131023862 52184725 Dissertation Scope of Luxury Car Brand in India

Published on May 2016 | Categories: Documents | Downloads: 62 | Comments: 0 | Views: 369
of 109
Download PDF   Embed   Report

Comments

Content

G. L. Bajaj Institute of
Technology and Management
Gr. Noida
A DESSERTATION PROJECT REPORT
ON
SCOPE OF LUXURY CARS IN INDIA
Submitted to

UP TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY,
LUCKNOW
FOR THE PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
AWARD OF MASTERS IN BUSINESS
ADMINISTRATION DEGREE
Under the guidance of

Submitted by

Mr. ABHISHEK SAXENA
Ass. Pro. MBA DEPARTMENT

DEEPAK SINGH
MBA-IV Sem.
ROLL NO. 0919270016

1

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Some works are so typical that are impossible for a person to complete it alone. Dissertation
Project is one of them. I would not be able to complete my work without the help of my
respected, Faculty Guide, my college and workplace colleagues. So it is my obligation to
thank all of them.
I have had the honour of having been associated & working under the able & stimulating
guidance of “Mr. ABHISHEK SAXENA (Ass. Pro.) MBA DEPARTMENT”, G. L.
BAJAJ INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT, Gr. NOIDA. The
Project work was undertaken under his keen supervision and the Project has been prepared by
me. I express sincere feeling of gratitude and respect for him inspiring help throughout the
work. Without his esteemed and valuable help and guidance it would not have been possible
for me to accomplish my project. I am gratefully indebted to him.

2

Executive Summary
The luxury car market in India has registered a fair amount of growth in the last few years
and is growing at the rate of 25% per year. A luxury car is a luxuriously styled automobile
which is designed to give satisfaction and comfort to its owner.
A luxury car typically has carrying capacity of 6 passengers. The luxury cars in the Indian
market are very expensive, with price tags that start from Rs. 20 lakh. Hence, luxury cars
can only be afforded by the people who belong to the high income group and there are a lot
of
such
takers
in
the
Indian
automobile
market.
The various reasons for the growth of the luxury car market in India are:
The economy is rising in the country which has given the people more disposable
income which they are spending in buying luxury cars.
Various loan schemes have been launched by the automobile manufacturers and the
financial institutions. This has made it very easy for the people to buy luxury cars and
this has boosted the luxury car market in India.
With the IT boom in the country many youngsters are earning high pay packages
which enable them to buy luxury cars. And this have further given boost to the market
of luxury car in India.
The government have formulated many polices such as the relaxation of equity
regulations and the reduction of import tariffs pertaining to the automobile industry.
These have helped to reduce the prices of the luxury cars, which in turn have led to
the growth of the luxury car market in India
The various automobile companies manufacturing luxury cars for India are:
BMW manufacturers the BMW 530i and BMW 760li models
Rolls Royce manufactures the Rolls Royce Phantom V 12 model
Porsche manufactures the 911 Carrera, 911 Carrera S, and Cayman S models
Daimler Chrysler manufactures the Mercedes Benz C and E class models
Bentley manufactures the Bentley Range and Bentley Continental models
Luxury car market in India have grown over the last few years. That it continues to grow
more efforts must be made by the Indian automobile industry and the government of India.
And only then the luxury car market in India will be able to reach its heights

3

India set its foot in the global automotive industry in 1898, with the first car rolled out in the
streets of Mumbai. Since then, India has come a long way. Taking into Scrutiny the current
statistics, automotive industry is now, the most dynamic sectors in India. The car market of
India boasts of attractive finance schemes, increasing purchasing power and a vast variety of
Luxury car range.
India being one of the lucrative hubs for the car market is attracting auto majors from all over
the world. The count of people ready to buy these high sticker cars is gaining momentum. In
effect to this, almost all the overseas manufacturers including Mercedes, BMW, Audi,
Suzuki, and most recently Volkswagen have entered the fray. Ferrari’s announcement to roar
into the India market from 2010 and Aston Martin’s aspirations to enter the Indian market
soon next year also signals that the market has just picked up pace and there are great
possibilities for these indulgent vehicles to thrill the Indians.
With Tata’s recent acquisition of Ford’s Land Rover and Jaguar brands, The Indian
companies are in the right gear to compete with other global luxury brands making a rush in
the country. Recent analysis show that India is now among the principal driving markets for
the Asian automotive industry. The reasons for these unprecedented changes being in favour
of India are quite a few.
The growing population of well heeled citizens in India emerges to be the primary cause.
With the overall population being 1 billion, the 1% people who constitute the affluent society
or the new ’Global Indians’ are estimated to be over 10 million, mainly because of the
growing disposable income of India.
Secondly, Change in attitude of the customer accounts for the sudden acceleration in the
Luxury car Market in India, as the emphasis has been shifted from price consideration and
affordability to design, quality and pleasure. The Indians who believed in traditional savings
now
follow
an
extravagant
approach.
Stepping down to the third possible reason, exposure and passion for speed, power and
elegance run on to take their seats. With more and more Car rallies, exhibition, televising of
Formula 1 and international motor shows happening in the country, these luxurious coupés
have created an urge in drivers to experience comfort and control at the very same time.
Also, lower interest rates and good conditioned roads are some of the steps taken by the
Indian government which fuelled the demand for ultra-luxury cars in Indian market. Now,
penetrating into the future, we can adamantly say that, with the real GDP growth of India
(8.8% in 2006) being outstanding, there are definite prospects of increasing count of Luxury
car buyers. Growth in the luxury segment has been helped by an economy expanding at
nearly 9 percent on average in the last four years, and the entry of new players and launches
from
the
likes
of
BMW,
Mercedes-Benz,
Porsche
and
Audi.
Audi, a German manufacturer of first-rate luxury cars and one of the world’s leading
premium brands established Audi India under Volkswagen Group Sales India Pvt. Ltd. in
Mumbai in March 2007 and is all set to stay put in the country for an enduring tenure through
their valuable investments in brand management, marketing and customer services.
4

Mercedes-Benz India has had a long standing tie up in India in the luxury car segment with
its inception way back in 1995. Being the only luxury car maker in India to have such a wide
range of cars, (S-class, E-class, M-class, CL-class and many more), it also provides an
authentic choice for the customers with each model in petrol and diesel variants.
BMW, another world’s leading brand in the premium car segment, set its foot in India, just
few years back. As its global record says, BMW in India, strives to achieve the same goal by
presenting customers with Quality in conjunction with luxurious driving comfort.
Rolls-Royce, favored by Indian royalty during the imperial British rule returned in 2005 after
a gap of 50 years with the Phantom super luxury sedan.
Ford’s Volvo launched of two of its most successful models, the S80 sedan and the XC90
SUV in both petrol and diesel variants, each promising to offer luxury with comfort.
Consequently, the picture seems to be apparently flaunting that the ’Global Indians’ are all
ready to take the Luxury Car market to an all-new high and it has been well said – “For a
luxury car to remain one, its features have to stay ahead of the innovative curve”.

5

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page no.
1.

INTRODUCTION

7 -22

a)

Big three automobile manufacturing countries

7-11

b)

Automobile industry in India

12

c)

Supply chain of automobile industry

13-14

d)

Production statistics

15

e)

Exports

16-17

f)

History of brands

18-19

g)

Car brands in India

20

2.

REVIEW OF LITERATUE

23-77

a)

Brand personality

23

b)

The creation of brand personality

26-27

c)

Why use brand personality

29

d)

Brand personality of cars

30-32

e)

Luxury vehicles

33

f)

Luxury market segment

34--37

g)

Luxury cars in India- Audi, BMW, Chevrolet, Fiat, Ford,

3.

Honda, Hyundai, Mercedes, Mitsubishi, Volkswagen, Volvo

39-77

OBJECTIVE OF THE RESEARCH

78

6

4.

SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH

78

5.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

79

6.

RESEARCH FINDINGS

80-102

7.

CONCLUSION

103

QUESTIONNARE
104-106
8.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

9.

107

INTRODUCTION

BIG THREE AUTOMOBILE MANUFACTURING
COUNTRIES

1. United States of America and Canada

General Motors, Ford and Chrysler are often referred to as the "Big Three" or, more recently
the "Detroit Three", being the largest automakers in the United States and Canada. They were
for a while the largest in the world and two of them are still a mainstay in the top five. Ford
has held the position of second-ranked automaker for the past 56 years, being relegated to
third in North American sales, after being overtaken by Toyota in 2007. That year, Toyota
produced more vehicles than GM, though GM still outsold Toyota that year, giving GM 77
consecutive calendar years of top sales. For the first quarter of 2008, however, Toyota
overtook GM in sales as well. In the North American market, the Detroit automakers retained
the top three spots, though their market share is dwindling. Honda passed Chrysler for the
fourth spot in 2008 US sales. Since then, because of Toyota's woes with their recent
unintended acceleration recall, Toyota has fallen back to fourth place in sales, with Honda
trailing in fifth place, allowing the Detroit Three reclaim their Big Three title.
7

The Big Three are also distinguished not just by their size and geography, but also by their
business model. The majority of their operations are unionized (United Auto Workers and
Canadian Auto Workers), resulting in higher labor costs than other multinational automakers,
including those with plants in North America. The 2005 Harbour Report estimated that
Toyota's lead in labour productivity amounted to a cost advantage of $350 US to $500 US per
vehicle over American manufacturers. The UAW agreed to a two-tier wage in recent 2007
negotiations, something which the CAW has so far refused. Delphi, which was spun off from
GM in 1999, filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy after the UAW refused to cut their wages and
GM is expected to be liable for a $7 billion shortfall.
In order to improve profits, the Detroit automakers made deals with unions to reduce wages
while making pension and health care commitments. GM, for instance, at one time picked up
the entire cost of funding health insurance premiums of its employees, their survivors and
GM retirees, as the US did not have a universal health care system. With most of these plans
chronically underfunded in the late 1990s, the companies have tried to provide retirement
packages to older workers, and made agreements with the UAW to transfer pension
obligations to an independent trust. In 2009, the CBC reported that the non-unionized
Japanese automakers, with their younger American workforces and fewer retirees will
continue to enjoy a cost advantage over the Big Three.

Despite the history of their marques, many long running cars have been discontinued or
relegated to fleet sales as the Big Three shifted away resources from midsize and compact
cars to lead the "SUV Craze". Since the late 1990s, over half of their profits have come from
light trucks and SUVs, while they often could not break even on compact cars unless the
buyer chose options. Ron Harbour, in releasing the Oliver Wyman’s 2008 Harbour Report,
stated that many small “econoboxes” of the past acted as loss leaders, but were designed to
bring customers to the brand in the hopes they would stay loyal and move up to more
profitable models. The report estimated that an automaker needed to sell ten small cars to
make the same profit as one big vehicle, and that they had to produce small and mid-size cars
profitably to succeed, something that the Detroit three had trouble doing.
SUV sales peaked in 1999 but have not returned to that level ever since, due to high gas
prices. The Big Three have suffered from perceived inferior initial quality and reliability
compared to their Japanese counterparts, which has been difficult to overcome. They have
also been slow to bring new vehicles to the market, while the Japanese are also considered
the leader at producing smaller, fuel-efficient cars.
Falling sales and market share have resulted in the Big Three's plants operating below
capacity (GM's plants were at 85% in November 2005, well below the plants of its Asian
competitors), leading to production cuts, plant closures and layoffs. They have been relying
heavily on considerable incentives and subsidized leases to sell vehicles. which was crucial to
keeping the plants running, which in turn drove a significant portion of the Michigan
economy. These promotional strategies, including rebates, employee pricing and 0%
financing, have boosted sales but have also cut into profits. More importantly such
promotions drain the automaker's cash reserves in the near term while in the long run the
company suffers the stigma of selling vehicles because of low price instead of technical
merit. Automakers have since been trying to scale back on incentives and raise prices, while
cutting production. The subprime mortgage crisis and high oil prices in 2008 resulting in the
8

plummeting popularity of best-selling trucks and SUVs, perhaps forcing automakers to
continue offering heavy incentives to help clear excess inventory.
The Big Three sued California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger to prevent a tailpipe
emissions requirement. In response, Governor Schwarzenegger told the Big Three to "get off
their butt".
In 2008, with high oil prices and a declining US economy due to the subprime mortgage
crisis, the Big Three are rethinking their strategy, idling or converting light truck plants to
make small cars. Due to the declining residual value of their vehicles, Chrysler has stopped
offering leases on its vehicles.
In 2009, General Motors and Chrysler filed for and emerged from Chapter 11 restructuring in
the United States. General Motors of Canada did not file for bankruptcy. The United States
and Canadian government control are reported as temporary.

Japan
Japanese automakers Toyota, Honda, and Nissan, among many others, have long
been considered the leaders at producing smaller, fuel-efficient cars. Their vehicles
were brought to the forefront, due to the 1973 oil crisis which had a major impact on
the auto industry. For instance, the Honda Civic was considered superior to
American competitors such as the Chevrolet Vega and Ford Pinto. The Civic is the
best-selling car in Canada for 12 straight years in a row.,
As well, the Nissan 240Z was introduced at a relatively low price compared to other
foreign sports cars of the time (Jaguar, BMW, Porsche, etc.), while providing
performance, reliability, and good looks. This broadened the image of Japanese carmakers beyond their econobox successes, as well as being credited as a catalyst for
the import performance parts industry.
Before Honda unveiled Acura in 1986, Japanese automobiles exports were primarily
economical in design and largely targeted at low-cost consumers. The Japanese big
three created their luxury marques to challenge the established brands. Following
Honda's lead, Toyota launched the Lexus name with the LS 400 which debuted at
$38,000 in the U.S., in some markets being priced against mid-sized six cylinder
Mercedes-Benz and BMW models), and was rated by Car and Driver magazine as
better than both the $63,000 Mercedes-Benz 420 SEL and the $55,000 BMW 735i in
terms of ride, handling and performance. It was generally regarded as a major shock
to the European marques; BMW and Mercedes-Benz's U.S. sales figures dropped
29% and 19%, respectively, with the then-BMW chairman Eberhard von Kuenheim
accusing Lexus of dumping in that market. Nissan's Infiniti became a player on the
luxury market mostly thanks to its popular Q45. The vehicle included a class-leading
(at the time) 278 hp (207 kW) V8 engine, four wheel steering, the first active
9

suspension system offered on a motor vehicle, and numerous interior luxury
appointments. These made it competitive against the German imports like Audi,
BMW and Mercedes-Benz, which by the time of Infiniti's release had overtaken
Cadillac and Lincoln in dominating the luxury segment of the American market. In
1990, four years after the debut of the Legend and Integra, Acura introduced the NSX,
a midship V6 powered, rear-wheel-drive sports car. The NSX, an acronym for "New
Sports eXperimental", was billed as the first Japanese car capable of competing with
Ferrari and Porsche. This vehicle served as a halo car for the Acura brand. The NSX
was the world's first all-aluminum production car, and was also marketed and viewed
by some as the "Everyday Supercar" thanks in part to its ease of use, quality and
reliability, traits that were unheard of in the supercar segment at the time.

The success of the Japanese automakers contributed to their American counterparts
falling into a recession in the late 1970s. Unions and lobbyists in both North America
and Europe put pressure on their government to restrict imports. In 1981, Japan
agreed to Voluntary Export Restraints in order to preempt protectionism measures
that the US may have taken, where it be tariffs or import quotas. Consequently,
Japanese companies responded by investing heavily in US production facilities, as
they were not subject to the VER. Unlike the plants of domestic automakers, Japanese
plants are non-unioned (save for NUMMI), so they have lower wage expenses and do
not face the risk of strikes. The VER was lifted in 1994 upon agreement of all
members of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Establishing US
production facilities was also a significant step in improving public relations, along
with philanthropy, lobbying efforts, and sharing technology. Europe has still largely
maintained its protectionism policies against Japanese cars, though their varies
considerably.

Toyota has always been by far Japan's largest automaker, and it recently overtook
perennial world leader GM in both production and sales by early 2008. As the most
aggressive of Japan's companies when it came to expanding into light trucks and
luxury vehicles, this proved largely successful. Their high-end brand Lexus became
the top-selling luxury marque worldwide in 2000, despite being only started up in
1989. Consequently, Toyota's stock price has traded at a much higher premium than
other automakers. Nissan was formerly in second place, until financial difficulties in
the late 1990s caused it to lose its place to Honda. Honda is Japan’s second largest
automaker and ranks sixth in the world, behind Toyota, GM, Volkswagen, Ford, and
Hyundai. Mitsubishi and Mazda are in a distant fourth and fifth place compared to the
Japanese Big Three.

10

Toyota, Honda, and Nissan are all in the BusinessWeek magazine's The 100 Top
Global Brands by dollar value, as ranked by leading brand consultancy Interbrand.
The Toyota marque was valued at US$22.67 billion, ranking it ninth among all global
brand names - automotive or non-automotive, edging out that of Mercedes-Benz.

Germany
The automobile industry in Germany is one of the largest employers in the country, with a
strong labour force of over 866,000 (2005) working in the industry. In addition, Germany has
the largest share of passenger car production in Europe with over 29% market share (source:
OICA, 2002), followed by France (18%), Spain (13%) and the United Kingdom (9%). In
2009, Angela Merkel pointed out that losing the lead in electric vehicle technology means
Germany also will lose markets.
The German trio Mercedes-Benz, BMW and Audi are often referred to as "Germany's Big
Three", although the actual major automobile manufacturers are Daimler AG (producer of
Mercedes-Benz) and the Volkswagen Group (producer of Audi), along with BMW.
Volkswagen Group has long been the largest automaker in Europe. As of 2007 it edged out
Ford to rank third in the world after General Motors and Toyota. It is also the parent group of
Audi, Porsche, SEAT, Škoda, Bugatti, Lamborghini and Bentley.
Daimler AG holds major stakes in other automakers including Mitsubishi Fuso.
BMW also produces MINI branded vehicles, and has been the parent company of RollsRoyce Motor Cars since 1998.
BMW, Mercedes-Benz and Audi make up about 86% of the luxury midsize market.

11

AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY IN INDIA
The Automotive industry in India is one of the largest in the world and one of the fastest
growing globally. India manufactures over 11 million vehicles (including 2 wheeled and 4
wheeled) and exports about 1.5 million every year. It is the world's second largest
manufacturer of motorcycles, with annual sales exceeding 8.5 million in 2009. India's
passenger car and commercial vehicle manufacturing industry is the seventh largest in the
world, with an annual production of more than 2.6 million units in 2009. In 2009, India
emerged as Asia's fourth largest exporter of passenger cars, behind Japan, South Korea,
and Thailand.
As of 2009, India is home to 40 million passenger vehicles and more than 2.6 million cars
were sold in India in 2009 (an increase of 26%), making the country the second fastest
growing automobile market in the world. According to the Society of Indian Automobile
Manufacturers, annual car sales are projected to increase up to 5 million vehicles by 2015 and
more than 9 million by 2020. By 2050, the country is expected to top the world in car
volumes with approximately 611 million vehicles on the nation's roads.
A chunk of India's car manufacturing industry is based in and around Chennai, also known as
the
"Detroit of
India" with
the
India
operations
of BMW, Ford,Hyundai and Nissan headquartered in the city. Chennai accounts for 60 per
cent of the country's automotive exports. Gurgaon and Manesar near New Delhi are hubs
where all of the Maruti Suzuki cars in India are manufactured. The Chakan corridor
near Pune, Maharashtra is another vehicular production hub with companies like General
Motors, Volkswagen, Skoda, Mahindra
and
Mahindra, Tata
Motors, Mercedes
Benz, Fiat and Force Motors having assembly plants in the area. Ahmedabad with the Tata
12

Nano plant, Halol with General Motors in Gujarat, Aurangabad with Audi in Maharashtra
and Kolkattawith Hindustan Motors in West Bengal are some of the other automotive
manufacturing regions around the country.

HISTORY

SUPPLY CHAIN OF AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY
The supply chain of automotive industry in India is very similar to the supply chain of the
automotive industry in Europe and America. The orders of the industry arise from the bottom
of the supply chain i.e., from the consumers and goes through the automakers and climbs up
until the third tier suppliers. However the products, as channelled in every traditional
automotive industry, flow from the top of the supply chain to reach the consumers.
Automakers in India are the key to the supply chain and are responsible for the products and
innovation in the industry.
The description and the role of each of the contributors to the supply chain are discussed
below.
Third Tier Suppliers: These companies provide basic products like rubber, glass, steel,
plastic and aluminium to the second tier suppliers.

SecondTierSuppliers: These companies design vehicle systems or bodies for First Tier
Suppliers and OEMs. They work on designs provided by the first tier suppliers or OEMs.
They also provide engineering resources for detailed designs. Some of their services may
include welding, fabrication, shearing, bending etc.

FirstTierSuppliers: These companies provide major systems directly to assemblers. These
companies have global coverage, in order to follow their customers to various locations
13

around the world. They design and innovate in order to provide “black-box” solutions for the
requirements of their customers. Black-box solutions are solutions created by suppliers using
their own technology to meet the performance and interface requirements set by assemblers.
First tier suppliers are responsible not only for the assembly of parts into complete units like
dashboard, breaks-axel-suspension, seats, or cockpit but also for the management of secondtier suppliers.
Automakers/Vehicle Manufacturers/Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs): After
researching consumers’ wants and needs, automakers begin designing models which are
tailored to consumers’ demands. The design process normally takes five years. These
companies have manufacturing units where engines are manufactured and parts supplied by
first tier suppliers and second tier suppliers are assembled. Automakers are the key to the
supply chain of the automotive industry. Examples of these companies are Tata Motors,
Maruti Suzuki, Toyota, and Honda. Innovation, design capability and branding are the main
focus of these companies.
Dealers: Once the vehicles are ready they are shipped to the regional branch and from there,
to the authorised dealers of the companies. The dealers then sell the vehicles to the end
customers.
Parts and Accessory: These companies provide products like tires, windshields, and air bags
etc. to automakers and dealers or directly to customers.
Service Providers: Some of the services to the customers include servicing of vehicles,
repairing parts, or financing of vehicles. Many dealers provide these services but, customers
can also choose to go to independent service providers.

14

PRODUCTION STATISTIC

The production of automobiles has greatly increased in the last decade. It passed the 1 million
mark during 2003-2004 and has more than doubled since.

15

Year Car Production % Change

Commercial

% Change

Total Vehicles
Prodn.

% Change

2009

2,166,238

17.34

466,456

-4.08

2,632,694

11.40

2008

1,846,051

7.74

486,277

-9.99

2,332,328

3.35

2007

1,713,479

16.33

540,250

-1.20

2,253,999

10.39

2006

1,473,000

16.53

546,808

50.74

2,019,808

19.36

2005

1,264,000

7.27

362, 755

9.00

1,628,755

7.22

2004

1,178,354

29.78

332,803

31.25

1,511,157

23.13

2003

907,968

28.98

253,555

32.86

1,161,523

22.96

2002

703,948

7.55

190,848

19.24

894796

8.96

2001

654,557

26.37

160,054

-43.52

814611

1.62

2000

517,957

-2.85

283,403

-0.58

801360

-2.10

1999

533,149

285,044

818193

16

EXPORTS

India's automobile exports have grown consistently and reached $4.5 billion in 2009,
with United Kingdom being India's largest export market followed by Italy,
Germany, Netherlands and South Africa. India's automobile exports are expected to cross $12
billion by 2014.
According to New York Times, India's strong engineering base and expertise in the
manufacturing of low-cost, fuel-efficient cars has resulted in the expansion of manufacturing
facilities

of

several

automobile

companies

like Hyundai

Motors, Nissan, Toyota, Volkswagen and Suzuki.
In 2008, Hyundai Motors alone exported 240,000 cars made in India. Nissan Motors plans to
export 250,000 vehicles manufactured in its India plant by 2011. Similarly, General
Motors announced its plans to export about 50,000 cars manufactured in India by 2011. In
September 2009, Ford Motors announced its plans to setup a plant in India with an annual
capacity of 250,000 cars for US$500 million. The cars will be manufactured both for the
Indian market and for export. The company said that the plant was a part of its plan to make
India the hub for its global production business. Fiat Motors also announced that it would
source more than US$1 billion worth auto components from India.
In July 2010, The Economic Times reported that PSA Peugeot Citroen was planning to reenter the Indian market and open a production plant in Andhra Pradesh with an annual
capacity of 100,000 vehicles, investing EUR 700M in the operation. PSA's intention to utilise
this production facility for export purposes however remains unclear as of December 2010.
In 2009 India (0.23m) surpassed China (0.16m) as Asia's fourth largest exporter of cars after
Japan (1.77m), Korea (1.12m) and Thailand (0.26m) by allowing foreign carmakers 100%
ownership of factories in India, which China does not allow.
In recent years, India has emerged as a leading center for the manufacture of small
cars. Hyundai, the biggest exporter from the country, now ships more than 250,000 cars
annually from India. Apart from shipments to its parent Suzuki, Maruti Suzuki also
manufactures small cars for Nissan, which sells them in Europe. Nissan will also export small
cars from its new Indian assembly line. Tata Motors exports its passenger vehicles to Asian
and African markets, and is in preparation to launch electric vehicles in Europe in 2010. The
firm is also planning to launch an electric version of its low-cost car Nano in Europe and the
17

U.S. Mahindra & Mahindra is preparing to introduce its pickup trucks and small SUV models
in the U.S. market. Bajaj Auto is designing a low-cost car for theRenault Nissan Automotive
India, which will market the product worldwide. Renault Nissan may also join domestic
commercial vehicle manufacturer Ashok Leyland in another small car project. While the
possibilities are impressive, there are challenges that could thwart future growth of the Indian
automobile industry. Since the demand for automobiles in recent years is directly linked to
overall economic expansion and rising personal incomes, industry growth will slow if the
economy weakens.

Snippets
The first automobile in India rolled in 1897 in Bombay.
India is being recognized as potential emerging auto market.
Foreign players are adding to their investments in Indian auto industry.
Within two-wheelers, motorcycles contribute 80% of the segment size.
Unlike the USA, the Indian passenger vehicle market is dominated by cars (79%).
Tata Motors dominates over 60% of the Indian commercial vehicle market.
2/3rd of auto component production is consumed directly by OEMs.
India is the largest three-wheeler market in the world.
India is the largest two-wheeler manufacturer in the world.
India is the second largest tractor manufacturer in the world.
India is the fifth largest commercial vehicle manufacturer in the world.
The number one global motorcycle manufacturer is in India.
India is the fourth largest car market in Asia - recently crossed the 1 million mark.

18

History of Brands
The Mercedes-Benz logo is one of the most famous brands in the
wor;d. The Benz logo is a simplistic three-pointed star that represents
its domination of the land, the sea, and the air. The famous threepointed star was designed by Gottlieb Daimler to show the ability of his
motors for land, air and sea-usage. It was first seen on a Daimler in
1909, and was combined with the Benz laurel wreath in 1926 to signify
the union of the two firms. Mercedes-Benz is the world's oldest
automobile manufacturer.

The Audi badge the 'Four Rings' is the emblem of one of the oldest car
manufacturers in Germany. It symbolises the 1932 merger of the four
independent motor-vehicle manufacturers: Audi, DKW, Horch and Wanderer.
Together with the NSU brand, which joined in 1969, these companies are the
roots of the present-day AUDI AG. After the war the Audi name - which is
Latin for "Hear!" - disappeared, but was revived in 1965, using the four rings as
a logo. Also, the name is sort of a pun on 'hoerch', German for 'hear', name of
one of the founders. The company itself is more than a century old. The four
rings in the logo have nothing to do with the Olympic rings.
BMW stands for Bayerische Motoren Werke or Bavarian Motor
Company. The company was established in 1913 and based in Munich,
Germany. It started out as an aero engine manufacturer, hence the
company logo. The logo comprised of four quadrants of alternating
white and blue color. It is a stylized representation of an airplane
propeller spinning against the clear blue sky. The logo represents a
white propeller blade against a blue sky. It reflects the origins of BMW
as a maker of military aircraft engines during WWI. Also, white and
blue are the traditional colors of Bavaria.

All racing fans are very familiar with the famous Ferrari "prancing
horse" symbol. The famous symbol of Ferrari is a black prancing horse
on yellow background, usually with the letters S F for Scuderia Ferrari.
The horse was originally the symbol of Count Francesco Baracca, a
legendary "asso" (ace) of the Italian air force during World War I, who
painted it on the side of his planes. Baracca died very young on June
19, 1918, shot down after 34 victorious duels and many team victories.

19

The Rolls Royce logo consisting of the two Rs or the double R clearly
stands for the Rolls and Royce, the two founders of this car
manufacturing company. There is nothing special about the design of
the logo, but the brand name is so strong, the logo looks special. In
1998, BMW the option on the trademarks, licensing the name and "RR"
logo for £40m.
In 1884 Frederick Henry Royce started an electrical and mechanical
business. He made his first car, a "Royce", in his Manchester factory in
1904. He was introduced to Charles Stewart Rolls in a Manchester
hotel on the May 4 that year, and the pair agreed a deal where Royce
would manufacture cars, to be sold exclusively by Rolls. A clause was
added to the contract, stipulating the cars would be called "RollsRoyce".

Jaguar Cars Limited is a British based luxury car manufacturer,
originally with headquarters in Browns Lane, Coventry, England but
now at Whitley, Coventry. It was founded as the Swallow Sidecar
Company in 1922,by two motorcycle enthusiasts, William Lyons and
William Walmsley, and changed its name to Jaguar in 1945. The
company has been owned by Ford since 1989. The Jaguar logo is a
Jaguar leaping across the company name. The leaping Jaguart is
possibly built to represent the speed, power and quickness of the car.
The Jaguar emblem is also placed on the front of the car.
Lamborghini is an Italian manufacturer of high performance sports cars
based in the small Italian village of Sant'Agata Bolognese, near
Bologna. Lamborghini is now a subsidiary of German car manufacturer
Audi AG, which is in turn a subsidiary of Volkswagen. Lamborghini is
the main counterpart to Ferrari in the Italian sports car business. The
Italian company was founded in 1963 by businessman Ferruccio
Lamborghini, who owned a successful tractor factory.
The Lamborghini Charging Bull Logo stands for the founder's,
Ferruccio Lamborghini, zodiacal sign (Taurus). Most of the company's
cars have been named after famous fighting bulls (oddly most have
been spanish bulls not italian).
Interestingly it is said that the choice of an animal and the colors used
on the logo (gold on a black background, and a charging bull) are
suspiciously similar to the Ferrari logo (a black horse on a yellow
background). It is believed that this was no accident on the part of
Lamborghini, who had a long standing (and not always friendly) rivalry
with Ferrari.

20

CAR BRANDS IN INDIA

21

CARS BY PRICE RANGE

Under Rs. 3
Lakhs

Maruti 800, Maruti Alto, Omni
Reva
Tata Nano
Ambassador
Chevrolet Aveo U-VA, Chevrolet Spark, Chevrolet Opel Corsa
Fiat Palio, Fiesta, Ford Icon
Hyundai Santro, Hyundai i10, Hyundai Getz

Rs. 3-5 Lakhs

Maruti Zen, Maruti Wagon R, Maruti Versa, Maruti Esteem,Maruti
Gypsy, Maruti Suzuki A-Star, Maruti Suzuki Zen Estilo,Maruti
Suzuki Swift, Maruti Suzuki Ritz , Mahindra Logan
Indigo XL, Indigo Marina, Indigo Manza
Tata Indica, Toyota Qualis, Tata Indigo CS

Rs. 5-10 Lakhs

Chevrolet Swing, Chevrolet Aveo, Chevrolet Tavera, Chevrolet
Optra Magnum
Fiat Linea, Fiat Adventure, Fiat Grande Punto, Ford Fusion
Hyundai Accent, Hyundai Elantra, Hyundai i20, Hyundai
22

Verna,Hyundai Sonata Embera, Honda City ZX, Honda Jazz
Maruti Baleno, Maruti Suzuki Sx4, Maruti Suzuki Swift
Dzire,Mahindra Scorpio, Mitsubishi Lancer, Mitsubishi
Cedia,Mahindra Bolero
Toyota Innova, Tata Sumo Victa, Tata Sumo Grande, Tata Safari
Skoda Fabia

Rs. 10-15 Lakhs

Chevrolet Forester
Ford Mondeo & Ford Endeavour, Ford Focus
Honda Civic, Hyundai i30
Skoda Octavia & Combi
Toyota Corolla, Toyota Corolla Altis, Tata Indicruz
Volkswagen Jetta

Rs. 15-30 Lakh

Audi A4
Chevrolet Captiva
Chevrolet Cruzes
Honda CR-V, Honda CRV 2008, Honda Civic Hybrid, Honda
Accord, Hyundai Santa Fe
Maruti Suzuki Grand Vitara, Mitsubishi Pajero, Mercedes C Class
Skoda Superb
Opel Vectra
Skoda Laura
Toyota Camry, Ford Endeavour Thunder Plus, Terracan &
Tucson, Toyota Fortuner
Volkswagen Beetle Volkswagen Passat Volkswagen Jetta

Rs. 30-90 Lakhs

Audi A6, A8 & Audi TT, AUDI Q7
BMW X5, 5 Series & 7 Series
Mitsubishi Montero, Mercedes Benz S-Class, Mercedes E Class, S
Class, SLK, SL & CLS-Class
Porsche Boxster, Cayenne, 911 Carrera & Cayman S
Toyota Prado
Volvo Xc90, Volvo S80

Above Rs. 1
Crore

AUDI R8
Bentley Arnage, Bentley Continental GT & Flying Spur, Bentley
Azure
Maybach
Rolls Royce Phantom

23

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Brand Personality

A brand is “a set of expectation and association evoked from a company or product. A brand
is how your key constituents- customers, employees, shareholders etc. experience what you
do.” Some brands are of such great importance to people, that we speak of them as a part of
one’s life and identity, being used to express one. Some would say that these brands have
their own personality, the brand personality, which can be defined as “the set of human
characteristics associated with a given brand”. Thus, it includes such characteristics as
gender, age and socioeconomic class, as well as such classic human personality is both
distinctive and enduring.
Based on the premise that brand can have the personalities in much the same way as humans,
brand personality describe brands in terms of human characteristics. Brand personality is seen
as valuable factor in increasing brand engagement and brand attachment, in much the same
way as people relate and bid to other people. Much of the work in the area of brand
personality is based on translated theories of human personality and using similar measures
of personality attributes and factors. Brand personality refers to the set of human
characteristics we associated with the brand. A common way of determining this is to reply
on the metaphor: “If the brand was a person, what would he/she be like?” we then list and
group the traits to describe the brand as, for example: caring, approachable and trustworthy.
However, there is a lot more we can do.

Because many people interact with brands as though they were other people, it is important to
understand what a brand personality consists of, and how its characteristics can be used to
affect the relationship between the brand and its user. Knowing and understanding the brand

24

personality gives a good insight into this relationship, and into peoples’ attitudes towards the
brand, and is also as important guide to communicating the brand.

VALUES AND CHARACTERISTICSS OF BRAND
PERSONALITY

People’s personalities are determined largely through the value and beliefs they have, and
other personality characteristics they develop. An example of value or belief is honesty.
Many people believe in being honest in everything they do and say. An example of
characteristic is confidence. This is not a belief, but more of a behavior. There are, of course,
many value/beliefs and characteristic that a person may have, but there are some that are
particularly likeable. It is these likeable values and characteristics that people are inevitably
attracted. Examples of these include dependability, trustworthiness, honesty, reliability,
friendliness, caring, and fun-loving.
There are about two hundred words that describe personality characteristics, and these can be
used for putting personality into brands. To illustrate how people think in personality terms
when making judgments about brands, here are the results of consumer research into how
people feel about tow companies. When asked question: “if these companies are people, how
would you describe them?” their replies were:

Company A

Company B

Sophisticated

Easy going

Arrogant

Modest

Efficient

Helpful

Self- centered

Caring

Distant

Approachable

Disinterested

Interested

25

These two companies are actually competitors in a service industry. If you were asked of
these two companies you would like to be your fiends, you would probably choose company
B, as did 95% of other respondents. It is not surprising that the service level of company B
can be better experience for customers than that of company A. it is also easy to conclude that
if customers consistently experience these differences between the two companies, then the
brand image of company B will be much better than company A.

A further point of interest arising out of this research is that people tend to prefer brands that
fit their self-concept. Everyone has views about themselves and how they would like to be
seen by others. And they tend to like personalities that are similar to theirs, or to those whom
they admire. Thus, creating brands with personalities similar to those of a certain group of
consumers will be an effective strategy. The closer the brand personality is to the consumer
personality (or one which they admire or aspire to), the greater will be the willingness to buy
the brand and deeper the brand loyalty.

26

THE CREATION OF BRAND PERSONALITY

Brand personality traits are formed and influenced by any direct or indirect contact that the
consumer has with a brand. A brand, unlike a person, cannot think, feel or act. A brand has
no objective existence at all; it is simply a collection of perception on the mind of the
consumer. Consumers accept the marketing actions to humanize brands. One explanation fort
this can be found in the theories of animism, which suggest that there exists need by people to
anthropomorphize objects in order to facilitate interaction with the nonmaterial world.
Anthropomorphize occurs when human qualities are attributed to non human objects, e.g.
brands. Consumers easily assign personality quality to inanimate objects like brands in
thinking about the brands as if they are human characters.
In a direct way, personality traits are associated with a brand by the people associated to that
brand. One direct way to form and influence brand personality is user imaginary. User
imaginary is defined as the set of human characteristics associated with the typical or
stereotype user of the brand. Associations with the company employees or CEO and the
brand’s product endorsers are also direct ways by which brand personality traits are formed
and influenced. The personality traits that of the people associated with a brand are
transferred directly to the brand. The theories of animism describe another process
mechanism that directly explains the specific ways in which the vitality of the brand can be
realized (Fournier, 2004). Spokespersons that are used in advertising can have personalities
that fit those of the brand they advertise. Over time, the personalities of the spokesperson are
transmitted to the brand. The brand-person associations can also have a more personal nature.
Brands can be associated with person who use or used that particular brand, for example a
close friend or a family member. Also, brands received as gifts can also be associated with
the person from whom the gift was received. These person associations serve to animate the
brand as a vital in the minds of the consumers. Obviously, this aspect is much less under the
control of the marketers.
Indirectly, the brand personality is created by all the elements of the marketing mix. Betra,
Lehman and Singh suggest that the personality of a brand is created over time, by the entire
marketing mix of the brand - “its price (high or low, odd or even), retail store location
(imaginary associations), product formulation (ingredients, benefits), and product form
27

(solid/liquid. Etc.), packaging details (color, size, material, shape), symbol; used an all phases
of the brand communication, sales promotion, and media advertising”.
Another form of animism explains how brand personality is created in a more indirect way.
This form of animism involves complete anthropomorphization of the brand object itself.
Human qualities of emotionality and thought are transferred to the brand. This is achieved
with the help of the marketing actions, especially advertising. For example, the brand
character of M&M in the M&M commercials has the capacity to laugh and joke.
One of the advantage of the brand personality is that based on their distinctive personalities,
consumers are able to differentiate between brands. Another advantage is that the consumer
can interpret the brand’s image in such a way that it is personally more meaningful. Brand
personality encourages more active processing on the part of the consumer. Thus, the
consumer put more efforts in creating and using the brand personality. A further advantage of
brand personality is that life is given to a brand. By vitalizing a brand, another perspective of
brand personality can be examined, namely the role of a brand as relationship partner in a
consumer-brand relationship. Next we will concentrate on these consumer-brand
relationships.
Whether the brand is a product or a company, the company has to decide what personality
traits the brand is to have. There are various ways of creating brand personality. One way is
to match the brand personality as closely as possible to that of consumers or to the personality
that they like. The process will be



Define the target audience



Find out what they need, want and like



Build a consumer personality profile



Create the product personality to match that profile

28

NON PRODUCT RELATED BRAND
PERSONALITIES DRIVERS



User imaginary – user imaginary can be based on either typical users (people you see using
the brand) or idealized users (as portrayed in advertising and else were). User imaginary can
be powerful driver of brand personality, in part because the user is already a person and thus
the difficulty of conceptualizing the brand personality is reduced. For example Charlie has a
feminine, strongly independent brand personality driven by it user imaginary. The upscale
personality of Mercedes and the sexy, sophisticated personality of Calvin Klein are similarly
influenced by user imaginary.



Sponsorship – activities such as events sponsored by the brand will influence its personality.
Swatch, for example, reinforces its offbeat, youthful personality will targeted sponsorships
that have included the Freestyle Ski World Cup in Breckenridge, the first International



Age – how long a brand has been on the market can affect its personality. Thus new entrants
such as Apple, MCI, and Saturn tend to have younger brand personalities than brand such as
IBM, AT&T, and Chevrolets, and it as all too common far a major dominate brand to see as
strongly and old fashioned, a brand for older people.



Symbol – a symbol can be powerful influence on brand personality because it can be
controlled and can have extremely strong associations. Apples bitten apple, the Marlboro
cowboy, the Michelin mans all helps to create and reinforce a personality for their brands.

29

WHY USE BRAND PERSONALITY

The brand personality construct can help brand strategies by enhancing their understandings
of people’s perceptions of and attitude towards the brand, contributing to a differentiating
brand identity guiding the communication effort and creating brand equality.



Enriching understandin
The brand personality metaphor can help a manager gain an in-depth understanding of
consumer perceptions and attitudes towards the brand. By asking people to describe a
brand personality, feelings and relationship can be identified that often provide more
insight than is gained by asking about attribute perceptions.



Contributing to a differentiating identity
Strategically, a brand personality, as a part of a core or extended identity, can serve as
the foundation for meaningful differentiations. Advertising agencies such as Young &
Rubicam and Ogilvy & Mather routinely include a brand personality statement as a
part of their brand positioning strategy.



Guiding the communication effort
Tactically the brand personality concept and vocabulary communication the brand
identity which richness and texture to those who must implement the identity building
effort. Practical decisions need to be made about not only advertising but packaging,
promotions, which events to associate with, and the style of person interactions
between the customer and the brand.



Crating brand equity
The brand personality creates brand equity. The self-expression model explains this.
The model says that for certain groups of customers; some brands become vehicles to
express a part of their self-identity. People express their own or idealized identity in a
variety of ways, such as a job choices, attitudes, options, activities and lifestyles.
Brand that people like, admire, discuss, buy and use also provide a vehicle for selfexpression.
30

BRAND PERSONALITY OF CARS

Are you what you drive? That is what are companies seem to be asking and in the same
breath trying to convince you about. In other words, are you the Hyundai accent owner who
commands immediate respect wherever she goes (including fro the potential father-in-law) or
are you the suave executive from the Chevrolet ad who is ever ready to share a moment with
loved one? With a plethora of new models in the market, and generic benefits (such as space
or fuel efficiency) of a particular car segment hardly a distinguishing factor between car
models, marketer are increasingly differentiating on the emotional pay-off a particular car
model/brand provides to the customer. This, of course, varies from the segment to segment
and also on how long a particular model has been in the market.
For instance, while advertising for entry level or smaller cars tends to focus more on the
rational or functional benefits of the vehicles, the differentiations is increasingly on the
emotional benefits when it comes to high end cars.
“Generally, it has been seen as one move up the value chain, the differentiation is more on
the emotional pay-off. People buy car as an extension of their personality rather than just
features. A car, in India, helps build up show off, social esteem value. The advertising would
also vary according to the segment which one is targeting,” he says. For instance, the
Chevrolet Optra ad (which depicts a young husband driving his wife to see the moon on the
occasion of Karvachauth) shows an Optra consumer as someone who believes in family
values and indulging loves ones.
“We find that typically profile of an Optra consumer is someone who is in the age group of
35-45years and has a chauffer. He buys a car not only for himself but also for the family and
tries to make up, for not being able to spend enough time, by indulging love ones,” points out
dutta. The positioning goes well with the companies catch lines of “for a special journey
called life”.
High end car maker Skoda auto too, through its advertising, attempts to connect with its
consumer on emotional level. “Car is the extension of the personality and our advertising
shows the consumer to be youthful, image-conscious and even bit a macho. The campaign
jointly made by Skoda’s marketing department and ad agency IB&W not only communicates
31

the quality of the brand but an appreciation for the finer things in life. The target Skoda
consumer is a SEC A1, primarily male, businessman or someone in the senior management,”
says Shashank vaid, manger (marketing), Skoda Auto India. Surely, image building does
come higher in the consumer’s scheme of priorities when buying a new car than ever before.
The importance of brand image has risen sharply in the last few years. At the segment level,
the increase in importance is greater for the mid-size cars, indicating the relevance of brand
among the more expensive market segments. The manufacturer need to focus more o how
consumers perceive them as offering exciting cars and being committed towards them.
Contemporariness of model has a big impact on purchase decision. The perception of the car
in terms of its performance and design, quality, sales, after sales, cost of ownership, apart
from brand image, all impact upon the purchase decision.”
According to Bhatia, as long as advertising for cars is strongly differentiated and sharply
positions the model and at the same time satisfies a define need segment, it shall have the
capability to break the clutter and creates a unique and compelling reason for consumers to
purchase. “One good example of this is Ford Ikon- the josh machine made a tremendous
impact on consumers in offering to satisfy a clear need. You can see some more of this with a
recently launched premium hatch back as well”.
Interestingly, the strategy marketer follow changes a bit when it comes to addressing the
smaller car category with the rational benefits of a brand tending to be the focal point of the
campaign. “We have found that typically a buyer for a smaller car (sub Rs 4 lac) looks for
aspects such as reliability and fuel efficiency. This changes as we move up since in case the
consumer has been with the category for a longer time and hence it is important t to talk of an
emotional pay off.
A case in point is the Maruti 800 campaign in which the kids who is playing with a toy
Maruti 800 exclaims to his dad (when asked how long will he keep on running the car), “papa
ki Kara, petrol khatam hi nahin Honda.” The ad cleverly conveys that the car just keeps going
on and on. It ends with the voiceover telling us that Maruti Suzuki is most fuel-efficient car.
However in the small car segment, the rational benefits magic is not always applicable. Take
the case of Hyundai Santro, the advertising of which has evolved over the years from initially
conveying mainly the functional benefits of the model to connecting with the consumer on an
emotional level now. “When we launched the Santro, we started with the positioning if the
32

car being a complete family car which was completely rational positioning. But then two
things happened- the product found acceptance in the market and the competition came up
with similar product in the market.
Brand image is not driven by good advertising alone but is significantly impacted upon by the
cars performance and design, quality, and the cost of ownership. Among the three, product
quality has the highest correlation with brand image. Small car buyer seeks capability in
advertising, and fuel efficiency is relatively more important to them. Technology, innovation,
and good influence premium mid-size buyers. One reality for us in India is that the market is
extremely price/value conscious. While making purchases based on above, there is rational
side, which does have an impact on the decision on a particular make and model of car. Be it
rational or an emotional decision, consumers would have to think as a bevy of new models
flood the Indian market.

33

LUXURY VEHICLES

Luxury vehicle is a marketing term for a vehicle that provides luxury — pleasant or
desirable features beyond strict necessity—at increased expense (see: definition of luxury).
The term suggests a vehicle with greater equipment, performance, construction precision,
comfort, design ingenuity, technological innovation, or features that convey brand image,
cachet, status, or prestige—or any other discretionary feature or combination of features.
Automobile manufacturers market specific makes and models that are targeted at particular
socio-economic classes, and thus "social status came to be associated more with a particular
vehicle than ownership of a car per se." Therefore, automakers differentiate among their
product lines in "collusion" with the car-buying public. While a high price is the most
frequent factor, it is "styling, engineering, and even public opinion which cars had the highest
and lowest status associated with them."
Every era in automobile history has had "a group of car marques and models that have been
expensive to purchase, due to their alleged superiority of their design and
engineering". Aimed at wealthy buyers, such automobiles might be generically be
termed luxury cars. "This term is also used for unique vehicles produced during "an era when
luxury was individualistic consideration and coachwork could be tailored to an owner like a
bespoke suit." Although there is considerable literature about specific marques, there is a lack
of systematic and scholarly work that "analyzes the luxury car phenomenon itself."
In contemporary usage, the term may be applied to any vehicle type—
including sedan, coupe, hatchback, station wagon, and convertible body styles, as well as
to minivans, crossovers, or sport utility vehicles and to any size vehicle, from small to large
—in any price range.
Though widely used, the term luxury is broad and highly variable. It is a perceptual,
conditional and subjective attribute and may be understood differently by different people:
"What is a luxury car to some... may be 'ordinary' to others."

34

LUXURY MARKET SEGMENTS
Premium compact segment
The premium compact segments relatively new, having been initiated by several European
brands in the mid-2000s, and constitute the least expensive offerings in their line-ups. These
cars are targeted at a niche market of young customers who have a more refined taste in their
automobiles and the means to pay for them. By offering a smaller, lighter, more fuelefficient, and less expensive vehicle, this serves to introduce a younger customer to the
luxury marque, in hopes of retaining the coveted customer loyalty. This includes the Audi
A3,BMW 1 Series, and Mercedes-Benz B-Class.
Premium compacts may share components with mass market cars from the marquee’s parent
company (the A3), and/or have less sophisticated platforms compared to upmarket vehicles in
the lineup (such as the B-Class). The body style tends to be a hatchback or compact wagon,
previously associated with economy cars but regaining popularity in the United States for its
afforded utility. The luxury branding and style, high-quality interior materials, wide range of
convenience features, and performance powertrains are key to distinguishing them from mass
market equivalents (one mistake made by the Cadillac Cimarron) and making these appeal to
consumers.
The classification varies, for instance Consumer Guide Automotive in the US considers the
Audi A3 and A4 as part of the premium compact segment due to similar size and MSRP,
though these are known in Europe as a small family car and a compact executive car,
respectively.

Entry-level luxury/compact executive cars
The entry-level luxury category is also known as the compact executive car in Britain and
(Mittelklasse in German). In the US, this segment mostly includes the bottom vehicles in the
line-up of luxury brands as well as the top-of-the-line models of some non-luxury brands.
Compact executive cars tend to have complex powertrain and mechanical layouts, resulting
in increased cost and reduced interior passenger and trunk space, compared to mass market
compact cars. However, material and building quality is higher, there are exclusive features

35

not found on mass market cars, there is better handling and performance, and
the nameplate itself is part of the value proposition.
Compact executive cars include the Volvo S60, Lexus IS, BMW 3 Series, and MercedesBenz C-Class which particularly emphasize sporty handling. Other vehicles such as the Lexus
ES and Acura TL are also considered entry-level luxury as well, though they do not fall under
European luxury classifications as they are larger and not sold there.
Recently, the entry-level luxury has been very competitive, and there has been priceoverlapping with well-equipped non-luxury cars. The bestselling vehicles of the marque are
frequently compact executive cars, such as the BMW 3 Series that makes up 40% of the
vehicles that BMW sells worldwide.

Mid-luxury/executive cars
The mid-luxury segment are commonly referred to as executive cars in Britain, Obere
Mittelklasse in German, and Grandes Routières in French. Examples include the Volvo
S80, BMW 5 Series,Mercedes-Benz E-Class, and Jaguar XF.
Although having similar dimensions to mid-size cars and large family cars, executive cars
have lower sales volumes and higher development costs (for better performance and
amenities), thus executive cars are usually positioned as premium vehicles, as base trims with
less equipment and smaller engines are not sold in U.S. and Canadian markets. [26] Also due to
the problem of steep depreciation, especially concerning cars from less prestigious brands,
most executive cars are produced by marques that specialize in larger/more expensive
vehicles.
Vehicles in this segment include the mid-range models of several luxury car
manufacturers. There are also some flagship sedans in this segment, such as the Acura
RL and Infiniti M37/56. Executive cars such as the BMW 5 Series are crucial to a luxury
automaker's bottom line, and although not the highest-selling model, they generate a
significant amount of profits due to the lucrative technology options.

High-end luxury/full-size luxury cars
Also known as full-size luxury cars, grand saloons, or premium large cars, while
"Oberklasse" is used in Germany. Many of these are the marque's showcases for the newest
automotive technology. Several nameplates also offer long-wheelbase versions that offer
additional rear legroom and anemities. Full-size luxury cars sold in Canada and the U.S.
36

typically have mid-displacement V8 engines, though recently some marques have offered a
V6 but without much success.
Vehicles in this category include some of the models from the flagship lines of luxury car
brands. Examples include the Lexus LS, Audi A8, Volkswagen Phaeton, BMW 7
Series, Mercedes-Benz S-Class, Jaguar XJ and in the US, the Lincoln Town Car and Cadillac
DT S.

Ultra-luxury cars
R.L. Polk and Company, a global automotive information and marketing firm that provides
solutions to automotive and related industries, has defined the term "super luxury" segment
for luxury cars costing more than $100,000 USD. This bracket includes the entire lineup
of Rolls Royce, Bentley, Aston Martin,Maybach, and Maserati. The top-performing variants
of flagship cars from Audi, BMW, Mercedes-Benz and Jaguar are often included here.
There are ultra-high performance cars from "exotic brands" that also exceed the $100,000
USD mark, but would not necessarily be categorized as luxury automobiles, such as the
offerings from Ferrari, Lamborghini and Porsche.

Luxury SUV/Crossover
The luxury-type sport utility vehicle (SUV) segment is not a recent development. This
marketing category was created with Kaiser Jeep's 1966 Super Wagoneer as the first true
luxury four-wheel drive (4x4) vehicle. It was the first SUV to offer a V8 engine, automatic
transmission, and luxury car trim and equipment in a serious off-road model. The Super
Wagoneer was "a pioneer that blazed a trail for today's luxury SUVs". It came with long list
of standard equipment that included bucket seating with center console, air conditioning,
seven-position tilt steering wheel, a vinyl roof, as well as "Antique Gold" trim panels on the
body sides and tailgate. After American Motors Corporation (AMC) purchased Jeep, the
vehicles were upgraded and refined, including features such as an optional electric sliding
steel sun roof, "possibly the first offered on an SUV".[38] The late-1970s Jeep Wagoneer
Limited "set the sport-utility market on its ear ... was the most luxurious four-wheeler anyone
had ever seen."
The SUV models generated higher-profit-margins than ordinary automobiles, and automakers
introduced new luxury models during the late 1990s. For some manufacturers, luxury SUVs
were the first SUV models they produced. Some of these models were not traditional SUVs
based on light truck as they are classified as crossovers. SUVs from non-luxury brands had
37

experienced a surge in popularity through early 2000s, causing the traditional luxury marques
to follow.
SUVs from the luxury marques grew at almost 40 percent to more than 430,000 vehicles,
excluding SUV-only brands like Hummer and Land Rover, while luxury car sales in the U.S.
during 2003 suffered a 1% decline, and non-luxury SUV sales were flat. By 2004, 30 percent
of major luxury brands' U.S. sales are now SUVs. Luxury brands in particular led the
development of crossover SUVs(as opposed to body-on-frame SUVs), making it one of the
fastest growing segments in the market, as the forecast for 2002 was approximately 240,000
vehicles and that could double by 2006.[41]Research data showed luxury SUV buyers are
compared those vehicles to SUVs of mass market brands, and not shopping around luxury
cars, thus the SUV is becoming the key to bringing new customers to the luxury dealerships.
Certain luxury SUVs use body-on-frame underpinnings, often being badge-engineered
versions of their non-luxury counterparts, and retaining the rugged off-road and towing
capabilities. Examples include the Lexus LX and Lincoln Navigator, which are the premium
versions of the Toyota Land Cruiser (itself a luxurious SUV in the United States) and Ford
Expedition, respectively.
Other luxury SUVs are crossovers using unibody construction, often sharing the platform
with compact executive and executive cars. For example, the Infiniti FX is based upon
the Nissan FM platformthat also underpins other Infiniti cars. Audi and BMW developed
crossovers to compete in the SUV segment as they did not have an existing body-onframe vehicle in their lineup. The Lexus RXwas the earliest luxury crossover on the market,
and it has since been the best-selling luxury vehicle in the US, so it has inspired similar
competitors from rival marques.[45] While early luxury crossovers released in the late 1990s
have resembled traditional boxy SUVs, recent offerings have prioritized sportiness over
utility — such as the Infiniti FX and BMW X6.

CHARACTERSTICS
38

Luxury cars tend to offer a higher degree of comfort than their mainstream counterparts,
common amenities include genuine leather upholstery and polished "woodgrain-look"
dashboards. Compared to mainstream vehicles, luxury cars have traditionally emphasized
comfort and safety. Luxury vehicles are also a status symbol for conspicuous consumption.
Contemporary luxury cars also offer higher performance and better handling, which is often
known as sport luxury. However in Europe, where large-displacement engines are often
heavily taxed and many luxury buyers shy away from conspicuous consumption, brands offer
buyers the option of removing exterior engine-identifying badges.
Forbes noted that the reputation of luxury marques enables them to continually introduce
many new safety technologies and comfort amenities, such as anti-lock brakes, electronic
stability control and DVD entertainment systems, before they trickle down to mass market
cars. Numerous "smart car" features are largely only found on luxury cars as of 2009.
The rear-wheel drive with longitudinal engines (FR) is a common layout of luxury cars.
European marques like Mercedes-Benz, BMW, and Jaguar have almost never adopted frontwheel drive and retained a lineup mostly or entirely made up of FR cars. Japanese brands
such as Lexus and Infiniti also have predominantly FR lineups. The FR layout, while more
expensive than the FF, has been retained by these luxury manufacturers as it allows for higher
performance engines (particularly the straight-6, V8, and other engine configurations with
more cylinders), better handling, and a smoother ride.
American manufacturers also largely followed the FR for their luxury brands (as well as their
mass-market cars of the time). However, due to the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973 and the 1979
fuel crises, began eliminating their FR platforms in favor of the more economical front wheel
drive transverse
engine layout (FF).
Chrysler
went
100%
FF
by
1990
and GM's Cadillac and Buick brands for the US were entirely FF by 1997. One of the few
notable holdouts was Ford's Lincoln Town Car and Lincoln LS.
In the 21th century, as part of the revamp of its design and image, Cadillac did return most of
its lineup (sedans, roadsters, crossovers and SUVs) to have rear- and all-wheel-drive, the only
exceptions being the front-wheel drive Cadillac BLS (which is not sold in North
America) and the Cadillac DTS. Chrysler returned its full-size cars to this layout with
the Chrysler 300. Ford's Lincoln retained the longtime FR platform for the Town Car,
intended for use as a limousine and chauffeured car, but newer offerings such as
the MKZ and MKS will use newer FF platforms shared with mainstream Ford vehicles, with
all-wheel drive as an option.

LUXURY CARS IN INDIA
39

AUDI CARS IN INDIA
The famous 'Four Rings' - of Audi are symbolized on its badge. It has ruled European roads
since 1932, though Audi began manufacturing in 1899. The four rings of the Audi badge
symbolize four pioneer car manufacturers of Germany: Audi, DKW, Horch and Wanderer.
Audi AG came from amalgamating these companies in 1932. Audi cars symbolize status and
prestige for Audi consumers worldwide, and for Audi consumers, Audi Cars are more
works-of-art than simple super efficient machines. An Audi car is a statement of who-youare.
AudiCarsinIndia are regarded as a symbol of class, elegance and luxury. Audi India began
operations in 2007 as a division of Volkswagen Group Sales India Pvt. Ltd., based in
Mumbai. Audi cars now in India are fully imported or assembled at the Aurangabad plant of
Skoda Auto. Audi India is projecting its cars to the Indian elite as the best luxury cars to
match their status.
Audi cars are starting to fire the fancy of the rich Indian consumer and the upper middle class
with their current range of Audi A4, Audi A6, Audi A8, and Audi Q7 sedan cars.
Audi India is expanding the network of Audi dealerships across Indian metros.

Top Selling Audi Cars

Audi A8 4.2 FSI Petrol...
1,11,25,425

Audi A8 W 12 6.0 Petrol...
78,51,212

AudiQ7 3.0 TDI Diesel Sedan...
61,73,745

AudiQ7 4.2 FSI Petrol Sedan...
76,70,346

Popular Audi models range in on-road price from below rupees thirty-two lakhs to a bit
above rupees one-Crore, including

40

Audi A4 (Sedan)

Available in two variants - A4 1.8L petrol and A4 2.0L diesel,
this model caters to the premium luxury market in India. The A4 is the base range
presentation in the range of world class Audi cars now available in India. This car is also
marketed as a compact executive vehicle around the world. In India, style and substance
make it a sure competitor to other C segment cars. The A4 offers an on-road price range
between rupees thirty two and thirty four lakhs. The A4 Variants include
A4 1.8T (Petrol)
The Audi A4 1.8 turbo petrol is Audi's entry level petrol model in India which sports Audi's
remarkable 1.8L In-line 4, 164bhp turbocharged petrol engine with MPFi fuel system. This
engine is globally renowned for its high performance, acceleration and torque. New cars
having a showroom price of Rs. 28,27,600, and on-road price of around Rs. 31,25,000
inclusive of all charges such as insurance, octroi, RTO, etc. A4 1.8T car prices vary with the
car dealer's location.
A4 2.0 TDI (Diesel)
The Audi A4 2.0 turbo diesel is Audi's entry level diesel model in India which sports Audi's
remarkable 2.0L In-line 4, 140bhp turbocharged diesel engine. This engine is globally known
for its high performance, acceleration and torque. New cars in this series have a showroom
price ranging from around thirty lakhs to around thirty four lakhs inclusive of all charges like
insurance, octroi, RTO, etc. A4 2.0 TDI car prices vary with the car dealer's location.

Audi A6 (Sedan)

The Audi A6 is truly a grand synthesis of performance, comfort,
power, and style. It is the upscale presentation in the Audi series of premium range cars. With
its multitronic gearbox, and comfort features it is a wonderful option to an E-class option. There
is a host of features to choose depending upon the entry level to upscale presentation in the
luxury segment where this car is placed. With its petrol and diesel variants targets the upper
middle class and the rich Indian consumer and offers an on-road price range between rupees
Fifty two and Fifty three lakhs. The A6 variants include
A6 3.0 TDI (Diesel)
The A6 3.0 TDI diesel is Audi's mid range diesel model in India, which features Audi's
remarkable 3.0L DOHC engine with direct injection fuel system. This engine is globally
41

known for its high performance, acceleration and torque. At the showroom, this car costs
around 47 lakhs with an on-road price of around 52 lakhs. This includes standard ancillary
charges also.
A6 3.0 FSI (Petrol)
This A6 3.0 FSI petrol is the mid range petrol model in India, which features Audi's
remarkable 3.0L DOHC naturally aspirated engine. This engine is globally known for its high
performance, acceleration and torque. The A6 3.0 FSI is now available at a showroom price
of around 47 lakhs with an on road price of around 52 lakhs including supplementary
charges.

Audi A8 (Sedan)

The A8 series is a great car that is serious competition for the
Mercedes Benz S class. There's a great deal of technology in this car that converges into art at
some point. The A8 features Audi's innovative Quattro 4-wheel drive, along with a user
friendly multi-media interface. Audi (Sedan) The A8 with its petrol variants targets the upper
middle class and the rich Indian consumer and offers an on-road price range between rupees
Seventy one lakhs and rupees one Crore. The A8 variants include
A8 3.0 TDI (Petrol)
The A8 3.0 TDI petrol is Audi's starting range petrol model in India in the A8 series. It
features Audi's remarkable 3.0L DOHC naturally aspirated engine. This engine is globally
known for its high performance, acceleration and torque. The A8 3.0 TDI is now available at
a showroom price of around 64 lakhs with an on road price of around 70 lakhs including
accompanying charges.
A8 4.2 FSI (Petrol)
The A8 3.0 TDI petrol is Audi's mid range petrol model in India in the A8 series, which
features Audi's remarkable 3.0L DOHC naturally aspirated engine. This engine is globally
known for its high performance, acceleration and torque. At the showroom, this car costs
around 71 lakhs with an on-road price of around 77 lakhs. This includes standard ancillary
charges also.
A8 W12 6.0 (Petrol)
The W12 6.0 Quattro petrol is Audi's top range petrol model in India, which features Audi's
remarkable 6.0L DOHC engine with DI fuel system. This engine is globally known for its
high performance, acceleration and torque. New cars in this series have a showroom price
ranging from around ninety nine lakhs to 110 lakhs, which inclusive of all charges like
insurance, octroi, RTO, etc. A8 W12 car prices vary with the car dealer's location.
Audi Q7 (Sedan)
42

Q7 is a futuristic completely luxurious SUV that leaves its
rivals far behind. Equipped with highly enhanced features and state of the art technology, the
Q7 is equipped with Audi's revolutionary Quattro four-wheel drive that makes you go gaga
on its performance. The Q7 has the quality that a select few deserve. For the rest, they'll be
content to just learn that the Q7 is a superb technology driven SUV that makes them get off
the road to allow the Emperor pass along. The Audi Q7 with its petrol and diesel variants
targets the upper middle class and the rich Indian consumer and offers an on-road price range
between rupees Sixty three and Seventy six lakhs. Audi Q7 variants include
Q7 3.0 TDI (Diesel)
The Q7 3.0 TDI Diesel is the higher range diesel model in India, which features Audi's
remarkable 3.0L DOHC naturally aspired CRDi engine with DI fuel system. This engine is
globally known for its high performance, acceleration, and torque. At the showroom, this car
costs around 57 lakhs with an on-road price of around 62 lakhs. This includes standard
additional charges also.
Q7 4.2 FSI (Petrol)
The Q7 4.2 FSI Quattro petrol is Audi's higher range petrol model in India, which features
Audi's remarkable 4.2L FSI engine with DI fuel system. This engine is globally known for its
high performance, acceleration and torque. New cars having a showroom price of Rs. 69.5
lakhs and on-road price of around Rs. 75 lakhs inclusive of all charges such as insurance,
octroi, RTO, etc. Audi Q7 4.2 FSI car prices vary with the car dealer's location.
Audi cars are starting to fire the fancy of the rich Indian consumer and the upper middle class
with their current range of Audi A4, Audi A6, Audi A8, and Audi Q7 sedan cars. Audi India
expects to reach their first marketing targets by 2010, and continues to expand the network of
Audi dealerships across Indian metros.

BMW CARS IN INDIA
BMW, the manufacturer of world-famous Rolls-Royce cars, has officially entered the Indian
car market. BMW India was set up as a sales subsidiary in Gurgaon in 2006 to spearhead the
43

formation of its dealer network, and followed it closely by setting up a state-of-the-art
assembly plant in Chennai in January 2007.
BMW AG, or Bayerische Motoren Werke AG, was initially a German aircraft engine
manufacturing company. In 1919, they turned to land vehicle engines, and in 1927 built their
first BMW car christened BMW 3/15. For the greater part of the past century, BMW Car has
led the world in creating cars for the rich.
Exceptional design concept and elegance has always been a part of the BMW cars. BMW
Cars in India put innovation, intelligence and technology to ensure the safety and driving
comfort of its proud owners. BMW India competes with its rivals by exhibiting powerfully
performing vehicles and having a slight edge over the others.

TOP SELLING BMW CARS

BMW 5-Series 525i Petrol Sedan...

BMW 5-Series 523i Petrol Sedan...

44,14,100

BMW 5-Series 525d Diesel Sedan

46,20,954

BMW 5-Series 523i Petrol Sedan

49,10,857

44,14,100

Popular BMW sedans are available from a bit above rupees thirty lakhs to a bit below rupees
one crore fifty lakhs, including

BMW 3-Series (Sedan)

44

The 3 series is an exquisite sports sedan available both in
petrol and diesel variants. It falls in the luxury segment. The exterior exudes confidence and a
powerful flow of expression. The individual exterior details display elegance that reveals
themselves subtly to the eyes. The 3-Series with its petrol and diesel variants targets the
upper middle class and the rich Indian consumer with BMW cars having an on-road price
range between rupees thirty and thirty six lakhs. 3-Series variants include
BMW 3-Series 320i (Petrol)
The 3-Series 320i is the initial variant in the 3 series family. This entry level variant displays
excellent power and torque, thereby meaning the superior efficiency of petrol with great
acceleration. This variant has a showroom price of arund Rs. 27 lakhs and on-road price of
around Rs. 30.5 lakhs, which is inclusive of all charges such as insurance, octroi, RTO, etc.
A4 1.8T car prices vary with the car dealer's location.
BMW 3-Series 320d (Diesel)
The 3-series 320d is the mid range variant in the 3 series family sporting BMW's efficient 4
straight four-cylinder diesel engine. This engine provides more efficiency at less fuel
consumption, with high speeds at low rpm. New cars in this series have a showroom price
ranging from around 29.6 lakhs to around 33.6 lakhs inclusive of all charges like insurance,
octroi, RTO, etc. Car prices vary with the dealer's location.
BMW 3-Series 325i (Petrol)
The 3-series 325i leads the 3 series family with its larger 6 cylinder classic 2497 cc petrol
engine that delivers great power and acceleration.At the showroom, this car costs around 32.4
lakhs with an on-road price of around 36.75 lakhs. This includes standard ancillary charges
also.

BMW 5-Series (Sedan)

45

The five series is a fine fusion of technology, sophistication,
and performance that go far ahead than others in the competition. This executive sedan comes
with bi-xenon headlights and newly designed taillights that redefine and impose its majestic
presence on the road. This is the company's brilliant push in the luxury segment and more
expensive than a Mercedes E class. The 5-Series with its petrol and diesel variants targets the
upper middle class and the rich Indian consumer with BMW cars having an on-road price
range between rupees forty-two and fifty-one lakhs. 5-Series variants include
BMW 5-Series 523i (Petrol)
This sedan is BMW's entry range luxury sedan 5-series family that features a 6 cylinder
DOCH 22497 cc petrol engine with six gear manual transmission. It gives awesome power
and high acceleration even at low speeds. The 5-Series 523i (Petrol) is now available at a
showroom price of around 47 lakhs with an on road price of around 53 lakhs including
supplementary charges.
BMW 5-Series 525i (Petrol)
The 5 series 525i is the upscale model in this series. This variant features a 6 cylinder engine
with more powerful characteristics than the 523i sedan thereby producing remarkable power
and higher acceleration even at low speeds. Its aerodynamic body offers extremely low
resistance to the wind.The 5-Series 525i (Petrol) is now available at a showroom price of
around 41.1. lakhs with an on road price of around46.58 lakhs including accompanying
charges.
BMW 5-Series 525d (Diesel)
The 5-series 525d Sedan is the diesel presentation in this family. It features BMW's powerful
yet refined 6 cylinder 2993 cc diesel engine under the bonnet. This means the 525d is capable
of excellent performance even at low engine speeds. At the showroom, this car costs around
42.6 lakhs with an on-road price of around 48.27 lakhs. This includes standard ancillary
charges also.
BMW 5-Series 530i (Petrol)
The 5 series 530i Sedan features is the top end model in the 5 series family. BMW's powerful
straight 6 cylinder 2996 cc petrol engine with higher engine performance features, thereby
giving superior performance and power and higher acceleration even at low engine speeds.
New cars in this series have a showroom price ranging from around 45.2 lakhs to 51.21 lakhs,
which inclusive of all charges like insurance, octroi, RTO, etc.

BMW 6-Series (Sedan)

46

Yet another superb presentation from BMW is the six series
coupe that blends the spirit of sports car driving with the luxury of a large saloon car. The 6
series is an unrivalled blend of elegance and performance.The 6-Series (petrol) stands out by
itself. It's a BMW sedan with elegant features, and generally perceived as a marvel of
resource optimization both for the consumer as well as for the manufacturer.
BMW 6-Series V8 (Petrol)
The 6-series is a luxury sports sedan with wonderful features and breathtaking performance.
The 6-Series V8 (Petrol) is now available at a showroom price of around 79.7 lakhs with an
on road price of around 86.7 lakhs including supplementary statutory charges.

BMW 7-Series (Sedan)

The 7 series is an extraordinary presentation in the luxury
sedan class that represents the ultimate in comfort and richness in its class. With
extraordinary qualities, it has a striking road presence with a muscular form and limitless
power. Its subtle exterior features and discerning style represent the ultimate in quality and all
that what BMW is known for. There is a range of cars to choose beginning from entry range
luxury sedan to premium models.The 7-Series with its petrol and diesel variants targets the
upper middle class and the rich Indian consumer with BMW cars having an on-road price
range between rupees eighty four lakhs and rupees one crore. BMW 7-Series variants
include
BMW 7-Series 730Ld (Diesel)
The 7-Series 730Ld Sedan is the entry range diesel presentation in the 7 series family. It
features BMW's renowned straight six cylinder diesel engine. Remarkably light with
excellent performance characteristics, it presents high performance and excellent acceleration
even at low engine speeds.At the showroom, this car costs around 74.2 lakhs with an on-road
price of around 84.02 lakhs. This includes standard ancillary charges also.
BMW 7-Series 740Li (Petrol)
The 7-series 740Li Sedan is the entry range petrol model in the seven series family. It
features a powerful eight cylinder petrol engine that offers a larger displacement delivering
fabulous engine power and torque. This provides excellent performance and acceleration.
This engine remains stable even at high speeds. With Valvetronic technology, the engine
offers a breathtaking performance.This variant has a showroom price of around Rs. 80.2
lakhs and on-road price of around Rs. 90.8 lakhs, which is inclusive of all charges such as
47

insurance, octroi, RTO, etc.
BMW 7-Series 750Li (Petrol)
The 7-Series 750 Li Sedan features is the upscale model in this family. Featuring BMW's
renowned four litre eight cylinder petrol engine, it offers greater displacement, thereby more
power and high performance. This engine offers awesome functioning and high power even
at lower engine speeds.New cars in this series have a showroom price ranging from around
87.5 lakhs to around 99 lakhs, which inclusive of all charges like insurance, octroi, RTO, etc.
BMW 7-Series 760Li (Petrol)
The 7-Series 760Li Sedan is the top range presentation in the 7 series family. It features
BMW's remarkable 6L 12 cylinder engine delivers an absolutely smooth breathtaking
performance. This engine delivers massive power and top acceleration. At the showroom, this
car costs around 1 crore 25 lakhs and an on-road price of around 1 crore 42 lakhs. This
includes standard ancillary charges also.

BMW (SUV)
BMW X-5 (SUV)

The X5 is BMW's exclusive presentation in the SUV category
in India. However, BMW prefers to call it an SAV rather than an SUV as it is rather a
crossover mid-size luxury 4WD car primarily for on-the-road sport.The X-5 is an outstanding
car. This BMW SUV blends maximum features within a reasonable (BMW) price and is
targeted to beckon the upwardly mobile upper middle class consumer. It's a BMW SUV
running on diesel.
BMW X-5 (Diesel)
The X5 is all round excellence with superb interior, exterior, and safety features. New cars
have a showroom price of around Rs.67, 60, 000 and an on-road price of around
Rs.74,36,000. X-5 car prices vary in lakhs upon the car dealer's location.This car i is now
available at a showroom price of around 67.6 lakhs with an on road price of around 74.4
lakhs including supplementary statutory charges.
Currently all BMW cars except those of the BMW 3 and BMW 5 series are fully imported.
The 3 and 5 series are being assembled in Chennai using imported parts. Fully imported
BMW cars include the 6-Series V8 (Petrol), and the 7-Series variants among sedan varieties,
while the X-5 (Diesel) remains the only SUV officially marketed in India.

48

CHEVROLET CARS IN INDIA

Chevrolet cars in India are a product of Chevrolet, a brand which people associate trust and
luxury with. A Chevrolet car was known for its phenomenal influence in the American
market during the 60s. Chevrolet cars in India were introduced by General Motors' India
operations. Chevrolet India became a full fledged reality on June 6, 2003 and is today selling
some of the popular variants. Chevrolet cars in India including the latest Chevrolet Beat have
taken the nation by storm.
The rising popularity of Chevrolet Cars in India has resulted in a huge fan
following. Chevrolet India has an interesting history. Having debuted in the 1920's, the first
Chevrolet car in India was the National Series AB Touring with wooden wheels. However,
Chevrolet India had to close shop in 1952-1953 following the Indian national policy. Once on
a sabbatical, Chevrolet India has bounced back and is creating ripples in the Indian Auto
scene.
GM primarily launched the European brand Opel which failed to interest the Indian
consumer. Chevrolet Car then made a phenomenal foray with cars to suit varying tastes.
Chevrolet Cars in India had a stupendous start in 2003 with sales shooting up immediately.
Chevrolet India proved its worth as soon as it reentered India and the success of the Chevrolet
car continues to lead GM till date.
Popular Chevrolet sedans range from Chevrolet cars costing below rupees six lakhs fifty
thousand to Chevrolet cars costing above rupees twelve lakhs thirty thousand, including

Chevrolet Aveo (Sedan)

Chevrolet (Sedan) The Chevrolet Aveo with its petrol variants
targets the middle class consumer with Chevrolet cars ranging between rupees six lakhs and
seven lakh fifty thousand. Chevrolet Aveo variants include
Aveo 1.4 Base (Petrol)
Chevrolet Aveo is a unique synthesis of technology, sophistication and performance. The
mid-size sedan from the stables of General Motors, Aveo is well- designed and wellengineered to deliver unparalleled road presence. New cars having a showroom price of
Rs.5,84,000, and on-road price of around Rs.6,58,000 inclusive of all charges such as
insurance, octroi, RTO, etc. Chevrolet Aveo 1.4 Base (Petrol) car prices vary with the car
dealer's location.

49

Aveo 1.4 Ls (Petrol)
It's the mid-range variant with great looks, comfy interiors and cost -effectiveness which are
the unique selling propositions. New cars in this series have a showroom price ranging from
around six lakhs to around seven lakhs inclusive of all charges like insurance, octroi, RTO,
etc. Chevrolet Aveo 1.4 LS car prices vary with the car dealer's location.
Aveo 1.4 LS Limited Edition (Petrol)
The New Aveo 1.4 LS Limited Edition (Petrol) comes added with all the modern features like
leather upholstery, alloy wheels, 2-DIN audio system and remote control keyless entry.
Chevrolet Aveo 1.4 LS Limited Edition is available at a showroom price of around 6.3 lakhs
and on road price of around 7.0 lakhs inclusive of all charges like insurance, RTO, etc.
Chevrolet Aveo 1.4 LS Limited Edition car prices vary with the car dealer's location.
Aveo 1.6 Lt (Petrol)
Chevrolet Aveo 1.6 LT (Petrol) is the top-range variant with great looks, comfy interiors and
cost -effectiveness. At the showroom, this car costs around Rs.6,68,000 with an on-road price
of around Rs.7,55,000. This includes standard ancillary charges also.

Chevrolet Optra (Sedan)

Chevrolet (Sedan) The Chevrolet Optra with its petrol and
diesel variants targets the middle class consumer with Chevrolet cars ranging between rupees
eight lakhs and twelve lakhs. Chevrolet Optra variants include
Optra Magnum 1.6 LT(Petrol)
With classy and posh design, great petrol engine defines Chevrolet Optra Magnum 1.6 LT. At
the showroom, this car costs around Rs. 6.8 lakhs with an on-road price of around Rs.7.5
lakhs. This includes standard ancillary charges too.
Optra Magnum 1.6 LS(Petrol)
With classy and posh design, great petrol engine defines Chevrolet Optra Magnum 1.6 LS. At
the showroom, this car costs around Rs. 8.3 lakhs with an on-road price of around 9.5 lakhs.
This includes standard ancillary charges also.
Optra Magnum Max (Diesel)
Sporty looks, great diesel engine defines Chevrolet Optra Magnum Max. At the showroom,
this car costs around Rs.8,50,000 with an on-road price of around Rs.9,57,000 lakhs. This
includes standard ancillary charges also.
Optra Magnum 2.0 LS TCDI (Diesel)
This four wheeler is incorporated with the best features in its segment. The Chevrolet Optra
Magnum 2.0 LS TCDI (Diesel) is now available at a showroom price of around Rs.8,74,000
with an on road price of around Rs.9,84,000 including supplementary charges.
50

Optra Magnum 2.0 LT TCDI (Diesel)
This variant from the Chevrolet stable has stormed the automobile market. New cars in this
series have a showroom price ranging from around ten lakhs to around eleven lakhs inclusive
of all charges like insurance, octroi, RTO, etc. Optra Magnum 2.0 TCDI car prices vary with
the car dealer's location.
Chevrolet (SUV)
Popular Chevrolet SUVs range in price from Chevrolet cars costing a bit above rupees six
lakhs eighty thousand to Chevrolet cars costing a bit below rupees ten lakhs thirty five
thousand, including

Chevrolet Tavera (SUV)

A product of General Motors, Tavera has carved a niche for
itself as multi-utility vehicle. Its 'Ergomax' seating with flexible options, endows matchless
space and comfort to the passengers. Chevrolet (SUV) The Chevrolet Tavera with its petrol
and diesel variants targets the middle class consumer with Chevrolet cars ranging between
rupees six and ten lakhs. Chevrolet Tavera variants include
Tavera NY Edition B1 (10 Seater) (Diesel)
A Multi-purpose vehicle, it's spacious and comfort level gives you real value for money car.
New cars have a showroom price of around Rs.6,00,000 and on-road price of around
Rs.6,80,000. Chevrolet Tavera NY Edition B1 (10 Seater) car prices vary with the car
dealer's location.
Tavera NY Edition B1 (7 Seater) (Diesel)
Tavera NY Edition B1 is all set to chart a turnaround roadmap for Chevrolet, thanks to the
many engineering changes and build quality carried out to meet local customer requirements.
New cars in this series have a showroom price ranging from around six lakhs to around seven
lakhs inclusive of all charges like insurance, octroi, RTO, etc. Tavera NY Edition B1 car
prices vary with the car dealer's location.
Tavera NY Edition B2 (10 Seater) (Diesel)
Tavera NY Edition B2 has carved a niche for itself as multi-utility vehicle. At the showroom,
this car costs around Rs.6,80,000 with an on-road price of around Rs.7,65,000. This includes
standard ancillary charges also.
Tavera NY Edition B2 (7 Seater) (Diesel)
Chevrolet NY Edition B2 is marked for its features and looks in its segment. Chevrolet NY
Edition B2 is now available at a showroom price of around Rs.6,90,000 with an on-road price
of around Rs.7,75,000 including supplementary charges.
51

Tavera Neo LS- B3 (Diesel)
This variant of the Chevrolet with stylish and robust looks rules the Indian auto market. New
cars have a showroom price of around Rs.7,31,000 and on-road price of around Rs.8,24,000.
Chevrolet Tavera Neo LS- B3 (Diesel) car prices vary in lakhs upon the car dealer's location.
Tavera NEO LT - L ( 9 Seater) (Diesel)
Tavera NEO LT (9 Seater) from the Chevrolet stable with all the latest features and facilities
promises reliability and assurance to the buyers. New cars in this series have a showroom
price ranging from around eight lakhs to around nine lakhs inclusive of all charges like
insurance, octroi, RTO, etc. Tavera NEO LT - L car prices vary with the car dealer's
location.
Tavera NEO LT - L ( 7 Seater) (Diesel)
Tavera NEO LT - L (7 Seater) strikes the market for its superior and high quality interior. At
the showroom, this car costs around Rs.8,26,000 with an on-road price of around
Rs.9,30,000. This includes standard ancillary charges also.
Tavera SS-D1 Neo 8-S (8 Seater) (Diesel)
This variant of the Neo range makes its presence for its advanced technology and comfort
level. Tavera SS-D1 Neo 8-S is now available at a showroom price of around Rs.8,95,000
with an on-road price of around Rs.10,00,000 including supplementary charges.
Tavera SS-D1 Neo 7 (7 Seater) (Diesel)
One of the most famous variant from the Neo range known for its supreme features and
decent performance. New cars have a showroom price of around Rs.9,18,500 and on-road
price of around Rs.10,33,500. Chevrolet Tavera SS-D1 Neo 7 (7 Seater) (Diesel) car prices
vary in lakhs upon the car dealer's location.

Chevrolet Captiva (SUV)

Captiva VCDi (Diesel)
Neatly designed with sporty looks and latest diesel engine, Chevrolet Captiva is available at
the showroom around Rs.17,70,000 with an on-road price of around Rs.19,00,000 lakhs in
Delhi. This includes standard ancillary charges also.

52

Chevrolet (Hatchback)
Chevrolet hatchbacks range from Chevrolet cars costing a bit above rupees three lakhs fifty
thousand to Chevrolet cars costing a bit below rupees eight lakhs twenty five thousand,
including

Chevrolet Spark (Hatchback)

Spark has evolved from where Matiz left. Available in four
options the much-talked about features of Spark includes fuel-efficiency, weightlessness and
contemporary looks. However, the biggest turn-on of Spark is its advanced systems, aiding
effortless driving on congested roads and highways. Chevrolet (Hatchback) The Chevrolet
Spark with its petrol variants targets the middle class consumer with Chevrolet cars ranging
between rupees three and four lakhs. Chevrolet Spark variants include
Spark 1.0 Base (Petrol)
Spark 1.0 Base is the entry level vehicle from the Chevrolet Spark range. New cars have a
showroom price of around Rs.3,10,000 and on-road price of around Rs.3,80,000. Chevrolet
Spark 1.0 Base (Petrol) car prices vary with the car dealer's location.
Spark 1.0 PS (Petrol)
Spark 1.0 PS with a renewed look of classic beauty wins the hearts of the Indian customers.
New cars in this series have a showroom price ranging from around three lakhs to around
three lakhs eighty thousand inclusive of all charges like insurance, octroi, RTO, etc. Spark
1.0 PS car prices vary with the car dealer's location.
Spark 1.0 LS (Petrol)
Spark 1.0 LS makes its foray in the competitive Indian Hatchback market with its dynamic
and stylish looks with loads of sporty features. Spark 1.0 LS is now available at a showroom
price of around Rs.3,40,000 with an on-road price of around Rs.4,10,000 including
supplementary charges.
Spark 1.0 LT (Petrol)
Spark 1.0 LT powered with advanced technology engine and renewed sporty looks marks its
difference in its segment. New cars have a showroom price of around Rs.3,45,000 and onroad price of around Rs.4,30,000. Chevrolet Spark 1.0 LT (Petrol) car prices vary with the car
dealer's location.

53

Chevrolet UVA (Hatchback)

Chevrolet (Hatchback) The Chevrolet UVA with its petrol
variants targets the middle class consumer with Chevrolet cars ranging between rupees four
and a half lakhs and five and a half lakhs. The quintessential U-Va is spacious, stylish and
will stand tall among the crowd for its value for money. Chevrolet UVA variants include
U-VA 1.2 Base (Petrol)
A perfect blend of comfort and speed, the tastefully done designs of U-Va are a perfect match
to any dcor. New cars in this series have a showroom price ranging from around three lakhs
to around four lakhs fifty thousand inclusive of all charges like insurance, octroi, RTO, etc.
Spark 1.2 Base car prices vary with the car dealer's location.
U-VA 1.2 LT (Petrol)
U-VA 1.2 LT with lively looks and sporty features storms the Indian auto market. At the
showroom, this car costs around Rs.4,76,000 with an on-road price of around Rs.5,38,000.
This includes standard ancillary charges also.

Chevrolet SRV (Hatchback)

Chevrolet (Hatchback) The Chevrolet SRV with its petrol
variants targets the middle class consumer with Chevrolet cars ranging between rupees seven
lakhs and eight and a half lakhs. Much to the delight of design-oriented Indian consumers,
Chevrolet has rolled out SRV India's first Premium Sportsback car. Chevrolet SRV variants
include
SRV 1.6 Base (Petrol)
SRV 1.6 Base is the entry level vehicle Chevrolet SRV collection. SRV 1.6 Base is now
available at a showroom price of around Rs.6,80,000 with an on-road price of around
Rs.7,65,000 including supplementary charges.
Chevrolet cars - Chevrolet sedans including the Chevrolet Aveo with three variants, and the
Chevrolet Optra with nine variants; the Chevrolet SUV with its nine Chevrolet Tavera
variants, and Chevrolet hatchbacks with nine variants, have covered the entire middle class
consumer market. The Chevrolet Spark aims to provide the quantitative sales that Chevrolet
needs to reestablish itself firmly in India. Within 2010, Chevrolet can expect the turnaround
to complete and the Chevrolet brand to become a household name once again in India.
54

FIAT CARS IN INDIA
Fiat India is a Joint Venture between Fiat Group Automobiles and Tata Motors Limited,
Located in Ranjangaon of Pune District. Fiat Cars in India are manufactured at this Joint
Venture wherein Fiat India holds a 50% stake. Although Fiat India has installed facility to
manufacture 100,000 cars and 200,000 aggregates and components, the company plans to
double production in the coming years.
A Fiat car is well known for its impeccable performance, reliability and panache. The Palio
Stile and other premium Fiat cars like Grande Punto and Linea are hugely successful in the
Indian market. Fiat Cars in India have often exceeded customer satisfaction and are
amongst the most reliable brands in India. Fiat India is constantly striving to give customers
the best there is, in automobile technology.
Besides owning a 50% stake in the company, Fiat Cars in India own and control five
internationally renowned brands. Alfa Romeo Automobiles and Lancia Automobiles are
amongst the internationally owned brands of Fiat. A Fiat car is considered creme de la creme
amongst automobiles on the Indian roads, owing to their diligent performance and association
with brands of very high repute. Fiat India is on the path to achieving excellence in the field
of automobile engineering. The user and environment friendly cars from Fiat India stand as a
testimony to the world renowned brand.

Fiat Hatchbacks
Currently Fiat India has only one hatchback model, the Fiat Palio Stile - with four variants.

Fiat Palio (Hatchback)

The Fiat Palio Stile is it's world car that is based on the 174
platform developed on the lines of a design by the Idea Institute of Turin, Italy. This car has
brilliant aerodynamic features that give it a low drag coefficient of just 0.33 CD. Its exteriors
exude clean lines and fresh styling. Fiat's range extends from Fiat cars costing a bit above
rupees three lakhs fifty thousand to Fiat cars costing a bit above rupees four lakhs. Palio
variants include
Palio 1.1 SL Stile (Petrol)
The Palio Stile 1.1 SL is Fiat's entry range model that features Fiat's revolutionary 1.1 litre
FIRE petrol engine that delivers optimum performance and torque thereby delivering
excellent power and acceleration. This variant has a showroom price of around Rs. 3.6 lakhs
and on-road price of around Rs. 3.95 lakhs, which is inclusive of all charges such as
insurance, octroi, RTO, etc.
Palio 1.1 SLE Stile (Petrol)
55

The Palio Stile 1.1 SLE is Fiat's mid range model in the 1.1 Stile series with midrange
features and aesthetics. It features Fiat's revolutionary 1.1 litre FIRE petrol engine that
delivers optimum performance and torque thereby delivering excellent power and
acceleration. New cars in this series have a showroom price ranging from around Rs. 3.72
lakhs to around Rs. 4.17 lakhs inclusive of all charges like insurance, octroi, RTO, etc. Car
prices vary with the dealer's location.
Palio Stile 1.1 SLX (Petrol)
The Palio Stile 1.1 SLE is Fiat's top range model in the 1.1 Stile series with top edge features
and aesthetics. The Palio Stile 1.1 SLE is now available at a showroom price of around Rs.
3.93 lakhs with an on road price of around Rs. 4.4 lakhs including accompanying charges.
Palio Stile 1.6 Stile Sport (Petrol)
The Palio 1.6 Stile Sport is Palio's sporty model with loads of sporty features. Fiat's
remarkable 1.6L four cylinder DOHC petrol engine delivers awesome performance and
torque thereby delivering brilliant power and acceleration. At the showroom, this car costs
around Rs. 4.34 lakhs with an on-road price of around Rs. 4.9 lakhs. This includes standard
ancillary charges also.
Until the recent avalanche of new car makes and brands, Fiat cars were a common sight both
in urban and rural India. The Fiat brand continued to be available after 1952 when most other
foreign car brands left India, and Fiat cars enjoyed a niche without competition. The re-entry
of other foreign car brands in India has made Fiat change its strategy, gear up Fiat's
production capacity, and hit the market with its four Fiat Palio variants while other variants
are in the pipeline.

FORD CARS IN INDIA
Ford India was initiated in 1995 in partnership with Mahindra & Mahindra resulting in
Mahindra Ford India Ltd. Ford India of the nineties was known as MFIL which started
assembling and distributing Ford Escorts in India. In 1998, MFIL was rechristened as Ford
India and Ford cars in India got a strong foothold. New brands like Ford Fusion, Ford Fiesta,
Ford Mondeo and Ford Endeavour were a great success. Ford Car in India thus became a
well-known name.
Ford India is currently reveling in the success of the various Ford Cars in India. The icing on
the cake is the launch of the small Ford car- the Ford Figo. Ford India has ambitious plans for
the Indian market after the super success of the compact Ford car and the entry level sedan
Ford Fiesta.
Ford India is set to launch new Ford car models which will be India- specific and have global
appeal. Thus the Ford Cars in India will be developed based on a global strategy. Currently
the 6th largest car manufacturer in India- Ford India is raring to go with new eco- friendly
engines and trendy designs. Ford India has plans to introduce eight new Ford car models in
the country in the next five years. Ford cars in India are thus on a trajectory to success with
new launches, and new facilities with bigger manufacturing units.

56

Ford (Sedan)
Popular Ford Sedans range from Ford cars costing a bit below rupees five lakhs to Ford cars
costing bit above rupees nine lakhs eighty thousand, including

Ford Ikon

Ikon 1.3 Flair (Sedan)
Ford Ikon has made its mark on the market. This Ford car successfully competed against and
played a major role in pushing out the Opel from India. While other Ford Ikon models are
discontinued, the Ford Ikon Flair 1.3 carries the Ford Ikon tradition forward. Ford Ikon is a
petrol car. New cars have a show room price of around Rs.4,86,000 and on-road price of
around Rs.5,45,200. Ford Ikon prices vary with the car dealer's location.

Ford Fiesta (Sedan)

The Ford Icon exudes terrific style with its dynamic interiors
and contemporary styling. Guaranteed to stop traffic and draw attention, the Ford icon excels
with contemporary styling and superior looks. Ford (Sedan) The Ford Fiesta with its petrol
and diesel variants targets the upper middle class consumer with Ford cars ranging between
rupees six lakhs and ten lakhs. Ford Fiesta variants include
Fiesta 1.4 Duratec Exi (Petrol)
This variant of Ford Fiesta makes it matchless in its segment due its supreme driving
dynamics, technology, comfort and elegance. New cars have a show room price of around
Rs.6,02,000 and on-road price of around Rs.6,75,000. Ford Fiesta 1.4 Duratec Exi prices vary
with the car dealer's location.
Fiesta 1.4 Duratec Zxi (Petrol)
The design of this variant perfectly combines style and stability. New cars in this series have
a showroom price ranging from around six lakhs to around seven lakhs inclusive of all
charges like insurance, octroi, RTO, etc. Fiesta 1.4 Duratec Zxi car prices vary with the car
dealer's location.
57

Fiesta 1.4 Duratorq Exi (Diesel)
This variant captures its share of Indian auto market with its advanced technology and heart
winning looks. At the showroom, this car costs around Rs.7,13,000 with an on-road price of
around Rs.8,00,000. This includes standard ancillary charges also.
Fiesta 1.6 Duratec Sxi (Petrol)
Fiesta 1.6 Duratec Sxi is well known for its go spirit and powerful styling. New cars have a
show room price of around Rs.7,35,000 and on-road price of around Rs.8,25,000. Ford Fiesta
1.6 Duratec Sxi prices vary with the car dealer's location.
Fiesta 1.4 Duratorq Zxi (Diesel)
This variant of the Ford Fiesta is always a choice of the Indian customer for its superior
comfort and performance. New cars in this series have a showroom price ranging from
around seven lakhs to around eight lakhs inclusive of all charges like insurance, octroi, RTO,
etc. Fiesta 1.4 Duratorq Zxi car prices vary with the car dealer's location.
Fiesta 1.4 Duratorq Sxi (Diesel)
Fiesta 1.4 Duratorq Sxi (Diesel) is used to head turning in its direction. At the showroom, this
car costs around Rs.8,20,000 with an on-road price of around Rs.9,15,000. This includes
standard ancillary charges also.
Fiesta 1.6 Fida Edition (Petrol)
The car that leaves you breathless by its power, performance and style is Fiesta 1.6 Fida
Edition. New cars have a show room price of around Rs.6,78,000 and on-road price of around
Rs.7,47,000. Ford Fiesta 1.6 Fida Edition (Petrol) prices vary with the car dealer's location.
Ford SUVs
Currently Ford India has only a single Ford SUV model, the Ford Endeavour, across three
diesel variants.

Ford Endeavour (SUV)

If there's chance to endeavour with the greatest of things in
life, then let it be with the Ford Fiesta. Owning this larger than life SUV from Ford is surely
an achievement. Ford SUVs Popular Ford Endeavour SUVs range from a bit above rupees
sixteen lakhs to a bit above seventeen lakhs seventy thousand. Popular Ford SUVs include
Endeavour 4 x 2 XLT (Diesel)
Endeavour 4 x 2 XLT possesses the robust and agile looks that attract the customers to buy it.
New cars in this series have a showroom price ranging from around fifteen lakhs to around
sixteen lakhs inclusive of all charges like insurance, octroi, RTO, etc. Endeavour 4 x 2 XLT
58

car prices vary with the car dealer's location.
Endeavour 4x2 XLT Limited Edition (Diesel)
Endeavour 4x2 XLT Limited Edition is most happening and desirable SUV of Ford. At the
showroom, this car costs around Rs.15,75,000 with an on-road price of around Rs.17,63,000.
This includes standard ancillary charges also.
Endeavour 4 x 4 XLT (Diesel)
Endeavour 4 x 4 XLT is gifted best of all latest features as available in its segment. The
Endeavour 4x4 XLT (Diesel) is now available at a showroom price of around Rs.15,85,000
with an on road price of around Rs.17,75, 000 including supplementary charges.
Ford Wagons
Currently Ford India is marketing only a single Ford wagon model, the Ford Fusion

Ford Fusion (Wagon)

This grand presentation from Ford is a fusion of the looks of
an SUV with the grace of a Hatch! Ford Wagons Ford Fusion is high on middle class
priorities. This Ford wagon optimizes car features with car price for the middle class
consumer. Ford Fusion is now available in both petrol and diesel variants.
Fusion (Petrol)
The Fusion comes with additional space, compact shape, new interiors, high ground
clearance, and high vantage seating. New cars have a show room price of around Rs.5,80,000
and on-road price of around Rs.6,55,000. Ford Fusion prices vary with the car dealer's
location.
Fusion (Diesel)
This variant is available with all the latest features in its segment at an affordable price range.
New cars in this series have a showroom price ranging from around six lakhs to around seven
lakhs inclusive of all charges like insurance, octroi, RTO, etc. Fusion (Diesel) car prices vary
with the car dealer's location.

HONDA CARS IN INDIA
Honda cars in India are manufactured and marketed through Honda Siel Cars India Ltd.,
(HSCI), a joint effort of Honda Motor Co. Ltd. Japan and Siel Ltd. Honda City, the first
59

Honda car for the Indian market, was launched by HSCI in 1997. Honda cars, including both
sedans and SUV models are popular in India. Honda cars in the Indian market have been
exhibiting record sales of year after year as Honda car in India has earned itself a very
remarkable reputation for reliability.
Honda cars have sleek looks, are comfortable, and have successfully built a reputation of
being highly maneuverable and environment friendly. All Indian Honda car models run on
petrol. Honda's cars are strongly associated with advanced design and technology, apart from
its established qualities of durability, reliability and fuel-efficiency.
Honda Car in India has models like Honda City ZX and Honda Civic which primarily
targeted at the middle class consumer. Honda followed up the success of its middle-class
friendly Honda cars with higher-end and costlier models including both SUVs and sedans.
Currently, Honda India produces Honda City, Honda Civic, and Honda Accord models,
while Honda CRV is still fully imported from Japan.
Honda Sedans
Currently Honda India has three Sedan models, the Honda City, Honda Civic, and Honda
Accord that offer a choice of sedan car prices ranging from rupees seven lakhs to rupees
twenty lakhs.

Honda City Zx (Sedan)

Sleek and sporty, Honda City is the result of through research
and careful thought. City Zx models range in price from below rupees eight lakhs to a bit
above rupees nine lakhs, including
City Zx Exi
Fashioned for the future, the attractive City ZX EXi is designed to arrest the attention of
those who can't wait for tomorrow. This variant has a showroom price of around Rs. 6.8 lakhs
and on-road price of around Rs. 7.8 lakhs, which is inclusive of all charges such as insurance,
octroi, RTO, etc.
City Zx Gxi
The city ZX GXI is the upscale model in the ZX series with a range of brilliant features. At
the showroom, this car costs around Rs. 7.3 lakhs with an on-road price of around Rs. 8.24
lakhs. This includes standard ancillary charges also.
City Zx CVT
The Zx CVT is a superior level model in the City Zx series with fabulous features. New cars
in this series have a showroom price ranging from around Rs. 7.9 lakhs to around Rs. 8.9
lakhs inclusive of all charges.

60

City Zx VTEC
The Zx VTEC is the top range model in the Zx series loaded with top range features. At the
showroom, this car costs around Rs. 8 lakhs with an on-road price of around Rs. 9 lakhs. This
includes standard ancillary charges also.
Honda Civic (Sedan)

One of the most sold cars in America, what drives the Civic is
its high level of fit and finish and an impressive reputation for reliability, especially for an
economy car. Impressive fuel economy, environmental awareness and engaging performance
have also played a large role in making the Civic so popular. Honda Civic models range in
price from around rupees 12 lakhs to just above rupees 13.5 lakhs
Civic 1.8V MT(Petrol)
The Civic 1.8V MT (petrol) is Honda's entry level presentation that comes with manual
transmission in the Civic family. The Civic 1.8V MT (Petrol) is now available at a showroom
price of around Rs. 10.9 lakhs with an on road price of around Rs. 12.32 lakhs including
accompanying charges.
Civic 1.8S MT(Petrol)
The Civic 1.8S MT is Honda's upscale presentation with manual transmission. Driving this
brilliant vehicle is simply an indescribable exhilaration. New cars have a showroom price of
around Rs.11, 43,649, and an on-road price of around Rs.12, 86.000. Honda Civic 1.8S MT
car prices vary in lakhs upon the car dealer's location.
Civic 1.8V AT (Petrol)
The Civic 1.8V AT (petrol) is Honda's entry level presentation that comes with automatic
transmission in the Civic family. Driving this brilliant vehicle is simply an indescribable
exhilaration. New cars in this series have a showroom price ranging from around Rs. 11.63
lakhs to 13 lakhs, which inclusive of all charges like insurance, octroi, RTO, etc.
Civic 1.8S AT (Petrol)
The Civic 1.8V AT (petrol) is Honda's upscale presentation that comes with automatic
transmission in the Civic family.The Civic 1.8 S AT is now available at a showroom price of
around Rs. 12.9 lakhs with an on road price of around Rs. 13.7 lakhs including
supplementary statutory charges.

Honda Accord (Sedan)

61

A chiselled piece of art, Honda Accord Vti is passionately
crafted with attention to minute details. Tried and tested in Indian conditions, it performs
exceptionally well to give results beyond imagination. Honda Sedans Honda Accord models
range in price from Rs.16 lakhs to just below Rs.19 lakhs. Hot Indian models include
Accord Vti-L M/T (Petrol)
This is Honda's entry level presentation in the Accord Family. A sleek body and an
aggressive front, is what defines luxury sedan. The interiors are ultra roomy and offers
sumptuous comfort. At the showroom, this car costs around Rs. 14.74 lakhs with an on-road
price of around Rs. 16.6 lakhs. This includes standard ancillary charges also.
Accord Vti-L A/T (Petrol)
This is the Vti-L in its automatic avatar. A sleek body and an aggressive front, is what defines
this luxury sedan. The interiors are ultra roomy and offers sumptuous comfort. This variant
has a showroom price of around Rs. 15.6 lakhs and on-road price of around Rs. 17.4 lakhs,
which is inclusive of all charges such as insurance, octroi, RTO, etc.
Accord V6 (Petrol)
The Accord V6 has a brilliant engine and provides more legroom for the driver and so it gets
a bigger, wider body. At the showroom, this car costs around Rs. 17.13 lakhs and an on-road
price of around Rs. 19.23 lakhs. This includes standard ancillary charges also.
Honda SUVs
Currently, Honda India markets only one Honda SUV model, the Honda CRV, in two petrol
variants that are fully imported.

Honda CR-V (SUV)

The best way to complement your lifestyle is to own a Honda
CR-V.Honda. At present this is the only SUV marketed in India by Honda. It is fully
imported and has two models including

CR-V MT (Petrol)
Loaded with cutting-edge technologies, Honda CR-V has modern and dynamic design and
62

yet is classically elegant having unrivalled road-presence. The CR-V MT is the SUV with
manual transmission. New cars in this series have a showroom price ranging from around Rs.
17.6 lakhs to 20.7 lakhs, which inclusive of all charges like insurance, octroi, RTO, etc.
CR-V AT (Petrol)
Loaded with cutting-edge technologies, Honda CR-V has modern and dynamic design and
yet is classically elegant having unrivalled road-presence. The CR-V AT is the SUV with
automatic transmission. The 5-Series 523i (Petrol) is now available at a showroom price of
around Rs. 18.3 lakhs with an on road price of around Rs. 21.5 lakhs including
supplementary statutory charges.
Honda cars in the Indian market had a record sales of 61, 327 units in 2006-07 financial year
- achieving a 43.5% growth over its previous year's sales. The entire range of Honda cars
including Honda City, Honda Civic, Honda Accord, and Honda CR-V has sold well.
However, Honda City ZX, the car known to Indian consumers for a longer period than the
recent series of new Honda cars, held the lead with sales of 40,464 units in 2006-07.

HYUNDAI CARS IN INDIA
Hyundai Cars in India are delivered from Hyundai Motor India Limited, a wholly owned
subsidiary of Hyundai Motor Company. Hyundai India is the second largest car manufacturer
in India. It markets a great number of Hyundai car variants particularly in the passenger car
section. The Hyundai Car variants are marketed in six segments. Hyundai India has great
plans for the future. Hyundai India envisages the employment of 800 odd people in the period
of 2 years. Hyundai cars in India have offered a wide scope in the R&D segment.
Hyundai India is also looking forward to undertake application oriented strategic research in
Information and Communication Technologies like Software, Telemetric and Simulation
Systems. Hyundai car is well known for its user friendly drive, fuel efficiency and easy
maneuverability. Hyundai Car provides engineering services through Computer Aided
Designing & Computer Aided Engineering.
Hyundai Cars in India have managed to secure very skilled research personnel to create new
technologies. Hyundai Car has focus on future-oriented automobiles and improvised
products, ideally suited to various regions. Hyundai India has also been a pioneer in
manufacturing family oriented small cars well suited for the Indian roads. Eco friendly cars
and hybrid beauties are soon going to be a reality at Hyundai India.

Hyundai Hatchbacks
Currently, Hyundai Motor India markets two hatchback models including the Hyundai Santro
Xing across five variants, and the Hyundai Getz Prime across four variants. Hyundai
hatchback car prices range from around rupees three lakhs to around rupees six lakhs.

63

Hyundai Santro Xing (Hatchback)

The Santro Xing is Hyundai's national favourite and the
country's largest selling car in its segment. The wind tunnel designed body of the Santro
presents a low drag co-efficient. Hyundai Hatchbacks One of the most popular cars for the
middle class Indian consumer, the Hyundai Santro, with its petrol and CNG variants, offers
an on-road price range between Rs. 3 lakhs and Rs. 5 lakhs. Variant models include
Santro Xing XK Non AC (Petrol/CNG)
The XK non AC is the entry level model without frills like air conditioning and others in the
Santro Xing family. It has standard interior, exterior, comfort, and safety features. This
variant has a showroom price of around Rs. 2.8 lakhs and on-road price of around Rs. 3.14
lakhs, which is inclusive of all charges such as insurance, octroi, RTO, etc.
Santro Xing GL (Petrol)
The Xing GL is the top end model in the Xing family with top comfort and luxury features. It
is available only in petrol version. At the showroom, this car costs around Rs. 3.5 lakhs with
an on-road price of around Rs. 3.8 lakhs. This includes standard ancillary charges also.
Santro Xing GLS (Petrol)
The Santro Xing GLS is the top scale model available in the Xing family with petrol engine.
It has got the top of the end comfort and luxury features. This variant has a showroom price
of around Rs. 3.7 lakhs and on-road price of around Rs. 4.0 lakhs, which is inclusive of all
charges such as insurance, octroi, RTO, etc.

Hyundai i10 (Hatchback)

The new i10 features a host of exterior, interior, comfort and
safety features that sets the pace for the new generation. Hyundai Hatchbacks Popular
64

passenger car for the middle class Indian consumer, the Hyundai i10 (Hatchback), with its
petrol variants, offers an on-road price range between Rs.3,80,000 and Rs.5,20,000. Variant
models include
i10 D-Lite (Petrol)
The D-Lite is Hyundai's entry range model in the small car segment. The cheapest car in i10
series with entry level price tag, it features the same 1.1L irDE engine along with its other
siblings. This variant has a showroom price of around Rs. 5.3 lakhs and on-road price of
around Rs. 5.92 lakhs, which is inclusive of all charges such as insurance, octroi, RTO, etc.
i10 Era (Petrol)
The Era is the upscale model in the i10 series from Hyundai. However, it shares the same
1.1L irDE engine along with its other siblings in the i10 range, but has vastly improved
features. At the showroom, this car costs around Rs. 3.83 lakhs with an on-road price of
around Rs. 4.40 lakhs. This includes standard ancillary charges also.
i10 Magna (Petrol)
The Magna is the upper range model in the i10 series from Hyundai. It shares the same 1.1L
irDE engine along with its other siblings in the i10 range. At the showroom, this car costs
around Rs. 4.05 lakhs and an on-road price of around Rs. 4.48 lakhs. This includes standard
ancillary charges also.
i10 Magna O (Petrol)
The Magna (O) is the top range model in the i10 series from Hyundai with loaded aspects and
features. It shares the same 1.1L irDE engine along with its other siblings in the i10 range.
This variant has a showroom price of around Rs. 4.83 lakhs and on-road price of around Rs.
5.3 lakhs, which is inclusive of all charges such as insurance, octroi, RTO, etc.

Hyundai Getz Prime (Hatchback)

The Hyundai Getz Prime is an idyllic combination of looks
and power. This model is another popular passenger car for the middle class Indian
consumer. The Hyundai Getz Prime (Hatchback), with its petrol and CNG variants, offers an
on-road price range between Rs.4,35,000 and Rs.5,80,000. Variant models include
Getz Prime 1.1 GLE (Petrol)
The Prime 1.1 GLE is the base model in the Prime series. This variant has a showroom price
of around Rs. 3.95 lakhs and on-road price of around Rs. 4.42 lakhs, which is inclusive of all
charges such as insurance, octroi, RTO, etc.
Getz Prime 1.1 GVS (Petrol)
The Prime 1.1 GVS is the upscale model in the Hyundai Getz Prime series with a powerful
1.1L IRDE engine under its bonnet. At the showroom, this car costs around Rs. 4.25 lakhs
65

and an on-road price of around Rs. 4.8 lakhs. This includes standard ancillary charges also.
Getz Prime 1.3 GLS (Petrol)
The Getz Prime 1.3 GLS (Petrol) is the entry level model with a powerful 1.3L engine under
its bonnet. New cars in this series have a showroom price ranging from around Rs. 4.95 lakhs
to Rs. 5.53 lakhs, which inclusive of all charges like insurance, octroi, RTO, etc.
Getz Prime 1.3 GLX (Petrol)
The Getz Prime 1.3 GLX (Petrol) is the upscale level model with a powerful 1.3L engine
under its bonnet. The Getz Prime 1.3 GLX (Petrol) is now available at a showroom price of
around Rs. 5.10 lakhs with an on road price of around Rs. 5.75 lakhs including
supplementary statutory charges.
Getz Prime GVS 1.5 CRDI (Petrol)
The Getz Prime GVS 1.5 CRDI (petrol) is the only variant in the GVS series with a CRDI
(petrol) engine featuring a 1.5L CRDI engine. The Getz Prime GVS 1.5 CRDI (Petrol) is now
available at a showroom price of around Rs. 5.75 lakhs with an on road price of around Rs.
6.45 lakhs including supplementary statutory charges.
Hyundai Sedans
Currently, Hyundai Motors India has four sedan models with diesel and petrol variants, the
Accent with a single variant, the Verna with eight variants, the Elantra with four variants, and
the Sonata Embera with six variants. Hyundai sedan car prices range from around rupees six
lakhs to around rupees eighteen lakhs.

Hyundai Accent

The Accent is a mid sized sedan that virtually offers all the
facilities of a luxury sedan. Available only in petrol version, it meets an entire array of
expectations that connoisseurs have from a sedan. The Accent GLE is quite well-known in
the Indian market. It has maximum features at a minimum price and generally perceived as a
marvel of resource optimization both for the consumer as well as for the manufacturer.
Accent GLE (Sedan)
The Accent GLE pleases the eye with stunning looks and affable interiors. At the showroom,
this car costs around Rs. 5.15 lakhs and an on-road price of around Rs. 5.6 lakhs. This
includes standard ancillary charges also.

Hyundai Verna (Sedan)

66

The Verna comes as a mid sized sedan that has roomy
interiors but presents itself with a compact exterior. The unique features of this model are
nearly equally sized doors, a relatively short bonnet, and a stubby boot. The Verna is
available in both petrol and diesel options which target middle class consumers. Variants
have road prices ranging from around rupees Seven Lakhs to rupees Nine Lakhs Thirty
Thousand. Hot models include
Verna I VTVT (Petrol)
The Verna 'I' is the entry level petrol model in the Verna range built around Hyundai's
remarkable VTVT technology. This variant has a showroom price of around Rs. 6.3 lakhs
and on-road price of around Rs. 7.0 lakhs, which is inclusive of all charges such as insurance,
octroi, RTO, etc.
Verna XI VTVT (Petrol)
The Verna XI VTVT is the higher range petrol model in the Verna range built around
Hyundai's remarkable VTVT technology. This variant has a showroom price of around Rs.
6.5 lakhs and on-road price of around Rs. 7.3 lakhs, which is inclusive of all charges such as
insurance, octroi, RTO, etc.
Verna XXI VTVT (Petrol)
The Verna XI VTVT is the superlative petrol model in the Verna range built around
Hyundai's remarkable VTVT technology. At the showroom, this car costs around Rs. 7.0
lakhs and an on-road price of around Rs. 8.0 lakhs. This includes standard ancillary charges
also.
Verna XXI ABS (Petrol)
The Verna XI VTVT is the top range petrol model in the Verna range built around Hyundai's
remarkable VTVT technology. The XXI ABS is now available at a showroom price of
around Rs. 7.27 lakhs with an on road price of around Rs. 8.18 lakhs including
supplementary statutory charges.
Verna CRDI (Diesel)
The Verna CRDI (Diesel) is the entry level diesel model in the Verna series. This variant has
a showroom price of around Rs. 7.6 lakhs and on-road price of around Rs. 8.5 lakhs, which is
inclusive of all charges such as insurance, octroi, RTO, etc.
Verna CRDI ABS (Diesel)
The Verna CRDI ABS is the diesel model in the Verna CRDI series with ABS technology.
New cars in this series have a showroom price ranging from around Rs. 7.8 lakhs to Rs 8.75
lakhs, which inclusive of all charges like insurance, octroi, RTO, etc.
Verna CRDI SX (Diesel)
The Verna CRDI SX is the upscale model in the Verna series. New cars have a showroom
price of around Rs. 8.10 lakhs and an on-road price of around Rs. 9.06 lakhs. Verna CRDI
67

SX car prices vary upon the car dealer's location.
Verna CRDI SX ABS (Diesel)
The Verna CRDI SX is Verna's top of the line diesel avatar with state-of-the-art technology.
As the upscale diesel model in the Verna series, it feature top range interior, exterior,
comfort, and safety skills. New cars have a showroom price of around Rs. 8.31 lakhs and an
on-road price of around Rs.9.30 lakhs. Verna CRDI SX ABS car prices vary upon the car
dealer's location.

Hyundai Elantra (Sedan)

The Elantra is a comprehensive entry-level car for the luxury
segment. It has superb aerodynamic looks with European looking style and body design.
Elantra petrol and diesel variants target the upper middle class and status conscious
consumers. Variants have on-road prices ranging from Rs. 8.15 lakhs to Rs. 11.00 lakhs.
Elantra GT (D) (Petrol)
The Elantra GT (D) is the entry level variant in the Elantra series. New cars have a showroom
price of around Rs. 7.28 lakhs and an on-road price of around Rs. 8.15 lakhs. Elantra GT (D)
car prices vary upon the car dealer's location.
Elantra GLS (Leather) (Petrol)
The Elantra GLS (leather) (petrol) is the entry level model in the Elantra series from
Hyundai. New cars have a showroom price of around Rs. 8.53 lakhss and an on-road price of
around Rs. 9.52 lakhs. Elantra GLS (Leather) car prices vary upon the car dealer's location.
Elantra CRDi (D) (Diesel)
The Elantra CRDi (D) (Diesel) is the brilliant diesel option in the Elantra Series. At the
showroom, this car costs around Rs. 8.80 lakhs and an on-road price of around Rs. 9.8 lakhs.
This includes standard ancillary charges also.
Elantra CRDI (Leather) (Diesel)
The Elantra CRDI (Leather) (Diesel) is the brilliant diesel option in the Elantra Series with
leather furnishing. At the showroom, this car costs around Rs. 9.9 lakhs and an on-road price
of around Rs. 11.06 lakhs. This includes standard ancillary charges also.

The Hyundai Sonata Embera (Sedan)

68

The Sonata Embera is Hyundai's stylish corporate presentation
as the 5th generation Sonata. At the first look, it presents an elegant and refined stance with
eclat and grandeur that few can match. These are targeted at the upper middle-class consumer
market, the Sonata Embera, with its petrol and diesel variants, offers an on-road price range
between Rs. 15.25 lakhs and Rs. 15.6 lakhs. Popular models are
Sonata Embera 2.4 M / T Fabric (Petrol)
The Sonata Embera 2.4 M/T Fabric (petrol) is especially created for Indian roads. Its major
features are stylish feel and looks and a unique suspension system specially conditioned for
Indian roads. This fabric has exquisite fabric interiors. New cars have a showroom price of
around Rs. 13.7 lakhs and an on-road price of around Rs. 15.25 lakhs. Sonata Embera 2.4 M /
T Fabric car prices vary in lakhs upon the car dealer's location.
Sonata Embera 2.4 M / T Leather (Petrol)
The Sonata Embera 2.4 M/T Fabric (petrol) is especially created for Indian roads. Its major
features are stylish feel and looks and a unique suspension system specially conditioned for
Indian roads. Additionally, this variant comes with leather interiors. New cars have a
showroom price of around Rs.14 lakhs and an on-road price of around Rs.15.6 lakhs. Sonata
Embera 2.4 M / T Leather car prices vary in lakhs upon the car dealer's location.
Sonata Embera 2.4 A / T Fabric (Petrol)
The Sonata Embera 2.4 A/T fabric (petrol) is especially created for Indian roads. Its major
features are stylish feel and looks and a unique suspension system specially conditioned for
Indian roads. This variant has exquisite fabric interiors and features automatic transmission.
New cars in this series have a showroom price ranging from around Rs. 14.3 lakhs to Rs 16.0
lakhs, which inclusive of all charges like insurance, octroi, RTO, etc.
Sonata Embera 2.4 A / T Leather (Petrol)
The Sonata Embera 2.4 A/T fabric (petrol) is especially created for Indian roads. Its major
features are stylish feel and looks and a unique suspension system specially conditioned for
Indian roads. This variant has exquisite fabric interiors and features automatic transmission.
This variant has a showroom price of around Rs. 14.6 lakhs and on-road price of around Rs.
16.25 lakhs, which is inclusive of all charges such as insurance, octroi, RTO, etc. Sonata
Embera 2.4 A / T Leather car prices vary in lakhs upon the car dealer's location.
Sonata Embera 2.0L CRDi (Diesel)
The Sonata Embera 2.0 CRDi is Sonata's brilliant diesel presentation for the Indian Market. It
features the powerful 2.0L CRDi diesel engine. New cars in this series have a showroom
price ranging from around Rs. 15.05 lakhs to Rs 16.8 lakhs, which inclusive of all charges
like insurance, octroi, RTO, etc.
Sonata Embera CRDi A/T (Diesel)
The Sonata Embera 2.0 CRDi is Sonata's brilliant diesel presentation for the Indian Market. It
features the powerful 2.0L CRDi diesel engine along with an automatic transmission. This
69

variant has a showroom price of around Rs. 15.75 lakhs and on-road price of around Rs. 17.5
lakhs, which is inclusive of all charges such as insurance, octroi, RTO, etc.
Hyundai SUVs
Currently, Hyundai Motors markets only a single SUV, the Tucson across a single variant the
Tucson 2.0 CRDi

Hyundai Tucson (SUV)

Tucson 2.0 CRDi (4X4; SUV; Petrol)
The Tucson is yet another 7-seater SUV from Hyundai's stable. The Tucson deserves repute
for its wonderful engineering and well presented aesthetics. At the heart of the Tucson is the
powerful turbo charge, inter cooled 5 speed manual transmission diesel CRDi engine that
guarantees the performance and silence of a petrol engine. The Hyundai Tucson 2.0 CRDi is
targeted at middle-class SUV consumers. New cars in this series have a showroom price
ranging from around Rs. 16.0 lakhs to Rs 19.6 lakhs, which inclusive of all charges like
insurance, octroi, RTO, etc.
In 2006, Business Standard Motoring Magazine and NDTV Profit - Car & Bike declared the
Hyundai Tucson as the 'SUV of the Year 2006' and Sonata Embera as the 'Executive Car of
the Year 2006'. The Hyundai Verna has received the title of "Car of the Year 2007" by India's
leading automotive publication - Overdrive. Business Standard Monitoring has declared it as
the 'Performance Car of the Year 2007'. The Verna also won the "Best Mid-size Car of the
Year" award by the NDTV Profit Car & Bike Awards 2007, and the "Best Value for Money
Car" by the CNBC Autocar Auto awards.

MERCEDES CARS IN INDIA
Mercedes-Benz cars officially came to India in 1994 in collaboration with Telco.
Traditionally, Mercedes-Benz cars have consistently catered to wealthy, rich,
and super-rich consumers. The manufacturer's name keeps on changing, but
Mercedes-Benz cars remain Mercedes-Benz, for the Mercedes-Benz name has a
70

greater brand relationship with world consumers than their manufacturer's
current corporate name - Daimler-Benz, Daimler-Chrysler, or Daimler AG.
Mercedes Benz (Sedan)
Popular Mercedes Benz sedan car prices range between around rupees twenty-nine lakhs to
Mercedes-Benzes at a bit above one crore thirty lakhs rupees. Mercedes-Benz sedans include

Mercedes Benz C -Class (Sedan)

Mercedes Benz (Sedan) The C Class Sedan is the entry level
sedan in the luxury segment. The C class is a signature statement of the refined and the
upwardly mobile. The Mercedes Benz C-Class with its petrol and diesel variants targets the
upper middle class consumer with Mercedes-Benz car prices between rupees twenty five and
thirty lakhs. Mercedes Benz C-Class variants include
Benz C-Class C200K (Manual) (Petrol)
The C200K come with refreshing interiors and a load of interiors. It is a petrol model with
manual transmission. This variant has a showroom price of around Rs. 26.0 lakhs and onroad price of around Rs. 29.0 lakhs, which is inclusive of all charges such as insurance,
octroi, RTO, etc.
Benz C-Class C200K (Automatic) (Petrol)
The C200K automatic is the entry level petrol model with automatic transmission. It is gifted
with refreshing interiors and premium features. At the showroom, this car costs around Rs.
27.6 lakhs with an on-road price of around Rs. 30.61 lakhs. This includes standard ancillary
charges also.
Benz C-Class C220 CDI (Manual) (Diesel)
The C class 220CDI is the superlative level model with manual transmission. It is gifted with
refreshing interiors and premium features. At the showroom, this car costs around Rs 28.42
lakhs with an on-road price of around Rs. 31.52 lakhs. This includes standard ancillary
charges also.
Benz C-Class C220K CDI (Automatic) (Diesel)
The C class 220K CDI is the superlative level diesel model with automatic transmission. It is
gifted with refreshing interiors and premium features. The Benz C-Class C220K CDI
(Automatic) (Diesel) is now available at a showroom price of around Rs. 29.96 lakhs with an
on road price of around Rs. 33.23 lakhs including accompanying charges.
Mercedes Benz E -Class (Sedan)

71

The Benz E-Class is the upper level model in the luxury
segment. Its petrol and diesel variants targets the upper middle class consumer in a price
range between rupees forty and sixty lakhs. Benz E-Class variants include
Benz E-Class E200 K Classic (Petrol)
Not content to rest on its laurels, Mercedes-Benz has launched the E-Class model to give a
tough fight to its counterparts. The E class E220K is the superlative level model with manual
transmission. It is gifted with refreshing interiors and premium features. New cars in this
series have a showroom price ranging from around Rs. 38.76 lakhs to Rs. 42.97 lakhs, which
inclusive of all charges like insurance, octroi, RTO, etc.
Benz E-Class E280 CDI (Diesel)
Not content to rest on its laurels, Mercedes-Benz has launched the E-Class model to give a
tough fight to its counterparts. The E class E280 CDI is the higher level diesel model with
manual transmission. It is gifted with refreshing interiors and premium features statement in
itself about class and style. This variant has a showroom price of around Rs. 44.5 lakhs and
on-road price of around Rs. 49.32 lakhs, which is inclusive of all charges such as insurance,
octroi, RTO, etc.
Benz E-Class E280 Elegance (Petrol)
Not content to rest on its laurels, Mercedes-Benz has launched a Benz E-Class model to give
a tough fight to its counterparts. The E class E280 elegance is the higher level petrol model. It
is gifted with refreshing interiors and premium features and is a statement in itself about class
and style. New cars in this series have a showroom price ranging from around Rs. 45.82 lakhs
to Rs. 50.80 lakhs, which inclusive of all charges like insurance, octroi, RTO, etc. Mercedes
Benz E-Class E280 Elegance car prices vary in lakhs upon the car dealer's location.

Mercedes Benz CLS Class (Sedan)

A high-performance model, the CLS class combines the
roominess of a 4-door sedan with the sleek design of a coupe. Electronically controlled,
driver adaptive 7-speed AT endows an impeccable drive. The Benz CLS Class with its petrol
variants targets the upper middle class and rich consumer with Mercedes-Benz cars between
rupees seventy and ninety lakhs. At the showroom, this car costs around Rs. 69 lakhs with an
on-road price of around Rs. 77 lakhs. This includes standard ancillary charges also.
Benz CLS Class 350 (Petrol)
72

A high-performance model, the CLS class combines the roominess of a 4-door sedan with the
sleek design of a coupe. Electronically controlled, driver adaptive 7-speed AT endows an
impeccable drive. New cars in this series have a showroom price ranging from around Rs. 69
lakhs to Rs. 77 lakhs, which inclusive of all charges like insurance, octroi, RTO, etc.
Benz CLS Class 500 (Petrol)
A high-performance model, the CLS class combines the roominess of a 4-door sedan with the
sleek design of a coupe. Electronically controlled, driver adaptive 7-speed AT endows an
impeccable drive. New cars in this series have a showroom price ranging from around Rs. 83
lakhs to Rs. 92 lakhs, which inclusive of all charges like insurance, octroi, RTO, etc.
Mercedes Benz S-Class (Sedan)
A stable mate of the Benz models, the Mercedes-Benz S-Class is reportedly the world's best
selling luxury flagship sedan. As the first model in the Mercedes-Benz line-up, the S-Class
has introduced many of the company's latest innovations, including advanced safety systems,
drive train technologies, and interior features. The Mercedes Benz S-Class with its petrol
variants targets the upper middle class consumer and offers an on-road price range between
rupees eighty lakhs and rupees one crore thirty lakhs. Mercedes Benz CLS Class variants
include
Benz S-Class S350L (Petrol)
The Mercedes Benz S Class S 350L is the entry level model in the super luxury S class series.
New cars in this series have a showroom price ranging from around Rs. 77.57 lakhs to Rs.
86.02 lakhs, which inclusive of all charges like insurance, octroi, RTO, etc.
-Benz S-Class 500L (Petrol)
The Benz S class 500L is the upper range model in the super luxury S class series. New cars
in this series have a showroom price ranging from around Rs.1 crore 8 lakhs to Rs. 1 crore 19
lakhs, which inclusive of all charges like insurance, octroi, RTO, etc.

Mercedes Benz SL-Class

73

Benz SL-Class SL - 500 (Sedan)
The SL-500 offers an overwhelming sporting experience. One of its kind as the New SLClass Roadster is the first Mercedes to be equipped with SENSOTRONIC BRAKE
CONTROL (SBC). At the showroom, this car costs around Rs 1 crore 20 lakhs with an onroad price of around Rs. 1 crore 33 lakhs. This includes standard ancillary charges also.
What glitters, glistens, and takes your breath away - sells. Mercedes-Benz is such a car. A
Mercedes-Benz will take the wind out of you just by its looks. While other cars offer utility
on their ownership, Mercedes-Benz cars offer the fulfilment of an ambition.

MITSUBISHI CARS IN INDIA
Mitsubishi cars have made their name in the market. Mitsubishi cars are relied upon to bring
customer satisfaction with utility and looks. The Japanese Mitsubishi has evolved into a
global brand in cars and heavy industries. Mitsubishi cars in India, including both sedans like
Mitsubishi Lancer and Mitsubishi Cedia, and SUVs running on diesel like the Mitsubishi
Pajero and Mitsubishi Montero, have built inroads into the Indian car market and carved out a
special niche for themselves.
Mitsubishi (Sedan)
Popular Mitsubishi models range in price from a bit below rupees eight lakhs to a bit above
rupees ten lakhs, including

Mitsubishi Lancer (Sedan)

The Lancer is a winning C+ segment sedan from the
Mitsubishi Motors - Hindustan Motors tie up. Later moved to the D segment due to hot
competition in the C+ segment, this car is a masterpiece. Mitsubishi (Sedan) The Mitsubishi
Lancer with its petrol and diesel variants targets the upper middle class consumer and offers
Mitsubishi cars between rupees eight and nine lakhs. Mitsubishi Lancer variants include
74

Lancer 1.5 L LX (Petrol)
Lancer 1.5 L LX is a winner with a wonderful combination of superior exterior, interior, and
luxurious features. New cars have a show room price of around Rs.7,00,000 and on-road
price of around Rs.7,88,000. Mitsubishi Lancer 1.5 L LX car prices upon the car dealer's
location.
Lancer 2.0 L LX (Diesel)
Lancer 2.0 L LX is a perfect combination of advanced safety add-ons and proven
performance. New cars in this series have a showroom price ranging from around eight lakhs
to around nine lakhs inclusive of all charges like insurance, octroi, RTO, etc. Lancer 2.0 L
LX car prices vary with the car dealer's location.
Mitsubishi Cedia (Sedan)

This wonderful aerodynamically styled sedan from Mitsubishi
is a breathtaking machine on a set of four grand wheels. Mitsubishi itself concedes its
masculinity grabs one by the collar with its breathtaking stance. Mitsubishi (Sedan) The
Mitsubishi Cedia with its petrol and diesel variants targets the upper middle class consumer
and offers an on-road price range between rupees nine and ten lakhs. Mitsubishi Cedia
variants include
Cedia Select (Petrol)
The exteriors of the Cedia present brilliant curves around the hood that amalgamates into an
aggressive sleek frontage. At the showroom, this car costs around Rs.8,30,000 with an onroad price of around Rs.9,35, 000. This includes standard ancillary charges also.
Cedia Spirit (Petrol)
Cedia Spirit possesses superior styling and perfect design. The Cedia Spirit is now available
at a showroom price of around Rs.8,60,000 with an on road price of around Rs.9,70,000
including supplementary charges.
Cedia Sport (Petrol)
Cedia Sport breakthrough the market with its technically advanced features and elegant
styling. New cars have a show room price of around Rs.8,90,000 and on-road price of around
Rs.10,03,000. Mitsubishi Cedia Sport car prices vary in lakhs upon the car dealer's location.
Mitsubishi (SUV)
Popular Mitsubishi SUV car prices range from Mitsubishi cars at a bit above rupees twentyone lakhs to Mitsubishi cars at a bit below rupees forty lakhs, including

75

Mitsubishi Pajero(SUV)

The Pajero needs no introduction - It sets the standards for
other SUV's Period! The Pajero is a masterpiece of engineering and a virtual delight to one's
sights. Mitsubishi (SUV) The Mitsubishi Pajero is a well-built car. It's a Mitsubishi SUV with
a lot of features at a reasonable price. Mitsubishi Pajero (SUV) is a diesel car.
Pajero 2.8 CRZ (4x4) (Diesel)
The unique dual tone paint scheme sets the Pajero apart from the rest. New cars in this series
have a showroom price ranging from around eighteen lakhs to around twenty one lakhs
inclusive of all charges like insurance, octroi, RTO, etc. Pajero 2.8 CRZ car prices vary with
the car dealer's location.
Mitsubishi Montero (SUV)

Montero announces its presence with its powerful xenon gas
discharge lamps that are twice as bright as normal halogen lamps. Mitsubishi (SUV) The
Mitsubishi Montero is another outstanding SUV from Mitsubishi. Mitsubishi Montero (SUV)
is a diesel car.
Montero 3.2 (Diesel)
No wonder, no one needs an introduction to this wonder of an SUV, it let one know it's
around! At the showroom, this car costs around Rs.34,15,000 with an on-road price of around
Rs.40,00,000. This includes standard ancillary charges also.
Mitsubishi cars arrived in India from Japan in 1998 through collaboration with Hindustan
Motors. Mitsubishi cars are produced at Tiruvallur near Chennai. Mitsubishi Motors, which
became an independent entity in 1971, can trace its lineage up to 1870. In 1917, the
Mitsubishi Model (A) was the first Japanese mass-produced passenger car. Since then,
Mitsubishi cars have enjoyed popularity throughout the world for reliability, service, and
utility.

76

VOLKSWEGEN CARS IN INDIA
The luxurious sedan manufacturer from Germany has made its launch in Indian
market with three latest models namely VW Passat Highline DSG S, VW Passat
Highline DSG, and VW Touareg. The German brand will have its production
plant in Pune, Maharashtra shortly.
Volkswagen (Sedan)
Highline DSG models reflect ultimate style and comfort for those who want to travel in
luxury. Exclusive interiors and exteriors are unmatched in its range.

Volkswagen Passat (Sedan)

These elegant models from the Volkswagen stable are
available in a price range of around twenty lakhs to twenty seven lakhs, including
VolksWagen Passat Highline DSG (Diesel)
VW Passat Highline DSG is mid range model from the VolksWagen Passat Highline stable.
At the showroom, this car costs around Rs.23,00,000 with an on-road price of around Rs.
27,00,000 This includes standard ancillary charges also.
VolksWagen Passat Highline DSG S (Diesel)
VW Passat Highline DSG S is a base model from the VolksWagen Passat Highline
collections. The Highline DSG S is now available at a showroom price of around
Rs.24,00,000 lakhs with an on road price of around Rs.29,00,000 lakhs including
accompanying charges.
Though currently in India with just three models, this manufacturer has plans to launch more
series of cars once their factory gets established in Maharashtra shortly.

VOLVO CARS IN INDIA
77

The world famous manufacturer, Volvo needs no introduction. To give a brief summary of
the company, it is the reputed Swedish luxury automobile maker, which was founded in 1927
in Gothenburg, Sweden. With a head office in New Delhi, Volvo Cars in India is an arm of
Volvo Car Corporation worldwide.
Internationally, the company has its headquarters in Gothenburg, Sweden. With global sales
of around 450,000 cars annually, the company has its operations in more than 100 markets
around the world.

Volvo (Wagon)

XC90 (Wagon)
XC 90 is a chiselled piece of art, passionately crafted with attention to minute details. Tried
and tested in Indian conditions, it performs exceptionally well to give results beyond
imagination. These models are available in range price from below rupees forty seven lakhs
to a bit above rupees sixty three lakhs, including
XC90 D5 AWD (Diesel)
The D5 AWD is absolute classic presentation from the Volvo stables. New cars in this series
have a showroom price ranging from around Rs. 47,00,000 lakhs to around Rs.55,00,000
lakhs inclusive of all charges like insurance, octroi, RTO, etc. car prices vary with the car
dealer's location.
XC90 3.2 AWD (Petrol)
3.2 AWD is an elegant car with all the features that a premium luxury car should have. The
3.2 AWD is now available at a showroom price of around Rs.48,00,000 with an on road price
of around Rs.55,00,000 including supplementary charges.
XC90 V8 AWD (Petrol)
XC90 V8 AWD is embedded with luxurious interiors, modern entertainment and safety
features. New cars in this series have a showroom price ranging from around Rs.54,00,000 to
around Rs. 63,00,000 inclusive of all charges like insurance, octroi, RTO, etc. car prices vary
with the car dealer's location.
Currently, Volvo is importing its cars as completely built units (CBU). Currently only two
models namely the S80 and the XC 90 will be sold in India. Volvo will gauge the sales of
their premium models through its dealerships in India and could bring in more models in the
future.

OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH
78

To determine the demographic variables of the customers of different brands of cars.
To determine the scope of luxury cars in India.
Future demand of luxury cars in India.
Growth opportunities of luxury cars in India.
Determine most loved luxury cars in India.
Investment opportunities in the Indian luxury car market.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

It is aimed to study the luxury car market and its scope in India. The project is analyzed the
demographic, psychographic and buying characteristics of the customers in buying the luxury
cars. It includes the detailed study of customers focusing on the various parameters,
development of automotive industry and import of luxury cars in India that lead to identifying
and understanding the scope and growth opportunities of luxury car brands in India.

79

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

METHOD OF COLLECTING DATA
The research includes both Primary and Secondary data.
The primary data was collected by getting some questionnaires filled by the customers.
Secondary data is being collected by through internet, various websites. Some articles on the
research topic were also taken into consideration.

SOURCES:
Internet
Articles from Hindustan times, Times of India

TOOLS FOR COLLECTING DATA
The basic tool for collecting data in this research was through getting the questionnaires filled
through the customers.

No. OF SAMPLES
The no. of samples taken in this research was 40.

AREA OF SAMPLING
The area of sampling of this research was Delhi/NCR, India.

80

RESEARCH
FINDINGS

81

FINDINGS FROM THE SURVEY:
(Primary Research)
To understand the dynamics of age on the readership of lifestyle magazines
this information is obtained:
1. Which Age group is most interested in buying Luxury cars?

AGE

No. Of Respondents

18-24

6

25-34

14

35-44

11

45-54

7

55 or more

2

Total

40

82

Analysis
According to the respondents, Age group of 25-34 is most interested in buying Luxury
cars that is around 34% followed by Age Group of 35-44.

2. Does purchase of Luxury is car directly related to income level?

Answers

No. of Respondents

Yes

37

No

3

Analysis
83

The result was totally skewed to one side and respondents agree that Purchase of Luxury cars
is totally related to the Income level of an Individual which is 92%.

3. Rank the following parameters on your purchase preference ?
Answers

No. of respondents

Price

10

Quality

15

Availability

7

Involvement

5

Recommendation

3

Total

40

Analysis
84

Most of the respondents prefer quality followed by price and availability. This response
shows that customers are ready to pay of quality.

4. Why does one person purchase a Luxury Brand?

Value

No. of Respondents

Quality

3

Flaunt Value

20

Interested in art

7

Exclusivity

10

Analysis

85

In opinion of Respondents, majority of People buy luxury cars because they want to flaunt
their superiority over others. Followed by those people who really have taste of art and
exclusiveness of the luxury that is around 30%.

5. Quality of Luxury brands are more superior then others?
Answers

No. of respondents

Strongly Agree

11

Agree

17

Neutral

7

Disagree

3

Strongly Disagree

2

Total

40

Analysis

86

Our assumption is correct, about 73% of the respondents believe in the superior quality of
luxury cars.
6. Services provided by luxury brands is better then others ?
Answers

No. of respondents

Strongly Agree

10

Agree

15

Neutral

7

Disagree

5

Strongly disagree

3

Total

40

Analysis
About 72% of the respondents are of the view that service quality in luxury car brands is
more superior then other brands.
87

7. Which brands you prefer to shop ?
Answers

No. of respondents

local brands

14

Luxury brands

18

International Brands

8

Total

40

Analysis
Here we can see that now a days most of the people prefer to by luxury car brands. A major
part purchase luxury brand followed by local brands. International brand has least share.

8. Do you still go abroad to shop for Luxury products?

88

Answers

No. of Respondents

Yes

17

No

23

Analysis
From the above pie chart we can see that now India is growing as a luxury market for the
people who are real luxury lovers and they don’t have to go to foreign lands to purchase one.
People are able to choose among the large variety of luxury cars which are now present in
India also.

9. What is the factor the effect most while purchasing a car?

89

Answers

No. of respondents

Engine power

9

Shape

2

Acceleration time

4

Looks

10

Brand

15

Total

40

90

ANALYSIS
The graph indicates that majorly people tend to see as brand of the car as the major factor that
affects the buying decision of a customer and other factors that are too taken into
considerations are engine power, shape, looks, etc

10. Which brand you prefer to buy most for buying a luxury car?

Answers

No. of respondents

PORSCHE

4

LAMBORGHINI

3

AUDI

6

MERCEDEZ

8

BUGATI

2

BMW

11

BENTLEY

4

TOTAL

40

91

ANALYSI S
The graph indicates that 11 out of 40 people prefer BMW brand for buying a luxury car as
Compared to other brand like Mercedes, Porsche, etc.

FINDINGS FROM THE SURVEY:
(Secondary Research)

INDIAN LUXURY CAR MARKET – AN INSIGHT
The recent growth in the luxury car market in India is much more than mere market dynamics
in a particular car segment. It is a reflection of the changing lifestyle of the affluent class in
the country. In India, the luxury car segment (Average Price 25-30 Lakh) has been growing at
an average rate of 20% or above during recent years; it seems to be least affected by the
global financial crisis.
During worst recession period when world was facing low market demand trends, Indian
luxury car segment grew at 23% to 6,671 vehicles according to the Society of Indian
Automobile Manufacturers (SIAM) despite a 0.5% decline in passenger car sales, to 11.04
lakh vehicles (April-December 2008 Report). But financial year ended March 2010 has
shown growth of automotive sector up by 25% to 15.26 lakh vehicles. This indicates
optimistic sign of recovery of sector. While the ndian auto industry is expected to grow at
17% to 19% on an average, sales of luxury and super-luxury cars are expected to grow
exponentially. Luxury car segment accounts only for 3-4% of total car sales in India. But
what lures the international majors is the fact that this segment is growing at 25%-plus (2009
sales), much higher than 15-17% growth registered by the small passenger car segment over
92

the past few years. This growth of luxury car sales is driven majorly by increased wealthcreation within average Indian population and the desire of individuals to join the millionaireclub by flaunting their wealth. Growth of Indian economy has been faster than other
emerging economies during recent times. Globally, India had the highest growth-rate (22.7%)
of millionaire population during the year 2007. India added 23,000 millionaires from 2006 to
2007, taking total figure to around 123,000 millionaires; wealth as measured in US Dollars
(Merrill Lynch Cap Gemini Report). However, during recession, the country noticed a
decline of 31.6% in number of millionaires.
But post-recession recovery was much faster compared to other economies. These numbers
are expected to grow up to 1,40,000 by the year 2010. This robust growth in the number of
millionaires in the country, being one of the highest globally, paves the way for further
growth of the luxury car market.

In addition, the average age of an Indian millionaire has come down to 35-40 years from the
earlier average of 50 years. An increasing number of young entrepreneurs and professionals
from various fields are buying luxury cars and this affluent segment has been boosting sales
volumes. If we look into city-wise wealth distribution, the Northern region in India
(comprising of cities like Delhi, Chandigarh, Ludhiana, Shimla, and Jalandhar) comprises
higher density of millionaire population than rest of the parts. This region therefore has the
highest luxury car sales. After this come, Greater Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Pune, and Chennai.
93

These cities have a luxury car sales pattern which is still higher compare to rest of the
country.
The historical regional sales data of luxury cars sold in India, shows that 32-35% of the total
are sold in Delhi region only. This is possibly due to the psychological preference shift
among the North Indian population to show off their wealth. Delhi is followed in this list by
Mumbai, and Punjab state, where Ludhiana and Jalandhar are at the top two slots.
Delhi also happens to be the biggest market for Mercedes-Benz, Mumbai ranks second
followed by the states of Gujarat, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Punjab. This geographically
distributed population could be clustered into classes on the basis of overall behavioral
patterns observed in luxury brand consumers.

Classification of consumers of Luxury Brands
According to a leading research company, the consumer-population in luxury markets can be
divided into three categories:
Functional- This segment comprises people who buy the luxury goods for their superior
functionality and high quality. The people in this category decide to buy based on their logic,
rather than emotions. In India, functional segment consumer-population is highest among the
three segments.
Rewarding- The ‘status- symbol’ is the driving factor for this segment. The average age for
this category is 35 years. People under this category are a major force behind the increasing
sales figures of luxury cars in India.
Indulgence- This category comprises the youngest lot out of the three categories. Currently,
this category is experiencing highest growth in Delhi and NCR regions.

Luxury car majors in India - Mercedes-Benz, BMW and Audi put together have around 85%
market share. The German car brand Mercedes-Benz had firstmover advantage as it had
started operations in India in 1995 and there was no direct competition in this category. So, it
remained ‘Numero Uno’ luxury car brand in India for more than a decade. But, market
dynamics have changed significantly after the entry of BMW in 2006 followed by Audi in
2007.
The overall market share of luxury cars has been reorganized due to the newentrants. This has
resulted in new equations being forged amongst the various players, driven primarily by a
94

rapidly swelling millionaire-club having diversified choices and preferences. In 2006, BMW
had 9% market share which has now grown to 42%, catapulting BMW as the number one
luxury brand in terms of sales. Audi which started its operations in 2007 has had the fastest
growth-rate amongst the three and has now captured 20% of the luxury car market. So, the
Indian luxury car market is favorable for new entrants who are capable of grabbing the
untapped opportunities by following the customer-oriented approach and having ability to
induce demand by innovation at each level of marketing mix.

To get a deeper understanding of the scenario we need to delvelop
into the competitive strategies of these three brands.
BMW Vs Mercedes-BenzMercedes-Benz India Limited was established in November 1994 as a jointventure between
Daimler-Benz AG and erstwhile Telco (presently, Tata Motors). It has traversed a long
journey starting with the launch of one of the most successful models worldwide – the
Mercedes-Benz EClass (W124) in March 1995.
Mercedes India, now known as DaimlerChrysler India Private Ltd., has a state-of-the-art
fully-equipped manufacturing unit in Pune. Mercedes-Benz is known for providing the Indian
customers, latest models and technology following strict quality standards.
The company considers India as one of its most promising markets. The Mercedes-Benz
CClass and Mercedes-Benz EClass cars are locally manufactured while the Mercedes-Benz
SL-Class cars are imported as completely built units (CBUs). The company offers S-Class, EClass, C-Class, MClass, CLS-Class, SLK-Class, CL-Class and the Maybach.

European Major BMW entered in India in 2006. The company with headquarters in Gurgaon
and production unit in Chennai had initial investment of 1.1 billion rupees. It has swiftly
developed both infrastructure and dealership network. The production plant at Chennai,
established in 2007, has an annual capacity of 3000 units in a single shift and it produces
BMW 3 series and BMW 5 series sedans. The rest of models- BMW 7 series, X3 and X5 are
imported as CBUs. BMW 3 and 5 series account for 80% of the total sales of company in
India, of which BMW 5 series has highest sales.
BMW India, with its aggressive marketing, fast expansion of product profiles, strategic
dealership location selection and supplementary financial service offering, has managed to
95

wrest biggest market share from Mercedes-Benz. BMW and Audi, both focus on sportier
features and new launches to encourage young buyers. Decrease in the average age of luxury
car buyers is a favorable condition for this kind of selling strategy.
In the Indian scenario, where 75% of passenger cars and 60% of luxury cars are purchased
through financing, financial supplementary support is critical to success of the car makers.
Taking this into account, BMW Group is planning to introduce BMW Financial Services
India, which will provide services to BMW customers, providing financing facilities to fleetowners and commercial-financing to their dealers. Discounting older models is another
successful strategy applied by the company. It is also planning to launch ‘Pre-Owned Car
Sales Program’ in 2010. BMW’s 5-year coverage (after sales) is another attractive factor
compared to the 2-year warranty provided by Mercedes-Benz. In the Indian scenario, the
luxury cars are generally chauffeur-driven. This trend has been well-imbibed by BMW as it
has focused more on back-seat facilities during designing and marketing. The company has
been focusing on some other technologies like Integral Active-Steering, Park Distance
Control (PDC) and Head-up Display (X5) for providing enhanced features for comfort in the
Indian driving conditions.
BMW has been acting very swiftly in identifying its dealership locations so as to achieve
maximum sales volume aligned. BMW with 15 dealership locations (two locations in Delhi
and Mumbai) competes with Mercedes-Benz having 32 dealership locations because it has
strategically expanded its dealership network to higher demand luxury car markets. In next
phase BMW is planning to target emerging tier 1 and 2 cities like Jaipur and Lucknow to
compete with Mercedes whose 25-30% sales revenue comes from tier 2 cities.

Latest and Fastest- Audi AG
Audi India started operating in 2007 by establishing its own sales company in Mumbai. The
company started production of Audi A4 in November 2007, followed by Audi A6 in 2008 in
its Aurangabad plant. Rest of the models - Audi A8, Audi Q5 and Q7, Audi TT and super
speed racing car Audi R8 are imported as CBUs. Audi invested significantly in brand
building, marketing the product qualities and improving after sales services in India. Audi
offers technology with composure and agility to current techno affluent Indian youth. Known
for its technology, luxury and style, this German car maker has received five different awards
by Indian auto media. Audi’s commitment to innovative and sophisticated design is widely
endorsed by car buyers. One of the reasons of Audi’s global success is its ability to identify
potential markets for expansion. The company selected India as its second production site
after China.

96

The local production provides Audi, ability to cater customer needs in a cost effective
manner. Audi is always a first choice of techno-geeks who want to get more involved during
the drive. Besides being the fastest growing luxury brand in India, Audi regularly brings new
models and variants of existing models to surprise the car lovers.
Audi Q5 is the most endorsed imported sports utility vehicle (SUV) in India. The company
followed the same dealership location strategy as BMW by selecting similar sales regions of
high demand (four dealership locations in northern and central regions Delhi, Gurgaon,
Chandigarh and Ludhiana) at 13 locations country-wide. Due to these efforts, Audi has
rapidly captured market in India and has exerted considerable pressure on the other dominant
players. The company noticed a 65% jump in sales (200 cars) in May 2010 compared to May
2009 (121 cars). Both Audi and BMW have focused in the world class music system facility
and ultra luxury looks in their models.
Luxury car segment is going to change as there are many new cars lined-up for launch during
the period 2010-2012 with approximately 50 to 60 new models from major global brands.
Tata Jaguar, Lexus, Bentley and Fiat are some of the players who would be seen as
aggressive entrants with their high market experience. The market future will not only be
driven by product itself but also services associated with it. So it would be a war of biggies,
competing on diverse parameters. Automobile market will be noticing a great shift but as the
previous pattern of market shows, the only mantra of success will be a holistic approach
aligned to the company’s brand image and customer oriented vision.

TRENDS: Past, Present and Future
In the past, prestige was due to real financial distance. At heart, luxury is about exclusivity.
Today, given the rise in purchasing power, luxury consumption is no longer reserved for the
few. This is a time in history when the affluent masses are no longer at a financial distance
from luxury. But prestige and exclusivity has to be driven by distance – except this distance
is no longer financial, but intellectual and cultural.
97

A better way to look at the trends that exist in this market is to segregate them into categories,
namely the marketing mix trends (product, price, place, promotion) and consumer behavior
trends.

Consumer Behavior Trends
Cognition to emotion
The Indian consumer, today, is influenced more by the affective components than by the
cognitive elements. In the case of Mercedes Benz, the company communicates the strong
relationship of the car with status, snob value and image. In the case of Audi, the company
communicates sleek design; in the case of Volvo, it is typically safety; and so on. However, it
is no longer necessarily true that customers will take the cognitive route while purchasing a
luxury car. Customers may view Mercedes Benz, Audi and BMW as parity cars (equivalents)
based on cognition, and make the final choice based on the affective route. This is where the
trend takes us. The luxury brands have taken this affective route and try to evoke emotion
through style and design. A report says that Mercedes Benz sold 3000 cars in India in 2007,
but is expecting a drop in sales this year because Audi and BMW have entered the Indian
market with more stylish cars and the consumers’ feelings towards these cars are extremely
positive.

Splurge for ‘special
The most important day for an Indian is his/her marriage, a ceremony which has for long seen
people spending for the special day without hesitation. Given that the day belongs to the bride
and the groom, people are increasingly demanding the most -splurgeable item that there can
be; a term now synonymous with luxury cars. That is why, increasingly rental companies are
purchasing Mercedes and its likes - because there is an increasing demand for the same from
the “marriage market”. This trend shall continue with enhanced demand, as the demand
for the demand for these cars for ‘special occasions’ will penetrate the middle income
categories in the country.

RISING LUXURY CAR SALES MOVING INDIA
UP THE ELITE CLUB
India’s rise as an upcoming global economic superpower is well known. Be it manufacturing,
services, FMCG, automotive sector, its success has been well documented. With the advent
of Nano and upcoming low cost models from various other companies, India is being
regarded as the low cost car manufacturing hub of the world with 24 lakh cars being
produced every year.

98

With its excellent R & D facilities to back the low cost labour, many multinationals have set
up operations for this purpose. But now something more revolutionary is happening.
India’s top 10 luxury car models dominated by Mercedes Benz, BMW and Audi have seen a
57% surge in their sales between June 2009 – May 2010. Audi A6, Mercedez Benz E – Class
and BMW 3 Series models saw more than 100% growth from last year. Volkswagen had
sales of 1,876 cars from January 2010 – August 2010, an increase of 66% of the same period
last year
So how come is the shift happening in such a dynamic fashion?
Increasingly affluent population with high disposable incomes and an extravagant
lifestyle
Increasing customer confidence because of the growth of the economy – 8.8% this
year compared to just 6.7% last year
The target customer who used to over 45 (top level executives) earlier has changed to
mid 30s (entrepreneurs and those have reached success at a young age)
Newer reasons to buy these cars such as festivities, gifts and also a means of flaunting
one’s wealth. Today’s generation increasingly believes in the phrase “Got it? Flaunt
it!”
Upgradation to higher end models because the prices fall after a very small period of
time. Eg: Porsche Cayenne which is available for Rs 95 lakh in the showroom can be
found for less than Rs 75 lakh in the used car market after one year of use
Increasing demand from the rural areas which is in keeping pace with the economic
growth and development
The future of luxury cars in India looks increasingly bright. It is expected to be the fifth
largest automobile market in the world by 2015.
This growth will not only be driven by the middle class because of their increasing purchase
power but also the rural consumers. This gives these companies a great opportunity for the
future.

MERCEDES PLANNING SOME BIG AND
INTERESTING DEVELOPMENTS FOR INDIA
Mercedes is one of the world leaders in the luxury car market. It has a global market share of
about 40%. In 2010 it has been able to achieve its highest return on sales of about 8.5%. In
India, Mercedes along with Audi and BMW are among the top luxury car brands occupying
more than 55% of this market.
And now Mercedes has introduced some more interesting plans to support its already existing
operations in India. Earlier this year, they already introduced the global pre–owned car
programme “Proven Exclusivity” for India. In its first phase, it has been pretty successful

99

with sales of more than 400 units and there are plans of opening many more centres in the
near future.

Mercedes is also now looking at introducing an A–Class segment car in the country.
Now this should be something interesting. Some may say that this may undermine their value
of being elite or a status symbol. But you never know, it would be interesting to see a product
like BMW’s Mini Cooper on the Indian roads. And for people who may not normally be able
to afford a Mercedes, this could be their chance.
The other plans include on starting the financial services arm of Mercedes which would
concentrate on financial leasing and also providing insurance. This could be an interesting
initiative for those who are looking to paying the costs in instalments.
As pointed out earlier, this interest in Indian market is mostly because of the higher
disposable incomes among the people of the country. The way the economy has chugged
along to a growth rate of more than 8.5% has also brought some measure of confidence
among the people. Another notable factor for companies like Mercedes is that their target
group has changed to young high flying executive who are just about 25 odd and have the
money to splurge.

BMW EYES DOUBLE-DIGIT INDIA SALES
GROWTH IN 2011
German luxury car maker BMW today said it hopes to clock over 2.7% growth in 2011 sales
to over 15 lakh vehicles globally, including a 'good double-digit growth' in India, where it
sold 6,246 units in 2010. The company, which reported 19.3% increase in revenue to euro
60.47 billion in 2010 and a net profit of euro 3,234 million, however, said putting up a fullfledged plant in India is a long way to go as volumes are still low.
"We sold 1.46 million vehicles globally in 2010 and plan to sell more cars in 2011 than
before – significantly more than 1.5 million. We aim to reach new record sales with all three
100

brands, BMW, Mini and Rolls-Royce," BMW Chairman Norbert Reithofer told reporters
here.
He said the company had sold 1.22 million BMW vehicles 2.3 lakh Mini and 2,711 units of
Rolls-Royce in 2010 recording 14.6%, 8.1% and 170.6% growth respectively over the
previous year.
Germany, US, China and UK were the key markets for the auto major, even as the company
recorded "dynamic" growth in many smaller markets such as Brazil, Russia, India, South
Korea and Turkey.
Commenting on sales target in India, BMW Director (Marketing) Ian Robertson said the
company would look at high double-digit growth for the current year.
To keep pace with that, the company has accordingly increased its Chennai assembly plant
capacity to 10,000 units per annum from 8,000 earlier.

101

HUGE GROWTH POTENTIAL IN INDIAN
LUXURY CAR MARKET

Since the early 1990s when economic reforms were made, India has emerged as the second
largest automobile market in the world, in terms of sales volume. Today, when most of the
economies are still suffering the after effects of economic downturn, India is witnessing a
strong growth in the sales of luxury cars every quarter. After nearly 30 years since the launch
of Maruti 800, Indian car market has entered a new growth era where India is projected to be
on course to become the largest luxury car market in the world. With the number of
millionaires in India growing at around 20 per cent annually, all the luxury car makers like
BMW, Audi and Mercedes are looking at India for their future growth and expansion.
The report entitled ‘Opportunities in Indian Luxury Car Market’ provides a succinct but deep
dive analysis of the current status and overall growth prospects of the Indian luxury car
sector. With the synchronization of all the factors, we have presented a logical analysis of the
present and future growth potential in the Indian luxury car segment. We have studied the
Indian luxury car market by categorizing it into two segments: Luxury Car sales in volume
terms and luxury car sales by manufacturers. The research also probes how the introduction
of auto financing services by various luxury car manufacturers is driving growth in the
country’s luxury car sales. ‘Opportunities in Indian Luxury Car Market’ is an outcome of
comprehensive research and analysis of the Indian luxury car sector. The research team has
also attempted to identify various factors that is helping India to emerge as the leading luxury
car market in the world. The report also analyses the impact of the union budget FY 2012 on
the Indian luxury car market. The team has also mapped the competitive landscape of the
sector and tried to shed light on the operations/strategies of the key players.

Key findings in the report include:
A change in the definition of completely-knocked down (CKD) car announced in Union
Budget FY 2012 will play a role party pooper in the future growth of country’s luxury car
segment. The change in definition will slap an import duty of around 60 per cent on these
cars which will increase their prices by approximately Rs 8 lakhs which in-turn will have a
direct impact on the sales of entry level luxury cars in the country• Supported by increasing
disposable income and increasing demand for luxury cars in India luxury car maker Audi AG
is planning to set up their auto finance arm in India. Audi for instance believes that by
offering loans to potential consumers in India, will help it to increase its sale by almost 50 per
cent in 2011.

102

MARUTI GEARS UP FOR FUTURE WITH
KIZASHI LAUNCH
India's top car maker Maruti Suzuki geared up to cater to rising demand for luxury cars in the
fast growing Indian market with the launch of Suzuki's premium sedan Kizashi.
Maruti, which sells roughly half the cars sold in the Indian market, does not expect Kizashi to
substantially boost its performance in the near term.
We are anticipating that this market will grow; there will be demand for such cars,"
Managing Executive Officer Mayank Pareek told reporters.
The luxury sedan segment has a mere 2.8 percent of the total auto market in India, one of the
world's fastest growing, but a burgeoning middle class is seen spurring demand for premium
cars.
"With Kizashi, we will expand our portfolio. But at the same time, we will not forget the
small cars," Maruti's chief executive Shinzo Nakanishi said.
A base model of Kizashi, priced at Rs 16.5 lakh ($36,340) in New Delhi, will compete with
the likes of Toyota's Corolla, Volkswagen AG's Jetta, General Motors's Chevrolet Optra and
Honda Motor Co's Civic.
With demand for cars in developed markets stuck in low gear, global automakers have been
increasing their focus on faster-growing regions such as China and India.
Maruti will initially import Kizashi, deliveries for which will begin in March, as completely
built up units (CBU) from Suzuki's Sagara plant in Japan. It will consider assembling or
manufacturing the car in India at a later stage, Nakanishi said.
Shares of Maruti, valued at about $7.8 billion, closed down 2.02% at Rs 1,215.85 in a firm
Mumbai market. The sector index fell 0.09%.

103

BMW INDIA RANKS NUMBER ONE IN THE
INDIAN LUXURY CAR INDUSTRY

With 6246 cars delivered to customers in the calendar year 2010, BMW India has achieved
leadership position in the luxury car segment in India for the second consecutive year.
In 2010, BMW India sold –

Dr. Andreas Schaaf, President, BMW India said, “Our commitment to India is amongst the
strategic decisions of the BMW Group. In 2010, we embarked on the second wave of India
market offensive with a very carefully planned and passionately executed business strategy. I
am truly impressed with the entrepreneurial foresight, willingness to perform and adaptability
to challenges that everyone at BMW India has demonstrated. Together with our dealer
partners, we have established the strategic direction required for BMW Group’s future
succession India.”
The total BMW India sales in 2010 grew by 73% over last year. The BMW 3 Series sales
registered a growth of over 111%, the new BMW 5 Series of 51% and the BMW 7 Series of
53%.
“We live by Premium: Our strong brand creates highly desired cars, cars with future, vehicles
that inspire our customers – and will take our company to a new dimension through
their success. The BMW 3 Series, the new BMW 5 Series, the new BMW 7 Series and the
newly launched BMW X1 are stars from the BMW portfolio that will take our company to
new heights through their success” said Dr. Andreas Schaaf.
In 2010, BMW India achieved market share of over 40 % in the luxury car segment of the
Indian automotive market.

104

CONCLUSION
The advancing demand of luxury cars across the globe represents a promising trend to the
growth of the automobile industry.
The rising demand of luxury cars in India is a sign of people getting richer day by day as well
as their desires are also increasing and there is also increase in the spending power of the
customer which shows that economy of India is also developing at a fast rate.
There has been a 200 % growth in the automobile industry in India especially in the luxury
segment and the sports car segment. Due to which European luxury car makers are
introducing most of their sports cars models in India due to the rising demand and interest of
the people.

Due to the risen demand of luxury sports cars special sports car clubs have been formed in
India where the membership criterion to join the club is to have a sports car or the
membership is only by invitation. The major sports car clubs in India are Canon Ball Club
and Gautam Singhania super car club India.

105

QUESTIONNAIRE
FOR
“SCOPE OF LUXURY CARS IN INDIA”

1. Which Age group is most interested in buying Luxury cars?
a) 18-24
b) 25-34
c) 35-44
d) Above 55

2. Rank the following parameters on your purchase preference ?
a) Price
b) Quality
c) Availability
d) Involvement
e) Recommendation

3. Does purchase of Luxury car is directly related to income level?
a) Yes
b) No

106

4. Why does one person purchase a Luxury Brand?
a) Quality
b) Flaunt value
c) Interested in art
d) Exclusivity

5. Quality of Luxury brands are more superior then others?
a) Strongly agree
b) Agree
c) Neutral

d) Disagree
e) Strongly disagree

6. Services provided by luxury brands is better then others ?
a) Stromgly agree
b) Agree
c) Neutral
d) Disagree
e) Strongly disagree

7. Which brands you prefer to shop ?
a) Local brands
b) Luxury brands

107

c) International brands

8. Do you still go abroad to shop for Luxury products?
a) Yes
b) No

9. What is the factor the effect most while purchasing a car?
a) Engine power
b) Shape
c) Acceleration time
d) Looks
e) Brand
10. Which brand you prefer to buy most for buying a luxury car ?
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)

Porsche
Lamborghini
Audi
Mercedes
Bugati
BMW
Bentley

108

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Research Methodology, Methods and techniques (Second Edition) By C. R. Kothari
(New Age International Publishers)
2. Articles related to Luxury brands, brand awareness and brand perception through
“Brand Management” by Kaphler
3. Gathered information regarding economic conditions of India through WWW.
Wikipedia.com
4. WWW. Economictimes.com
5. www.google.com
6. www.bmw.com/india

7. Magazines like Autocar , etc

109

Sponsor Documents

Or use your account on DocShare.tips

Hide

Forgot your password?

Or register your new account on DocShare.tips

Hide

Lost your password? Please enter your email address. You will receive a link to create a new password.

Back to log-in

Close