03 Ec ECommerce Infrastructure

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INFO 3435 eCommerce

Teaching Objectives • Dis Discus cuss s the ori origin gins s of th the e In Inter ternet net..

3. eCommerce Infrastru Infrastructu cture: re:

• Iden Identify tify th the e key te techno chnology logy c conce oncepts pts be behind hind tthe he Int Interne ernet. t.

Internet, web and mobile mo bile pla pl atfor m

• Expla Explain in th the e cur current rent struc structure ture of th the e Int Interne ernet. t.

• Descr Describe ibe the rrole ole of In Intern ternet et protocol protocols s and util utility ity pro program grams. s. • Expla Explain in tthe he llimita imitations tions of ttoday oday’s ’s Inter Internet. net. • Descr Describe ibe th the e pot potentia entiall capa capabilit bilities ies of Inte Internet rnet III. I. • Exp Explai lain n ho how w the Wor World ld Wi Wide de We Web b works. works. • Descr Describe ibe h how ow Int Interne ernett and Web featur features es and and ser services vices support eCommerce.

 Alexander Nikov

• Exp Explai lain n th the e im impac pactt of m mCom Commer merce ce app applic licati ations ons 3-2

Outline The Inte Internet: rnet: Technology Background 1.The Internet: Internet: Technol Technol ogy Background

• Internet

2. The In Intern ternet et Tod Today ay

 – Interconnected netw network ork of thousands of networks and millions o off computers

3. The F Future uture In Internet ternet Infrastructur Infrastructure e

 – Links businesses, educationa educationall institutions, governmen governmentt agencies, and individuals

• Wo Worl rld d Wid Wide e Web Web (Web (Web))

4. Th The eW Web eb

 – One of the Interne Internet’s t’s most popular services

5. The Internet and the Web: F Features eatures and s services ervices

 – Provides access to aroun around d billions, possibly trillions, of Web pages




Trends iin n eCommerce infrast in frastruc ruc tur e 2013 2013-2 -201 014 4 eCommerce eC ommerce infrastruc ture

Web application

E-commerce application

World Wide Web


Data communication network 





1. 1.1. 1. The Evolu Evolutio tio n of the Internet 1961—The 1961 —The Present Presen t •

Innova Innovatio tion n Pha Phase, se, 1964–1 1964–1974 974  – Creation of fundamental fundamental building bloc blocks ks

Instit Instituti utiona onaliz lizati ation on Pha Phase, se, 19 1975– 75–199 1994 4  – Large institutions institutions provide fund funding ing and legitimizat legitimization ion

Com Commer mercia cializ lizati ation on Pha Phase, se,199 1995–p 5–pres resent ent  – Private corporations corporations take over, expand Interne Internett backbone an and d local service


1.2.1. Packet Switching

1.2. The 1.2. The Internet: Key Technology Technol ogy Concepts

• Slices Slices d digi igital tal m mess essage ages s int into o pac packet kets s

Defi Define ned d by Fe Fede dera rall Netw Networ orki king ng Comm Commis issi sion on as network that:  –

Uses IP addressing


Supports TCP/IP TCP/IP


Provides services to users, users, in manner similar to telephone system

• Send Sends s pac packets kets a along long diffe different rent comm communic unication ation path paths s as they become available • Reas Reassemb sembles les pa packets ckets once they arri arrive ve at desti destinati nation on • Uses ses rou route ters rs  – Special purpose computers that interc interconnect onnect the computer netwo networks rks that make up the Internet and route packets

Three important concepts: 1. 2.

Packet s sw witching TC TCP/ P/IP IP comm commun unica icati tion ons sp pro roto toco coll


Cl Clie ient nt/s /ser erve verr c com ompu puti ting ng

 – Routing algorithms ensure packets tak take e the best availabl available e path toward their destination

• Less expe expensive nsive,, was wastefu tefull tha than n cir circuit cuit-swit -switchin ching g



Packet Packet switch ing

Packet Packet Switch ing Figure 3.3, Page 119

Message A

Objective:  – Efficiently utilize bandwidth

ac ke P ac ke t A1

P ac ac ke ke t A 2

P ac ac ke ke t A 3

Process  – Break message into packets  – Transmit packets independently

Packet A3



Packet A1



Packet A2












 – Multiple messages share line  – Reassemble message at receiving end

ke t A 1 P aacc ke

P ac ac ke ke t A2

P ac ac ke ke t A 3

Message A




Packets and Internet Protocols

 A mess erentt p ath s m ess age’ s p ack ets can f ol lo w di ff eren • Router 1

Router 6

allow every pair of computers to communicate directly without having to know much about each other, except for the IP address

Router 8

Router 3

Router 4 Router 4

Router 2

Router 5 Router 5 Router 5

Router 7

Proto Protocols cols are are pieces pieces of software software that that run on every every node node or compute computerr and

Proto Protocols cols govern govern communic communication ation betwee between n peer process processes es on differe different nt systems

Differ Differing ing clie client nt brows browser er and and Web serv server  er 

Proto Protocols cols used used in connecti connection on with the the Internet Internet include include many many function functions s and the TCP/IP protocol suite

Router 9



Packets and Internet Protocols

Packets and Internet Protocols

Proto Protocols cols ar are e piec pieces es of sof software tware tthat hat ru run n on every every node or c compu omputer ter and allow every pair of computers to communicate directly without having to know much about each other, except for the IP address

Proto Protocols cols are are pieces pieces of software software that that run on every every node node or compute computerr and allow every pair of computers to communicate directly without having to know much about each other, except for the IP address

Proto Protocols cols go govern vern commun communicati ication on between between pee peerr proce processes sses on d differ ifferent ent systems

Proto Protocols cols govern govern communic communication ation betwee between n peer process processes es on differe different nt systems

Dif Differ fering ing c clie lient nt brow browser ser and W Web eb s serv erver  er 

Differ Differing ing clie client nt brows browser er and and Web serv server  er 

Proto Protocols cols us used ed in con connect nection ion with the the Int Internet ernet inclu include de many fu functi nctions ons and the TCP/IP protocol suite

Proto Protocols cols used used in connecti connection on with the the Internet Internet include include many many function functions s and the TCP/IP protocol suite




1.2.2 TCP/IP •

Tr Tran ansm smis issi sion on Cont Contro roll Prot Protoc ocol ol (T (TCP CP): ):  – Establishes connections connections between sen sending ding and receiving Web computers  – Handles assembly assembly of packets at p point oint of transmission, and reassembly at receiving end

•  – •

TCP/I The TCP /IP P Architectu Arch itecture re and Protocol Protoc ol Suite

Figure 3.4, Page 121

Internet Protocol (IP): Provides the Internet’s Internet’s addressin addressing g scheme Four TCP/IP Layers

1. 2. 3. 4.

Ne Netw twor ork k Int Inter erfa face ce Laye Layer  r  Inte Interrnet Layer  yer  Tra Transpo nsport rt L La ayer  yer  Appl Applic icat atio ion n La Laye yer  r  3-18


The TCP/IP model.

OSI Reference Model • • • • • • •

Application layer  The top two layers work with the message. Transport layer 

Appl Applic icat atio ion n La Laye yer  r  Pr Pres esen enta tati tion on Laye Layer  r  Se Ses ssio sion Layer  ayer  Tr Tran ansp spor ortt Laye Layer  r  Ne Netw twor ork k (Int (Inter erne net) t) La Laye yer  r  Data Data Link ink Lay Layer  er  Ph Phy ysica sicall La Layer  yer 

• A seve seven-la n-layer yer m model odel tthat hat de define fines s the b basic asic n networ etwork k functions

Internet layer  The bottom two layers work with  packets and control control the network.

• Each laye layerr han handles dles a dif differe ferent nt po portion rtion of th the e communications communication s process with specific network functions

 Network access layer 




ISO 7-layer Model

OSII la OS laye yerr

Resp Re spon onsi sibi bili liti ties es The top four layers work with the message.

Node A

Node B

Application Applica tion User applications

Provides a logical logical link between an appli application cation p program rogram and  the lower-level protocols.

Layer 7  Application


Layer 7  Application

FTP, email, browser, etc.

Layer 6 Presentation


Layer 6 Presentation

Data translation MIME, encryption, etc.

Layer 5 Session


Layer 5 Session

Session management Dialog management, security

Layer 4 Transport


Layer 4 Transport

End-to-End control Error correction (TCP)

Layer 3 Network


Layer 3 Network

Manages data transfer  Message routing (IP)

Layer 2 Data Link


Layer 2 Data Link

Link management MAC, physical addressing


Determines the best route for sen ding a packet from the source node to the destination node.

Level 1 Physical

Physical hardware Media, signal transmission

Data-l Data-link ink

Form Formats ats a packet packet for tra transm nsmissi ission on to to the the next next node. node.

Physic Physical al

Int Interf erface acess wit with h the physi physical cal comm communi unicat catio ion n med mediu ium. m.

Level 1 Physical

Bits on physical medium

The Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) model.

Presentation Presenta tion Performs Performs necessary data representatio representation n and/or syntax syntax conversions; e.g., encryption/decryption. Ses Sessio sion n

Est Establ ablis ishes hes,, m mai ainta ntain ins, s, aand nd ter termi minat nates es a connec connecti tion. on.

Tra Transpo nsport rt

Brea Breaks ks the mes message sage iinto nto packe packets. ts. Ensur Ensures es err error or fr free, ee, eend-t nd-tooend delivery of the complete message.

The bottom three layers work with packets and control the network.

 A blueprint.



The application layer protocols support application programs.

 Ap p li cat i on Lay er  •

Commu Communicat nicates es wi with th the the actua actuall ap applic plication ation in u use se

Stand Standards ards a att the app applica lication tion la layer yer spe specify cify how how two applicat application ion pro programs grams should communicate

From application program

 – The main standard hypertext tran transfer sfer protocol (HTTP) Application layer 

 – Hypertext markup language (HTML) is a s standard tandard set of codes representing text or graphics









Transport layer 

The ap applica plication tion la layer yer is w where here tthe he use userr beg begins ins to do do some somethin thing g usef useful ul

Simpl Simple e netwo network rk man manageme agement nt pro protoco tocoll (SNMP) is is a protocol protocol that that co contro ntrols ls network devices at the application layer 

Domai Domain n namin naming g service service (DNS) (DNS) is so softwar ftware e that conve converts rts IP a addres ddresses ses into easy-to-remember names for the user 


Internet layer   Network  Netw ork access layer  layer  To transport layer 



The appli applicatio cation n layer FTP FTP pro toc ol adds a header.

layer protoc ols. Some common applic ation layer

Acronym FTP


Function Download a file from or upload a file f ile to another computer. Hypertext transfer protocol Request and download a web page. HTTP is the standard Web surfing protocol. Deliver accumulated mail from a mail server  Post office protocol to the recipient's computer. Send an e-mail message from the originator's Simple mail transfer  Name File transfer protocol

 protocol Simple network  management protocol Terminal emulation  protocol

FTP request

Application program

Application layer 

FTP header 

FTP request

computer to the recipient's mail server. Monitor the activity of a network's hardware and software componen components. ts. Log into a remote computer. System operators use telnet to remotely control a server. 3-25

Presentation and Session Layers

Transport Layer 

• Pr Pres esen enta tati tion on La Laye yerr  – The network network’s ’s translator   – Converts data into a format for network transmission and converts incoming data into a format the receiving application can understand • Se Sess ssio ion n Laye Layer  r   – Facilitates a ““session” session” betwee between n two parties to communicate across a network  – Keeps track o off the status of the exchange an and d ensures that only designated parties are allowed to participate  – Enforces secur security ity protocols 3-27

Manag Manages es the tran transmiss smission ion or flow of data betwee between n two compute computers rs or across a network

Manag Manages es the data flow flow is by by segmenti segmenting ng data data into multiple multiple packets packets

Ackno Acknowledg wledges es successful successful transm transmissio issions ns and req request uests s retransmis retransmission sion if packets are damaged or arrive in error 

Break Breaks s tthe he connecti connection on when when tran transmiss smission ion ends

Stand Standard ard for the the transpor transportt layer is is the transmis transmission sion control control proto protocol col (TCP)



The next layer down i s th e transport l aye ayer. r.

TCP TC P adds adds its own heade header. r.

From application layer  FTP request

Application program Application layer  Transport layer 

Other  transport  protocol


FTP header 

Application layer 

FTP request

Internet layer  Transport layer    (each packet)

 Network access layer  layer 

TCP header 

FTP header 

FTP request

To Internet layer 

The transport layer usually uses the TCP protocol.



Netwo rk (I Netwo (Intern nternet) et) Layer 

Internet The Intern et layer uses the th e Intern Internet et protoc pro toc ol (IP)

• Rou Routes tes m mess essage ages s acro across ss mu multi ltiple ple n node odes s From transport layer  Application layer 

• Han Handle dles s net networ work k con conge gesti stion on

Transport layer 

• Stan Standard dard ffor or ro routing uting pack packets ets is the the Interne Internett Prot Protocol ocol ((IP) IP)

Internet layer 



 Network access layer 

• Res Resend ends s los lostt pac packet kets s aut autom omati atical cally ly To network network access layer 

• Defi Defines nes how data are subdivide subdivided d into into pa packet ckets s




Data Data Lin k L ayer 

IP adds its i ts o wn h ea eader. der.

• The “ba “basem sement ent”” of the Int Intern ernet et FTP request

Application program

FTP header 

Application layer 

Transport layer   (each packet)

TCP header 

FTP header 

• Mess Messages ages a att the d data ata lin link k laye layerr are ca called lled d data ata fr frames ames tthe he basic unit of Internet traffic

FTP request

• Anoth Another er way of se sendin nding g pack packets ets iis s ove overr an E Ether thernet net  – Framing and er error ror detection a are re handled auto automatically matically by Ethernet hardware  – Ethernet broa broadcasts dcasts a messag message e to all the comp computers uters

FTP request

linked to it, but only the computer with the right address broadcasts an answer  Internet layer  (each packet)

IP header 

TCP header 

FTP header 

FTP request



Physical Layer  FTP request

Application program

• Lowe Lowest st laye layerr in the journ journey ey of a me messag ssage e from source source to

FTP header 

Application layer 

destination • Conv Converts erts bits iinto nto signal signals s for outgo outgoing ing m messa essages ges and and signals into bits for incoming messages

TCP header 

Transport layer  layer   (each packet)

The networ networ k access layer adds another header.

Internet layer  (each packet)

IP header 

TCP header 

FTP header 

FTP header 

FTP request

FTP request

FTP request

 Network access access layer   Netwo  Network  rk  header 


IP header 

TCP header 

FTP header 

FTP request



1.2.3 Int 1.2.3 Internet ernet (IP) Ad Addr dresses esses •

A Web si site’s te’s a addre ddress ss inc include ludes s the name name of th the e host computer’s computer’s link link the Web site resides on

Each ho host st is identifi identified ed by a uni unique que ho host st numb number er (called (called an IP ad addres dress) s) and by a name that is easier to remember than the number 

IPv4:  – 32-bit number

• An IP ad addres dress s cons consists ists o off 32 bi binary nary d digits igits o orr bits ((zero zeros s and ones) • Divid Divide e the 3 32 2 bits iinto nto 4 g group roups s of 8 bi bits ts cal called led a by byte, te, or octet

 – Four sets of separate separate numbers mar marked ked off by pe periods riods • 201. 201.61 61.1 .186 86.2 .227 27

• Each o octet ctet rrepre epresents sents a deci decimal mal val value ue fro from m 0 thr through ough 2 255 55

• Class C address: N Network etwork identified by first th three ree sets, computer identified by last set

• Write the ffour our decimal decimal va values lues sepa separate rated d by dots

IPv6:  – 128-bit addresses, addresses, able to handle handle up to 1 qu quadrillion adrillion addresse addresses s (IPv4 can only handle 4 billion)

IP Address Ari thmetic

• 191. 191.170. 170.64.1 64.12 2 - comp computer uter frien friendly, dly, but not huma human n ffrien riendly dly • Every host on th the e Int Interne ernett ha has sah host ost numb number  er 



How to Pic Pick k a Domain Name Name

1.2.4 Domain Names, DNS, and URLs •

Domain Name

 – IP address expressed expressed in natural language Do Doma main in Name Name Syst System em (DNS) (DNS)

 – If you sell bricks, bricks, pick a domain name containing a word word like brick  – Consider name length and ease of remembering remembering the name

 – Allows numeric IP addresses addresses to be expressed expressed in natural language

 – Hyphens to force search engines engines to see keywords keywords in your domain name

Uni Unifor form m Reso Resourc urce eL Loca ocator tor (UR (URL) L)

 – Make sure the domain domain name is easy for Web users to remember and find

 – Address used by Web browser to ide identify ntify location of content on the Web  – E.g., http://www.azimuth-interactive.com/flas http://www.azimuth-interactive.com/flash_test h_test

Poi Pointe nterr ffor or pic pickin king gd doma omain in names names

 – The domain name should should suggest the nature of your product or service  – The domain name should should serve as a trademark trademark  – The domain name should should be free of legal legal conflicts




How to Re Regis gis ter a Domain Name Name • Chec Check k if tthe he do domain main name you p propo ropose se ha has s been take taken n • www.FasterWhois.com • One o off the m most ost po popular pular and re reliabl liable e regi registra stration tion si sites tes is www.internic.net/alpha.html


Piece Pieces s of the Internet pu zz zzle: le: names and addresses


Host Naming • A host name  is an Internet address consisting of text labels separated by dots • Hos Hostt n nam ame e is is peop people le friend friendly ly • Host n names ames u used sed in instea stead d of IP ad addres dresses ses or h host ost nu number mbers s




Ne Network twork s and Numbers •

Zones and Domain Names

Hos Hostt numbe numberr di divid vided ed into into two parts parts

An In Inter ternet net name name is is decode decoded d from from right right to left left

 – Network part - 2 octets  – Local part - 2 octets

Zone na name me is the the last (rightmost (rightmost)) part part of a domain domain name name precede preceded d by a dot, specifying the type of domain name

Zon Zones es are cla classi ssifie fied d in in two two ways: ways:  – Three-letter zone names  – Two-letter zone names

Domain n name ame is a Web addres address s that contai contains ns two or or more word groups groups separated by periods

www. www.vir virgin ginia. ia.com com .com

University of Virginia host number  191 . 170 . 64 . 12 network part

local part

 – All UVa addresses begin begin with 191 . 170  – 64 identifies a subnet at UVa  – 12 is the machine machine on the subn subnet et

=> dom domain ain name name => zone



c on si s ts of tw o to f ou r w or ds  A d o mai n n ame con separated by dots.

edu c om

org 134




parts of a The parts domain dom ain name are stru ctured as a hierarchy.

Top-level domain Miami University domain SBA sub-domain





Server within SBA sub-domain Domain: a set of nodes administered as a unit.






Commo Common n Geographic al Two-Letter Zone Names Names

n ames. Top-level domain names.


Domain aero biz com co c oop edu in i nfo gov mil mu m useum na n ame net org pro

S Siignifies Air-transport industry Business organization US commercial Coooeratives US educational Unrestricted US government US military Museums Individuals US network US non-profit Professionals

Domain au br ca cn de fi fr gb in it jp ru za

Signifies Australia Brazil Canada China Germany Finland   France Great Britian India Italy Japan Russia South Africa



 A d om ain name nam e and an IP addr ad dr ess co nv ey t he same info rmation.

 An IP addres add res s.

sbaserver1.sba.muohio.edu Server within SBA domain SBA domain Miami University domain

• Physi Physical cal tran transmiss smission ion requ requires ires IP addr address ess

Top-level domain

• Domain Domain name name syste system m conver converts ts domai domain n name name to to equivalent IP address




TC TCP/ P/IP IP addr addr ess transl t ranslation ation

We Well-known ll-known po rt assignments

 Port  Port   5    20   21   23   25   79   80  110  119


Used Used for for:: RJE (Remote Job Entry) FTP (File (File Tra Transf nsfer er Protoc Protocol) ol) dat dataa FTP (File (File Tra Transf nsfer er Protoc Protocol) ol) con contro troll TELNET TELNET (Term (Terminal inal emulat emulator) or) SMTP SMTP (Simpl (Simplee Mail Mail Tra Transfe nsferr Prot Protoco ocol) l) FINGER (Given e-mail address, identify user) HTTP HTTP (Hy (Hyper pertex textt Transf Transfer er Pro Protoc tocol) ol) POP3 POP3 (Po (Post st Offic Officee Pro Protoco tocol, l, Ve Versi rsion on 3) NNTP NNTP (Netwo (Network rk News News Trans Transfer fer P Proto rotocol col))

domain name

Domain Name System (DNS)

 – Domain name to IP

• ARP  – IP to MAC address

• Map Map logi logica call do doma main in name to physical device. • MAC address

IP address

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

 – Final node  – Not directly on Internet Internet

Port Port:: endpoint of a logical connection

MAC address 3-53


1.2.5. Client/Server Computing

Routing ng Internet Messages: TC TCP/ P/IP IP and and Routi Packet Pa cket Switch ing

• Powe Powerful rful p perso ersonal nal co comput mputers ers (c (client lients) s) co connec nnected ted in

Figure 3.5, Page 130

network with one or more servers • Serv Servers ers p perfo erform rm commo common n fun function ctions s for tthe he cli clients ents  – Storing files  – Software applica applications, tions,  – Access to printe printers, rs, etc.




Client/Se Client/Server rver Basics Basi cs • Clien Client/se t/server rver ar archit chitectur ecture e is a versa versatile, tile, me messag ssage-ba e-based, sed, modular infrastructure intended to improve usability, flexibility, interoperability, interoperability, and scalability as compared to centralized, mainframe, time-sharing computing



Client/Se Client/Server rver Ne Netwo two rk

Client/Server Networks Client/Server Networ ks •

A serv server er is s simply imply a spec special-p ial-purpos urpose e compu computer ter design designed ed to ad address dress a client’s requests

A clien clientt is any compute computerr or works workstatio tation n connecte connected d to the server server within within a network

All p progra rograms ms or appli applicatio cations ns re reside side on th the e se server  rver 

The cl client ient downlo downloads ads s softwa oftware re an and/or d/or data from the serve server  r 

When tthe he cli client ent finish finishes es dat data a may be uplo uploaded aded back back to the se server  rver 




Pros and Cons of Client/S Client /Server erver Netwo Network rk

The New New Client: The Mobi Mobi le Platform • Primar Primary y Intern Internet et ac acces cess s is now th thro rough ugh::  – Tablets • Supp Suppleme lementing nting PCs for mo mobile bile situ situatio ations ns  – Smartphone Smartphones s • Disr Disruptiv uptive e techn technolog ology: y:  – Shift in processors, processors, operating sys systems tems • 38% of all c cell ell p phone hones s





Cloud Computing • Firm Firms s and iindivi ndividual duals s obtain obtain com computin puting g pow power er and software over Internet • Pub Public lic,, pri privat vate, e, a and nd hy hybr brid id cl clou ouds ds • Rad Radica ically lly reduc reduces es costs costs of:  – Building and oper operating ating Web sites  – Infrastructur Infrastructure, e, IT suppor supportt  – Hardware, soft software ware • Risks Risks:: Org Organiz anization ations s beco become me depend dependent ent on outs outside ide providers


1.3 Other Internet Protocols and Utility Programs • Inte Intern rnet et prot protoc ocol ols s  – HTTP  – E-mail: SMTP, PO POP3, P3, IMAP  – FTP, Telne Telnet, t, SSL/TLS • Util Utilit ity y pro progr gram ams s  – Ping  – Tracert



Tracing t he rout e a message takes on the Internet Outline 1. The In Internet: ternet: Technology Background

2.The The Internet Internet Today 2. 3. The F Future uture IInternet nternet Infrastructur Infrastructure e 4. The The W Web eb 5. The Interne Internett and the Web: F Features eatures and s services ervices




The Internet Today • Inte Internet rnet g growt rowth h has boome boomed d witho without ut dis disrupt ruption ion becaus because e it is based on:  – Client/server co computing mputing model  – Hourglass, layered layered architecture

The Hourglass Model Mode l o f t he Internet

• Netwo Network rk Tec Technol hnology ogy Substr Substrate ate • Transport Services a and nd Repr Representation esentation Standards

Figure 3.11, Page 130

• Mid Middle dlewar ware e Ser Servic vices es • Ap Appl plic icat atio ions ns SOURCE: Adapted from Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB), 2000.



Inte Internet rnet Networ Networ k Arc hitecture Figure 3.12, Page 131

2.1 Internet et backbo ne 2.1 Intern • Backbone:  –  –  –  –

High-bandwidth fiberoptic networ networks ks Private networksfiber-optic owned owned bycable a variety of NSPs Bandwidth: 155 Mbps–2.5 Mbps–2.5 Gbps Built-in redundancy redundancy

• IXPs: Hubs where where b backbo ackbones nes in interse tersect ct with rregio egional nal and and local networks, and backbone owners connect with one another  • CANs: LANs o opera perating ting w within ithin a single single organi organizatio zation n that leases carrier Internet access directly from regional or national




Internet Internet B asics •

Networ Networ k Compon ents

The Int Intern ernet et iis s a netw network ork of n netw etwork orks s

 – Network is any-to-any any-to-any communication communications s •

Each s stati tation on on the the netw network ork ha has s a uni unique que ad addres dress s (muc (much h like a phone phone number) called an IP address

Route Routers rs and s switch witches es for forward ward tr traffic affic betwe between en net network work se segment gments s

Proto Protocols cols are ru rules les that that g gover overn n the way a network network op operate erates: s:  – How data travel in packets  – How electrical signals signals represent dat data a on a network c cable able

Ne Netw twor ork k IInt nter erfa face ce Ca Card rd  – A card installed in a slot in the PC to allow communication between between the PC and other PCs in the LAN and beyond  – To communicate over a telephone line the PC needs a modem, a device that converts digital signals into analog format for outgoing transmission and converts incoming messages from analog to digital format for computer processing

Hu Hubs bs an and d Sw Swit itch ches es  – Hub is a piece of hardware that operates operates at the OSI physical physical layer and acts as a connecting point  – Switch is a piece of hardware that offers offers a direct connection connection to a particular PC


Network Network Components (cont'd) •


2.2 Provi ders (I (ISP SPs) s) 2.2 Internet Servic e Providers


• Pro Provid vide e lowest lowest level level of servic service e to individu individuals, als,

 – the A piece of hardware hardwa re that operate operates s atnetwork the OSIsegments Interne Internett layer, linking linking network into little chunks called

small businesses, some institutions • Ty Type pes s of serv servic ice e

 – Usually “intelligent” “intelligent” and evaluate th the e network traffic and can stop local traffic from entering and causing congestion  – Make intelligent path path choices

 – Narrowband (d (dial-up) ial-up)

 – Filter out packets packets that need no nott be received

 – Broadband

 – Expensive and difficult difficult to opera operate te • Digit Digital al S Subscr ubscriber iber Line (DSL (DSL))

Gateways  – A special-purpose special-purpose computer that allows communication be between tween dissimilar systems on the network

• Cabl Cable em mod odem em • T1 and and T3 • Sate Satell llit ite e




ISP service levels ISP levels and bandwidth choi ces

downlo nlo ad a 10 10-M -MB B file fi le by Time to dow type of Internet service


2. 2.3 3 Intranets and Extranets


What Is an Intranet? • An intr intranet anet delive delivers rs coll collabor aboratio ation n and co coordi ordinatio nation n to employees around the clock

• Intranet

 – Communication system designed by technical technical staff 

 – TCP/IP netwo network rk located within a si single ngle organizatio organization n for communications communicatio ns and processing

 – A network of people, people, not of wired machines  – Focus is the message, message, not the media

• An or organi ganizatio zation-wid n-wide e sof softwar tware e and and inf informa ormation tion distribution system that applies Internet technology and standards to a closed network within the organization

• Extranet  – Formed whe when n firms permit outsiders to acce access ss their internal TCP/IP networks

• Norm Normally ally ru runs ns in a cl client ient/serv /server er env environ ironment ment a and nd a lo local cal area network configuration • Sep Separa arated ted fro from m ot other her n netw etwork orks s by firewalls, a means of preventing unauthorized access to the company’s internal data or leaks of sensitive company information information 3-79



 A p p l i c at  Ap atii o n s - Sal Sales es an and d Mar Mark k et etii n g

 Ap pl i cat i on s - Hum Human an Reso Res o ur c es • Em Empl ploy oyee ee h han andb dboo ook k

• Pr Prod oduc uctt info inform rmat atio ion n

• Bene Benefi fits ts in info form rmat atio ion n

• Mark Market et re rese sear arch ch

• Em Empl ploy oyee ee surv survey eys s

• Prospecting

• Intern Internal/ al/ext exter ernal nal rec recrui ruitin ting g

• Mana Managi ging ng s sal ales es c con onta tact cts s

• Ca Cand ndid idat ate e sc scre reen enin ing g

• Sa Sale les s tr trainin ining g

• Or Orga gani niza zati tion on char charts ts • Newsletters • Comp Compan any yc cal alen enda dar  r  3-81

 A  Ap p p l i c at atii o n s - A c c o u n t i n g an and d Fi n an anc ce


 Ap pl i cat io ns - Manu Manufac fac tu r i ng and Oper Operati ati on s

• Fi Fina nanc ncia iall re repo port rts s

• Inve Invent ntor ory y co cont ntro roll

• Expe Expens nse e repo report rts s

• Pr Prod oduc ucti tion on sche schedu dule les s

• Acc Accoun ounts ts recei receivab vable/ le/pay payabl able e pro proces cessin sing g

• Qual Qualit ity y as assu sura ranc nce e

• Asse Assett m man anag agem emen entt

• Par Partt orde order/r r/requ equisi isitio tion n sy syste stem m

• Poli Polici cies es a and nd p pro roce cedu dure res s • Payroll




Other Application Other App lications s for Intranets

Othe Otherr Appl ications f or Intranets Intranets • Real Real-tim -time e broa broadcas dcasting ting of of new news, s, inc includin luding g medical medical information.


RealReal-time time chat chat service service that electro electronical nically ly logs all data data for record record keeping keeping..

• Docu Document ment manageme management nt tto om minimi inimize ze u unnec nnecessa essary ry paperwork and waste of paper.

Comple Complete te company company staff, staff, opera operation tions, s, and organ organizati izational onal chart chart directories.

• Cust Customiz omized ed applicat application ion mo module dules s like a ttrave ravell or documen documentt library.

Chann Channel el for confiden confidential tial exchang exchange e of data for electr electronic onic funds funds transfers transfers (EFTs) and checks.

A daily to to-do -do list list and assignm assignments ents from from a central central desk desk to all connec connected ted desks.

Forei Foreign gn news and fi financ nancial ial data broadc broadcasti asting ng (running (running ticker) ticker) from from direct direct

• Comp Complete lete e-ma e-mailil for inte interoff roffice ice a and nd intrao intraoffice ffice communication.


• Inte Internal rnal comp company any office office cir circular culars s can be rroute outed d electronically. • Bull Bullet etin in b boa oard rd ser servi vice ce.. 3-85

Does Every Need ed an Intranet? Every Company Ne •


Extranets and SCM • Intr Intranet anets s are lo locali calized zed wit within hin a fi firm rm and move d data ata qu quicke ickerr than the more widely distributed extranets

A comp company any n needs eeds an intranet intranet for the the fo followin llowing g reas reasons: ons:

 – When it has a large pool pool of information to share among hundreds of employees

• Extra Extranets are re alr already eady tthe he ba backbo ckbone ne of th the e e-b e-busine usiness ss futurenets a

 – Intranets are cheap, robust, robust, and fast. Any employee with access to an intranet can disseminate dissemi nate and publish information  – Intranets operate across platforms platforms  – Information is available 24/7 to to all employees at the click of a mouse  – Information available on an intranet can be updated quickly

• Extra Extranet net de design signers ers at e each ach pa partici rticipati pating ng com company pany m must ust collaborate to make sure there is a common interface with the company they are dealing with • The over overall all c conne onnectivi ctivity ty re repres presents ents supp supply ly ch chain ain management • Extra Extranetnet-SCM SCM and and Ente Enterpri rprise se Res Resourc ource e Plan Planning ning ((ERP) ERP)  – with ERPthe facilitates integration integrati on of company-wide information systems potential to go across companies information  – The Internet allows allows linking the Web sites to back-end systems like ERP, offering connections to a host of external parties like vendors and suppliers




2.4 2. 4 Who Who Governs t he Internet?

Basic Extranet Layout

• Orga Organiza nizations tions tthat hat in influe fluence nce In Intern ternet et and monit monitor or its operations include:  – Internet Corp Corporation oration for Assign Assigned ed Names and Numbers (ICANN)  – Internet Assigne Assigned d Numbers Autho Authority rity (IANA)  – Internet Engin Engineering eering Task For Force ce (IETF)  – Internet Rese Research arch Task For Force ce (IRTF)  – Internet Engine Engineering ering Steering Gr Group oup (IESG)  – Internet Archite Architecture cture Board (IAB)  – Internet Society (ISOC)  – Internet Gove Governance rnance Forum (IGF)  – World Wide Web C Consortium onsortium (W3C) 3-89

 – Internet Netwo Network rk Operators G Groups roups (NOGs)

Limi tations of cur rent Internet Internet



• Band Bandwi widt dth h limi limita tati tion ons s

1. The In Internet: ternet: Technology Background

 – Slow peak-hour s service ervice • Qua Qualit lity y of ser servic vice e lilimit mitati ations ons

2. The In Intern ternet et Today Today

 – Latency • Net Networ work k arc archit hitect ecture ure llimi imitat tation ions s

3.The Future IInternet nternet Infrastructur e

 – Identical reque requests sts are processe processed d individually • Wi Wire red d Int Inter erne nett

4. The The W Web eb

 – Copper and exp expensive ensive fiber-op fiber-optic tic cables

5. The Interne Internett and the Web: F Features eatures and s services ervices




Proj ect The Internet2® Proj

Proj ect Internet2 Proj

• Cons Consorti ortium um of 440 440+ + insti institutio tutions ns coll collabor aboratin ating g to facil facilitate itate revolutionary revolutionar y Internet technologies

• Lim Limita itatio tions ns o off cu curr rrent ent Int Intern ernet et

• Pr Prim imar ary yg goa oals ls::

 – Bandwidth limitatio limitations ns

 – Create leading leading-edge -edge very-hig very-high h speed network fo forr national research community

 – Quality of servic service e limitations • Latency • “Best “Best effort effort”” QOS

 – Enable revolutio revolutionary nary Internet ap applications plications  – Distributed and co collaborative llaborative comp computing uting environme environments nts

 – Network archite architecture cture limitations

for sciences, health, arts, and humanities initiatives

 – Language deve development lopment limitatio limitations ns • HTML

 – Wired Interne Internett limitations 3-93


100 0 GB networ k Internet2 10 The First Mile and and t he Last Mile

• GEN ENII Init Initia iattive ive  – Proposed by NSF to develop new co core re functionalit functionality y for Internet • Mos Mostt sign signifi ifican cantt priv private ate in initi itiati atives ves  – Fiber optic tru trunk-line nk-line bandwidth • Firs Firstt mile mile  – Wireless Intern Internet et services • Last Last mi mile le 3-95



Fibe Fiberr Optics and the Bandwidth Explosion in th e First First Mile •


elements. Communication requires five elements.

First mile : Backbone Internet services that carry bulk

traffic over long distances • Fiber-optic cable: hundreds hundreds of glass strands that use light to transmit data



 – Faster speeds speeds and greater bandwidth bandwidth



Protocol: a set of rules for  transmitting a message.

 – Thinner, lighter lighter cables  – Less interference interference  – Better data security security

• Message

• Substantial investments in fiber optic by telecommunications telecommunic ations firms in last decade

• Medium

 – Information/ Information/content content

• Trans ansmitter 

 – Enable integrated integrated phone, broadband broadband access, video video services

 – Path or pipe

• Receiver 

 – Source or send sender  er 

 – Sink or destinatio destination n 3-98


Media Medi a Types


• Cable

• Abi Abilit lity y to operate operate over over a connect connection ion

 – Physical wire  – Twisted pair, c coaxial, oaxial, fiber optic

 – Physical – medium

• Wireless

 – Logical – protocol

 – No physical wire

• Line types

 – Cellular, digital ce cellular, llular, satellite

 – Baseband – one signal at a ti time me  – Broadband – simultaneous sign signals als in parallel • Exam Exampl ple e – ca cabl ble e TV

 – Cable can be base baseband band or broa broadband dband  – Wireless can be b baseband aseband or bro broadband adband 3-99



Netwo rk Ca Netwo Cable ble Types

Pla Plain in old tele telephone phone servic e.

• Net Networ work k con connec nectiv tivity ity mea means: ns:  – Speed of data tr transfer  ansfer   – Network size

Central office

 – Ease of installatio installation n Source

• The There re are are thre three e ty types pes of c cabl able e

Long distance connection

• The The clou cloud d is a comm common on way way to visualize an infrastructur infrastructure e

 – Twisted pair   – Optical fiber   – Coaxial Central office

 – Wireless technolo technology gy Destination



Twisted-P air Ca Cable ble Twist ed-Pair

Fiber-Opti pti c Cable Fiber-O

Two p pairs airs of of insula insulated ted wi wires res twisted twisted around around each o other ther,, even enclos enclosed ed in a plastic sheath

Use Uses s light light rathe ratherr than than voltag voltage e to carry carry data data

The most comm commonly only used used type type of of networ networking king cable in the the United States

Fiber en enables ables digiti digitized zed light light signals signals to be trans transmitte mitted d more than than 60 miles miles without being amplified

Origin Originally ally u used sed tto o connec connectt a telepho telephone ne to a wall wall jack jack

Outpe Outperform rforms s copper copper and coaxia coaxiall media with with fewer transmi transmissio ssion n losses, losses, lower interference, and higher bandwidth

Leas Leastt expe expens nsiv ive e cabl cable e medi medium um

Shi Shield elded ed and unshie unshielde lded d twist twisted ed pair  pair   – Unshielded twistedtwisted-pair pair (UTP) cabling cabling does not have shieldin shielding g against electrical interference  – Shielded twisted-pair (STP) cabling ha has s an electrically grounded woven copper mesh or aluminum foil wrapped around each twisted pair and another metal mesh wrapped around a multiple bundle of wires to reduce electromagnetic interference

Draw Drawba back cks s ar are: e:  – It is the most expensive expensive of all network network media types  – Each segment that transmits incoming and and receiving data data must contain an incoming cable and an outgoing cable


 – It requires highly highly skilled installers and special connectors connectors



Optical Fiber 

Coaxial Cable •

An earl early y version version of the the way comput computers ers were were con connecte nected d to a network network

The The c cab able le in ca cabl ble e TV TV

Has a co copper pper core core that that is much much thicker thicker than than twisted twisted-pair -pair cable cable,, so it allows higher data transmission rates over long distances

Trans Transmits mits u up p to 10 Mbps Mbps for a distanc distance e of up up to 500 500 meters meters

Main drawback drawback is iits ts inflexibil inflexibility ity a and nd llow ow securi security ty

Source: Adapted from Panko, Raymond, Business Data Communications and Networking (3 rd ed.), Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2001, p. 278.



The Last Mile: Mobil e Intern Internet et Access •


Last mile : From Internet backbone to user’s computer, smartphone, and so on “

• Two different basic types of wireless Internet access:  – TelephoneTelephone-based based (mobile phones, phones, smartphones) smartphones)  – Wireless local area area network (WLAN)-based (WLAN)-based




Wireless Te Wireless Technol chnol ogy •

Data commu communica nication tion witho without ut phys physical ical atta attachmen chments ts

Three types of w wirele ireless ss data data tr transmi ansmissio ssion n technol technology: ogy:

Wireless communication.

 –    Microwave  transmission

is used to connect LANs in separate buildings that must be within the line of sight of each other 

 –    Radio  technology

BaseHub station


by radio frequency with no distance limitations

 –    Infrared  transmission  

operates at frequencies approaching the

speed of light

Mobile switching center  Trunk 

 Alic e Telephone

Long distance network 

• Both Both PO POT TS and and wireless use the


same long distance infrastructure.

Base Hub station Mo bile switching center  Radiotower 

Bob Telephone


POTS and wireless are alternative access paths to


High-speed tandards rds High-speed optical bandwid th s tanda

the long distance infrastructure.


Wireless service

Long distance infrastructure

• Cable Cable and sate satellite llite Inter Internet net servic services es use use the the same long distance lines. 3-111



Wireless Internet Acc Access ess Te Telephon lephone e Te Techn chnolo ologies gies Last Mile Problem The Last • Spee Speed d disp dispar arit ity y  – Local telepho telephone ne line – 56 Kbps  – Long-distan Long-distance ce line – 40+ Mbps • Al Alte terrnati atives ves  – Satellite – 400 Kbps  – DSL – 1.44 Mbps  – Cable – 2-10 Mbps  – Fiber optic ca cable ble – up to 10 Gbps



Wireless Internet Acc ess Networ Wireless Networ k Technologi es Wi-Fi Wi-Fi Network s Figure 3.16, Page 158




Benefits of Internet access Benefits access networ ks • IP mult multic icas asti ting ng: :  – Enables efficient delivery o off data to many locations locations on a network • La Late tenc ncy y solut solutio ions ns::  – diffserv (differentiated qua quality lity of service) • Assigns Assigns differe different nt levels of prio priority rity to packets packets depend depending ing on type of data being being transmitted

• Gua Guarant ranteed eed servic service e levels levels and lower lower error error rates rates  – Ability to purchase righ rightt to move data through through network at g guaranteed uaranteed speed in return for higher fee

• De Decl clin inin ing g cost costs s




Developm Web Developm ent of the Web • 198 1989–1 9–1991 991:: Web Web invent invented ed

1. The In Internet: ternet: Technology Background

 – Tim Berners-Lee at CERN  – HTML, HTTP, Web server, Web browser  browser 

2. The In Intern ternet et Tod Today ay

• 199 1993: 3: Mosa Mosaic ic Web Web brows browser er w/GU w/GUII 3. The F Future uture In Internet ternet Infrastructur Infrastructure e

 – Andreesen and others at NCSA  – Runs on Windows, Macintosh, Macintosh, or Unix

• 1994 1994:: Netscape Netscape Naviga Navigator, tor, firs firstt commerci commercial al Web browser 

4.The Web

 – Andreessen, Jim Clark Clark

5. The Internet and the Web: F Features eatures and s services ervices

• 1995 1995:: Micr Microsof osoftt IInter nternet net Explore Explorer  r  3-119



4.2 Markup Languages

4.1 Hypertext

• Gene Generaliz ralized ed Mark Markup up Lang Language uage (GML (GML)—19 )—1960s 60s

• Text Text fo form rmatt atted ed with with em embed bedded ded llink inks s  – Links connect d documents ocuments to on one e another, an and d to other objects such as sound, video, or animation files • Uses Hyper Hypertext text Transfer Transfer Proto Protocol col ((HTTP HTTP)) and URLs to locate resources on the Web

• Stan Standard dard G Gener eneraliz alized ed Mar Markup kup La Langua nguage ge (SGM (SGML)—e L)—early arly GML,1986 • Hyp Hypert ertext ext M Mark arkup up La Langu nguage age ((HTM HTML) L)  – Fixed set of prede predefined fined markup “ta “tags” gs” used to format text  – Controls look and feel of Web pages  – HTML5 the ne newest west version

 – Example URL

• eX eXte tens nsib ible le Mark Ma rkup up La Lang ngua uage ge (X (XML ML))ed by W3C  – New markup lan language guage specification develop developed

http://megacorp.com/conte http://megac orp.com/content/features/08 nt/features/082602.html 2602.html

 – Designed to describ describe e data and informa information tion  – Tags used are d defined efined by user 



4.3 Web Servers and Clients • We Web bs ser erve verr sof softw twar are: e:  – Enables a compu computer ter to deliver Web page pages s to clients on network networks s that request this service by sending an HTTP request  – Apache and Micros Microsoft oft IIS

4.4 Web B row sers 4.4 Web • Prima Primary ry pu purpo rpose se to d disp isplay lay W Web eb pa pages ges • Goog Google’s le’s C Chrom hrome e (62 (62%), %), Fi Firefo refox x (24%), (24%), an and d Internet Internet Explorer (8%) dominate the market

 – Basic capabilit capabilities: ies: security se services, rvices, FTP, search eng engine, ine, data capture

• Web server

• Ot Othe herr br brow owse sers rs inc inclu lude de::

 – Can refer to Web server soft software ware or physical serv server  er 

 – Safari (for App Apple) le) 4%

 – Specialized serv servers: ers: database servers servers,, ad servers, etc.

 – Opera 2%

• Web cl client:  – Any computing dev device ice attached to th the e Internet that is capable of making HTTP requests and displaying HTML pages

/browsers/browsers_stats.asp sers_stats.asp,, 29 Jan 2015 Source: http://www.w3schools.com http://www.w3schools.com/browsers/brow

3 123

3 124



The IIntern nternet et and We Web: b: Fe Features atures • Inte Internet rnet a and nd Web featu features res on which tthe he fou foundat ndations ions o off ecommerce are built include:

1. The Internet: Technology Background

 – E-mail

2. The IInter nternet net Today Today

 – Instant messa messaging ging 3. The F Future uture Internet Infrastructur Infrastructure e

 – Search engine engines s  – Intelligent age agents nts (bots)

4. The The W Web eb

 – Online forum forums s and chat

5. The Intern 5.The Internet et and the Web: Web: Featur Featur es and services servi ces

 – Streaming me media dia  – Cookies



E-mail and th e Intranet E-mail 5.1 E-mai E-maill

E-m E-mail ail iis s what what int intran ranets ets are best best kno known wn for  for 

4.1 billio billion n email email accou accounts nts worldw worldwide ide

E-mai E-maill is becomin becoming g smarter: smarter: It now now can direc directt specific specific messa messages ges to to defined defined

folders and be a place to check voice, text, and fax messages Intr Intranets anets inherit inherit Simple Simple Mail Trans Transport port Protocol Protocol (SMTP) (SMTP) from from the TCP/IP suite to operate e-mail

Radicati ti Grou Group p 2015) (Source: technology market research firm The Radica

Most used application of the Internet

Uses series of protocols for transferring messages with text and attachments (images, sound, video clips, etc.,) from one Internet user to another 

E-m E-mail ail iis s a potent potential ial tthre hreat at for for employ employers ers  – Confidentiality breaches breaches  – Legal liability  – Lost productivity productivity  – Damage to company reputation

Impor Important tant for for a firm to create create an e-mail e-mail usage usage policy policy and make sure the the policy is actually implemented

Instant Messaging 

Displays words typed on a computer almost instantly, and recipients can then respond immediately in the same way  Advanced IM systems include voice/video chat 3-127

3 128


Spa Spamming mming and Appropri App ropri ate E-ma E-mail il Use

• Spam Spamming ming is se sending u unwan nwanted ted adv adverti ertiseme sements nts or lilitera terature ture through e-mail ornding the Internet

Spammin g and Approp riate E-mail Spammin E-mail Use  (Cont’d)

• Spam Spamming nearly ly imp impossib ossible le to el elimin iminate, ate, b but ut sol solution utions s exist: ming is near

• Comp Companie anies s have b been een ov overwh erwhelme elmed d by ee-mail mail tr traffic affic,, and spam is out of control

 – Blacklist the sender sender;; obtain a spam spammer’s mer’s address a and nd block any e-mail from that address  – Accept e-mail only from a list of a approved pproved addre addresses sses

• Spo Spott ch check ecks s are are no lon longer ger adequa adequate te

 – Look for signs o off spam

• Tre Trend nd is more more towar toward d syste systemati matic c monitorin monitoring g of e-ma e-mailil traf traffic fic

 – Use anti-spam so software ftware

using content-monitoring software



5.2 Instant Me 5.2 Messagi ssaging ng

Personal rsonal Guidelines to Avoi d Spam Pe •

Somet Sometimes imes the the rapid rapid respo response nse of of e-mail e-mail is not not fast fast enough enough

Stop Stop gi givin ving g awa away y yo your ur e e-ma -mail il addr address ess

Inst Instant ant messaging messaging is one alternati alternative ve medium medium

• •

Do not ““unsu unsubscri bscribe,” be,” iitt only c confir onfirms ms you yourr e-ma e-mailil address address is real real Write to the Direc Directt Mark Marketing eting Associati Association on and c credit redit bureaus bureaus

Conta Contact ct you yourr cred credit it card card companie companies, s, credit credit union, union, and and mortgage mortgage companies and tell them not to release your name, address and similar data

IM is an electroni electronic c communicat communication ion system system that that involve involves s immediate immediate correspondence between two or more users who are all online correspondence simultaneously

Conta Contact ct all o organ rganizati izations ons you you belo belong ng to, schools, schools, mag magazine azines s you subscribe to, airline frequent flyer programs, your long-distance telephone carrier, and just about anyone who sends you a bill

Displ Displays ays words words typed typed on a computer computer almost almost instan instantly, tly, and and recipient recipients s can then respond immediately in the same way

Diffe Different rent propri proprietary etary systems systems offered offered by AOL, MSN, Yahoo, Yahoo, and and Google

As a last rresort esort,, conta contact ct you yourr phone c compan ompany y and cha change nge yo your ur listing listing in the phone book, or simply list your name with no address

Meeb Meebo, o, Digsby: Digsby: allow users users to communi communicate cate acros across s platform platforms s




Top US Search Search Engi nes fo r 2014

5.3 Se Search arch Engi Engines nes • Iden Identify W Web eb pages pages that that m match atch quer queries ies ba based sed on on one or moretify techniques  – Keyword indexes, p page age ranking

• Al Als so ser serve ve as: as:  – Shopping tools  – Advertising vehi vehicles cles (search engi engine ne marketing)  – Tool within e-com e-commerce merce sites

• Outs Outside ide of e-mai e-mail, l, mos mostt comm commonly only u used sed In Intern ternet et activity activity



How Google Works Figure 3.22, Page 180

5.4 Onli ne Forums and Streaming Me Media dia 5.4 Onli • Onli Online ne foru forums ms::  – Enable Internet u users sers to comm communicate unicate with one a another, nother, although not in real time  – Members visit o online nline forum to ch check eck for new pos posts ts • Stre Stream amin ing g Me Medi dia a  – Enables music, vid video, eo, and other la large rge files to be se sent nt to users in chunks so that the file can play uninterrupted  – fully Allows users to beg begin in playing media file files s before file is downloaded




5.5 Cook Cookies ies

5.6 Web 2.0 Fe Featur atur es and Servic es • On Onli line ne So Soci cial al Ne Netw twor orks ks

• computer Smal Smalll text textto files depo deposited sited by Web site on user user’s ’s store information about user, accessed when user next visits Web site

 – Services that sup support port communic communication ation among netw networks orks of friends, peers

• Can help pers personal onalize ize Web site expe experien rience ce

• Blogs

• Ca Can n pos pose e pri priva vacy cy tthr hrea eatt

 – Personal Web pag page e of chronolog chronological ical entries • Rea Really lly Sim Simple ple Syn Syndic dicati ation on ((RSS RSS))  – Program that a allows llows to ha have ve digital automatically sent tousers their computers overcontent the Internet

3-138 3-137

Web 2.0 Features and Se Serv rvic ices es 2.0 Features Web 2.0 Featu tures res and Servic es 2.0 Fea • Int Inter ernet net tel teleph ephony ony (Vo (VoIP) IP) • Podcasting  – Audio present presentation ation stored as a an n audio file and av available ailable for download from Web

 – Voice over Inte Internet rnet Protocol (Vo (VoIP) IP) uses Intern Internet et to transmit voice communicatio communication n • Vide Video o conf conferen erencing, cing, vide video o cha chatting tting,, and telep teleprese resence nce • Onl Online ine sof softwa tware re a and nd Web Web serv service ices s

• Wikis  – Allows user to ea easily sily add and edit content on Web page • New music music and video video ser servic vices es  – Videocasts  – Digital video on d demand emand

 – Web apps, widg widgets, ets, and gadge gadgets ts

3 140  3-139


Inte Intellig llig ent Personal Personal Ass istants Mobile Apps • Softw Software are that that in intera teracts cts with with th the e use userr thr through ough voic voice e

• Use of mobile apps has exploded  – Almost 75% of online on line shoppers are mobile shoppers are shoppers

commands • Features

as well

 – Natural languag language; e; conversationa conversationall interface  – Situational aware awareness ness

• Increased use/purchasing from tablets

 – Interpret voic voice e commands to interact with var various ious Web services

• Platforms  – iPhone/iPad (iOS), (iOS), Android, Blackberry Blackberry

• Exam Exampl ples es:: Siri Siri,, Go Goog ogle le N Now ow

•  App marketplaces marketplaces  – Google Play, Apple’s Apple’s App Store, RIM’s App World, Windows Phone Marketplace 3-142


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