH k;wd ;wd @ k wifiG f tvkyfycef cf ef @xm;aom tvkyfyorm;tm;vH o f rm;tm;vH k;twG ;twGuf u f tusHK;0if K;0ifonf? ‚if;wd ;wd @ k tjyeftvS tvSefef tultnD tnDay;&ef ay;&ef/ umuG,f ,ay;&ef af y;&efESE  hifiS f pkayg aygi;nS ;f nS   d  dE_E_i;aph ;f aphpyf pyf&ef &ef &nf&G&G,f ,jyD jf yD; tvkyfyorm; o f rm;

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -74

tzG   J @tpnf;rsm;   JzG @pnf;jcif;rsm;Yyg0ifjcif; (0g) uln  hDyyH  k;d jcif;/ vkyu f  kdiaf qmif&Gucf   hiG f   d&Sonf? twnfwus ae&mr&S   daom wae&mrSwae&mod k @ oGm;vmvSn  hfvnf vkyu f  kdif =u&aom ysHustvkyo f rm;rsm;/ ud k,yf  kid t f vkyv f yk o f lrsm;ES  hiw f dwdusus tvkyv f kyf olrsm;/ wdusonf   h tvky&f Sirf sm; r&S   daomtvkyo f rm;rsm;onf rnfonf   hOya' jyXmef;csuu f  krd  sS csKd ;azmufjcif;r&S  dyJ ‚if;wd k @tcsi;f csi;f tjyeftvSef tultnDay;&efE  hiS f tumtuG,fay;&ef/ tvkyo f rm;tzG   J @tpnf;rsm;ud k   JzG @pnf;  dEkio f nf? yk'rf (114) Ed kiif aH wmf tkycf sKyfa&;yd ki;f qd kif&m tpd k;&ud k,pf m;jyKaom 0efxrf;rsm;ES  hif ppfbufq kid &f m ES  hif &Jbufq kid &f m tr_xrf;t&mxrf;rsm;wd k @onf  w&m;0ifaom &nf&G,cf surf sm; xm;I toif;tzG  J @rsm;   JzG @pnf;  dEkio f nf? yk'rf (115) pDrcH ef @cGaJ &;qd ki&f m tvkyo f rm;rsm;/ Ed kiif aH wmfy kid v f yk if ef;rsm;. refae*sm/ pDrcH ef @  JcG tkycf sKyfolrsm; tygt0ifE  hiS f jynfo @l 0efxrf;wd k @onf rnfonf   h tvkyo f rm;tzG   J @ tpnf;ud k   JzG @pnf;jcif; (0g) yg0ifjcif;/ ulnaD xmuf  hyjH cif;ay;rsm; jyKvkycf   hiG rf   d&S? }uD;}uyfuyG u f Jjcif;yd ki;f qd ki&f m tvkyo f rm;rsm;onf  t&m&S  dr[kwaf om tvkyo f rm; rsm; tzG @t J pnf;wGi f yg0ifc  hGifr  d&Syg? od k @aomf oD;jcm; ‚if;wd k @pak ygi;f I tvkyo f rm; tzG   J @tpnf;rsm;   JzG @pnf;jcif;/ yg0ifjcif;/ ulnDaxmuf  Hyjh cif;rsm; jyKvky  dEf ik o f nf? yk'rf (116) tvkyo f rm;rsm; tjyeftvSeu f n l D&ef/ umuG,fay;&efE  hiS f pnf;  H&k;&ef/ ‚if;wd k @. tcG  hif ta&;vkyu f  kid af qmif&u G f}u&mwGif rnforl qd k  wm;jrpfjcif;/ t"rRtiftm;oH k;jcif;/   JcGjcm;r_jyKvkyjf cif; (0g) 0ifa&mufpu G fzufjcif; rsm;jyKvky  hcf aJ omf  w&m;Oya' csKd ;azmuf jcif;yif jzpfonf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -75

&&S   drnf   htcG  hit f a&;xJwiG  f tvkyo f rm;rsm; tjyeftvSeu f lnaD y;&ef (0g) tumtuG,f ay;&ef(0g) rdrw d  k @d pw d f =udKufa&G;cs,af om ud k,fpm;vS,rf sm;rSwqif   h pkaygi;f aphpyf!  S  _dEid ;f ay;&ef  ponf   h&nf&, G fcsufrsm;jzif   h ‚if;&nf&, G fcsufrsm;ud kvnf; wufnDvufnpD mG jzif   h w&m;Oya'abmiftwGi;f rS  aqmif&u G   ffE kid &f ef tvkyo f rm;tzG   J @tpnf;rsm;ud k   JzG @pnf; Ed kicf   hiG f/ yg0ifE kid fciG (fh 0g) ulnaD xmuf  hyEH  kid fc  hGiw f  k @d yg0if&rnf// T“Oya'yk'rf ” yg &nf&, G fcsurf sm; tm;vH k;twGuf txl;ojzif   hatmufaz:jyyg yk'rf rsm;t&---tvkyo f rm;rsm;tay: rw&m;aom aqmif&Gujf cif;rsm;tay:ES  hif ywfoufjyD; T“Oya'yk'rf ”wGi f az:jyxm;aom aumfrwDrsm;wGiyf g0ifrnf   h ‚if;wd k @.ud k,pf m;vS,f rsm;ud k vGwv f yfpmG a&G;cs,Ef  kid &f efE  hiS f ‚if;uk  d,fpm;vS,rf sm;onf tvkyo f rm;rsm; ud k,pf m; vGwv f yfpmG vkyaf qmifE kid cf   hiG f   d&Sonfu kd todtrSwfjyK&efE  hiS f ‚if;wd k @onf rnfonf   htvky&f iS . f [ef @wm;jcif;/ t"rR  apcd ki;f jcif;/ v$r;f rd k;jcif;/   JcGjcm;owfrw S jf cif; (0g) rw&m;pGmtultnDay;jcif;wd k @. t&dy f =oZmatmufo k @d rusa&mufap&ef wd k @jzpfonf// G. Unfair Labour Practices

tvkyo f rm;rsm;tay: rw&m;aomvkyaf qmifjcif;rsm;? yk'rf (117) Unfair Labour Practices of employers. tvky&f Sirf sm;. tvkyo f rm;rsm;tay: rw&m;aomvkyaf qmifjcif;rsm;// tvky&f Siw f OD;taejzif   h atmufygw k @d jyKvkyaf omf w&m;r0ifjcif;jzpfonf// (u) tvkyo f rm;rsm;tjyeftvSet f ultnDay;&efE  hiS  f tumtuG,af y;&ef(0g)ud k,fy kid f pnf;±H k;oif;  JzG @&ef  ‚if;wd k @.tcG  hit f a&;rsm;t& vkyu f  kid af qmif&u G f&mwGi f T“Oya' yk'rf ”wGif   JzG @pnf;xm;aomaumfrwDrsm;Y yg0if&ef ud k,fpm;vS,rf sm;a&G;cs,&f mwGif 0ifa&muf pGufzufjcif;/ wm;jrpf[ef @wm;jcif; (0g) t"rRapcd ki;f jcif;wd k @ jyKvkyv f #i f (0g) ‚if; ud k,pf m;vS,frsm;uk   d 0ifa&mufpu G fzufjcif; wm;jrpf[ef @wm;jcif; (0g) t"rRapcd ki;f jcif; wd k @jyKvkyv f #if w&m;r0ifjcif;jzpfonf// (c) tvkycf ef @ay;&efv kdtyfaom tajcw&yftaejzif   h atmufygu  hJo k @d owfrw S af omf

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -76

w&m;r0ifjcif; jzpfonf// vlwOD; (0g) tvkyo f rm;wOD;onf tvkyo f rm; tzG   J @ tpnf;od k @ r0if& (0g) yg0ifxm;aomtzG  J @rS E_wfxw k fay;&ef/ (0g) T“Oya'yk'rf ”wGif yg0ifonf   h rnfonf   haumfrwD. rnfonf   hq k;H jzwfcsu f (0g) rnfonf   hy  d*k K~ vfwOD;OD;tm; axmufcjH cif; (0g) qef @usijf cif;rjyK&efowfrw S af omf// (*) 0efaqmifrr_ sm;ES  hif vkyif ef;rsm;ud k vkyaf qmifay;jcif;uk   d  zsuo f dr;f &yfq kid ;f jcif; jyKvkyv f #if Tod k @vkyaf qmifjcif;a=umif   h  T“Oya'yk'rf ”wGiaf zmfjyxnf   hoiG ;f xm;aom tvkyo f rm;rsm;. tcG  hit f a&;ud k  us  hio f  k;H &mwGif 0ifa&mufpu G zf ufjcif;/ wm;qD; [ef @wm;jcif; (0g) t"rRapcd ki;f jcif; wd k @jzpfay:Ed kio f nf// (C) T“Oya'yk'rf ”wGiaf zmfjyxm;onf  h rnfonf   haumfrwD. tvkyo f rm; ud k,pf m;vS,rf sm; a&G;cs,af &;vkyif ef; tpOfE  hSiyf wfoufIvnf;aumif;/ rnfonf   h tvkyo f rm; tzG   J @tpnf;. vkyaf qmifcsujf zpfaomzG   J @pnf;jcif; (0g) tkycf sKyfjcif;ES  hif ‚if;.pnf;±H k;a&;orm; (0g) axmufco H rl sm;wd k @u kd aiGa=u;axmuf  hyjH cif; (0g) tjcm; tultnDay;jcif; wd k @tygt0if  ponfw k @d wGif ud k,w f  kdiaf &S @aqmifay;jcif;/ v$r;f rd k; csKyfu kdiaf y;jcif;/ ulnrD pjcif; (0g) wenf;wvrf;tm;jzif   h 0ifa&mufpu G fzufjcif; jyKvkyf v#i f (0g) rnfonf   haumfrwD. rnfonf   hq k;H jzwfcsuw f iG rf qd k 0ifa&mufpu G zf uf&ef =udK;pm;tm;xkwfv#if w&m;r0ifjcif;jzpfonf// (i) rnfonf   htvkyo f rm;tzG   J @tpnf;. tzG  J @0ifjzpfvm&ef  tm;ay;jcif; (0g) tm;ray; bJ pdwfysuv f mapjcif; wd k @jyKvky&f eftwGuf vkycf rsm; tvkyv f ky&f onf  hem&Daygi;f ES  hif tvkyEf   hiS f ywfoufaom tjcm;rSwcf sufrsm;ES  hi f tajctaewd k @u kd   JcGjcm;owfrw S fjcif; jyKvkyv f #if  (0g) T“Oya'yk'rf ”wGif xnfoiG ;f   JzG @pnf;xm;aom rnfonf   haumfrwD twGufrqd k ud k,pf m;a&G;cs,fa&; vkyif ef;tpOfwiG f v$r;f rd k;=oZmoufa&mufap&ef jyKvkyv f #if  (0g) T“Oya'yk'fr”wGif xnf   hoiG ;f   JzG @pnf;xm;aom rnfonf   haumfrwD. tvkyo f rm; ud k,pf m;vS,frsm;tay: v$r;f rd k; =oZmoufa&mufap&efjyKvkyv f #if pkaygi;f !S  d  _Eid ;f aphpyfa&; oabmwlnDcsuu f  kd vufrw S fa&;xd k;csdew f Gi f tjcm;aomor*~. tzG   J @0ifrsm; jzpfaejyD;aom tvkyo f rm;rsm;rSty tvky&f   d&S&ef tajctaew&yfjzif   h oD;

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -77

oef @pak ygi;f aphpyf!  d  _SEid ;f &ef ud k,fpm;vS,t f jzpf todtrSwfjyKxm;jcif;cH&aom tvkyo f rm;tzG   J @tpnf;wck. tzG   J @0ifjzpf&efrmS vd ktyfonf[ k tzG  J @0ifrsm;rS awmif;qd k jcif;ud k T“Oya'yk'rf ” urS (0g) tjcm;rnfonf   hOya' rSwm;qD;jcif;rjyK&// todtrSwfjyKxm;aom pkaygi;f !S   d  _Eid ;f aphpyf!  d  dSE_i;f &ef ud k,fpm;vS,. f tzG   J @0if r[kwf aom tvkyo f rm;rsm;tm; ‚if;ud k,fpm;vS,. f tzG   J @0ifw k @d ay;aqmif&aom tca=u; aiGw k @d E  hiS f wef;wlaumufcrH nf// tu,fI xd kt  JzG @r[kwo f lrsm;u pkaygi;f !S   d  _Eid ;f aphpyfjcif; oabmwlnDcsufu kd vufc  hcH v J #i/f / (p) tvkyo f rm;wOD;tm; T“Oya'yk'rf ”atmufwiG f &yd kiftcG  hit f a&;ud k tcd kit f rm awmif;qd kjcif; (0g) T“Oya'yk'rf ” atmufwiG f &yd kicf   hGif tcG  hit f a&;ud kawmif;qd kol (0g) tzG   J @tpnf;ud k ulnjD cif;wd k @twGuf oufaoxGuq f  kad y;jcif; (0g) oufaoxGufq kd &ef  jyKvkyjf cif;wd k @a=umif   h xd ktvkyo f rm;tm; tvkyjf zKwfjcif; tvkyx f kwyf pfjcif; (0g) wenf;wzH ktm;jzif   h  tmCmwxm;jcif;(0g)   JcGjcm;jcif;jyKvkyv f #i-f (q) T“Oya'yk'rf ”atmufwiG f tvkyo f rm;rsm;u ‚if;.oD;oef @pak ygi;f !S  d  dEi_ ;f &ef ud k,pf m;vS,t f jzpf  tm%mtyfEiS ;f xm;aom rnfonf   htvkyo f rm; tzG   J @tpnf;ES  hif rqd k pkaygi;f aphpyf !S   d  _Eid ;f &ef  d&aS om wm0efcsKd ;azmuf   f  v#if  (0g) T“Oya'yk'rf ”rS awmif;qd k xm;onf  htwd ki;f owif;rsm;ay;&ef(0g) wd kiyf if  DES;aESm&ef ysuu f u G v f #i-f (Z) or*~  (0g) ‚if;.t&m&S  drsm;/ ud k,fpm;vS,rf sm;/ tvkyo f rm;rsm; (0g) T“Oya'yk'rf ” twGi;f xnf  hoGi;f yg0ifonh   f rnfonf   haumfrwD. ud k,fpm;vS,f tvkyo f rm;rsm;ud krqd k pkaygi;f aphpyf!  d  dSEi_ ;f jcif;rS  jy\emwpH kwcktwGuf  tjcm;aom jiif;ckerf _twGu f ajyvnfap&ef  axmufxm;zd k @ (0g) auseyfIajyvnfap&ef wpdwf wa'otaejzif   h wd ku±f  ku d f(0g) oG,0f  ku d fI aiGay;jcif;(0g) tjcm;tzd k;wef ypPn;f ay;jcif;jyKvky  hcf v J #i-f (ps) pkaygi;f aphpyf!  S  _dEid ;f jcif; oabmwln  hcD v J #i f jiif;qefypfonf   h  oabmoufa&muf aponf   h csK;d azmufjcif;jyKcJv h #i/f tvky&f Siw f OD;taejzif   h Oya'csK;d azmuf&ma&mufonf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -78

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tvkyo f rm;rsm;tay: tvkyo f rm;tzG   J @tpnf;rsm;. rw&m;aomvkyaf qmifjcif;rsm;// yk'rf (118) tvkyo f rm;tzG   J @tpnf; ‚if;t&m&S   drsm;ES  hif uk   d,pf m;vS,o f nf  atmufygw k @d u kd  jyKvkyf v#i f tvkyo f rm;rsm; tay: rw&m;aomvkyaf qmifjcif;jzpfonf? (u) TOya'wGif t"dy g` ,fz  hiG fq kx d m;aom ‚if;wd k @.tcG  hit f a&;rsm;uk   d tvkyo f rm;u us  hio f  k;H &mwGi f wm;jrpf[ef @wm;jcif;(0g)   fEd kv kdrif;xufjyKus  hijf cif;jyKvkyv f #if od k @aomf vnf; tvkyo f rm;tzG   J @tpnf;wckwiG f tzG   J @0ifrsm;&S   d&ef  (0g) tzG   J @0ifrsm; wnfjrJae ap&ef twGu f ‚if;.ud k,fy kid pf nf;rsO;f rsm; jyXmef;cG  hi  d&f Sonf// (c) (1) or*~0if tvkyo f rm;rsm;tay:/ tzG   J @tpnf;od k @0ifc  hiG rf &&S   daom tvkyo f rm; rsm;tay: tvky&f Sirf aS e IcG   Jjcm;jcif;jyKvkyv f map&ef (0g) }udK;yrf;v#i?f (c-2) tjcm;aom tzG  J @0ifrsm;tm;/ us  hifo k;H aeus owfrw S cf surf sm;ES  hi f tajctaersm; t& (0g) tzG   J @0iftjzpf/ qufvufwnfaecG  hi&f   d&Sap&ef  jyKvkyo f nf   h  ta=umif;a=umif  h rSwyg; tjcm;aom rnfonf   hta=umif;a=umif   hrS tvkyo f rm;wOD;tm;tvky&f Sirf S tvky f &yfq kid ;f ap&ef (0g) tvky&f yfq kid ;f ap&ef =udK;yrf;jyKvkyv f #if? (*) tvkyo f rm;tzG   J @ tpnf;onf tvkyo f rm;rsm;. oD;oef @pak ygi;f aphpyf!  d  _ES id ;f jcif; uk   d,pf m;vS,jf zpfjyD; tvky&f SifE  fiS h pkaygi;f aphpyf!  d  dSEi_ f;jcif;jyKvky&f rnf   hwm0ef  ysuu f u G f v#i?f (C) aqmuf&Guaf y;jcif; r&S   daom (0g) aqmif&Guaf y;&efvnf;r&S  daom vkyif ef;twGuf tvky&f Siw f OD;tm; vm'fay;onf   hoabm (0g) twif;tusyfawmif;cHjcif; oabmjzif  h aiG  (0g) tjcm;tzd k;wefypPnf;rsm;uk   d  ay;ap&ef yd k @ap&ef/ yd k @ay;&ef/ oabmwlap&ef jyKv#i f (0g) =udK;yrf;r_jyKv#i?f

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -79

(i) T“Oya'yk'rf ”wGiyf g0if  Jz @G pnf;xm;aom aumfrwDrsm;. ud k,pf m;vS,rf sm; a&G;cs,&f m wGi f (0g) ‚if;ud k,pf m;vS,frsm;rS qH k;jzwfcsucf sE kid &f ef  jyKvkyaf omvkyif ef; tpOfrsm;wGi f t=urf;zufI/ twif;t"rRenf;oH k;I (0g) vm'fay;I rw&m;ojzif  h yg0ifpu G fzufjcif; jyKvkyv f #if (p) oabmwlpmcsKyfu kd &yfpyJ pfy,fjcif; oabmoufa&mufaponf   h vkyef nf; vky[ f efjzif   h pkaygi;f aphpyf!  d  _SEid f;a&; oabmwlpmcsKyfatmufwiG  f or*~t  JzG @tpnf;ES  hif qd kiaf om0wW&m;t& vkyaf qmif&rnf  h rnfonf   hwm0efu kdrqd k csK;d azmufv#i?f I. Collective Bargaining & Administration of Agreements.

pkaygi;f aphpyf!  d  dSEi_ f;jcif;ES  hi f oabmwlcsu(f pmcsKyfrsm;) ud k =uD;=uyfprD cH ef @  Jc G jcif;// yk'rf (119) Procedure in collective bargaining. pkaygi;f aphpyf!  d  _ES id ;f jcif;jyKvky&f mwGi f us  hifo k;H onf  hvkyx f  kH;enf;/ atmufygw k @d onf rnfonf   htvky&f SiEf   hiS f tvkyo f rm;rsm;. oD;oef @pak ygi;f aphpyf!  d  _ES id ;f a&; ud k,pf m;vS,t f =um;wGirf qd k pkaygi;f aphpyf!  d  _SEid ;f =u&mwGif vd kuef m us  hio f  k;H &rnf   h vkyx f  k;H vkyef nf;rsm;jzpfonf// (u) wzufraS ejyD; oabmwlpmcsKyf csKyfq kv d  kdonf   h qENjzif   hqufqv H   d kv f #if tjcm;wzuf od k @ rdr. d tqd kjyKcsurf sm; a&;om;xm;onf  h  a=ujimcsufE  hiS t f wl  pmjzif   ha&;om;xm; aom Ed k @wpfu kday;yd k @&rnf? wzufrv S nf; xd ko k @d E k @d wpfpmud k vufc&H   d&SjyD;aemuf  jyuQ'ed f (10)&uf xufaemufrusapbJ  ajz=um;jcif;jyK&rnf// (c) oabmuG   Jv  JGcsurf sm;ay:aygu  hcf aJ omf  wzufzufraS eI aqG;aEG;  JyGjyKvky&f ef awmif;qd k Ed kio f nf// xd ko k @d awmif;qd konf   h&ufrpS I jyuQ'de f (10)&ufxuf  aemufrus bJ aqG;aEG;  JyG pwif jyKvky&f rnf//

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -80

(*) tjiif;yGm;r_onf &ufowWywf(2)ywf ukev f Gejf yD;onfw kdiaf tmif  ajyvnfjcif; r&S   d  hcaJ omf tvkyo f rm;0ef=uD; (0g) ‚if;cef @tyfxm;aom aphpyfjzefajzay;ol  (0g) cH korm"dv=l uD; ,ckTae&mrSpI cH korm"dv=l uD;[k &nf!ìe;f ac:qd koo l nf rdr. d a&S @aqmifrt _ m;jzif   h  =um;0ifjzefajz&rnfjzpfjyD; ESpOf ;D ESpzf ufpvH k;tm; aphpyfjzefajzaom tpnf;ta0;yG   Jrsm;od k @ csujf cif;ac:&rnf// ESpOf ;D ESpzf ufpvH k;rS  tpnf;ta0; wufa&muf vm&ef 0ef=uD; (0g) cH korm"dvl=uD;wGif qif   hac:pmxkw&f ef  tm%m&S   donf// ESpzf uf pvH k;wGi f jzefajza&;tpnf;ta0;rsm;Y vH k;vH k;vsm;vsm;rqd ki;f ruG  yg0if&ef  wm0ef  d&S onf// (C) aphpyfjzefajza&;jyKvkyaf ecsed t f wGi;f a&S @y kid ;f Ytjiif;tckeu f   d kf  oabmwlq k;H jzwf ay;jcif;tm; ðydu  JyG suaf p&efE  hiS f ydwfyifwm;qD;ap&ef rnfonf   hvkyaf qmifcsufu krd  S rjyK vky&f ef ESpOf ;D pvH k;tm; ydwyf ifwm;qD;&rnf// yk'rf (120) Duty to bargain collectively in the absence of collective bargaining. pkaygi;f aphpyf!  d  _SEid f;jcif;oabmwlcsurf sm; (pmcsKyf) r&S   dv#if pkaphpyf!  d  _SEid ;f jcif;jyKvky&f ef vd kuef m&rnf   h wm0ef/ oabmwlcsuf (pmcsKyf) r&S   d  hcJv#i(f 0g) pkaygi;f aphpyf!  d  _SEid f;jcif;ud k  vsifjrefpmG jyKvkyEf  kid &f ef tjcm;aom tvk  dtavsmuf pDpOfcsufr  d&S  hcv J #if tvky&f SiEf   hiS f tvkyo f rm;rsm;. oD;oef @pak ygi;f aphpyf!  d  _SEid f;a&; ud k,pf m;vS,w f  k @d wGi f T“Oya'yk'rf ”wGi f jyXmef;csuf rsm;ES  hi f avsmfnpD mG pkaygi;f aphpyf!  d  _SEid ;f &rnf   h wm0ef  d&Sonf// yk'rf (121) pkaygi;f aphpyf!  d  _SEid ;f &efwm0ef. t"dy g` ,f// pkaygi;f aphpyf!  d  _SEid f;&efwm0ef qd konfrmS vkycf rsm;/ tvkycf sdeef m&Drsm;ES  hi f tvky f tud ki. f owfrw S cf surf sm;ES  hi f tajctaetm;vH k;ES  hiw f uG epfemcsurf sm;ud k ud kuf!  Sad y; &ef tqd kjyKcsurf sm; (0g) ‚if;uJ   ho k @d aom oabmwlncD sufr S xGuaf y:vmonf   h jy\em

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -81

rsm;ES  hif xd ku  ho J  k @d aom oabmwlnDcsurf sm; aygi;f pyfxnf   hoiG ;f xm;onf   hpmcsKyfu kd twnfjyKcsKyfq  d&k efw  d @k tygt0ifE  hiS f ywfoufjyD; oabmwlncD su&f   d&Sa&; aphpyf aqG;aEG;&eftwGuf &nf&G,I f ESpOf ;D ESpzf ufpvH k; wm0ef0wW&m;t& oabm±d k;jzif  h awG @q k&H efE  hiS f rqd ki;f rwGb J tpnf;ta0;ac:&ef vkyu f  kid af qmif&u G fjcif;jzpfonf// T wm0efonf rnfonf   hbufu krd S tqd kjyKcsuu f  kd  oabmwl&ef(0g) tav#mah y;vd kuf avsm&ef  t"rRvkyaf qmifapjcif;r[kwfay// T“Oya'”yg rnfonf   henf;vrf;ES  hirf qd k txl;oD;oef @ pkaygi;f aphpyf!  d  _SEid ;f a&; ud k,pf m;vS,ftjzpf  tm%mv$   Jtyfjcif;cH&aom tvkyo f rm;tzG   J @ tpnf;wckE  hiS f xd ktvkyo f rm;tzG   J @tpnf;ES  hiyf wfoufaomtvky&f Sif onf aphpyf!  d  _ES id ;f &efwm0efu k d awmif;qd kjcif;ESifh aphpyf!  d  _ES id ;f jcif;jyKvky&f ef  rjzpfrae awmif;qd kE kid af om tcG  hit f a&;&S   donf// pD;yGm;a&;zG   H @+zdK;wd k;wufrr_ sm; (0g) a'oqd ki&f m vrf;a=umif;rsm; (Regional Trends) ±_axmif   hr=S unf  hv#if toH k;jyKEd kiaf om tpdwftyd ki;f vrf;a=umif;rsm; (Applicable f mG yd kr kad usmfveG o f nf   hvyk cf aiGrsm;ES  hi f usef;rma&; Sectarian Trends) ud k  w&m;vGep cHpm;cG  hi f (0g) t+idr;f pm;cG  hirf sm;ES  hif ywfoufaom rnfonf   haemufq k;H (0g) a&S @rwd k;om aemufqw k o f m jzpfaeaomurf;vSr;f csu f (0g) awmif;qd kcsurf qd k  tu,fI jrifawG @ od  d&SE kid af om tpdwftyd ki;f vrf;a=umif;rsm;r&S   d  hcv J #if/ r±d k;om;aom aphpyf!  d  dES i_ ;f jcif; jzpfa=umif; rjiif;qd kE kdio f r# oufaotaxmuftxm;jzpfonf? TudpYP ted  hrq f  k;H vkycf tqif   hrsm;Y use  d&f Sae&ef urf;vSr;f csuo f nf r&k   d;om;jcif;[k  rjiif;qk   d  dEik for# umvygwfv kH; oufaocH taxmuftxm;jzpfonf? Ú ukex f w k fprG ;f &nfr S tjrwfrsm;. oufotjzpf zd  SEyd fc&H aom tvkyo f rm;rsm;. tqif  htwef; ord ki;f a=umif;ES  hif tvkyo f rm;tqif   htwef;rsm;ud k oif   havsmaf om pHcsed pf EH e_ ;f tqif   ho k @d a&muf&ef jrS  hiw f ifay;&ef vd ktyfcsuw f  k @d tm;jzif   h rSeu f efo  hifavsmf a=umif; jyoEd ki  hcf v J #if TuJ   ho k @d aom vrf;a=umif;rsm;ud kausmfvGeo f nf   h  awmif;qd k csurf sm; (0g) urf;vSr;f csurf sm;wd k @onf tqrwef w&m;vGejf cif; r[kwfay//

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -82

yk'rf (122) Duty to bargain collectively when there exists a collective bargain agreement

pkaygi;f aphpyf!  d  _SEid f;a&;om;oabmwl csu f (pmcsKyf)   d&S  hcyJ gv#if pkaygi;f aphpyf!  d   S  _SEdi;f &rnh   f wm0ef? pkaygi;f aphpyf!  d  _SEid f;a&;oabmwlcsuf(pmcsKyf  d&  hScyJ gv#i)f pkaygi;f aphpyf!  d  _ES id ;f &rnf   h  wm0ef wGi f ‚if;wd k @. oufwef;umvwav#muftwGi;f xd koabmwlnDcsuu f   d k f rnfonf   hbuf urSt+yD;owf&yfq kid ;f jcif;aomfvnf;aumif;/jyKjyifjcif;aomfvnf;aumif;/rjyKvky&f [lI vnf; t"dy g` ,  df&o S nf// od k @aomfvnf; rnfonf   hzufurqd k  oabmwlncD suu f  kd &yfq kid ;f (0g) jyKjyifv kyd gu ‚if;wd k @.oufwrf;rukeq f  k;H rD  tenf;qH k; &ufaygi;f (60)tvd k wGio f wday;Ed k @wpfpma&;IwifoiG ;f Ed kio f nf//xd k&ufaygi;f (60)umvtwGi;f ESpfO;D ESpzf uf pvH k; rS  oabmwlncD su f topf&  d&Sonf   htcsdet f xd ‚if;wd k @ ESpOf ;D ESpzf ufpvH k;onf e*d kae+rJ  tqif   hwiG af e+yD; vuf  d&SoabmwlncD suyf g owfrw S fcsurf sm;ES  hi f tajctae rsm;wd k @u kd qufvufI tjynf  ht0 xda&mufpmG xde;f odr;f vd kufem&rnf// yk'rf (123) (5) ESpEf   hiS  f (5)ESpx f ufenf;aom oufwrf;umv&S  donf   h rnfonf   haphpyf!  d  _SEid ;f a&; oabmwlncD su f (pmcsKyf). oufwrf;ukeq f  k;H csed rf a&muf  DrS &ufaygi;f (60) umv rwd ki  Srf t D wGi;f vuf  d&w S m0efaqmif&u G faeaomoD;oef @ pkaygi;f aphpyf!  d  _SEid ;f a&;ud k,fpm; vS,. f *k%t f qif  htwef;ud k oHo,jzpfI uef @uu G af r;jref;vd konf   h yef=um;v$mud k vufcrH nfr[kwf// ud k,pf m;vS,t f wnfjyKaxmufccH sufay;aom a&G;aumuf  JyG “Certification Eleionct ” ud kvnf;jyKvkyaf y;rnfr[kw/f / yk'rf (124) Injunction prohibited ynwfcsufu kd wm;jrpfyw d fyifonf/ T“Oya'”.yk'rf ---wGi f rde @f q kdxm;csurf v S   JI $ rnfow l pH kwOD; (0g) rnfonf   hw&m;&H k; urS tvkyo f rm; jiif;cH krE_   hSif ygwo f ufI4if;/ jiif;cHkra_ =umif  h4if; ay:aygufjzpfymG ;vm onf   h rnfonf   hudpt P wGufu  drk # ,m,D  (0g) tjrJwef; ynwfcsu f (0g) wm;jrpfred  @f u  dk rxkwfjyef&?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -83

yk'rf (125) Exclusive bargaining representation oD;oef @aphpyf!  d  _SEid ;f &efu k, d pf m;vS,fa&G;cs,jf cif;/ tvky&f Siw f OD;.tvkyXf me/ vkyif ef;/ tvkyXf mecG   Jae&mwd k @wiG f tvkyv f yk af e=uaom tvkyo f rm;rsm;. 50µ &mck  diEf e_ ;f aom tvkyo f rm;OD;a&rS  T“Oya'yk'rf ”wGif azmfjyxm;aom rnfonf   henf;vrf;ES  hirf qd k a&G;cs,af y;vd kufaom tvkyo f rm;tzG   J @ onf pkaygi;f aphpyf!  d  _SEid ;f ay;&eftwGuf tvkyo f rm;rsm;. oD;oef @u k, d pf m;vS,jf zpf onf? tjcm;rnfonf   hy  d*k K~ vf tvkyo f rm;tzG   J @tpnf; uk   d,pf m;vS,f(0g) T “Oya'yk'rf ” atmufwiG f   JzG @pnf;xm;aomaumfrwDE  hSif  tjcm;aumfrwDw k @d onf/ tvky&f SiEf   hiS f pkaygif;aphpyf!  d  _ES di;f &eftwGuf xd ktvkyo f rm;uk   du k, d pf m;rjyK&? od k @aomf vnf; tvkyo f rm;wOD;csi;f (0g) ‚if;.ud k,fpm;vS,o f nf epfemcsu/f rauseyf csuw f  k @d u kd tvky&f Si f tm; rnfonf   htcsed rf qd k wifjyEd kicf   hiG   df&o S nf? xd ko k @d wifjycsufu kd ud kun f   daS y;jcif;onf rnfonf   htoH k;jyKEd kiaf om pkaygi;f aphpyf!  d  _SEid ;f oabmwlcsufE  hiS f qef @usizf v D mjcif; jzpfro S m jyKvkyEf  kid o f nf? ‚if;tjyif Tod k @wifjy&efrmS vnf; oD;oef @pak ygi;f aphpyf !S   d  _Eid ;f a&; ud k,fpm;vS,u f  kd Ed k @wpfpmay;yd k @ ta=umif;=um; +yD;jzpf&rnf? yk'rf (126) Representation issue in organized establishments aumif;pGm  JzG @pnf;xm;aom tzG  J @tpnf;rsm;wGif }uHKawG @&aom ud k,pf m;vS,af &G;cs,f onf   h jy\emrsm;? (u) aumif;rGepf mG   JzG @pnf;xm;aom tzG  J @tpnf;rsm;wGif vuf  d&w S m0ef xrf;aqmif aeaom oD;oef @aphpyf!  d  _SEid ;f a&;ud k,pf m;vS,rf sm;. orm"d/ *k%fxl;/ &mxl;wd k @u kd oHo,&S  dv#if uef @uu G far;jref;vd konf   h cd kiv f  kHaom yef=um;v$mud k tvkyo f rm; 0ef}uD; ±H k;od k @ pkaygi;f aphpyf!  d  _ES id ;f a&;oabmwlcsu(f pmcsKyf) oufwrf;rukeq f  k;H rD &ufaygi;f (60) umvtwGi;f wifoiG ;f vmcJ   haomf tvkyo f rm;rsm;.qENu kd aocsmpGmxkwaf zmfjy&ef aphpyf!  d  _ES id ;f a&; (Xmepdy)f ,lepf  d&S tvkyo f rm;rsm;tm;vH k;. (25) &mcd kiEf e_ ;f rSvnf; pma&;I oabmwlnaD =umif; xd kyef=um;v$mud k  axmufc  hcH yJ gu 0ef}uD;Xme (0g) aphpyf!  d  _ES id ;f jcif; pwifaomtcsed rf pS I yk'rf (---)t& 0ef}uD;XmerS cef @tyfxm;aom cH korm"dv}l uD;onf  v# @Kd 0u S q f ENraJ y;aom a&G;aumuf  Jyu G  k d usif;yap&ef tvk   d tavsmuf trde @f ay;&rnf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -84

(c) qENay;aom rJta&twGu f tenf;qH k; (50) &mck   diEf e_ ;f &&S  daom tvkyo f rm;tzG   J @ tpnf;onf oD;oef @ pkaygi;f aphpyfn  S  _dEid ;f a&;uk  d,pf m;vS,ftjzpf  twnfjyK axmufcH jcif; cH&rnf? oH k;  JzG @E  hSit f xufyg0if  ta&G;cHaom a&G;aumuf  Jyw G Gif qk   dv  dkonfrmS or*~  (2) ckE  hiS  f txufrS ,SOjf ydKif  ta&G;cHv#if ,SOjf ydKifor#aom or*~rsm;tm;vH k;twGuf pkpak ygi;f &&S  daom rJta&twGufonf xnf   h0ifr J tm;vH k;. (50) &mck   diEf e_ ;f &&S   d  hcaJ omf rJta&twGu f trsm;qH k;&&S  donf   hor*~(2)ck  t=um; 'kw, d t}udrf a&G;aumuf  Jy(G Runoff Election) jyKvkya f y;&rnf? tu,fI 'kw, d t}udrf a&G;aumuf  JyYG rnfonf   hor*~rS rJtrsm;pku  d k r&&S   dyJ jzpfaecJ   haomf tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD; (Xme)rS xkwfjyefaom vufawG @toH k;jyK&rnf   h pnf; rsO;f rsm;t& or*~wckprD aS eI 'kw, d t}udrf a&G;aumuf  JyYG &&S  d  hco J nf  h rJta&twGuf tcsK;d tpm;tvk   duf cef @tyfay;vk  duaf om (7) OD;yg0ifonf   h yl;wG   Jor*~ pkaygi;f aphpyf nd   S  _Eid ;f a&; aumfrwDu  d k   JzG @pnf;&ef 0ef}uD;(ok  d @r[kwf) cH korm"d  d&Sv}l uD;rS trde @f ay;&rnf? or*~wckprD S cef @tyfv  dkufaom tzG   J @0ifxJr S tenf;qH k;wOD;onf 4if;,lepf  (Xmepdy)f rS (t&m&S  d r[kwaf om) omreft  JzG @0ifjzpf&rnf? yl;wG  JaumfrwDonf pkaygi;f aphpyfn  S  _dEid ;f a&;qk   di&f m udpt P m;vH k;twGuf oD;jcm; uk   d,pf m;vS,t f jzpf  twnfjyK axmufcjH cif; cH&rnf? 4if;aumfrwDt  JzG @0ifrsm;onf &mxl;cef @tyfay;aom or*~. n$e=f um;csu f (z,f&mS ;jcif;ES  hi f tpm;xk  d;jcif;rsm;)uk   d vk   duef m&rnf? (*) &ufaygi;f (60) umv oufwef; ukeq f  k;H oGm;csed w f iG f uk   d,pf m;vS, f twnfjyK axmufco H nf   h a&G;aumuf  JyG (Certification Election) usi;f yay;&ef  awmif;cHvm$ wifjyjcif;rjyKcJ   hv#if tvky&f Sio f nf vuf  d&Swm0ef  d&Saeaom oD;oef @ pkaygi;f aphpyf!  S  _dEid f; a&; ud k,pf m;vS,ftrsm;pk. tqif   htwef;uk   d qufvuf todtrSwjf yK&rnf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -85

yk'rf (127) Petitions in Unorganized Establishments aocsmpGm   JzG @pnf;xm;aom tzG  J @tpnf;rsm;twGu f toem;cHv$m (awmif;cHv$m) wifoiG ;f jcif;? oD;oef @pak ygi;f aphpyf!  S  _dEid f;a&; ud k,fpm;vS,rf   d&Saom tzG   J @tpnf;wckwGif rSwyf  kw H ifjyD; aom tvkyo f rm; tzG   J @tpnf; (or*~) wckr S aeI awmif;cHv$m wifoiG ;f   hcJaom tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;&H k;rSaeI uk   d,fpm;vS,t f wnfjyK axmufccH suaf y;aoma&G;aumuf   JyG (Certification Election) usi;f yay;&rnf? ESpcf k (ok   d @r[kw)f ESpcf x k uf   dykaom tvkyo f rm;tzG   J @tpnf;(or*~)rsm;rS ,H k=unfavmufaom "rR"Xd mefusaom oufao cHcsufrsm;tay: tajccHI oD;oef @pak ygi;f aphpyfn  S  _dEid ;f a&; uk  d,pf m;vS,frsm;tjzpf ae&m/ tqif   h/ &yk   dicf   hiG Ef   hiS  f wjydKifeufwnf; tvky&f SiEf   hiS f aphpyf!  S  _dEid ;f a&;uk  dyg awmif;qk   d vmcJ   haom tcsderf w S yg; rnfonf   htvky&f iS u f rS  awmif;cHvm$ wifjyjcif; (ok  d @r[kwf) or*~. *k%o f dumQ ES  hi f tqif   htwef;uk  d oHo,jzih  f ar;jref;jcif; rjyK&? yk'rf (128) uk   d,pf m;vS,t f wnfjyKaxmufcaH y;a&; (Ceritification)onf  jy\emw&yfjzpfae aom udpw P   dki;f wGif 0ef}uD;Xme ok   d @r[kwf cH korm"dvl}uD; (tzG   J @)onf 0ef}uD;XmerS jyXmef;xm;aom pnf;rsO;f pnf;urf;rsm;ES  hit f nD &ufaygi;f (20)twGi;f uk  d,fpm;vS,f twnfjyK axmufco H nf  ha&G;aumuf  JyG (Certification Election) usi;f yay;&rnf? qEN rJay;Ek   dio f lrsm; rJay;&ef  t&nftcsi;f jynf   h  DrjS cif;ES  hif a&G;aumuf  Jy&G vm'frsm;uk   d a&G; aumuf  JyG pnf;rsO;f pnf;urf;ES  fit h nD 0ef}uD;Xme (ok   d @r[kw)f cH korm"dvl}uD; (tzG   J @)rS tqH k;tjzwfay;&rnf? qH k;jzwfcsuu f   dk Ed kiif aH wmftvkyo f rm;qufqaH &;&H k;ok   d @ wifjy jcif;rS  wyg; jyefvnf oH k;oyfc  hiG fr  d&Sap&? cH korm"dv}l uD; (tzG   J @). a&G;aumuf  JyG &vm'fw  d @k u   dk a&G;aumuf  Jyw G iG  f yg0if ,SOjf ydKifaom rnfonf   ht  JzG @urqk   d  txufwiG f azmfjyxm;aom yk'rf ES  hit f nD   d&S&rnf? rnfonf   htcgwiG rf  S toem;cHjcif;onf aphpyf !d   S  _Eid ;f wm0efu  dk &yfq  dik ;f jcif; rjyK&?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -86

yk'fr (1 (129) Grievance Machinery and Voluntary Arbitration epfemcsuu f  kd  ajz&Si;f ay;aom tvkyt f   JzG @E  hSi f w&m;pD&ifq k;H jzwf&ef  av#muf xm;aomtzG   J @? pkaygi;f aphpyf!  S  ddEi_ f;a&; oabmwlpmcsKyfu kd t"dy g` ,zf   hiG q f  k&d mYvnf;aumif; vufawG @ us  hio f  k;H &mYvnf;aumif; ay:aygufvmaomjy\emrsm;/ tvkyXf mersm;/ ukr% R rD sm;rS t&m&S  drsm;twGuf rl0g'rsm;/ tvkyt f ud kiEf   hiS yf wfoufaom owfrw S cf sufrsm;ES  hif tajctaersm;wd k @E  hiS  f tjcm;ae&mrsm;rSay:ayguv f maom jy\emrsm;ES  hit f vky+f rJ+rHI vH k+cHKr_   S&d&efpaom jiif;ckejf cif;rsm;ud k pD&ifq k;H jzwfay;&ef (pkaygi;f aphpyf!  S  _dEid ;f a&;) oabmwlncD suw f iG  f yg0ifaomtzG   J @rsm;onfepfemcsuEf   hiS f pD&ifq k;H jzwfcsufvkyx f  k;H vkyef nf;rsm; ud k owfrw S af y;&rnf? epfemcsuu f  kdajz;&Si;f ay;aom tvkyt f   JzG @o k @d wifjyvmaom epfemcsurf sm;tm;vH k;ud k wifjyonf  h ae&ufrpS I (7) &uftwGi;f ajz&Si;f ay;Ed kijf cif;r&d   S  hcaJ omf pkaygi;f aphpyf!  S  ddE_i;f a&; oabmwlncD suw f iG  f az:jyxm;aom w&m;pD&ifq k;H jzwf&ef cH k& kH;tzG  J @o k @d tqH k; tjzwfjyKvkyaf y;&ef tvd ktavsmuf wifjy+yD;jzpf&rnf? xk   do k @d aoma=umif;a=umif   h (pk aygi;f appyf!  S  _dEid ;f a&;) oabmwlncD suw f iG  f yg0ifaom tzG   J @rsm;onf cH korm"dv}l uD; (tzG   J @)tm; }udKwifowfrw S fcef @tyfxm;&rnf? od k @r[kwf Ed kiif aH wmftvkyo f rm; quf qHa&; w&m;&H k;rS oif   hav#mfpmG ,H k=unfvufcx H m;aom cH korm"dv}l uD;wOD; (0g) cH k orm"dv}l uD;rsm;tzG   J @u kad &G;cs,f&ef vkyx f  kH;vkyef nf;ud k  oabmwlncD supf mcsKyfwiG f xnf   hoiG ;f xm;+yD; }udKwif a&G;cs,cf ef @tyfxm;&rnf? tu,fI tzG   J @rsm;rSae+yD; cH korm"d vl}uD;wOD; (0g) cH korm"d vl}uD;rsm;tzG   J @u kd a&G;cs,f&ef  ysuu f Gu  hcf aJ omf tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD; (Xme) onf tqd kygv}l uD;tzG   J @u k d a&G;cs,cf ef @tyf&rnf? yk'rf (130) Jurisdiction of Arbitrators cH korm"dt  JzG @. w&m;pD&ify kid cf   hGif? cH korm"dv}l uD;(tzG   J @)onf pkaygi;f aphpyf!  S  _Ed id ;f a&; oabmwlpmcsKyfu kd t"dy g` ,zf   hiG q f  k&d m Yvnf;aumif; vufawG @u  hsio f  kH;&mYvnf;aumif; ay:aygufvmaomjy\emrsm;/ tvkyXf mersm;/ ukr% R rD sm;rS  t&m&d  Srsm;twGuf rl0g'tvkyt f ud kiEf   hiS yf gwo f ufaom owfrw S cf surf sm;ES  hi f tajctaersm;qd ki&f m tvkyt f mrcHcsu  Sf&d+yD; vH k+cHKpdwfcsr&_ d&efw k @d

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -87

rSm jzpfay:vmaom jiif;ckejf cif;rsm;ud k pD&ifq k;H jzwf  ay;&ef oD;oef @txl; w&m;pD&ify kid f cG  hi  S&f donf? Ed kiif aH wmftvkyo f rm;qufqaH &; w&m;&H k;ES  hifygwo f ufI T“Oya'yk'rf ” wGif xnf   hoGi;f xm;jcif;rSwyg;rnfonf   hw&m;&H k;rS  w&m;pD&ifcsuu f  kd rpGufzuf&? cH korm"d tzG   J @. w&m;pD&ify kid fc  hGit f wGi;f 0ef}uD;Xme. a&S @wGi  S&f daom rnfonf   hupd rP qd k w&m; pD&ifay;&ef  csujf cif; cH korm"dv}l uD; (tzG   J @) xH wifjy&rnf? yk'rf (131) Jurisdiction over other labour disputes tjcm;aomtvkyo f rm;jiif;cH krr_ sm;tay:w&m;pD&ify kid cf   hGif cH korm"dv}l uD; (0g) cH korm"dv}l uD;tzG  J @onf/ tzG   J @rsm;. oabmwlncD suft& vdycf J wnf;vnf;jzpfaeaom aphpyf!  S  _dEid ;f jcif;ES  hif tvkyo f rm;rsm;tay: rw&m;pGm jyKrljcif; rsm; tyg0if tjcm;aomtvkyo f rm; jiif;cH krr_ sm; tm;vH k;ud k =um;emppfaq;+yD; qH k;jzwf csu f csay;Ed kicf   hiG   S&f donf? yk'rf (132) cH korm"dv}l uD; (0g) cH korm"dw&m;ol}uD;rsm;tzG   J @wGif tr_=um;emppfaq;&efoufao vufc&H efE  hiS f tzG   J @rsm;twGi;f ajz&Si;f ajyvnfr&_   S&dap&eftyg0if  jiif;cH kra_ jyvnfoGm;ap a&;twGuf vd ktyfovd k  ta&;,l&ef  tm%m&d   Sonf? xk  do k @d r[kwfbJ tzG   J @rsm;onf tjcm;enf;vrf;ud k  oabmwlaomf cH korm"dvl}uD; (0g) cH kt  JzG @onf  jiif;cH kr_& kH;wifvm onf   [email protected]&ufrpS I jyuQ'ed f&ufaygi;f (20) &uftwGi;f w&m;pD&ifcsufu kd csrw S fay;&rnf? w&m;pD&ifcsufwGi f tcsuftvufrsm;ES  hi‚f if;tajccHaom Oya'ud k xnf   hoiG ;f ay;&rnf? tzG   J @rsm;rS ‚if;pD&ifcsurf w d LW ud kvufcH&  S&d+yD; jyuQ'ed &f uf  (10) &uf=um+yD;aomf ‚if;pD&ifcsufonf  t+yD;owfaemufq k;H ES  hif Oya't& twnf  jzpfap &rnf? cH korm"dtwGuf ay; aqmif&rnf   htca=u;aiGu k d tzG  J @rsm;rS yl;wG   Jay;aqmif&rnf (od k @r[kwf) pkaygi;f aphpyf!  Sd   _Edi;f a&;oabmwlcsuw f Gif owfrw S fq k;H jzwfxm;onf  h twd ki;f jzpfap&rnf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -88

J. Strikes and Lockouts

oydwarS farSmufjcif;ES  hif tvkyf&iS fr, S m,Dtvky&f yfq kid f;xm;jcif; yk'fr (133) Strikes, picketing, and lockouts oydwaf rSmufjcif;/ qENjyoydww f m;jcif;ES  hif tvkyf&iS frS  ,m,Dtvky&f yf qd ki;f xm; xm;jcif;? (u) pkaygi;f aphpyf!  S  dEd i_ ;f &ef(0g) tjyeftvSeu f lnaD p&efE  hiS  f tumuG,fay;&efw k @d twGuf &nf&, G f+yD; tvkyo f rm;rsm;onf wufnDvufnD yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G faom vkyaf qmif csurf sm;ud k  aqmif&Gu&f eftcG  hi f ta&;&d  Sonf? TOya'jyXmef;csuw f iG t f vkyo f rm;rsm; ES  hif rSwyf  kw H if+yD;aom tvkyo f rm;tzG   J @tpnf;rsm; oydwaf rSmuf&efE  hiS f qENjyoydwf wm;&ef tcG  hit f a&;ES  hit f vkyf&iS rf sm;tvkyu f  kd  ,m,D&yfq kid ;f xm;&ef tcG  hit f a&;wd k @u kd todtrSwfjyKxm;ygonf? od k @aomfvnf; or*~wckE  hiS w f ckt=um;ES  hi f or*~wcktwGi;f Y jzpfay:aomjiif;cH krr_ sm;ES  hi f ygwo f ufonf   hta=umif;jycsujf zif   h rnfonf   htvkyo f rm; or*~rS oydwaf rSmufjcif;ESifh rnfonf   htvky&f iS u f rS  ,m,D&yfq kid ;f a=umif; a=ujimjcif; rjyKvky&f ? (c) vdycf w J nf;vnf;jzpfI &yfq kid ;f ae&onf  h aphpyf!  S  _dEid f;jcif;udprP sm;wGif oD;oef @ pkaygi;f !d  S  _Eid ;f a&; ud k,fpm;vS,o f nf oydwaf rSmufrnf[o l nf   h owday;pmwifjycsuf (0g) tvky&f iS o f nf tvky, f m,D&yfq kid ;f xm;rnf[o l nf   h owday;pm wifjycsuu f  kd rdrw d  k @d pwifaqmif&Gurf nf   h&ufxuf  tenf;qH k;(30) &uf }udKwifI 0ef}uD;Xmeod k @ wifoiG ;f Ed kio f nf? tvkyo f rm;rsm;tay:rw&m;aom vkyaf qmifcsurf sm; jzpfay:ae aom jzpf&yfrsm;wGirf _ owday;pmwifoGi;f csed rf mS (2) &uf }udKwifI xk   dowday;pmud k rSwfy kw H ifxm;aom tvkyo f rm; tzG   J @tpnf;rS ‚if;.tzG   J @0ifrsm;ud k,fpm; wyfoiG ;f Ed kif onf? (*) od k @aomfvnf; w&m;enf;vrf;us a&G;cs,w f ifajrmufxm;aom or*~.t&m&d  Srsm; ud k tvkyrf x S kwyf ,fypfjcif;/ xk   do k @d jyKvkyjf cif;a=umif; or*~u kd +zdK  JcGzsufp;D onf  h  oabm oufa&mufjcif;/ or*~&yfwnfjcif;ud k xdyg;vmjcif; ponf  hudp&P yfwiG  f or*~onf csujf cif; rqd ki;f rwG ta&;,lE kid o f nf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -89

(C) }udKwifowday;onf   h owday;pmonf tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;rS xkwfjyefa=ujimxm; aomvufawG @ taumiftxnfaz:onf   h pnf;rsO;f pnf;urf;rsm;ES  hit f nDjzpf&rnf? (i) at;aq;wnf+idraf om umvyd ki;f od k @a&mufo k @d a&mufvmcsdew f iG f tvd kqENrsm; oabmtav#muf  auseyfajz&Si;f ajyvnf+yD;pD;oGm;ap&ef 0ef}uD;XmerS tpGr;f uket f m; xkw}f udK;yrf;ay;&ef wm0ef  S&donf? }udKwifowday;pm wifoiG ;f +yD;aemuf apmif   hq kid ;f &ef vd ktyfaom [email protected]&ufrsm; ukev f Geo f mG ;onf  hw kdiaf tmif  jiif;cH kro _ nf  ajyvnfatmif ajz&Si;f jcif; r&&d  SyjJ zpfaeaomf tvkyo f rm;or*~onf oydwaf rSmufE kid o f nf  (0g) tvky&f Sio f nf tvkyu f  kd ,m,D&yfq  dik ;f a=umif; a=ujimEd kifonf? (p) oydwaf rSmufa=umif;a=ujim&ef qH k;jzwfcsufcs&mwGi f or*~.tajccH   JzG @pnftyk cf sKyf yH k pnf;rsO;f ESif h a'oEW& Oya'rsm;ES  hi f oabmwlnDcsuf&  S&d&rnf? tvky, f m,D&yfq kid ;f xm;&ef qH k;jzwfcsucf s&mwGif aumfy kad &;&Si;f . tkycf sKyfa&; bkwt f   JzG @0if !$e=f um;a&; rSL;rsm; trsm;pk  (0g) tvky&f Siu f  kd xde;f csKyfxm;aom tjcm;}uD;=uyfa&;tzG   J @. oabmwl nDcsuf&  S&d&rnf? (q) pufrv _ yk if ef;wckwGi f trsK;d om;tm;vk  H k;ES  hiq f  kid af om ta&;ay:tajctaersKd; zefwD;vmapEd kiaf vmufatmif oydwaf rSmufjcif; (0g) tvky&f Sirf  S ,m,Dtvky&f yfq kid ;f xm;jcif;jzpfE kid o f nf  h tvkyo f rm;jiif;cH kr  S&_ daeonf  (0g) tvkyo f rm;tay:rw&m;aom vkyaf qmifjcif;rsm; vGeu f Jjyif;xefonf   h yH ko¾efwnf  S&ad eonf [lI zuf'&,fjynf axmifpo k rRwrS xifjrif,lqv#if orRwonf tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;tm; tjiif;tckef tay:w&m;pD&if&ef !$e=f um;Ed kijf cif;ES  hi f (0g) Oya't&pD&ifq k;H jzwf&ef  twnfjyK axmufcaH y;jcif;onf  tajctaewnf+idraf t;csr;f oGm;ap&ef &ufaygi;f (60) owfrw S f wm0efay;vd kuo f uJ   ho k @d E  hiS  f &nf&G,x f m;aom (0g) jzpfay:vmtH   hqq J  J oydwaf rSmufjcif; (0g) tvky&f Sirf S tvky, f m,D&yfq kid ;f xm;jcif;ud k  wm0efcaH om (0g) twnfjyK axmufcaH omtrde @f wGif wduspGmaz:jyxm;onf   htwd ki;f trde @f ay;apcd kif;vd kufouJ   ho k @d tusL;d oufa&muf  d&Sap&rnf? twnfjyKaxmufcaH y;csed Yf trSew f u,f oydwaf rSmuf jcif; (0g) tvkyrf , S m,D&yfq kid ;f xm;jcif;cH&aom tvkyo f rm;tm;vH k;onf tvkyf cGio f  k @d csujf cif; jyef0if&rnf? tvky&f Sirf v S nf; csufjcif;vkyif ef;aqmif&Gufjcif;ud k

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -90

jyefvnf  aqmif&Guaf y;&rnf? oydwrf arSmufr D (0g) tvky, f m,D  r&yfq kid ;f rDu wnf  S&ad eaom owfrw S fcsurf sm;ES  hi f tajctaetm;vH k;twd ki;f tvkyo f rm;tm;vH k;ud k jyefvnftvky0f ifap&rnf? tvkyo f rm;tay: rw&m;aomrnfonf   h vkyaf qmifjcif; rsm;ud k rqd k  Oya't& aqmif&rnf   h cH korm"dvl}uD;(0g)   Hckt  JzG @. r%mr trde @f jzif   h csucf si;f rqd ki;f rwG  jyKjyifap&rnf? xk   djyKjyifcsuo f nf  csufcsi;f jyefvnfpwifx kduo f nf   h rnfonf   htvkyt f ud kirf qd k owfrw S fcsurf sm;ES  hit f ajctaewd k @. wpdyw f a'o tyd ki;f wyd ki;f jzpfap&rnf? TjyKjyifcsuo f nf tvkyo f rm;rsm;tay:rw&m;aom vkyaf qmifjcif;a=umif   h rnf   honf   h  w&m;pG  Jq krd w _ iG rf qd k  r+yD;jywfao;Itr_q kid ;f   hiHxm;&ef tcsdeu f mvtwGi;f Yomv#i f tusKd;oufa&mufap&rnf? ‚if;jyifx  dku  ho J  k @d aom udpw P Gi f aemufq k;H ydwfp&D ifx k;H ES  hijf yKjyifcsuw f  k @d twd ki;f vd kuef m&rnf? (q) Oya't& cH k  Jz @G p&D ifjcif; jyKvkyaf epOfumvtwGi;f ES  hif ‚if;umvrwd kirf w D &m;qd kiaf e aomtzG   J @rsm;onf ‚if;wd k @. jiif;cH kr_u kd  (qENtav#mufc k  JzH  @G p&D ifjcif;) Voluntary arbitration od k @ wifjyEd kio f nf? (Z) cH korm"dvl}uD; (0g) cH k  Jz @G onf  =um;0ifjzefajz&rnf? TuJ  ho k @d }udK;yrf;aqmif&Gufr_ ratmifjrif  hcaJ om trsKd;om; tvkyo f rm;qufqaH &; w&m;&H k;. t}uD;jrif   hq k;H aom w&m;pD&ify kid ef ,fwGi;f usa&mufaom tvkyo f rm;rsm;tay:rw&m;aom vkyaf qmif jcif;tr_rsm;rSv  JGI usejf y\emtm;vH k;ES  hit f   JzG @rsm;=um;wGi f jzpfay:aeaom pkaygi;f aphpyf !d   S  dEi_ ;f a&; jy\emrsm;tm;vH k;wd k @u kd ‚if;cH korm"dv}l uD;cH kt  JzG @wiG  f aemufq k;H jy\em rsm;tm;vH k;ud k  ajyvnfap&ef  ajz&Si;f Ed kiq f  kH;k jzwfy kid fc  hGi  S&f donf? w&m;&H k;awmf. pD&ifq k;H jzwfcsufu kd vd kufem+yD; cH korm"dv}l uD; (0g) cH kt  JzG @onf tvH k;pH kyg0ifaom jiif;cH kru _  kd vd ktyfygu ,m,D oabmtm;jzif  hajz&Si;f ay;Ed kifonf? yk'rf (134) Prohibited activities. wm;jrwfyw d fyifxm;aom vkyaf qmifjcif;rsm; (u) rnfonf   h tvkyo f rm;tzG   J @tpnf;(0g) tvky&f iS rf qd konf  T “Oya'yk'rf ” ES  hit f nDpak ygi;f I OD;pGmyxr aphpyf!  S  _Ed id ;f jcif;rjyKvkyyf  J (0g) a&S @wiG af z:jy+yD;aom yk'rf t& yxrOD;pGm owday;pm wifoGi;f jcif;rjyKvkyyf J oydwfarSmuf(0g) ,m,D

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -91

tvkyyf w d f  xm;jcif;wd k @u k d a=ujimjcif;rjyK&? 0ef}uD;rSw&m;pD&ifjcif; wm0efu kd vufcH +yD;rS  (0g) jiif;cH kru _  kd  Oya' t& ppfaq;&ef  (0g) (qENtav#mufc k  JzH  @G p&D if&ef) twGuf wifoiG ;f +yD;rS rnfonf   h oydwaf rSmufjcif; (0g) tvky, f m,Dyw d x f m;jcif;ud kr# a=ujim jcif;rjyK&? (c) tvkyo f rm;rsm; tjiif;tcH kjzpfaepOf  (0g) ud k,fy kid pf nf;&H k;cG  hiu f  kdu  h sio f  kH;aepOf  (0g) pk aygi;f aphpyf!  S  _dEid ;f aepOfwGif tvkyo f rm;rsm;. +idr;f csr;f pGmqENjyjcif;ud k rnfolwpH kwOD; urS  t"rRt=urf;zufI‚if; (0g) twif;t=uyfjyKrl+cdr;f ajcmufI‚if; [ef @wm;jcif;/ aESmif;aES;apjcif;/ 0ifa&mufpu G zf ufjcif;rjyKvky&f (0g) ‚if;uJ   ho k @d [ef @wm;jcif; (0g) 0if a&mufpw G fzufjcif;wk  d @u kv d nf; tm;ay;tm;ajrSmufjcif;rjyK&? (*) rnfonf   htvky&f iS u f rSvnf; rnfonf   hoydw+f zdK  JcGolu kdtoH k;jyKjcif; (0g) tvky0f if vkyaf pjcif; rjyK&? rnfol wpH kwOD;urSvnf; oydwf+zdK  JcGot l jzpf tvkyv f yk u f  kdijf cif; rjyK&? (C) oydwaf rSmufolrsm;.ae&mY tvky0f ifvky&f ef (0g) oydwfarSmufae&mXmeyd kief uf wGi;f rS 0ifa&muf§xGufomG ;aom oydwaf rSmuform;rsm;. ae&mYae&m0if,&l ef }udK; yrf;olrnfo @l u krd qd k rnfonf   hjynfo @l 0efxrf;t&m&d (0g) tvkyo f rm;/ ppfbuf/ &Jbuf rSt&m&d   S0efxrf;rsm;tyg0if  (0g) vufeufu kid af qmifolurS§rnfonf   henf;vrf;ES  hirf # ac:aqmif  hcjJ cif; (0g) yg0ifapjcif;/ umuG,af pmif   h=uyf yd k @aqmifay;jcif;rjyK&? trSew f u,f  t=urf;zufjcif; (0g) tjcm;&mZ0efru _ sL;vGejf cif;rsm; xd ktxJwiG  f jzpfay:r_r  S&d  hcJ v#if &Jwyf  Jz @G onfoydww f m;xm;aom pnf;.tjyifbufYomae&rnf? Tae&mwGif +idr;f csr;f a&;ESifh pnf;urf; ao0yfru _  kd xde;f odr;f &ef  toufE  hiS pf nf;pdrt f  k;d tdru f  kd umuG,f&efE  hiS  f (0g) w&m;Oya'pd k;rd k;a&;twGuf rnfonf   hjynfo @l t&m&d   S. vd ktyfovd k ta&;,l aqmif&Gujf cif;ud krqd k wm;jrpfjcif;wd k @u k d rjyKvkyaf p&? (i) oydwfarSmufqENjyaeaomol rnfolrqd konf  t=urf;zufjcif; twif;t=uyf  jyK vkyjf cif; (0g) +cdr;f ajcmufjcif; (0g) tvky&f Si. f yd kief ufy&0d k%w f iG ;f od k @ w&m;0ifudprP sm; twGufvw G fvyfpmG 0ifa&mufc  hiG  f (0g) xGucf mG cG  hiu f  kd  taESmuft,Sut f [ef @twm;jyK jcif; (0g) trsm;jynfoo l mG ;&m vrf;rsm;ud kyw d fyif wm;jrpfjcif;wd k @u krd jyKvky&f ? (p) rnfonf   htvky&f Sirf qd konf tvkyo f rm;jiif;cH kr _ ajyvnfajz&Si;f +yD;aemufwiG f rnf onf   h oydwfarSmuf tvkyo f rm;ud krqd k  &mZ0wfrr_ uif;aom vkyaf qmifcsuaf =umif  h jypf'%fp&D ifc&H oltay:rSv  JGI tvkyjf yefvnfay;tyf&efysuu f Gujf cif; (0g) ‚if; oydwf arSmuf tvkyo f rm;ae&mY t+rJwrf;tpm;xd k;cef @xm;jcif; rvky&f ?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -92

K.Participation

yg0ifqif  JEaG qmif&Gufjcif;? yk'rf (135) (u) tpd k;&.qH k;jzwfcsuEf   hiS rf l0g'csrw S faomtzG   J @tpnf;Xmersm;wGif tvkyo f rm;rsm; ES  hi f tvky&f iS rf sm;. ud k,pf m;vS,frsm; vufawG @ususjzpfE kid o f r#yg0ifap&rnf? (c) tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD; (0g) ‚if;. w&m;0iftm%mv$   Jtyfxm;aom ud k,pf m;vS,frsm; wd k @onf   DES;aESmwk   diyf ifjcif; owif;a0iSzvS,jf cif;ES  hif ukex f w k fvyk &f mY tvkyo f rm; yd ki;f ES  hif tkycf sKyfry_  kdi;f t=um; at;csrf;+idr;f oufrw _  k @d u kd wd k;jrS  hiaf y;&eftwGuf pDpOfy kaH z: &nf&, G fonf   h  us  hifx k;H rsm; (Codes of Design) ud k pOf;pm;cs  hicf sed &f efE  hiS  f us  hifo kH;&ef tpd k;&/ tvkyo f rm;rsm;ES  hif tvky&f Sirf sm; oH k;OD;oH k;zvS,fw k @d . ud k,fpm;vS,rf sm;yg0if aom trsK;d om;nDvmcH/ a'onDvmcH/ pufru _ ek x f w k fq kid &f m nDvmcHw k @d u kd  r=umc% tv#O;f oif   hovd k ac:,lusif;y&rnf? yk'rf (136) (u) oD;oef @pak ygi;f !d   S  _Eid f;a&; ud k,pf m;vS,ftjzpf tvkyform;tzG   J @tpnf;jyKxm;jcif; r&d   Saom tvkyo f rm; (15) OD;xuf yd kr kcd ef @xm;aom tvky&f Siw f  kid ;f . tvkyo f rm; tm;vH k;twGu f v# @Kd 0u S frq J ENc, H lenf;twd ki;f ‚if;wd k @u kd,w f  kdiv f Gwv f yfpmG a&G;cs,f aom ud k,pf m;vS,frsm;ES  hif pDrt H yk cf sKyfrq _  kid &f m ud k,fpm;vS,frsm;tjzpf tvky&f iS rf S uk   d,pf m;vS,x f m;aom tvkyo f rm;r[kwo f nf   how l  k @d ta&twGuf wlnpD mG yg0if   JzG @ pnf;xm;onf   h  “tvkyo f rm;ES  hit f yk fcsKyfa&;tzG   J @yw l   JGaumfrwD” rS ud k,pf m;jyK&rnf? TuJ   ho k @d a&G;cs,jf cif;ud k  (2) ESpv f #if  w}udrjf yKvky&f rnf? tvkyo f rm;ES  hit f yk cf sKyfa&; tzG   J @yw l   JGaumfrwDonf  tenf;qH k; wvv#if  (1) }udru f s (0g) tvkyo f rm;tzG   J @ (0g) tkycf sKyfa&;tzG   J @w k @d uawmif;qd kvmwd ki;f tpnf;ta0;usi;f y&rnf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -93

(c) tu,fI tvkyo f rm;OD;a& (100) xufenf;aomf ud k,fpm;vS,(f 2) OD;ud k a&G; cs,&f rnf? tu,fI (100)ES  hi f txufjzpfaomf ud k,fpm;vS,f(5) OD;ud k a&G;cs,f&rnf? tvkyo f rm;OD;a& (50) wd k;yG g;vmwd ki;f ud k,pf m;vS,f (2) OD; xyfavmif;a&G;cs,&f rnf? (*) tvky&f Siw f OD;rS tvkyXf metrsm;tjym;&d   S  hcaJ omf vuf  S&t d vkyo f rm;ud k,pf m;vS,f rsm;rS v# @Kd 0u S frq J EN ay;I tvkyo f rm;ud k,pf m;vS,rf sm;ud k a&G;cs,+f yD; tkycf sKyfa&;tzG   J @ rS ud k,pf m;vS,rf sm;ES  hi f ta&twGuf wlnDpmG yg0ifaom “tvky&f iS yf g0ifaom aumfrwD” (Employer-wide Committee ) ud k   JzG @pnf;&rnf? tvkyXf mewckwiG f tvkyv f kyaf e=uaom tvkyform;OD;a& (100) (0g) ‚if;. tpdwftyd ki;f OD;a&&d  Sv#if ud k,pf m;vS,w f OD;us “tvky&f Siyf g0ifaomaumfrwD” wGiyf g0if&rnf/ tvkyo f rm; OD;a& (1000) ES  hi f txuf  S&daom tvkyXf mewckv#i f tvkyo f rm; (500) v#i f wOD;us ud k,pf m;wd k;I “tvky&f Si f yg0ifaomaumfrwD” wGi f yg0if&rnf? yk'rf (137) tvkyo f rm; (3) OD;ES  hit f xufcef @xm;aomtvky&f Siw f  kdi;f onf tvkyo f rm;OD;a& (100) jynf   hv#i f (0g) (100) xufenf;v#if tvkyo f rm;rsm;u v# @Kd 0u S frq J ENay;+yD; a&G; cs,af om tvkyo f rm;ud k,pf m;vS, f (3) OD;ES  hi f aemufxyftvkyo f rm;OD;a& (500) jynf  hv#if ‚if;xufenf;v#if  aemufxuf ud k,fpm;vS, f (1) OD;pD wd k;Iyg0ifaom use;f rma&;ES  hiv f  kH+cHKa&;aumfrwDu kd   JzG @pnf;ay;&rnf? tvky&f Sio f nf tvkyXf me (vkyif ef; Xme) rsm;pGm  S&d  hcv J #if Xmewckp. D v# @Kd 0u S frq J ENay;jcif;jzif   h a&G;cs,v f  ku d faom ud k,pf m;vS,rf sm;yg0ifonf? “tvky&f Siyf g0ifaom tvkyo f rm;rsm; usef;rma&;ES  hif vH k+cHKa&; aumfrwD” ud k   JzG @pnf;ay;&rnf? xk   daumfrwDwGif tvkyXf mewckprD S uk   d,pf m;vS,af e&m wckpD &yd kicf   hiG   S&f d+yD; tvkyo f rm; (100) ES  hi f txuf  S&ad omXmersm; jzpfv#if tvkyo f rm; (500) tvkyv f yk af eaomXmeY aemufxyf ud k,fpm;vS,w f OD; &yd kicf   hiG   S&f donf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -94

yk'rf (138) tvky&f Siw f OD;. vuf  S&t d vkyv f kyu f  kid af eaom tvkyo f rm;ES  hif tvkyv f yk af qmifae jcif;r&d  Saom tvkyo f rm;wd ki;f onf  aumfrwDrsm;wGi f yg0if&rnf   h  v# @Kd 0u S frq J ENay;jcif; jzif   h a&G;cs,v f  kduaf om ud k,pf m;vS,rf sm;twGuf rJay;&eftcG  hit f a&;&d   Sonf? rJay;&ef tcG  hit f a&;&d  SI tvkyv f kyu f  kid af ejcif;r&d   Saom tvkyo f rm;rsm;txJwGif tvkycf iG rf S xkwyf ,f &yfq kid ;f xm;aomtvkyo f rm;rsm;tm;vH k; “Oya'yk'rf ”Oya'ud k  csK;d azguI f tvkyf rvkyb f  J ae&aom tvkyo f rm;rsm;tm;vH k; od k @r[kwf tvkyt f ud ki. f owfrw S cf su f rsm;ES  hiyf gwfouf+yD; tvkyEf   hiS t f jiif;tcH kjyKI tvkyrf vky&f olrsm;ES  hif T“Oya'yk'rf ” wGif t"dy g` ,zf   hiG q f  kx d m;onf  h  “tvkyo f rm;”qd konfE  hiS f ud kufn+D yD; tvkyv f kyu f  kdiaf ejcif;r&d  Saom tvkyo f rm;rsm;tm;vH k; yg0ifonf? tvkycf iG frS t+idr;f pm;,l+yD;olrsm; (0g) tvkycf iG frS  tpOft+rJuif;uGm+yD;aomolrsm;ES  hif tvky  d&f S wd k @onf TuJ   ho k @d aom a&G;cs,  JfyrG sm;Y rJqENray;&? TuJ  ho k @d aom rnfonf   h a&G;cs,  Jyf YG rqd k vkyo f uf  (3) v ausm  Sf&daom rnfonf   h tvkyo f rm;rqd k ud k,pf m;vS,t f jzpfta&G;cH&ef tcG  hit f a&;&d  Sonf? tvkyo f if=um;aeolrsm;ES  hif tvkyo f if  (tqifjrif   h) olrsm;onf yk'rf (--) t& tvkycf ef @tyfc&H +yD;jzpfonf[k owfrw S x f m;jcif;cH&csdew f Gi f rJay;&ef tcG  hit f a&;&d  Sonf? yk'rf (139) aumfrwDrsm;. vkyif ef;vkyaf qmif&eftwGuf ukeu f saiGp&dwu f  kd tvky&f Sirf S tukeu f scH  &rnf? ‚if;tjyif tvkycf sed t f wGi;f aumfrwDtwGuf vd ktyfIwm0ef  S&pd mG vkyaf qmifay;&aom ud k,fpm;vS,rf sm;tm; ‚if;wd k @. yH kreS v f kycf aiGa=u;E_e;f twd ki;f tca=u;aiG  ay;ap&rnf? od k @aomf yk'rf (--) wGi f yg  d&o S nf   h twk   di;f tvky&f Sif wOD;taejzif   h rnfonf   h  aumfrwDa&G;cs,jf cif; od k @r[kwf qH k;jzwfcsufjcif;wd k @wiG f tajz&v'ftwGuf qJ   Gaqmifvr$ ;f rd k;&ef}udK;pm;v#if ‚if;onf tvkyo f rm;rsm;tay: rw&m;aom vkyaf qmifjcif;yifjzpfonf? xk   d @jyif  aumfrwD. vkyu f  kid af qmif&Gufjcif; yifjzpfonf? xd k @jyif  aumfrwD. vkyu f  kdiaf qmif&Guaf y;jcif; twGufy krH eS Ef e_ ;f twd ki;f vkycf a=u;aiGay;jcif;rSwyg; aumfrwDa&G;cs,jf cif;twGu f (od k @r[kw)f qH k;jzwfcsucf sjcif; wd k @E  hiS yf wfouf+yD; rnfonf   hu kd,pf m;vS, f (od k @r[kw)f tvkyo f rm;ud krqd k tvky&f iS  f rS

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -95

aiGay;jcif; (od k @r[kw)f tzk   d;wefypPnf; vufajymif;ay;jcif;onf tvkyo f rm;rsm;tay: rw&m;aom vkyaf qmifjcif; jzpfa=umif;   dckiv f  kHonf   h oufaocH  taxmuftxm; (rrSeaf =umif;rjiif;qd kEdik o f I) jzpfonf? xd k @a=umif   h tvky&f SiEf   hiS t f u,fI ay;aiG ES  hiyf pPnf;ud kvufc  hcH aJ omf tvkyo f rm;tm; T “Oya'yk'rf ” wGif xnf   hoiG ;f xm;aom jypf'%fcwfjcif; twk  di;f cH&rnf   htjyif zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp. k jypfrq _  kid &f m Oya't& vmbfay;&ef }udK;yrf; qG   Jaqmifjcif; (0g) vmbfay; vmf, l jyKvkyjf cif; ponf  h oufq  dik &f mjypfrt _ & jypf'%fay;jcif;cH&rnf? aumfrwD a&G;cs,&f mrsm;Y tvky&f Si. f w&m;r0ifaom qG   JaqmifvrG ;f rd k;r_jyKvkyjf cif;ud k cd kiv f  kHaom taxmuftxm; awG @  S&&d aomf a&G;cs,  Jyf u G  kd 0ef}uD;XmerS  yg0ifaom =um;aeud k,pf mvS,t f   JzG @r S aemufwzef jyefvnfI usif;yay;&rnf? ‚if;jyif  aumfrwD. qH k;jzwfcsucf s&mYvnf; TuJ  ho k @d v$r;f rd k;qG   Jaqmif  hcaJ omf qH k;jzwfcsuu f   dk y,fzsufjcif;ES  hi f jyefvnfppfaq;jcif; jyKvkyf &rnf? vmbfay;jcif;ud k vufcaH om (0g) vufc&H ef  oabmwlaom rnfonf   h ud k,pf m;vS,u f  kdrqd k tvkycf iG frS xkwfy,f&rnf? yk'rf (140) (1) T “Oya'” wGif   JzG @pnf;xm;aom rnfonf   haumfrwDwiG rf qd kyg0ifaom oD;oef @ pkaygi;f aphpyf!  S  _dEid f;a&; uk  d,pf m;vS,fw kid ;f ES  hif tvkyo f rm;ud k,fpm;vS,w f  kdi;f onf atmufaz:jyygowif;tcsufrsm;ud k  awmif;qd kjcif;rjyK&yJE  hiS f tcsed   Srf eD m;vnfE kid af om a0g[m& toH k;tE_e;f rsm;jzif   h az:jyxm;csufrsm;ud k &yd kicf   hiG   S&f donf? (u) tvky&f Si. f ESppf OfaiGpm&if;&Si;f wrf;ES  hif aiGt&if;  DES;jrSy  HfEo S lrsm;xH  (0g) rnfonf   h jynfwGi;f jynfy tm%myd kiw f   d @k xrH qd k wifjyxm;jcif;rsm;? (c) tvky&f iS t f m; tm%mtyfEiS ;f xm;onf   h wzG  J @v kH;ES  hiq f  kdifaom (0g) w&m;0if pmcsKyf pmwrf;rsm;? (*) tjcm;aom yk  d*K~ vft  JzG @tpnfrsm;. xde;f csKyfr_ (od k @r[kw)f ‚if; ES  hit f wl rnfonf   h bufwiG f tkyfcsKyfru _  kdrqd k &if  DE;S jrSy  HEf o S lrsm;tm;vH k;. yd kiq f  kid rf E_   hSif ywfoufaom tquftoG,yf ;l aygi;f jcif;rsm; tm;vH k;a&S @wiG  f az:jyxm;jcif; r&d   Sor#u k d wdusI jynf  hp kH onftxd xkwaf z:&Si;f vif;jcif;?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -96

(C) rnfonftvkyo f rm;tzG   J @rqd k tvkyt f mrcH  S&da&;ES  hif vH k+cHKpdwcf s&r_w k @d u kd xdc ku d f wkev f _yo f Gm;aprnf   h tvm;tvm&d  Saom owif;rsm;tm;vH k;? (i) tvkyo f rm;av#myh pf&jcif;a=umif   h‚if;/ vkyif ef;topf  jyefvnf   JzG @pnf;&jcif;a=umif   h ‚if;/ tkycf sKyfa&;yd kif; (0g) tkycf sKyfa&;vkyif ef;? tpOfajymif;vJ&jcif;a=umif   h‚if;/ aiGa=u; r&d   SaomI vl  JrpG m&if;0ifjzpf&jcif;a=umif   h‚if; (0g) tjcm;aomvkyif ef;qd ki&f m ta=umif; a=umif   h‚if;/ tusKd;ta=umif;ay: tajcrwnfb/J tvkyo f rm;rsm;tm; pkaygi;f I rnfonh   ftvkyu f  krd  S &yfq kid ;f xkwyf ,fjcif;ud k rqd k (---) v   dEk @ wpf owday;jcif;? (p) use;f rma&;ES  hiv f  k+H cHKr_q kid af om owif;tm;vH k; (2) tvkyt f ud kiEf   hiS fywfoufaom owfrw S cf surf sm;ES  hi f tajctaersm; tvkyo f rm; tmrcH  S&rd _ vH k+cHKpdwcf s&r_(0g) tvkyo f rm;. tcG  hit f a&;rsm;/ usef;rma&;ES  hiv f  kH+cHKr_rsm; ud k xdyg;Ed kiaf om tvky&f Sif. rnfonf   hvyk af qmifjcif;wd k @u krd qd k  awmif;qd kcsdew f iG f tvky&f Sio f nf  jynf   hp kI H wdusaom owif;tcsut f vufw k @d u kd oD;oef @aphpyf!  S  _dEid ;f a&; ud k,pf m;vS, f (0g) aumfrwDrsm;. tzG   J @0iftvkyo f rm;rsm;tm; ay;&rnf? owif; jynf  hp kpH mG a0iSay;&rnf   h  txufygv kt d yfcsurf sm;ud k  jynf   hp kpH mG aqmif&u G fay;&ef ysuu f u G v f #if tvky&f Sio f nf aiGa=u;av#m&f rnf  htjyif  tjypf'%fu kv d nf; cH&rnf jzpf+yD; xdc ku d ef pfemaom tvkyo f rm;rsm;onf  atmufygtwd ki;f tav#mf  jyefvnf &&d   Srnf? (u) tvkyo f rm;rsm;tm; pkaygi;f I tvky&f yfq kid ;f xkwyf ,f  hcaJ omf tvkyo f rm; wOD;pD v#if (9) v vpmES  hin f Dr#aom vcaiGav#maf =u;&rnf? (c) vkyif ef;vky&f jcif;a=umif   h a&m*gE  hiS x f dc ku d f'%f&m&aomf Oya'rS cG  hijf yKaom jyefvnf &&d   Srnf   h aiGa=u;ES  hi f ‚if;'%faiG. (2) qaom yrm%ud k &&d   S&rnf? (*) tvkyo f rm;rsm;tm;pkaygi;f I tvky&f yfq kid ;f xkwyf ,fjcif;(0g)vkyif ef; vky&f jcif; a=umif   h  a&m*gE  hiS f xdc ku d f'%f&m&jcif;wd k @E  hiS f oufq kid jf cif;  S&d r&d   S? wdusI jynf  hp kaH om owif;rsm;ud k  rormpGm ray;bJxed ;f cse;f xm;v#if rnfonf   htvkyo f rm;/ tvkyf

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -97

orm;ud k,fpm;vS,/f tvkyo f rm;or*~/ aiG&if;  DES;jrSy  SEf o H l (0g) T “Oya'yk'rf ” yg rnfonf   h  aumfrwD. tvkyo f rm;ud k,pf m;vS,rf qd k  w&ufv#if '%faiG  (--) jyefvnf&  S&dE kid  f onf? yk'rf (141) T “Oya'yk'rf ” wGif   JzG @pnf;xm;aom rnfonf   h  aumfrwD. tvkyo f rm; ud k,pf m;vS,rf qd k tvky&f Siw f  kid ;f onf  aumfrwDvkyu f  kid fonf  h ,EW&m; pnf;rsO;f pnf;urf;rSwqif   h t"dy g` ,  Sf&I d xda&mufaom   SED;aESmwd kiyf ifjcif;ud k  jyKvky&f rnf? txl;ojzif   h tvky&f Si. f t&m&d   Srsm; rl0g'rsm;ES  hi f tvkypf nf;rsO;f rsm;/ tvkyrf  S xkwyf ,f jcif;rsm;/ vkycf a=u;aiGrsm;ES  hif tvkypf nf;rsO;f rsm;/ tvkyrf x S w k fy,fjcif;rsm;/ vkycf a=u; aiGrsm;ES  hif oufq kid af om rnfonf   hepfemcsurf sm;ES  hi f jiif;cH kr_rsm;wd k @E  hiS rf qd k  ygwo f uf+yD; aumfrwDonf *&kp ku d fowdxm;&efE  hiS f t"dy g` ,  S&f dI xda&mufaom   DES;aESmwd kiyf if jcif;ud  d kjyKvky&f ef tcG  hit f a&;&d   Sonf? aumfrwD. oabmwlnDcsurf ygbJ ukr% ` D t&m&d  Srsm;rl0g' (0g) tvkypf nf;rsO;f wpH kwcku kdr S tusKd;oufa&mufap&ef(0g) vd kufem ap&ef  jyKvkyjf cif;r&d   S  ap&? aumfrwDrsm; oif   hawmfaom Ed k @wpfowday;jcif;r&d  SbEJ   hiS f tr_udpw P iG  f ygwo f ufaeaom tvkyo f rm;tm; tultnDyyH  k;d onf  h  aumfrwD taejzif   h  tusKd; ta=umif; pH kvifpmG =um;em&ef tcG  hit f a&;r&d   Sbv J sufE  hiS f xd kaumfrwD rS +yD;jynf   hp kpH mG   DES;aESmzvS,fjcif; rjyKvky&f bJvsuf  ta=umif; wpH kwcktwGufa=umif  h rnfonf   h tvkyo f rm;ud krS tvkyrf S xkwfy,fjcif;/ r&d   Sap&? TOya' pnf;rsO;f rsm;ES  hit f nD r[kwo f nf   h  t&m&d  S0g'/ rnfonf   h tvkypf nf;rsO;f (0g) rnfonf   h ta=umif;tpH k wcka=umif   h tvkyrf x S kwyf ,fjcif;rsK;d rqd k wk   d @onf  twnfrjzpf ysujf y,fap&rnf? TuJ  ho k @d jyKvkyjf cif;a=umif   h epfemonf  h rnfonf   htvkyo f rmrqd k T“Oya'yk'rf ” yg av;pm;vk   dufem&ef[o l nf   h tyk   di;f t& vkycf aiG  (0g) cHpm;cG  hiq f  k;H &H k; &jcif; ta=umif;a=umif   h tvkyjf yefvnfcef @xm;ay;&ef  tygt0if epfemr_ oufomap &ef tjcm;oif  hawmfx ku d w f efaom tavsmftpm;&&d   Sap&eftwGuf w&m;pG  JE kid o f nf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -98

yk'rf (142) T“Oya'yk'rf ” yg Oya' vd kufem&efq ko d nf   htyd ki;f t& ta=umif;wpH kwck twGufa=umif   hr[kwyf J od k @aomf  a'0gvcD &H atmif   JrGomG ;aoma=umif   h/ tvkyo f rm; ES  hit f oH k;aiG  av#mhcsypf&aoma=umif   h/ vkyif ef;jyefvnf  Jz @G pnf;&aoma=umif   h/ tkycf sKyfa&; tyd ki;f ajymif;vJ   Gaoma=umif   h  (0g) vkyif ef;vkypf Of  ajymif;vJaoma=umif   h  (0g) tjcm; vkyif ef;qd ki&f m ta=umif;a=umif   h[lI ta=umif;jy+yD; rnfonf   htvkyo f rm; (5) OD; txufw  d @k u kdrqd k pkaygi;f I tvkyrf x S w k fy,fjcif;onf  atmufaz:jyyg aqmif&u G f&rnf   h tcsu f tqif   hq  hifw k @d u kd +yD;jynf  h  Hpak tmif  raqmif&Gurf +yD;rcsi;f twnfrjzpf  ysujf y,f ap&rnf   h tjyif epfemr_twGu f tavsmf tpm;ay;&rnf? (u) (---) v xufrenf; tcsde  Drf w S dusI jynf  h  Hpak om Ed k @wpf owday;pmud k oD;oef @pk aygi;f !d  S  _Eid ;f a&;ud k,pf m;vS,rf sm; (0g) tvkyo f rm;ud k,pf m;vS,frsm;wd k @tm; ay;yd k @tod ay;xm;jcif;? (c) T pnf;rsO;f rsm;twd ki;f tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;(0g) ‚if;tm%m v$  Jtyfcef @xm;olu kd (4) v Ed k @wpf ay;xm;jcif;? (*) jzpfay:aeaomjy\emES  hiyf wfoufI &d k;om;ajzmif   hreS af om aphpyf!  S  _Ed id ;f jcif;ES  hif t"dy g` ,  Sf&I d xda&mufaom   DES;aESmwd kiyf ifjcif;wd k @ jyKvky+f yD;pD;jcif;? (C) a'0gvcD &H I w&m;pG  Jq kpd pfaq;jcif; r+yD;rjywfjzpfaecsed frt S y T“Oya'yk'rf ” wGif xnf   hoiG ;f xm;onf  htwd ki;f vkycf aiGtm;vH k;/ vcaiGjzwfawmufor#E  hiS  f tusKd;cHpm;cGifh tygt0if  tm;vH k;wd k @. &oif   haiGrsm;. (1.5) qud k  av#mfay;&eftvkyt f ud kif twGuf oabmwlxm;or# pkaygi;f aphpyf!  S  _dEid ;foabmwlxm;or# ukr% ` D. rl0g' vkyif ef;cGif pnf;rsO;f wd k @u kd ajz&Si;f ay;&ef/ vH kavmufI cd kirf mpdwcf s&aom tmrcHaiG xm;&d  Say;jcif;? (i) tvky&f Sio f nf  ae&mtpm;xd k;ay;jcif;ES  hi f jyefvnfavhus  hiaf y;jcif; 0efaqmifr_ vkyif ef; (outplacement & retraining services) wd k @u kd wnfaxmif+yD; jzpfa=umif;ES  hif vH kavmufaom aiGa=u;&efy kaH iGxm;ay;+yD; jzpfa=umif;ud k tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD;(0g) ‚if; tm%mv$  Jtyfcx H m;olr S axmufcaH y;jcif;?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -99

tu,fI tvkyo f rm;0ef}uD; (0g) T“Oya'yk'rf ” t& Oya'vd kuef map&efw&m; w&m;pD&ify kid cf   hGi  S&f d rnfonh   fw&m;&H k;urqd k Tpkaygi;f tvkyrf S xkwyf ,fjcif;onf T“Oya'” t& vk   duef m&rnf   h  wm0ef0wW&m;rsm;ud k a&Smif&mS ;vd konf   h pdwf&if;jzif   h }uHpnfvyk af qmifonf   h [lI ‚if; (0g) tjcm;ae&mrsm;Y wnf  S&jd zpfay:aeonf   h owfrw S q f   hifxuf ed  hru f sonf  h tvkyo f rm;ukeu f sp&dwrf sm;ud k tcG  hiaf umif;,lv ko d nf   h pdwfqENjzif   h‚if; vkyaf qmifonf   h[k pD&ifq k;H jzwfv#if  txufaz:jyyg yk'rf (---) (C) wGi f ay;aqmif&rnf[lonf   h vkycf aiG  tm;vH k; vcjzwfawmufor#w k @d . (5) q wd k;I ay;aqmif&rnf? TudpEP   hiS yf wfoufI 0ef}uD;ES  hirf nfonf  hw&m;&H k;Yrqd k Ttr_ppfaq; aecsed u f mvY vd ktyfor#a=u;aiGu kd tvky&f Si. f &Hy kaH iGxJrS xkw, f lE kid &f ef rnfonf   h trde @f rqd k xkwjf yef&eftm%m&d  Sonf? yk'rf (143) (u) T“Oya'yk'rf ” rnfonf   henf;vrf;ES  hirf qd k tvkyo f rm;or*~wcktm; pkaygi;f aphpyf!  S  dEd i_ ;f a&; ud k,pf m;vS, f tjzpfa&G;+yD;  hcJaomf  T “Oya'yk'rf ” t& (0g) tjcm; aomenf;t&   JzG @pnf;  hcJaom tvkyo f rm; yl;wJ   GprD t H yk cf sKyfaom aumfrwDyg tvkyo f rm;ud k,pf m;vS,rf sm;onf   h ‚if;wd k @. vkyif ef;aqmifwmrsm;ud k &yfpv J  kdurf nf   h tjyif ‚if;wd k @ vkyaf qmifE kid fonf  h twk   di;f twmtjyif  =oZmtm%mtjyif oD;oef @ pkaygi;f aphpyf!  S  _dEid f;a&;ud k,pf m; vS,fo k @d ajymif;ay;&rnf? tvkyo f rm;or*~onf oD;oef @pak ygi;f aphpyf!  S  ddEi_ f;a&;ud k, f pm;vS,fjzpfaom ae&mwGi f T“Oya'yk'rf ”t&   JzG @pnf;xm;aom rnfonf   htvkyo f rm; yl;wG   JprD t H yk cf sKyfa&;aumfrwD(0g) ‚if;aumfrwD . ud k,fpm;vS,rf qd kwGif rnfonf   htvkyo f rm;rsm;ES  hiq f  kid af om rnfonf   h=oZm tm%m(0g) wm0ef,al qmif&Guaf y;aom tcef;u¾ r&d  Sap&? T jyXmef; owfrw S f csuaf =umif   h T“Oya'yk'rf ” wGi f xnf   hc kid ;f jcif;r&d   S ap&? (c) rnfonf   htvkyXf me/ vkyif ef;ae&m/ vkyif ef;ae&mcG   J/ vkyif ef;xm;&d   S&m vkyaf qmif&m ae&mYrqd k rSwyf  kw H if+yD;aom tvkyo f rm;tzG   J @tpnf;wckonf  T“Oya'yk'rf ” t&   JzG @pnf;xm;aom tvkyo f rm;yl;wG   JprD t H yk cf sKyfa&; aumfrwDrsm;twGi;f tvkyo f rm; uk   d,pf m;vS,&f mxl;twGuf vkyif ef;Xmeqd ki&f muk  d,fpm;vS,af vmif;rsm; (Field candidates) ES  h i f uk  d,pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm; pm&if;rsm; (States of candidates) ud k wif

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -100

oGi;f Ed kicf   hiG o f nf? tu,fI a&G;aumuf  JyYG tvkyo f rm;rsm; xnf  hv  d kkuo f nf   h rJta& twGufonf xk   du   ho J   d @k aom or*~u   d, k pf m;vS,af vmif; rsm;twGu f 50 &mcd kiEf e_ ;f ESifh txuf&  d&Sv sS if tvkyo f rm;or*~onf tvkyo f rm;rsm;twGuf oD;oef @ pkaygi;f aphpyfn  d  _ES id ;f aom uk  d,fpm;vS,jf zpf&rnf? rnfo  d @k aom aumfrwDa&G;cs,  JfyYG rqk   d? tu,fI or*~EpS cf  k (0g) ESpcf x k ufy kad om or*~rsm;. vkyif ef;Xmeqk   di&f m uk   d,fpm; vS,af vmif;rsm; (Field Candidates) (0g) pm&if;rsm;yg ud k,fpm;vS,af vmif;rsm; (State of Candidates) twlaygi;f I rJaygi;f 50 &mcd kiE f e_ ;f txufY  d&Saomf rJta&twGu f trsm;qk   H;&&S  daom or*~rsm;. ud k,fpm;vS,af vmif;rsm; (0g) pm&if; rsm;yg uk   d,pf m;vS,favmif;rsm;t=um;wGi f aemufwzefxyfI a&G;aumuf  JyG (Run off f rnf? or*~wckr S yg0if&ef a&G;ay;vk   duaf om uk   d,fpm;vS,f Election) jyKvky& avmif;rsm; pm&if;yg0iforl sm;onf xyfrjH yK vkyaf om a&G;aumuf  JyG (Run off  Election) Y rJtrsm;pku kd &&S   d  hcaJ omf xk   dor*~onf oD;oef @pak ygi;f aphpyf nS   d  _Eid ;f a&; uk   d,pf m;vS,jf zpf&rnf? tu,fI xyfrjH yKvkyaf om a&G;aumuf  JyYG &aom rJta&twGuo f nf wlnDaevS sif tvkyo f rm;0ef=uD;rSaeI or*~  (2) ckpvk   H;. uk   d,pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;ud k  “or*~rsm; yl;wG   Jpak ygi;f aphpyf nS   d  _Eid ;f a&;aumfrwD ”[lI   JzG @pnf;&ef trde @f ay;&rnf? xk   dt  JzG @onfyifv sS if oD;oef @pak ygi;f aphpyfn  d  _SEid ;f a&; uk   d,pf m;vS, f jzpfvm&rnf? rnfo  d @k yifjzpfap tvkyo f rm; pDrt H yk cf sKyfa&; aumfrwD onf 4if;. vkyif ef;wm0eftm;vk  H;ud k &yfq  dik ;f xm;&rnfjzpfjyD; uk  d,pf m;vS,f  tjzpf aqmif&u G   dyf ik cf   fiG t h m;vk   H;wk   d @u kd tvkyo f rm;or*~  (0g) oD;oef @pak ygi;f aphpyf nS   d  _Eid f;a&; uk   d,pf m;vS,jf zpfvmaom yl;wG   JaumfrwDo k @d v$   Jtyf&rnf? (*) tEd ki&f   d&Saom uk   d,pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;ud k xkwaf zmfay;aom rnfonf   h rSw  Hfyw k if xm;aom or*~rqd k onf xk   du  d, k pf m;vS,rf sm;rSwqif  h tvkyo f rm;rsm;;ud k uk   d,pf m;jyKEk   dio f nf? oD;oef @pkaygi;f aphpyfn  d  _SEid f;a&; uk  d,pf m;vS,f ud k  tjyD;owf aemufq  H;k a&G;cs,jf cif;rjyK&ao;onf   h  ae&mwGi f T “Oya'”t&   JzG @pnf;xm;aom yl;wG   Jtvkyo f rm; pDrt H yk cf sKyfa&;aumfrwDwiG  f yg0ifonf  h  or*~a&G;xkwfaxmufcaH om uk   d,pf m;vS,rf sm;ES  hif 0ef=uD;rStrde @f csI   JzG @xm;aom or*~rsm;yl;wG   Jpak ygi;f aphpyf nS   d  _Eid ;f a&;aumfrwD. tzG   J @0ifrsm;wk   d @onf 4if;wk   d @ or*~. n$e=f um;jcif;/ z,f&Sm;jcif;ES  hi f ae&m tpm;xk  d;jcif;wd k @u kd vk   dufem&rnfjzpfjyD; &mxl;twGufta&G;rcH  Dru S yif Toabmouf a&mufonf   h oabmwlnDcsufu k d vufrw S af &;xk   d;&rnf?

zuf'&,fjynfaxmifp k jrefrmEd kifiHtvkyo f rm;Oya' (rl=urf;)

pmrsufEmS -101

(C) rnfonf   hae&m tcef;u¾Yrqk   d  bmbJjzpfjzpf ,lepf. vkyaf qmifjcif;rsm; oih   fawmfavsmu f efr _ r&S   dI[laom ta=umif;jycsurf sm;a=umif   h Tyk'rf t& jyKvkyo f nf   h rnfonf   ha&G;aumuf  Jyu G  krd qk   d rauseyfI pdeaf c:jcif; rjyKvky&f ? TwGiyf g  d&Saom rnfonf   h a&G;aumuf  Jyu G  kdrqd k  tjcm;rnfonf   hrauseyfI pdeaf c:jcif;rd sK; rqk   d[lonf ud k,pf m;vS, f twnfjyKaxmufccH sufay;aom a&G;aumuf  JyrG sm; (Certification elections) wGif tok   H;jyKEk   diaf om vkyx f   Hk;vkyef nf;rsm;twk   di;f vd kufem rnf? enf;vrf;rsm;? (1)

?

jzif   h4if; (0g) ud k,fpm;vS, f twnfjyKaxmufcaH om a&G;aumuf  JyG (Certification Election) jzih   f4if;/ or*~wckonf  50 &mcd kiEf e_ f;tm;jzif   h a&G;cs,jf cif; cH&onf? Cards

(2) aumfrwDwiG   d&f Saom ae&mxJr S 50 &mcd kiEf e_ ;f ud k or*~wckr S &&S   donf? (3) yxrt=udrYf rnfonf   hor*~urS rEk   dib f ;l onf  h xyfrjH yKvkyaf om a&G;aumuf  JyG (run off) wGi f yg  d &aS om trde @f t& yl;wG   Jor*~aumfrwDu kd   JzG @pnf;onf? oD;oef @ ud k,pf m;vS,t f qih  fr  d&Saomfvnf; or*~rsm;onf tvkyo f rm;rsm;uk   d,pf m;vS,f aqmif&u G v f yk u f   dki  dEf ik o f nf? aphpyfn  d  _SEid ;f jcif;jyK&efu kdom or*~rsm;onf  t"rR  raqmif &Gu  dEf ik af y?

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