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TQM in HR Practices

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Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Introduction to Total Quality Management:
Total Quality Management (TQM) is a strategy that embodies the belief that the management
process must focus on integrating the customer – driven quality throughout an organization.
TQM emphasizes continuous improvement of product quality and service delivery while taking
into perception, the need to address employee relations, as the customer cannot get the
satisfactory service delivery from ill- motivated employees. The philosophy underlying the
implementation of a TQM strategy is to see organizational customers and clients as the vital key
to organizational success. Organizations with TQM strategy see their business through the eyes
of their customers and clients and then measure their organizations performance against
customer/client expectations.
Effective TQM strategy necessitates that the product/service must go beyond acceptability for a
given price range. For example, rather than leaving customers/clients satisfied that nothing went
wrong with the product or service, a product/service should give the customers/clients some
delightful surprises, or provide unexpected benefits. This means, therefore, that product/service
quality assurance requires more than just meeting customers/clients minimum standards. The
level of product quality is the degree, to which a product/service is equal to or greater than
customers/clients expectations
Figure1. Human Resource Management
Introduction to Human Resource Management:
Human resource management (HRM or
simply HR) is a function in organizations designed
to maximize employee performance in service of
their employer‟s strategic objectives.
[1]
HR is
primarily concerned with how people are managed
within organizations, focusing on policies and
systems
Service industries mainly involve direct/indirect
interaction with customers and greatly look upon
its human resources to sustain in competitive
markets. To assure equivalence with customer desires, companies are shifting focus to the
axiom of “customers know best”. Hence, it can be said that human beings, which are the
indispensable assets of an organization, should be trained and empowered to optimum levels.
To make Human Resource (HR) Practices more competent the concept of Human Resource
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Management (HRM) was evolved. HRM plays a major role in providing more systematic
training; facilitating training that empowers employees, instituting team-based rewards systems
and communicating to employees their role in quality. Here, we can see how HRM and TQM
are essentially related in their values of empowerment and quality. This report attempts to draw
the bridge between TQM and HRM and discuss the benefits and procedures involved in
travelling this bridge. The principal area of attention is the alignment of HR and quality
policies, such as creating and communicating the TQM vision, preparing the organization and
employees for TQM implementation and generating quality awareness among the employees
across all levels, functions, and departments, should contribute to an increase company
performance.

1.3 Objectives of Study:
 To understand the scope of Total Quality Management in the service sector with special
reference to Human resource Management.
 To identify the apertures in the output of HR practices and evaluate by way of an
introspective questionnaire
 To discuss possibility for gaining enhanced customer credibility by way of perpetual
progress.

1.4 Overview and Problem Statement:
Since the very early years Total Quality Management principles are being utilized to
strategically manage and control businesses in almost every sector. As trade and industry
flourished so did the substantial significance of TQM in the various industrial avenues.
Total Quality Management (TQM) is a holistic yet pragmatic concept which systematically
envelopes a number of well-known management principles into an articulate and coherent
framework. It is the total integrated efforts employed for gaining competitive advantage by
continuously improving every facet of organizational culture through the participation of all
levels and functions of the organization.
Pioneered by Edward Deming, TQM can effectively help companies to achieve high levels of
quality. Many leading manufacturing companies such as Motorola, Cadillac, and Xerox, whose
strategies require them to survive against the pressures of world-class competition, have applied
TQM.
Nevertheless, as is known by the current and past industrial state of affairs, the application of
TQM principles hasn‟t been explored to its truest potential in the Service industry. Service is an
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activity that has some element of intangibility associated with it and thereby can finely utilize
the principles of TQM such as benchmarking, articulation of strategic vision and continuous
quality improvement. The main theme of conducting this study is to instigate a sense of
continuous approach and proceeding through a sequence of steps in Human Resource
Management Practices.
TQM programs have the potential to increase the importance of the human resource
management function. In this Study an in-depth analysis of the various dimensions has been
performed enabling a revolutionized outlook of Total Quality Human Resource Management!
1.5 Limitations of the Study:
 TQM implementation in smaller organizations involves great difficulty and challenge, in
spite of the powerful creative possibilities of the same. Hence, to explore this not-so-
known and non-treaded area for satisfying outputs was tough.
 Convincing people of the organization about TQM and its continuous improvement
philosophy that urges them to go beyond their own limited vision of what is possible was
a challenge. The results of the same gave narrow insight in the reasonably short span of
the study











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Chapter 2: Literature Review
2.1 Historical Evolution of TQM Literature:
In the early 1900s, Frederick Taylor, founder of the “Scientific Management”
movement, promoted his "one best way" method as a set of scientific principles to measure the
efficiency and productivity of any given task . His approach had a strong impact on managerial
practices in America during that time. Taylor‟s basic principles require four tasks that can be
described as follows: (1) The development of standards; (2) The fitting of a worker to a specific
task; (3) The provision of means to encourage each worker to best utilization of his ability; and
(4) The organization controls the various phases of a project. Those tasks seem to be obvious
today, but 100 years ago, in 1912, they were revolutionary. It is amazing how much Scientific
Management is still around and exerts influence on modern management; Taylor is viewed as
the “grandfather” of business process reengineering and the intellectual foundation for the work
on business process change. In many respects, modern managerial practice grows largely out of
Taylor‟s classical approach. In the late 1980s, the quality improvement movement and its
potential impact on organizational theory and practice, often under the banner of TQM, appear
to have several parallels with Taylor‟s principles. In this context, TQM is more than just a
slogan or a program; indeed, its movement professes a fundamental change in values, theory,
and practice of modern organizations. Enter Dr. W. Edwards Deming, “the man who discovered
quality” and his principles with a focus on the customer and a potential impact on
organizational theory and practice. Deming and his management principles are presented in this
chapter as Customer Satisfaction, the first dimension of TQM.

2.2 R Shah, PT Ward - Journal of Operations Management
Employees‟ involvement in total quality management(TQM).

TQM added a new dimension to quality management issues: the redefinition of quality
from the customer's viewpoint, based on marketplace evidences. As stressed by the authors,
through such dramatic shift in perspective, quality may be seen as a powerful competitive
weapon and included in firms‟ strategic planning. In fact, as highlighted by Brah et al. (2002),
TQM cannot be seen as a quick fix way, stressing that its success involves a long-term
paradigm shift through significant organizational changes. Over the last few decades several
holistic management philosophies, involving extensive change processes (total quality
management, business reengineering, lean management), have been emphasizing employees‟
role, through an increased participation in the process for change. In fact, the influence of
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employees‟ involvement in firms‟ changing processes has been extensively reported in both
academic and practitioner journals which strongly highlight its importance and potential on
organizational changes.. As enhanced by Gunasekaran and Kanji (1990), among others, Total
quality management may be defined as a management philosophy based on people and with a
strong emphasis on continuous improvement seeking to achieve total quality through a full
participation of everyone in organizations.

2.3 Paul Boselie
(PhD student in the Department of Business and Organization at the Rotterdam School of
Economics, The Netherlands)
Development of Total Quality in HRM:
There is a growing interest in theory and in practice with regard to the relationship
between human resource management (HRM) and total quality management (TQM), as well as
the relationship between these two perspectives and business performance. Empirical research
suggests significant effects of HRM/TQM on the performances of an organization. The majority
of research in this area is focused on the effects of HRM/TQM at the organizational level.
Research on the perceptions of individual employees might obtain new insights for further
discussion on the effectiveness of HRM/TQM in an organization. The authors had the
opportunity to analyze a relatively large database with recent data of individual employee
perceptions from a knowledge‐intensive organization in The Netherlands. This analysis gives
new insight into concepts such as “co‐operation”, “information”, “leadership”, “salary”, “work
conditions”, and “goal setting” in relation to employee satisfaction and the intention to leave the
organization.

2.4 Sanjay L. Ahire, Robert Landeros and Damodar Golhar
(Department of Management, Haworth College of Business, Western Michigan University,
Michigan, USA)
Business excellence through integration of TQM and HRM

The relationship between TQM and HRM in relation with business excellence or performance
of the organization is the concerned area for many researchers. There are many theories and
researches, which explain this relationship and provide the practices, which are relevant for high
performance work systems or business excellence. In the TQM literature there are some
common practices described by many authors that contribute and leads to the business
excellence.
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Traditional HRM practices conflict with TQM and should be changed. Although
organizations have initially focused on a production-oriented perspective of quality, the recent
literatures have underlined the importance of HRM for success. In fact, the “soft dimensions” of
TQM (customer orientation, leadership, culture or HRM) as they have been described by many
authors. TQM is a revolutionary approach to effective management. The research in TQM-HRM has
emerged from the practical needs of organizations embracing this
Philosophy and the literature is mostly conceptual and practitioner oriented. There is a lack of
sound theoretical framework classifying past efforts and guiding future research. Dale (1999)
explains that following TQM practices leads to the organizational excellence: leadership,
training, involvement and participation of employees, co-operation and customer focus.



















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Chapter 3: Research methodology:
Research is defined by Redman and Mory as a “systematized effort to gain knowledge.”
Research is often conducted using the hourglass model of research. The hourglass model starts
with a broad spectrum of data, focusing in on the required information through the method of
the project (like the neck of an hourglass), then expands the research in the form of discussion
and results.
3.1 There are various types of research:
1. Basic research
2. Applied Research
a. Problem oriented research
b. Problem solving research
3. Quantitative research
4. Qualitative research
a. Phenomenology
b. Ethnography

The type of research method adopted for this report is a combination of Applied problem
solving research, Quantitative and Qualitative phenomenal research.
Applied Problem solving research is designed to solve practical problems faced by a
company or organization which is the heavy workload due to increased cliental and
expanded business.
Quantitative refers to the systematic empirical investigation of social phenomena via
statistical, mathematical or computational techniques. The research design adopted is
that of case analysis of the organization‟s current operations by working full time for a
fixed period and understanding the day-to-day problems faced by the organization.
Based on this understanding of the field a descriptive study was carried out through a
general questionnaire survey.
Qualitative Research was done was done using secondary tools of books, journals and a
desktop study was undertaken by focusing in depth on similar circumstances in other
organizations.
An element of Exploratory research is also involved in this study as it involves
investigate the scope of Total quality Management in the Human Resource practices of
the organization, as a concept which hasn‟t been adopted yet.

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3.2 Sampling design
The unrestricted, simple random sample is the simplest form of probability sampling.
 Data Requirement
o Primary data was collected by using Questionnaire method of collecting data.
o Secondary data was collected with was available in TQM publications and
journals on Human Resource Management.
3.3 Research Instrument for data collection
The research instruments used for collecting data are:
 Questionnaire Method: A questionnaire consists of a number of questions printed or
typed in a definite order on a form or set of forms.

3.4 Sampling Framework
Sampling is the process of selecting a sufficient number of elements from the population,
so that a study of the sample and an understanding of its properties or characteristics would
make it possible for us to generalize such properties or characteristics to the population
elements and had been framed with two Hypothesis:
Null Hypothesis: Total Quality Management cannot be implemented in the organization
Alternative Hypothesis: Total Quality Management can be implemented in the organization

3.5 Sample size
Sample size refers to the number of items to be collected for the research. Among the
employees in general, 132 are selected as the sample size for this research of improving quality.

3.6 Tools for Analysis:
Analyzing the data with some statistical technique is called as data analysis.
The tools for data analysis to be considered in this study are as follows:
 Percentage method
 Correlation
 Weighted average method and
 Percentage Analysis:
The percentage method is used to know the accurate percentages of the data we took, it is
easy to graph out through the percentages. The following are the formula
No of Respondents
Percentage of Respondent = x 100
Total no. Of Respondents

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 Correlation:
Correlation analysis deals with the association between two or more variables. It does
not tell anything about cause and effect relationship. Correlation is classified in two types as
o Positive and
o Negative Correlation.

 Weighted Average Method:
Weighted average can be defined as an average whose component items are multiplied
by certain values (weights) and the aggregate of the products are divided by the total of
weights. One of the limitations of simple arithmetic mean is that it gives equal
importance to all the items of the distribution. In certain cases relative importance of all
the items in the distribution is not the same. Where the importance of the items varies It
is essential to allocate weight applied but may vary in different cases. Thus weightage is
a number standing for the relative importance of the items.
























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Chapter 4: Company Profile
4.1 Refonte Key Facts
 Created in 2007 to deliver scalable HR solutions to global customers
 4 offices in India and 1 in UAE
 Successful relationships with one in five Fortune 500 companies
 Extensive experience across all major industry sectors and functions
 Consistent recognition from peers and clients including being recognized for „Breadth of
Service‟ in HRO Tomorrow

4.2 Company Overview
The organization delivers a full suite of comprehensive HR and Recruitment Process
Outsourcing services, Refonte is a global industry leader in high-impact recruitment solutions;
offering fully customized, flexible strategies to help organizations meet specific workforce
needs.

It offers proven expertise, global processes and infrastructure, innovative sourcing
strategies, and a unique approach to measure and optimize business impact. The firm meets a
variety of workforce requirements; from recruitment process outsourcing (RPO) and project
recruitment, to single search and consulting, our solutions apply a truly world-class capability to
deliver talent with impact and providing the experience and global reach to identify.


The company has over 150 customers and over 5,000 assignments, we are and imbibes
Flexible, Adaptable and Scalable practices client‟s needs. It works across a spectrum of
industries and provide customized HR solutions such as Recruitment Process Outsourcing
(RPO), Campus Hiring, Permanent hiring, Executive Search and Talent on Contract

Core Values
To guide and drive the conduct, work practices and relationships with clients,colleagues,
partners and other stake holders.

Commitment to:
 Ensuring a "no surprises" approach in all services and procedures
 Adhering to highest levels of personal and professional integrity
 Striving for professionalism and excellence in everything we do
 Focusing on creating long term value for clients
 Fostering an inclusive and non-hierarchical work atmosphere
 Always remembering that our work directly impacts human life

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Vision:
By providing clients with distinction, lasting and superior solutions and services:

To realize this by:
 Establishing trusting and enduring relationships with our clients
 Recruiting, training, developing and retaining outstanding professionals
 Building deep and extensive expertise in various industries in which we operate
 Driving innovation to address challenging problems in HR & Staffing Industry
 Fostering a culture of continuous learning and growth
 Maintaining a stringent focus on quality and information security

4.3 Services:
Permanent Recruitment
Recruitment Solutions today are offered by businesses dedicated to build the talent pools for
organizations. We are also well complimented with a domain strong team capable of delivering
services of highest quality to our clients and offer end-to-end support in identifying the best
available resources. Refonte has a dedicated team of domain experts delivering quality
recruitment solutions and is the fastest growing HRO Company in the country and has
successful recruitment practices across industries, servicing leading MNC & Indian
organizations.
Talent Acquisition:
Assignment based recruitment of key talent for organizations across industry, domain and
levels.
Turn-key Projects:
End-to-End Solutions that include; identifying needs, tapping the right talent pool, interviews,
Offer-Negotiation, On-Board Assistance.
Project-Based recruitment:
Cost-effective option in outsourced resources, to address recruitment under short timelines.
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Specialty Divisions
Information Technology:
To staff all IT permanent & contract positions, and is comprised of both experienced
consultants who appreciate the unique IT requirements of different clients, and researchers who
can communicate effectively to technology professionals.

Engineering:
Engineers Recruiting Engineers, to employ recruitment specialists with a strong
professional and technical background to deliver highly qualified and skilled engineering
professionals in full time employment across all disciplines for large international, multi-
national and boutique companies. We are focused exclusively on placing
Crescendo Executive Search Circle:
The cornerstone of the business since the firm was founded in 2007
,comprises of leading global professionals who offer clients a truly unique understanding of
their needs inside and out











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Chapter 5: Data Analysis and Interpretation
A survey of 132 HR Employees in general, was taken to understand their views on Quality, its
relevance to training, employee empowerment and other aspects.

5.1 Percentage Analysis (based on the Questionnaire)
5.1.1 Age level of the respondents:
1. Percentage analysis regarding the age of the employees who are aware of the
concept of Total Quality Human Resource Management

Age
18 -25 26 – 35 36 -45 above 45
Table 4.1.1-Classification of respondents based on their age level

Age Group No. Of People Percentage
18-25 33 25
26-25 36 27.27
36-45 32 24.25
Above 45 31 23.47
Total 132 100











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Chart 5.1.1- Classification of respondents based on their age level


Figure 2
Inference:
The above table 4.1.1 infers that, the age group classification is approximately on a
stratified basis with almost equal no. Of respondents from each group with maximum
proportion of respondents, that is 27 %, belonging to the age group of 26-35 years, followed by
25% percent to the age group of 18-25 years, followed by 24% from the age group of 36-45
years and 23% percent belonging to the age group of 36-45 years.

5.1.2 Educational Qualification of the respondents
2. Percentage analysis of the educational Qualification of the Respondents

Educational Qualification

< Higher Secondary Higher Secondary UG PG ITI or Others



22
23
24
25
26
27
28
18-25 26-25 36-45 above 45
Respondent based on age level

15

Table 5.1.2-Classification of respondents based on their age level


Educational Qualification

Number Of Respondents

Percentage
< Higher Secondary 9 6.82
Higher Secondary 23 17.43
UG 52 39.39
PG 35 26.52
ITI or Others 13 9.84
TOTAL 132 100



Chart 5.1.2- Classification of respondents based on their Educational Qualification



Figure 3
Inference:
From the above chart we can conclude that maximum no. Of respondents are
Undergraduates ( 39%), after that the next highest number of respondents are having Post
6.82
17.43
39.39
26.52
9.84
Education Qualification of Respondents
< Higher Secondary Higher Secondary UG PG ITI or Others
16

Graduation education, 17% are having higher secondary education, followed by below higher
secondary and ITI qualified respondents.


5.1.3 Role of the Respondents

3. Percentage classification based on the designation of the Respondents:
Designation in the current organization

Intern HR Assistant HR Manager VP of HR Others
Table 5.1.3-Classification of respondents based on the role








Chart 5.1.3-Classification of respondents based on the role


Role

No. Of Respondents

Percentage
Intern 14 10.63
HR Assistant 48 36.34
HR Manager 32 24.26
VP of HR 21 15.90
Others 17 12.87
Total 132 100
17



Figure 4
Inference:
It is found that highest number of respondents are HR Assistants, the second highest are
HR Managers followed by VP of HRs and Others and Interns in the last as per per table 4.1.5



5.1.4 Years of Experience of the Respondents
4. Percentage Classification based on Years of experience of the respondents

Total Years of Experience
0-2 years 3-5 years 6-8 years Above 8 years



Intern
HR Assistant
HR Manager
VP of HR
Others
0 10 20 30 40
Role of Respondents
Designation of Respondents
18

Table 5.1.4-Classification of respondents Based on years of experience






Chart 5.1.4-Classification of respondents Based on years of experience


Figure 5
Inference:
As per the above table 4.1.4, we can find that 46 % of the respondents has 0-2 years of
experience, second highest, 28 % has 3-5 years of experience, followed by least number of
respondents 6-8 years of experience and 9% respondents with above 8 years of experience.


46.21
28.03
16.67
9.09
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
0-2 years 3-5 years 6-8 years Above 8 years
Years of experience No. Of Respondents Percentage
0-2 years 61 46.21
3-5 years 37 28.03
6-8 years 22 16.67
Above 8 years 12 9.09
Total 132 100
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5.1.5 Understanding of the Job
5. Classification of respondents based on understanding the job

How well do you understand your job and the role it plays in achieving your
vision?

Not at all Not really Somewhat Pretty Much Totally

Table 4.1.5-Classification of respondents based on understanding the job











Level of understanding No. Of
Respondents
Percentage
Not at all 2 1.51
Not really 6 4.54
Some what 15 11.37
Pretty Much 36 27.28
Totally 73 55.30
TOTAL 132 100
20

Chart 5.1.5-Classification of respondents based on the role



Figure 6
Inference:
It‟s interesting to know that 55 % of the respondents totally understand the job whereas
27 % understand it pretty much and 11% understand somewhat of the job. 4 %of the
respondents not really understand the job as per table 4.1.5











1.51
4.54
11.37
27.28
55.3
Respondent's understanding of Job
Role
Not at all Not really Some what Pretty Much Totally
21

5.1.6 Suggestions given by respondent at workplace

6. Percentage Analysis of Suggestion giving choice and implementation at
Respondents‟ workplace

Do you give any suggestions for improvement in your work area and are they implemented?

Yes No

Table 5.1.6- Classification of suggestions at workplace by respondents

Suggestions and their
Implementation
No. Of respondents Percentage
Yes 115 87.13
No Suggestions Given 17 12.87
Total 132 100

Chart 5.1.6-Classification of suggestions at workplace by respondents




Figure 7
Suggestions and their
Implementation
Yes No
22

Inference:
The above chart indicates that majority of respondents give suggestions at their workplaces and
the same is implemented by the management compared to the few respondents who hesitate to
give suggestions and inputs at their workplaces.

5.1.7 Effectiveness of employment empowerment techniques for the respondents

7. Percentage analysis of the effectiveness of employment empowerment
techniques for the respondents

Which of the following employee empowerment techniques is most effective according to you?


Delegating to employees- information and power
Communicating confidence to employees
Setting goals for employees
Interact with employees
Coaching instead of only Supervising


Table 5.1.7- Classification on the basis of effectiveness of employment empowerment
techniques for the respondents













Employment empowerment
techniques
No. Of respondents Percentage
Delegating to employees -
information and power
40 30.31
Communicating confidence
to employees
23 17.43
Setting goals for employees 16 12.12
Interact with employees

22 16.66
Coaching instead of only
Supervising
31 23.48
Total 132 100
23


Chart 5.1.7- Classification on the basis of effectiveness of employment empowerment
techniques for the respondents




Figure 8









0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Delegating
Communicating
Setting Goals
Interacting
Coaching
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5.2 Weighted Average Method
5.2 Analysis of the importance of Quality for the respondents

How important is Quality, according to you?

Not at all Not really Important Very Important
Table 4.2 Classification of respondents based on respondent’s importance for quality
LEVEL OF
importance
NUMBER OF
RESPONDENTS
Point Weight (fw)
Not at all 5 1 5
Not really 16 2 32
Important 88 3 264
Very Important 23 4 92
TOTAL 132 393

Weighted Average = ∑fw/∑f
= 393/ 132
= 2.97
Inference:
From the above result using weighted average (2.97) it can be inferred that most of the
employees have moderate level of importance towards quality. (check scale of importance and
measurement in net for weighted cost method)





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5.3 Correlation:
Relationship between total years of experience of Respondents and Importance of
Quality for the respondents consequentially
Relationship between
Total Years of Experience
0-2 years 3-5 years 6-8 years Above 8 years
(And)
How important is Quality, according to you?

Not at all Not really Important Very Important
Let X be the total experience of employees
Let Y be their understanding of quality
Null Hypothesis: There is no relation between the total experience of an employee and
their understanding of quality
Alternative Hypothesis: there is a relation between the total experience of an employee
and their understanding of quality

Table 4.3 Correlation (Total Experience and Importance of Quality)
X Y Dx= x-x` Dy= y-
y`
Dx
2
Dy
2
Dxdy
61 5 28 -28 784 784 784
37 16 4 -17 16 289 68
22 88 -11 55 121 3025 605
12 23 -21 -10 441 100 210
∑X = 132 ∑Y= 132 ∑Dx = 0 ∑Dy = 0 1362 4198 1667


X` = ∑X = 132 = 33
N 4
26


Y` = ∑Y = 132 = 33
N 4



Correlation = N∑ dxdy- ∑dx∑dy
√ N∑dx2-∑ (dx)
2
* √ N∑dy2 –∑(dy)
2


= 4 (1667-0*0)______
√ 4(1362- 0
2
*√ 4(4198- 0
2
)

= 6668____
√5448 * √16792

= 0.69


Comment:
There is a moderate degree of correlation between the total years of experience of an
employee and importance of quality for that employee
Hence, this hypothesis is accepted at a moderate level














Positive Correlation exists when one variable decreases, the other variable also decreases and
vice versa. In statistics, a perfect positive correlation is represented by the value +1.00, while
0.00 indicates no correlation and a -1.00 indicates a perfect negative correlation.
27



5.4 Essay type Questions
Respondents gave dynamic individual answers to these questions and it expressed their
understanding of quality and errors handling at workplaces. A summary of these answers is
as follows-

5.4.1 How do you describe quality?
________________________

Quality is a comparison with the best in the market and a benchmark for the scope of value
improvement. Quality means being close to perfection. It is important in terms of work ethics
to be 100% compliant with your work. Quality is giving the product / service in the best way
possible through the eyes of the customer. It is the standard of something as measured against
other things of a similar kind of degree of excellence. Quality comes with will power and
dedication and gives Output as required. It should be the value of money offered for the
product or service. It can also be described as the good feeling a customer gets after being
serviced. It is a distinctive attribute and always leads to perfection. With perfection one can
get the best results and long lasting satisfaction. Quality is the perfection with which a
service or product is provided to the end user and it benchmarks how good the service is.
Quality is most important factor to achieve a better brand value to the organization.


5.4.2 How are errors handled?
___________________

Errors are treated on a trial and error basis but there is no structured system
yet. The system is such that if mistakes happen there are alternatives in terms of
correction. There is nothing such as mistake in the sales industry. There is always scope
for improvement. Any errors done by one should have corrective action plan in order to
have minimum impact on service rendered to clients or customers. Warnings are given
to employees and they are given enough knowledge so as to not repeat them. Errors
probably are taken care by the Director & HR dept. after consulting the culprit. Error
logs, analysis are created. Team meets are conducted. With respective measures
mistakes are noted and corrective measure is taken so that it won‟t be repeated. Through
feedback back system errors are discussed upon and worked on together. A more
effective way to handle errors is to open a dialogue, build rapport, and restore the
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employee's performance so he or she can be retained as a productive member of the
organization.
Chapter 6: Findings

To study the current situation at the organization, various methods of TQM such as
cause and effect analysis, idea writing, consensus reaching, benchmarking and mind mapping
were used. Based on a thorough research of the current situation at Refonte and the increasing
clients it was found that it could greatly benefit from the implementation of TQM in its
practices. Total quality management, a modern management philosophy, has become a widely
used concept, linking the employers emphasis on quality to a wider industrial relations
approach. The TQM approach puts the responsibility for product or service quality directly on
to the workforce.
Currently, the main service offered by the company is that of Recruitment and
outsourcing Assistance. Refonte provides extensive training and experience to its employees
to enable them to handgrip the clients and candidates in an effective manner.
They ensure diligent position specification, to ensure the assemble of a team of consultants
with the subject-matter, functional and regional expertise to support the engagement. The team
draws on its high-level professional networks, industry knowledge and internal research
resources to give it a broad reach in identifying potential candidates.

Case Study: TQM at Refonte
About Refonte: With expansion of clients, increasing workload higher
performance is expected from every member of the organization. To know the opinion of the
different levels of the organization, a survey based on TQM aspects was designed. As for the
successful implementation of TQM, the readiness of the employees of the organization is very
significant. From a combination of distinct methods of Total Quality Management derived from
the results of an extensive survey carried out on all the levels of the organization could prove
beneficial in increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of the organization.
Results of the surveys:
 Result from Top Management Survey
The top management was asked about the main elements and features of the
organization‟s culture and in what ways has it improved in the past years. A study was
initiated to know how the senior managers and executives create a quality culture, the further
improvements that are planned,how well do the top management understand the concepts of
quality, quality control, quality assurance and TQM, how does the top management ensure
that the right person is working for the right job, are human resources reviewed and
29

developed regularly, what strategies have been used to gather data on external customer
needs and expectations and how does the company fulfill its social obligations.
The results were that various quality initiations had been done and top managers
actively reviewed the development of the quality culture in the organization. But
complex processes hindered the communication processes, staff alignment was needed.

 Result from Middle Management Survey
The middle level of management was check listed for awareness of the
organization‟s mission and vision and analysis were made how the middle level
conducts regular surveys to assess what the clients think of the quality of services and
work and if regular feedback is obtained through sufficient interaction with
employees and clients.
It was seen that on an average managers have a clear understanding of the
corporate culture, mission and values of the firm. Middle managers are eager to learn
more about TQM and are strongly committed to providing quality services and work
to plan for the expansion activities.
 Result from Lower Management Survey
A study was initiated to know if the lower level participated in discussions,
workshops and meetings and whether they have discussed individually or in groups
about the goals and mission of the organization. They were asked to recall rewards and
support given to them, their behavior and contribution to quality.
Based on these analysis, it was understood that employees are aware of the
organizations overall mission and quality improvement processes and are fairly
rewarded.

Summary:
A positive response and enthusiasm was gauged from the top level, middle level and lower
level management at the mention of TQM and its benefits. The staff has emphasized customer
satisfaction and quality culture among its goals. Continuous reinforcement from top
management enables management theories to be put into practice.





30


As per the research and study at the company, a proposal for TQM implementation for the
service of Recruitment Improvement is as follows:
Initiating and implementing a TQM Program in a service system is a major task. It requires a
thorough and systematic analysis of customer expectations, systems, processes and functions,
defining and establishing quality parameters, developing and putting in place systems of
measurement and control and integrating all these with the business. The following steps are
proposed for TQM implementation at Refonte Recruitment services.

Steps for implementation of TQM




Figure 9


Develop Service Quality
Strategy
Analyse service Process and define
all quality measures
Establish Process control
System
Investigate the process to
Identify improvement
opportunities
Improve process quality and
monitoring
31


Guidelines for improvement:
The guidelines for these improvements can be understood as follows:
Step 1 Formulate Service Quality Strategy:
Apart from the organizations overall strategy, mission and vision statement, in order to attain
the full benefits of the TQM implementation, we will need well-defined purpose, patience and
discipline. It is mainly the responsibility of the top Management to advance, propagate and
implement a quality improvement program. It must be noted that for an Outsourcing
Consultancy the satisfaction of both its Clients (Companies looking for help in Recruitment
Services) as well as the Candidates (recruits, with whom the organization interacts) is
important. Customers for the Organizations will include both Candidates and Clients. The chief
executive needs to maintain a direct, highly visible and an all-pervasive involvement in the
TQM program. His continual involvement can be expressed through employee empowerment,
which is the highlight of Total Quality Human Resource Management. Also, he must ensure
persuasion, motivation, direction and involvement of the employees on an on-going basis. In
building strategies for continual improvement, it is necessary to analyze the following aspects
 The needs and expectations of the customer (client/candidate)
 Function and project objectives
 Measurement and control parameters
 Feedback system and evaluation.

Step 2 Analyse service procedures and define quality measures:
The service process must be well identified and its quality dimensions defined for proper
implementation and review. This involves
a) Developing detail flow chart
b) Identifying customer requirement
c) Understanding different levels of process operations
d) Documenting quality requirement
e) Defining measure for output quality
Step 3 Establish process control system:
Process control are require for continuous monetary of the service process. For this, important
performance areas and a trial control system must be developed.

32


Step 4 investigate the process to identify improvement opportunities:
In this step internal problems affecting customer satisfaction and cause identified by
a) Developing cause-and- effect diagrams to identify causes of waste of poor quality ;
b) Prioritizing causes of waste
c) Determining chronic problem areas
d) Deciding on improvement project
Step 5 Improve process quality:
Improvement stage helps to achieve and sustain a new levels of process performance. This
requires
a) Regular review of quality improvement and management opportunities with all
employees;
b) Identifying root causes Developing action plans, testing and implementing solutions, and
c) Maintaining top management involvement and participation throughout the
organization.

















33



Chapter 7: Suggestions
In order to handle the additional business that the organization has received it is essential that
the quality, of all kinds of means such as; data, information, decision, objectives, strategy,
people, materials, machinery, systems etc., is improved further. The TQM philosophy
emphasizes flexibility, lateral-communication, group effectiveness, and responsibility for an
entire process that has the outcome of customer satisfaction.

The following questionnaire is prepared for Client Feedback.

Client questionnaire: Measuring Quality
6 How far is Refonte from your company?_____ km
7 You had to wait for fulfillment of order for ____ days
8 Your expectation was ____days
9 If your order was delayed, what do you think was the reason?
a. Lack of staff attention
b. Lethargy of staff
c. Vendor service too crowded
d. Any other_______

Predictability:

1. How often do you hire vendor empanelment services?
a. More than once a month
b. Once a quater
c. Once a year
d. Twice a year

2. How many times have you hired us this year?_______
3. Will you hire Refonte again? A. Yes B. No
4. If yes, what is the best aspect you found about the comapny?
5. If no, what is the reason?_____ )google from TQM in HR consultancies
6. Compared to the previous contract with us, this contract was?
a. Very satisfactory
b. Satisfactory
c. Neither Satisfactory nor unsatisfactory
(Same as last time)
d. Unsatisfactory
34

e. Very unsatisfactory


Rating your satisfaction

A. Psychological expectations Actual
a. Interaction with the Marketer ( /5 )
b. Clarity of understanding ( /5 )
c. Recognition of the recruiter ( /5 )
d. Follow up by the recruiter ( /5 )
e. Efficiency of results ( /5 )

B. Ethical
a. Behaviour and courtesy of the recruiter ( /5 )
b. Mail ettiquetes ( /5 )
c. Line ups ( /5 )
d. Turn out of candidates ( /5 )
e. Quality of candidates ( /5 )
f. Criteria assessement level by recruiter ( /5 )


 The following is a detailed step by step evaluation of the tqm program, in the form of a
questionnaire for the top management mostly;

1. Quality Vision:
A quality vision is a general statement of what your organization will become
and how good your organization intends to be at that activity. For example, “we
aim to be the best managed electric utility in India”. A Quality vision creates a
common focus for the organization and a basis for strategy.
Tick the box following the statement that describes your organization most
accurately.
A. We have a written Quality Vision that is the basis for strategic planning and
decisions throughout the organization.
B we have a written quality vision that is the basis for the implementation of Quality
initiatives, but it is not the basis for broader strategy
C. We have a written quality vision, but it is not the basis for strategy or
implementation.
D. We have no written quality vision, but there is general agreement among the top
leadership on where we are headed with quality.
E. We have no idea what our quality vision is.
35


1. Strategy where customer focus
A quality strategy is based on vision, information on what is important to customers,
and how customers view quality.
A Quality strategy is usually expressed as part of the strategic plan for overall
business. Tick the box following the statement that describes your organization most
accurately.
A. We have a clear written strategy for quality. Integral to our strategy, it is based
on solid, scientific information about our customer needs satisfaction.
B. We have a clear written strategy for quality. It is based on solid, scientific
information about our customer needs satisfaction.
C. We have a clear written strategy for quality. It is based on limited information
about our customer needs satisfaction.
D. We have a written strategy for quality. Data on customer needs satisfaction have
not yet been included in developing it. We have no written strategic plan for
quality.

2. Quality goals
Quality goals are specific, measurable and related to the quality of the goods and
services provided by the organization. Some people refer the term, objectives, for
this concept. Quality goals maybe set on a number of different basis: the needs and
satisfaction of your customers; your performance compared to your competitors;
specific performance defects, or cause of poor quality. Tick the box following the
statement that describes your organization most accurately.
A. The total organization has long term quality goals based on reliable data about
current quality performance and customer needs satisfaction.
B. We have long term quality goals based on data on quality performance, customer
need satisfaction. Current status measurements not included.
C. The total organization has specific, measurable Quality goals with respect to its
customers and/or its own internal operations
A. We have quality goals that relate only to the quality process, training teams, etc.
B. We have no Quality goals.

3. Deployed Goals
Goals are divided into smaller objectives, and specific individuals must be assigned
the responsibility and the resources to meet every objective. These assignments may
be made to organizational units or cross-functional quality teams. Only people
(either collectively or individually) can complete the activities needed to achieve a
specific goal. You must plan explicitly for who will do the work and what resources
36

they will receive. Tick the box following the statement that describes your
organization most accurately.
A. Components have quality goals set through negotiation and data analysis.
Meeting these will result in the organization reaching its goals.
B. Components have quality goals set through negotiation.
C. Each Component has its own set of quality goals.
D. Individual Components of the organization have arbitrary quality goals set by the
top management.
E. Individual Components of the organization do not haves specific quality goals.

4. Monitoring Process toward Goals
The results, with respect to each goal, must be measured regularly for the total
organization and for each relevant component. The top management must assign
clear responsibility for action when actual performance is not meeting the goals.
Tick the box following the statement that describes your organization most
accurately.
A. Progress against quality goals is routinely measured. Results reviewed regularly
at all levels of management. Corrective action is prompt.
B. Progress against quality goals is routinely measured throughout the organization.
Results are reviewed regularly at all levels of management.
C. Progress against quality goals is routinely measured. The top management
reviews results only occasionally.
D. Progress against quality goals is measured infrequently or for only some goals or
for only some parts of the organization. Progress against the quality goals is not
measured.

5. Quality Council
The top management must lead the quality effort. The names may differ, but some
sort of quality council or steering committee is needed to perform the functions
required of top managers jointly. Quality councils have several responsibilities. The
next four benchmarks highlight the most critical sets of priorities, establish cross-
functional teams and provide resources such as training and time and review
progress. Tick the box following the statement that describes your organization most
accurately.
A. Our top managers meet as a group on a regular basis at least monthly to review
the status of quality and take action.
B. Our top managers meet as a group on a regular basis, but less frequently than
monthly, to review the status of quality and take action.
C. Our top managers meet about quality on a regular basis, but there is little
constructive action.
37

D. Our top managers meet infrequently on an ad hoc basis to review, plan and lead
quality.
E. We have no quality council meetings.

6. Set Priorities
Quality improvement occurs only project by project, so it is obvious that the most
important project receives priority. Top managers set these priorities in quality just
as they set priorities in other areas. You‟re expending this money on quality because
you need to rid the organization of the losses from poor quality or because you have
adopted a strategy to satisfy your customer by these ends. You must work on those
items that have the greatest effect on quality and those that affect customer
satisfaction the most. It is absolutely necessary to use data for prioritization so that
the right items are prioritized. Tick the box following the statement that describes
your organization most accurately.
A. Selection of quality projects is based on customer data on computer evaluation of
performance, deficiencies in goods, costs of poor quality and due culture.
B. Selection of priority quality projects is based on reliable data entries for the four
categories in statement A.
C. Selection of priority quality projects is based on reliable data or either customer
evaluation of performance of costs of poor due.
D. Top managers select priority quality projects without totally reliable data.
E. Top managers do not select priority quality projects.


7. Establish Cross-Functional Teams
The most important quality projects almost always require Functional Teams for
their success. Planning the quality of new and replacement of old services also
require Cross-Functional Teams. These teams need to follow the various mandated
structured processes. Tick the box following the statement that describes your
organization most accurately.
A. We have formal Cross-Functional Teams solving quality problems and planning
the quality of new and replacement of old services
B. We have many Cross-Functional Teams solving quality problems, but they don‟t
yet plan the quality of new or replacement services.
C. We have a number of Cross-Functional Quality Teams assigned by the top
management, but we probably need more.
D. We have very few Cross-Functional Teams assigned by the top management.
E. We have no Cross-Functional Quality Teams assigned by the top management.

8. Provide Resources:
38

The success of quality teams depends on the resources used to do the work. The
most critical resources include follow- on training, time for meetings, data collection
and analysis, facilitator support and data analysis support. Tick the box following the
statement that describes your organization most accurately.
A. All teams are supported adequately with all the above resources.
B. Most teams are supported adequately with all the above resources.
C. Most teams have adequate resource support, except that they generally need
more of the following resources…… (please fill in)
D. We need to provide most of our teams with better resource support.
E. No specific formal provision for resource support.

9. Review Progress
The top management must provide a constructive effective review for ongoing
quality projects that they have established. These reviews consider questions such as:
is the team following the established methodology? Is the team following any
difficulty that the top management can alleviate? What limitations do the data have?
What does the team plan to context? The approach should always be one of support
and encouragement. Tick the box following the statement that describes your
organization most accurately.
A. The top management receives monthly short status reports, has at least three
progress reviews of a project and offers constructive reviews.
B. Although less frequent than in management A, the top management does conduct
regular, constructive and supportive reviews.
C. Top management receives are constructive and supportive, but they are not on
established schedule.
D. Top management receives frequently second guess or criticize the team.
E. There are no top management reviews.

10. Customer Data
Quality leadership requires data on the following items: Identification of customers;
customer needs expressed in terms of benefits sought; the relative importance of
each need; customer evaluation of organization‟s quality; customer evaluation of the
competition‟s quality; measure of the competition‟s goods and services (HR
services). Data on these items are adequate if they are prepared using appropriate
statistical methods and scientific samples that include both current customers and
potential customers. They must have been prepared recently enough to reflect
current conditions. Tick the box following the statement that describes your
organization most accurately.
A. We have data that fulfill all of the above.
39

B. We have data that fulfill all of the above, except that some of the information is out of
date.
C. We lack adequate data on one or two of the six elements listed above.
D. We have adequate data on one or two of the six elements listed above.
E. Most of our information fails to meet the above conditions for adequate data.

11. Costs of Poor Quality
The costs of poor quality are all the costs that would disappear if all the work were
to be performed perfectly every time. These include the costs of looking for
deficiencies; the costs of repairing replacing or doing work all over again; the costs
of taking care of the customer who has suffered from the deficiency. Reasonably
reliable, systematic estimates are sufficient. The only precision needed is that
required is that for decision making. Tick the box following the statement that
describes your organization most accurately.
A. Our data relate to all activities in the organization and have sufficient detail to be
the basis for selecting quality improvement projects.
B. Our data can be used to identify specific improvement opportunities, but the
cover only some activities in the organization.
C. Our data lack sufficient detail for identifying specific projects, but they are still
helpful.
D. Our data lack sufficient detail to be helpful.
E. We have no data on costs of poor quality

 It was found through these evaluations that even though the company was functioning at
its full swing there was still scope to implement a more integrated total quality system
into the existing practices!
 The employees must be given enough time and training to go through the transition
phase of TQM
 Quality ideologies must be inculcated into the core practices of the organization by
breaking them into minute rules and benchmarks such as customer care, punctuality of
delivery etc.







40


Chapter 8: Conclusion

The importance of a proper service philosophy and strategy is crucial to establishing high
quality and continually improving services. Application of quality improvement programs has
not yet received much attention in the Recruitment services industry until recently, but efforts
aimed at spreading them are increasing rapidly. Understanding the basic service philosophy and
developing a strategy for continual growth are necessary requirements for future service quality
goals. The role of HR service systems in the global economy is changing. Managing such
systems successfully requires an orientation towards conceptualizing the philosophies and
essentials of TQM and coupling them with implementation for providing better quality of life to
the society at large.
Total quality management is becoming a maxim of good management that human factors are
the most important dimension in quality and productivity improvement. TQM has far-reaching
implications for the management of human resources. It emphasizes self-control, autonomy, and
creativity among employees and calls for greater active cooperation rather than just compliance.

Human resource management and total quality management having been identified as “new”
approaches have attracted a great deal of practitioners‟ interest. Environmental pressures to
change, for example, turbulent market conditions and heightened competition, have left
organizations little choice to introduce novel approaches in human resource management
(HRM) and total quality management (TQM) in every company










41



Annexure
Total Quality in Human Resource Management

I, a student of BBM, Department of Commerce, Manipal University, am executing the project titled “A
Detailed study to assess the scope of Total Quality Management in Human Resource Practices –
A special reference to Refonte Techology & Consulting Pvt. Ltd.” I request your good self to
spare a few minutes regarding the survey and give us your valuable inputs
Name________________ Occupation_____________________ Place_________________
1. Please specify your Age
18 -25 25-35 36 -45 Above 45
2. Please select your Educational Qualification

< Higher Secondary Higher Secondary UG PG ITI or Others

3. Please select your role in your current organization

Intern HR Assistant HR Manager VP of HR Others

4. Please select your Total Years of Experience
0-2 years 3-5 years 6-8 years Above 8 years
5. How well do you understand your job and the role it plays in achieving your
vision?

Not at all Not really Somewhat Pretty Much Totally

6. Do you give any suggestions for improvement in your work area and are they
implemented?

Yes No


42

7. Which of the following employee empowerment techniques is most effective
according to you?


Delegating to employees- information and power
Communicating confidence to employees
Setting goals for employees
Interact with employees
Coaching instead of only Supervising
8. How do you describe quality?


9. How are errors handled?



10. If you have any comments or suggestions, please tell us-











43








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