PresentedChawla A. Wines Priya by ~ Lisa Ahsan Kamwani Mariyam abbasi
Definition of Whistle-Blowing
Whistle blowing can be defined as “an attempt by an employee or former employee of an organization to disclose what he or she believes to be wrongdoings in or by the organization” Another definition of whistle blowing is “the disclosure of illegal, unethical or harmful practices in the workplace to parties who might take action A whistleblower is an employee, former employee, or member of an organization, especially a business or government agency, who reports misconduct to people or entities that have the power and presumed willingness to take corrective action. Generally the misconduct is a violation of law, rule, regulation and/or a direct threat to public interest, such as fraud, health/safety violations, and corruption
Types of Whistle-Blowing
Internal WhistleBlowing When an individual advocates beliefs or revelations within the organization. External WhistleBlowing When and individual advocates beliefs or revelations outside the organization.
Personal WhistleBlowing It is personal if harm is reportedly done only to the whistle blower.
Impersonal WhistleBlowing It is impersonal if harm observed is done to another party.
Types of whistle blowers
• Current whistleblower: someone who blow the whistle on a present employer/employers • Alumni whistleblower: someone who blow the whistle on a former employer/employers • Open whistleblower: reveals her or his identity and/or makes no attempt to hide this. • Anonymous whistleblower: acts specifically to keeps her or his identity a secret
Advantages of whistle blowing
• • • • Public Safety Moral Responsibility End of unethical business practices Rewarding the whistleblower for complaining like bonuses, promotions, incentives etc • leads to benefits of the company e.g. the wrong usage of resources by corrupted person is minimized and now these resources can be used in productive manner.
Disadvantages of whistle blowing
• • • • • Retaliation Conflicts of Interest Effecting the environment Costly Even the claims of whistle blowers are not always genuine and sometimes a person may be doing it for their selfish reasons
• The Insider (1999) is a true story based on an Ex-tobacco executive who planned to whistle blow against his company Brown & Williamson. The film illustrates how tobacco manufacturers are exploiting the consumers by not letting them know what happens next after smoking. Wigand was fired. Not long after he was fired by Brown and Williamson, Wigand came into contact with Lowell Bergman , a producer for 60 Minutes who worked closely with journalist ‘Wallace’. Bergman arranged for Wigand to be interviewed by Wallace for a 60 Minutes expose on the cigarette industry, though Wigand was still bound by a confidentiality agreement not to discuss his employment with the company. Despite Wigand's willingness to talk, CBS pulled his interview from at the last minute after B&W threatened a multi-billion dollar lawsuit. On the other hand,after the testimony of the Wigand in the court, B&W starts a smear campaign to disgrace the Wigand. New York Post and Wall Street Journal gets information about previous events of the wigand’s life and they start an investigation against him.
Unable to see an honest man being held due to the fault of his corporation, Bergman leaks the news to the press. New York Times publishes the interview and criticises B&W in running a low level smear campaign against a true person.
• Karen Silkwood was a chemical technician at the Kerr-McGee's plutonium fuels production plant in Crescent, Oklahoma, and a member of the Oil, Chemical, and Atomic Workers' Union in the early ’70s & was in charge of investigating the health and safety concerns of workers at the plant. . Despite the company’s assurances, Silkwood found what she believed were major violations of health and safety regulations. She reported her concerns to The Atomic Energy Commission, hoping that Kerr-McGee would make their workplace safer. Almost immediately after she went to AEC, Silkwood tested positive for massive plutonium exposure. Unable to determine where she had been exposed, investigators found that several surfaces in her house had been contaminated with plutonium. Kerr-McGee claimed she was deliberately exposing herself to create sympathy, while Silkwood assumed the company was giving her contaminated testing equipment. Frustrated and afraid for her and her family’s health, Silkwood decided to show her evidence to The New York Times. She left a union meeting with binders and documents to meet the reporters. She never arrived. Police found her car run off the road and Silkwood dead inside. There were no documents to be found. The case remains controversial and Kerr-McGee has always denied any wrong doing Karen Silkwood died on November 13, 1974 in a fatal one-car crash. The circumstances of her death have been the subject of great speculation. Since then, her story has achieved worldwide fame as the subject of many books, magazine and newspaper articles, and even a major motion picture
• In 1992, Mark Whitacre was on top of the world. He was rich, happily married, and a rising star at his company. An executive at food industry giant Archers Daniel Midland, he was president of their Bio products Division which oversaw the use of food additives. But things changed dramatically that year when he became involved in an international scheme to fix the price of additives such as lysine and citric acid. Along with several major Agribusiness companies from around the world, ADM artificially set the world price for these additives and committed one of the biggest corporate crimes in American history . Under pressure from his wife, Whitacre went to the FBI with details of the plan. If that had been the end of it, Whitacre would still probably be remembered as a great whistleblower, but he went one step further. For the next three years, Whitacre went undercover for the FBI and secretly recorded hundreds of meetings all over the world to expose the plot. His evidence led to hundreds of millions of dollars in fines to the companies involved. Unfortunately, Whitacre was also busy embezzling $9 million dollars from the company at the time, so he ended up in jail himself.
Effects of WhistleBlowing
• Forced to leave organization/demoti on • Credibility ruined • Family, health, and/or life in jeopardy • Outrage and divisiveness of people directly or indirectly involved • Physical or psychological isolation • Organization experiences loss of money, restitution, productivity, and positive reputations. • Incarceration
EXAMPLES IN PAKISTAN
• Ministry of Water and Power paid Rs225 for a bulb available in the open market for Rs140, causing a loss of about Rs3 billion. The tender documents floated by TCP in 2011 for the import of 350,000 metric tons sugar are "tailor-made" to suit a particular Dubaibased refinery. Moeen Aftab Sheikh, gave undue favours to Al Abbas Group of Companies, owned by Riaz Laljee, by selling huge quantities of steel at low prices. USAID stop funding the to Rafi Peer theatre on tips of corruption. Procurement of GRP pipe for Port Qasim Authority by Frontier Works Organisation at a higher rate from Iran than the price quoted by a Saudi company in its tender documents. Malik riaz planted interview with Mehar Bukhari and Mubashir Lukman
Laws regarding whistle blowing in Pakistan
• In Pakistan there are no laws to protect civil servants or private sector employee according to Global Integrity Report.
Research Findings on Organizational and Personal Variables that lead to Whistle blowing
• Variables that are positively related to whistle blowing • Informal Company Policies • Formal Company Policies • Supervisor Support • Highly competent and respected employee
Issue Relating to Whistle blowing
• If you blow the whistle then you are not loyal to your organization or employer. • „ Voice and Exit are the two main options for dissatisfied organization members and that those who exercise the choice are more loyal than to one who decide to exit.‟ – Albert O Hirschman.
Deontological ethics • Deontological ethics is basically a duty based ethics which says that you should fulfill your moral obligations whether it lead to pleasure or pain. From Kantian approach you should blow the whistle if company is involve in immoral practices. • Example: Karen Silkwood • From Kantian approach you should blow the whistle if company is involve in immoral practices. Utilitarian • Greatest good for greatest number. • Example : Karen Silkwood
From the utilitarian perspective of John Stuart Mill. Mill‟s treatment of the principle to “do no harm,” when considered in the context of non-disclosure of vital information, presents a framework from which to address whistle-blowing as a duty. There is no reason to suppose that by “harm” we are limited to instances of physical injury, the harm could take a variety of forms. The importance placed by Mill on individual liberty notwithstanding, he also insists that the inaction of a person may lead to the harm of others, and that person should be accountable to others for the injury. If one recognizes an obligation to prevent the harm of others whenever possible, then whistle-blowing as an act of disclosure of possible injury to other individuals or society at large, seems to be at least partially justified on the utilitarian principle of “do no harm.”
According to John Rawls “Liberty can be restrained for the sake of liberty itself.”
Barriers To Whistle Blowing
• Fear to retaliation • Lawful liability • Libel
• Suppression is often used to describe the outcomes of whistle blowing.
FORMS OF SUPPRESSION
• Workplace harassment • Reassignment and/or redefinition of employment • Demotion including cuts in wage/salary • Non-renewal of contract • Employment termination • Threats of legal action • Attacks on personal credibility
How to Manage WhistleBlowing
• Identify the unethical behavior in question and determine how it is affecting you or the organization in which you work. Decide whether the problem is worth reporting and if it will put your job or someone else's job in jeopardy. • Create a support group. Find peers and coworkers whom you can trust to keep the issue to themselves. Explain the unethical or illicit behavior and determine the opinion of others. If your coworkers agree, recruit them into your support group.
• Determine the correct supervisor or authority figure to whom you will report the problematic behavior. If your boss is committing the behavior in question, identify your boss's supervisor or an external legal figure who has the power to influence the situation. • Blow the whistle. If you fear that whistle-blowing may get you fired or put you into a legal battle, write an anonymous letter or use a third party such as an attorney to report the unethical behavior. Explain the behavior or issue in detail, explain why you believe it is unethical and why it warrants whistle-blowing, as well as how the issue could be resolved.
Acc to you from our surrounding who is whistle blower ???
• Media from its inception has always tried to blow a whistle. • Their efforts have reduced illicit activities • Unethical players fears from them • Their motto is “ aware people and educate them “ • Whistle blowing is a usp for news companies
• • • •
Awam ki adalat Spot fixing scandal Raid Kamran khan show
Advantages of media blowing 1.Illicit players are now afraid 2.People gets more knowledge 3.People gets a platform to speak for illegal activities
1. Media for their profit and rating do not validate the rumor. 2. For personal envy ; Amir liaquat video
• What happened to whistle blower ??? Julian Assange leaked many news but still no action has been taken Muffer book writer; against American Osama bin laden operation In Pakistan several whislte blowers have been killed Nasseru UL Babar etc
• Whistle blowing has reduced illegal activites and has created a fear in people. • Whistle blowing is refraining companies form to do work in public interest .