Types of Technical Writing for Business
A. CORRESPONDENCES – Any written or digital communication exchanged by two
or more parties. Correspondences may come in the form of letters, emails,
text messages, voicemails, notes, or postcards. Correspondences are important
for most businesses because they serve as a paper trail of events from point A to
written brief, note, record,
or summary used as a means of communication, or to outline the terms of
an agreement in its draft-stage. A memorandum may be used in court to
prove that a particular contract was made. For instance, in a real estate
transaction, a memorandum can be used to show that the parties to a sale
have entered into an agreement to sell a particular parcel at an indicated
price, in addition to other details of the agreement. This type of
memorandum is also referred to as a binder.
Sales Letter – A direct mail meant to generate sale of an item or
service through tactful writing meant to arouse and initiate a purchase. It is a
type of business letter; meant for generating business. It also has the bearing
of an Announcement Letter. A sales letter is also referred as Letter of Sale,
Marketing Sales Letter and Business Sales Letter. It is also known as direct
mail as it is being directly sent to the client. A definition of sales letter
provides additional and assisting information in understanding the one
Request Letter – a letter which is written when you need certain
information, permission, favour, service or any other matter which requires a
polite and humble request.
Inquiry Letter – A document requesting information sent on behalf of
an individual or an organization for their own respective purposes, which can
be mutually beneficial to the recipient and the sender.
Customer Relations Letters -- A customer service letter is also called a
consumer complaint letter in which he responses to a product, service or staf
of a company and explains what the good and bad things are about the
products and staf. This type of letters act like a criticism notes which help
the company to eliminate wrong policies and update or adopt new one which
assist the customer with great ease. This way the customer tells the company
that after using their product or service, if he is satisfied or not
Employment Letters – a letter which verifies your employment with an
organization. It is often requested when signing a lease agreement, when
applying for a loan, negotiating the terms of your life insurance or planning
B. SHORT REPORTS – range from short statement of facts presented on
a single page to a longer presentation taking several pages. The short, informal,
report is usually submitted in the form of a letter or memorandum. It does not
carry a cover, table of contents or any special display.
Appraisal Report – a report prepared by a professional appraiser to
determine the value of some type of property.
Audit Report – an appraisal of a small business’s complete financial
status. Completed by an independent accounting professional, this document
covers a company’s assets and liabilities, and presents the auditor’s
educated assessment of the firm’s financial position and future.
Budget Report – a report detailing a company’s planned expenditures
and allowing comparison to what they actually were.
Evaluation Report – It is the key product of the evaluation process. Its
purpose is to provide a transparent basis for accountability for results, for
decision-making on policies and programmes, for learning, for drawing
lessons and for improvement.
Periodic Report – Summary of events that presents essentially the
same type of information updated at regular intervals such as
every day, week, month, etc. Also called recurring report.
Sales Report – A record of calls made and products sold during a
particular time frame kept by a salesperson or their management.
An assessment that
a project or process, that conveys details such as what sub-goals have
what resources have
what problems have been encountered, and whether the project or process is
expected to be completed on time and within budget. Progress reports are
used by management to determine whether changes are necessary to an
Inventory Report – It is a summary of items held by a business,
organization, or home, usually with the goal of providing a comprehensive
assessment of a party's holdings.
Manager’s Report – this is produced every six months and provides
accounting and other information (such as portfolio and fund manager's
commentary) relating to a unit trust fund for the period covered by the
Production Report – It include a wide selection of daily summary
reports to help keep you informed and meeting your production schedules.
Recommendation Report – A report that proposes a solution to a
problem or evaluates possible solutions and recommends one.
Status report – A recurring update an employee gives to a manager. It
represent a critical communication within any reporting relationship, across
all job functions, industries, and company sizes.
C. LONG REPORTS
or unsolicited submission by
one party to supply (or buy) certain goods or services to (or from) another.
Cover Letter – It identifies the person submitting the project proposal and
what he is sending or requesting.
Proposal Summary – It is less than one page. It describes the problem you
propose to solve/the issue that you want to address, how you plan to solve
it, and how much it will cost.
Introduction – It describes you, your educational and/or professional
background relevant to the project and your language abilities. It
describes your institutional affiliations, your expertise in the field and your
ability to design and deliver the proposed project, your other programs,
activities, and accomplishments. It states why you are interested in the
subject area of the proposal.
Problem Statement – It states exactly and specifically what the problem is.
It identifies the underlying causes of the problem. It documents the
problem and gives evidence for your explanation of it. It identifies the
likely consequences if the problem is allowed to continue.
Target Population – It identifies the target population and states how many
of them will benefit from the proposed program. It shows that you are
knowledgeable about the target group. It argues convincingly why the
target group has been chosen.
Goal – It identifies what you want to accomplish. The goal flows logically
from the causes of the problem. Accomplishing the goal will reduce or
eliminate the problem. It is realistic to try to achieve the goal.
Objectives – They flow logically from the problem and the goal. They lead
to the reduction of the problem and achievement of the goal. They are
specific, measurable and realistic to accomplish them in the time
specified. They identify who is responsible for them.
Methods – They describe how you will accomplish each objective, who you
will work with or who will help you, what are their qualifications, and what
they will do.
Evaluation – It describes the method(s) you will use to evaluate (and
monitor) the program. It describes who will carry out the evaluation. It
tells the reader what you will be looking for in the evaluation. It describes
what will be done with the results.
Budget –The accurate reflection of the projected costs and revenue
involved in running your program. It compares favorably with those of
similar programs. All the cost items are justified.
Future Funding – (if applicable)It describes how much financial support will
be necessary to keep the program going once current funding expires. It
identifies the likelihood of additional support, including other funders to
which the proposal is being sent. It makes a case for the likelihood of
those funders continuing financial support for the program.
Supporting Material – Letters of support , prior work in the area, and other
supporting material is included (press articles, etc.).
Marketing Research – It is the systematic gathering, recording, and
of qualitative and
to marketing products and services.
Case Studies – Documented study of a specific real-life situation or
imagined scenario, used as a training tool in business schools and firms. Its
Executive Summary – The purpose of the Executive Summary is to
consolidate the principal points of your paper in one place.
Introduction – The introduction provides the reader with background
information for the research reported in the paper.
Literature Review – The review of previous research accomplishes several
Methodology – This section specifies the type of research design utilized in
the paper, such as the approach to data collection, analysis, and report
Study – A case study is the study of the particularity and complexity of a
Analysis – It compares the findings of the study with benchmarks
established in the review of literature.
Conclusions and Recommendations – Although this section does not need
to be long, the writer has an opportunity to tie up loose ends, summarize
findings, and draw inferences.
References and Appendices
Feasibility Studies – It is an evaluation and analysis of the potential of a
proposed project which is based on extensive investigation and research to
support the process of decision making. Its parts are:
The Project Scope which is used to define the business problem and/or
opportunity to be addressed.
The Current Analysis is used to define and understand the current method
of implementation, such as a system, a product, etc.
Requirements - how requirements are defined depends on the object of
the project's attention.
The Approach represents the recommended solution or course of action to
satisfy the requirements.
Evaluation - examines the cost efectiveness of the approach selected.
This begins with an analysis of the estimated total cost of the project
Review - all of the preceding elements are then assembled into a
Feasibility Study and a formal review is conducted with all parties
Conclusion – It should be remembered that a Feasibility Study is more of a
way of thinking as opposed to a bureaucratic process.
Action Plans – A sequence of steps that must be taken,
or activities that must be performed well, for a strategy to succeed. It is
Goal - Our overall plan and vision.
Objective - Diferent components of our goal; What meeting our goal
Indicator - What we will see when objectives are met.
Strategy - Steps to accomplishing our goals.
Action - How to implement the strategies.
Task* - Breakdown of each action.
Strategic Plans – A broadly-defined plan aimed at creating a desired
future. It is composed of:
Mission statement: The mission statement is an overarching, timeless
expression of your purpose and aspiration, addressing both what you seek
to accomplish and the manner in which the organization seeks to
accomplish it. It’s a declaration of why you exist as an organization.
Vision statement: This short, concise statement of the organization’s
future answers the question of what the company will look like in five or
Values statement or guiding principles: These statements are
enduring, passionate, and distinctive core beliefs. They’re guiding
principles that never change and are part of your strategic foundation.
SWOT: A SWOT is a summarized view of your current position, specifically
your strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.
Competitive advantage: Your competitive advantage includes what
you’re best at compared to the competition.
Long-term strategic objectives: These long-term strategic focus areas
span a three-year (or more) time horizon. They answer the question of
what you must focus on to achieve your vision.
Strategies: Strategies are the general, umbrella methods you intend to
use to reach your vision.
Short-term goals/priorities/initiatives: These items convert the
strategic objectives into specific performance targets that fall within the
one- to two-year time horizon. They state what, when, and who and are
Action items/plans: These specific statements explain how a goal will be
accomplished. They’re the areas that move the strategy to operations and
are generally executed by teams or individuals within one to two years.
Scorecard: You use a scorecard to report the data of your key
performance indicators (KPIs) and track your performance against the
Financial assessment: Based on historical record and future projections,
this assessment helps plan and predict the future, allowing you to gain
much better control over your organization’s financial performance.