San Pablo Colleges and Medical Center
Graduate School- Master of Arts in Nursing
Human Behavior in Organization
Gilbert C. Bagsic, RN
Dr. Cornelia Catalla
Human behavior in Organzation
San Pablo Colleges and Medical Center
Graduate School- Master of Arts in Nursing
Human Behavior in Organization (HBO)
Submitted by: Gilbert C. Bagsic,R.N.
Submitted to: Dr. Cornelia Catalla, Professor
A. What is the importance of studying the history of Organizational Behavior?
Organizational behavior is about studying and understanding people and human nature.
Throughout the century there has been a lot of trends changes that the world and
humanity had undergone. That’s why looking back and seeing its perspective would be
necessary in order for us to understand what would be the best approach to study the
people, the place and the group where one belongs. Leadership and management serves
as tool for understanding human behavior and these two has also complex history and
develop that needs a time for analysis and evaluation. Looking back will help us fully
understand how we see the present and perceive the future of organizational behaviors.
B. Briefly discuss the beliefs/ limitation of the different periods through which the
HBO field evolved. Who were the individuals in each period who influenced the
shaping and boundaries of OB and the achievement, contributions and theories?
1. Early practices – prior to 1880
2. The classical era – for 1900 to mid-1930’s
3. Behavioral era – for 1940’s to 1980’s
4. Organizational behavior
EARLY PRACTICES IN OREGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
(prior to 1880)
a. Adam Smith
Adam smith is a Scottish philosopher who was able to write the book
causes of wealth in nations and promoted division of labor.
b. Charles Babbage
Charles Babbage is a British Mathematics professor. He Wrote ‘On
the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures. Like Adam Smith he
also proposed advantages of division of labor:
Reduces the time needed for learning a job
Reduces waste of material
Attainment of high skill levels
Matching skills and abilities with jobs
c. Robert Owen
Robert Owen is a Welsh entrepreneur and the one who recognized
that factory work is a demanding work for employee.
CLASSICAL ERA IN ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR (1900’s-1930’s)
a. Frederick Taylor
The Industrial Revolution that started with the development
of steam power and the creation of large factories in the late
Eighteenth Century lead to great changes in the production
of textiles and other products. The factories that evolved,
management that had not been confronted before. Managing
these new factories and later new entities like railroads with
the requirement of managing large flows of material, people,
and information over large distances created the need for some methods for dealing
with the new management issues.
The most important of those who began to create a science of management was
Frederic Winslow Taylor, (1856-1915). Taylor was one of the first to attempt to
systematically analyze human behavior at work. His model was the machine with its
cheap, interchangeable parts, each of which does one specific function. Taylor
attempted to do to complex organizations what engineers had done to machines and this
involved making individuals into the equivalent of machine parts. Just as machine parts
were easily interchangeable, cheap, and passive, so too should the human parts be the
same in the Machine model of organizations.
This involved breaking down each task to its smallest unit and to figure out the one best
way to do each job. Then the engineer, after analyzing the job should teach it to the
worker and make sure the worker does only those motions essential to the task.. Taylor
attempted to make a science for each element of work and restrict behavioral
alternatives facing worker. Taylor looked at interaction of human characteristics, social
environment, task, and physical environment, capacity, speed, durability, and cost. The
overall goal was to remove human variability.
The results were profound. Productivity under
departments arose such as industrial engineering,
personnel, and quality control. There was also
growth in middle management as there evolved
a separation of planning from operations.
management became formalized and efficiency increased. Of course, this did not come
about without resistance. First the old line managers resisted the notion that
management was a science to be studied not something one was born with (or
inherited). Then of course, many workers resisted what some considered the
"dehumanization of work." To be fair, Taylor also studied issues such as fatigue and
safety and urged management to study the relationship between work breaks, and the
length of the work day and productivity and convinced many companies that the careful
introduction of breaks and a shorter day could increase productivity. Nevertheless, the
industrial engineer with his stop watch and clip-board, standing over you measuring
each little part of the job and one's movements became a hated figure and lead to much
sabotage and group resistance.
The core elements of scientific management remain popular today. While a picture of a
factory around 1900 might look like something out of Dickens, one should not think the
core concepts of scientific management have been abandoned. They haven't. They have
merely been modified and updated
b. Max Weber
At about the same time German sociologist Max Weber,
observing th e organizational innovations of the German leader
Bismark, identified the core elements of the new kind of
organization. He called it bureaucracy. He proposed Structural
Theory, described bureaucratic structure, division of labour,
clearly defined hierarchy, detailed rules and regulations and
impersonal relationships. Max Weber argued that bureaucracy
involved the application of rational-legal authority to the
organization of work, making bureaucracy the most technically efficient form of
organization. He argued that all organizations can be understood in terms of
bureaucracy and that organizational failures are more often a result of insufficient
application of bureaucratic principles.
Weber's principles of bureaucratic organization:
A formal organizational hierarchy
Management by rules
Organization by functional specialty and selecting people based on their skills and
An "up-focused" (to organization's board or shareholders) or "in-focused" (to the
organization itself) mission
Purposefully impersonal, applying the same rules and structures to all members of the
c.Marry Follet’s Social Man theory
Emphasized on group ethics. Manager must coordinate group
efforts. Roethlisberger and Mayo experiment’s at Hawthorne
plant of the Western Electric Company showed that man is
largely gratified in a social milieu.
He craves for affiliation and communion with his fellow workers, job comfort, and
enjoyment, long range security is more potent than financial considerations.
d. Classical Organization Theory of Henri Fayol
French industrialist Henry Fayol proposed that a manager plans,
organizes, directs, controls and coordinates. He conceptualized the
14 principles of management including division of labor, authority,
scalar chain, unity of command, initiative.
e. Chester Barnard
Conceptualized the Social Systems Theory. Organizations
made up of people who have interacting social relationship.
They communicate. Success depends on maintaining good
relations. A social system basically consists of two or more
individuals interacting directly or indirectly in a bounded
situation. There may be physical or territorial boundaries, but
the fundamental sociological point of reference is that the
individuals are oriented, in a whole sense, to a common
focus or inter-related foci. Thus it is appropriate to regard such diverse sets of
relationships as small groups, political parties and whole societies as social systems.
Social systems are open systems, exchanging information with, frequently acting with
reference to other systems.
f. Herbert Simon
He Described organizations as a complex network of decisional
process. Decision process comprises i) intelligent activity ii)
design activity iii) choice activity. Bounded rationality and
He said that the nature of manage ment as innovative and
creative. Manager has to act as administrator, entrepreneur, set
objectives etc. Organisation structure to facilitate effective
functioning. One of his most important contribution is
Management by Objective.
BEHAVIORAL ERA IN ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR (1940’s to 1980’s)
a. The Hawthorne Studies, The Western Electric (Hawthorne Works) Studies
(1923-1933) Cicero, , ILL.
The most famous of these studies was the
Hawthorne Studies which showed how work
groups provide mutual support and effective
resistance to management schemes to increase
output. This study found that workers didn't
respond to classical motivational approaches as
suggested in the Scientific Management and Taylor approaches, but rather workers
were also interested in the rewards and punishments of their own work group. These
studies, co nducted in the 1920's started as a straightforward attempt to determine the
relationship between work environment and productivity.
Actual Photo of the western electric Company
The results of the research led researchers to feel that they were dealing with sociopsychological factors that were not explained by classic theory which stressed the
formal organization and formal leadership. The Hawthorn e Studies helped us to see
that an organization is more than a formal arrangement of functions but is also a social
system. In the following chart, we can see a comparison of traditional assumptions vs. a
newer "human relations" view.
The second phase of the study, the Bank Wiring Room, was designed to study the social
The following lists some specific experiments that were part of the Hawthorne Studies
Relay Assembly Test Room Experiments
examined relation of light intensity and worker efficiency
failed to find simple relationship
behavior is not merely physiological-also psychological
Decided to learn more about workers-eg. worker attitudes,
called in Elton Mayo
Relay Assembly Test II, 1927
selected 6 workers from large shop floor-average worker completed 5 relays in 6
kept record of output for five years-quality, weather conditions, worker health,
had no supervision as such; workers told of experiment, could suggest changes
work conditions varied-eg. rest periods, length of work day
looked at effect of changes on out
results-output rose slowly and steadily even with shorter workday
workers said experiment was "fun"; liked absence of supervision; group
developed socially, informal leadership, common purpose
Interviewing stage, 1928
examined how 21,000 employees felt about work and company
learned how to improve supervisory training
found supervision improved as supervisors began to look at employees differently
found managers knew little about good supervision
concluded that employees couldn't be viewed as individuals, but rather as part of
organized social groups, families, neighborhoods, working groups
workers band together for protection; purposely restrict output to norm; resent
group piecework; punish rate busters; enjoyed fooling management
informal leaders keep group together
Bank Wiring Observation Room (1931-1932)
choose 9 workers, three soldermen, two inspectors to assemble terminal banks
group piecework used-guaranteed base rate; pay reflects both group and
group placed in separate room to observe impact of group dynamics on prod.
what happened-employees had notion of proper day's work; most work done in
morning; when they felt they had done what they considered enough, they slacked
off so output constant
workers often traded jobs and helped each other; formal supervisor often looked
why did workers restrict output-didn't want management to know they could do
complex social system evolved-common sentiments, relationships
-what is critical is not what is but what is perceived
-since worker couldn't affect management, group gave meaning and significance
-workers resist formal changes in management to break up loyalties, routines
Results of the Hawthorne Studies and the related research
These studies added much to our knowledge of human behavior in organizations and
created pressure for management to change the traditional ways of managing human
resources. The Human Relations Movement pushed managers toward gaining
participative support of lower levels of the organization in solving organization
problems. The Movement also fostered a more open and trusting environment and a
greater emphasis on groups rather than just individuals.
b. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
Abraham Maslow developed the Hierarchy of Needs model in 1940-50s USA, and the
Hierarchy of Needs theory remains valid today for understanding human motivation,
management training, and personal development. Indeed, Maslow's ideas surrounding
the Hierarchy of Needs concerning the responsibility of employers to provide a
workplace environment that encourages and enables employees to fulfil their own
unique potential (self-actualization) are today more relevant than ever.
c. Douglas Mcgregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
Douglas McGregor was one of the great popularizers of Human Relations approach
with his Theory X and Theory Y. In his research he found that although many managers
spouted the right ideas, their actual managers indicated a series of assumptions that
McGregor called Theory X. However, research seemed to clearly suggest that these
assumptions were not valid but rather a different series of notions about human
behavior seemed more valid. He called these Theory Y and urged managers to manage
based on these more valid Theory Y notions.
Work is inherently distasteful
to most people
conditions are favorable
for responsibility, and prefer
ambitious, have little desire
to be directed
Work is as natural as play if the
spread throughout organizations
Motivation occurs at affiliation,
esteem, and self-actualization
Motivation occurs only at the
The capacity for creativity is
People can be self-directed and
creative at work if properly
Most people must be closely
controlled and often coerced
Skinner’s Operant Conditioning
Operant conditioning was developed by B.F. Skinner in 1937 and deals with the
modification of "voluntary behavior" or operant behavior. Operant behavior operates on
the environment and is maintained by its consequences. Reinforcement and punishment,
the core tools of operant conditioning, are either positive (delivered following a
response), or negative (withdrawn following a response). Skinner created the Skinner
Box or operant conditioning chamber to test the effects of operant conditioning principles
e.McClelland’s Need Theory
Need theory, also known as Three Needs Theory, proposed by psychologist David
McClelland, is a motivational model that attempts to explain
how the needs for achievement, power, and affiliation affect the
actions of people from a managerial context. This model was
developed in the 1960s soon after Maslow's hierarchy of
needs in the 1940s. McClelland stated that we all have these
three types of motivation regardless of age, sex, race, or culture.
The type of motivation that each individual is driven by life
experiences and the opinions of their culture. This need theory
concerning management or
MODERN APPROACH TO ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
a. Human Resources Approach
The human resources approach is concerned with the growth and development of people
towards higher levels of competency, creativity and fulfillment, because people are the
central resource in any organization. This approach help employees become better in
terms of work and responsibility and then it tries to create a climate in which they can
contribute to the best of their improved abilities. This approach is also known as
'supportive approach' because the manager's primary role changes from control of
employees to providing an active support for their growth and performance.
b. Contingency Approach
A contingency approach to organizational behavior implies that different situations
require different behavioral practices for effectiveness instead of following a traditional
approach for all situations. Each situation must be analyzed carefully to determine the
significant variables that exist in order to establish the more effective practices. The
strength of this approach is that it encourages analysis of each situation prior to action.
Thus, it helps to use all the current knowledge about people in the organization in the
most appropriate manner.
Productivity is a ratio that compares units of output with units of input. It is often
measured in terms of economic inputs and outputs. Productivity is considered to be
improved, if more outputs can be produced from the same amount of inputs. But besides
economic inputs and outputs, human and social inputs and outputs also arc important.
A system is an interrelated part of an organization or a society that interacts with
everyone related to that organization or society and functions as a whole. Within the
organization 'people' employ 'technology' in performing the 'task' that they are
responsible for, while the 'structure' of the organization serves as a basis for coordinating
all their different activities. The systems view emphasizes the interdependence of each of
these elements within the organization, if the organization as a whole is to function
effectively. The other key aspect of the systems view of organization is its emphasis on
the interaction between the organization and its broader environment,, which consists of
social, economic, cultural and political environment within which they operate.
Organizations arc dependent upon their surrounding environment in two main ways:
First, the organization requires 'inputs' from the environment in the form of raw material,
people, money, ideas and so on. The organization itself can be thought of as performing
certain 'transformation' processes, on its inputs in order to create outputs in the form of
products or services.
Secondly, the organization depends on environment such as, public to accept its output.
The systems view of organization thus emphasizes on the key interdependencies that
organizations must manage. Within themselves the organizations must trade off the
interdependencies among people, tasks, technology and structure in order to perform their
transformation processes effectively and efficiently. Organizations must also recognize
their interdependence with the broader environments within which they exist.
C. Discuss the significance of studying human behavior and its implication to your
own work setting.
D. Since the world is on globalization, what are its implications to the nurse
manager? Nurse go abroad to work and someday foreign may work here. Explain
how cultural values affects human behavior in organization.
E. What issues do you think will the field of HBO be facing in the future?
F. What are the functions and roles of management?