131025845 Anthems of Resistance

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A Celebration of Progressive Urdu Poetry

Anthems of Resistance

So what if my pen has been snatched away from me I hav dipped my fingers in the blood of my heart So what if my mouth has been sealed, I have turned Every link of my chain in to a speaking tonge

Ali Husain Mir & Raza Mir

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Anthems of Resistance
A Celebration of Progressive Urdu Poetry Ali Husain Mir & Raza Mir

IndiaInk

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Brahma’s Dream ROLI BOOKS

© Ali Husain Mir and Raza Mir, 2006
First publish d in 2006 IndiaInk An i!print "# R"li B""$s %&t' Ltd' M()*, +'K' II Mar$ t , . lhi 110 0/0 %h"n s1 2231 40115 2321 22)1, 2321 2)02 2321 0006, Fa61 2231 40115 2321 )10* 7(!ail1 r"li8&snl'9"!: ; bsit 1 r"lib""$s'9"! Als" at <aranasi, Ban=al"r , >aipur

Cover : Arati Subra!an?a! Layout 1 ,ar ndra Shahi
ISB,1 01([email protected](26(1 Rs' 23*

A?p s t in B ntS9hb""$ BA b? R"li B""$s %&t' Ltd' and print d at S?ndi9at Bind rs, , - . lhi

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Acknowledgements A Note on Translation and Transliteration Preface

1 O& r Bhin s F""d1 Ah %r"=r ssi& ;rit rsC Ass"9iati"n 2 Drdu %" tr? and th %r"=r ssi& A sth ti9 3 Saar >ahaan S A9h9ha1 %r"=r ssi& %" ts and th %r"bl !ati9 "# ,ati"nalis! 4 Fr"! H"! t" th ;"rld1 Ah Int rnati"nalist 7th"s 5 .r a! and ,i=ht!ar 1 Ah Flirtati"n -ith M"d rnit? 6 %r"=r ssi& %" tr? and Fil! L?ri9s 7 <"h Eaar Hai >" Khushb"" Ki Aaraah, >is Ki FubaaG Drdu Ki Aaraah 8 An 76 !plar? %r"=r ssi& 1 Ah A sth ti9 76p ri! nt "# Sahir Ludhian&i 3 >a& d A$htarCs Hui& r "# %r"=r ssi& Arr"-s1 A L =a9? Sur&i& s 10 , - Standard B ar rs "# %r"=r ssi& Drdu %" tr?1 Ah F !inist %" ts 11 A R Iui ! ''' and a B l brati"n

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Acknowledgements
Ali Husain Mir
It has b n a -"nd r#ul li# , than$s t" str"$ s "# #"rtun s, inh rit d pri&il = s, d lib rat 9h"i9 s and 9han9 n9"unt rs' ,"t t" ! nti"n a l"&in= #a!il?, 6tra"rdinar? 9"!pani"n, str"n= 9"!rad s, a!azin= #ri nds' I# "n is $n"-n b? th 9"!pan? "n $ ps, th n I a! in =""d shap ' I h"p that th"s -h" ha& t"u9h d !? li# in ! anin=#ul -a?s $n"h"- !u9h I tr asur th ir #ri ndship and l"& ' Still, sin9 this !i=ht - ll b th "nl? b""$ I & r -rit , I -ant t" a9$n"-l d= s"! "# th ! in th s pa= s' M? !"th r r ad ! pr"=r ssi& Drdu p" tr? -h n I -as & r? ?"un=, s ttin= ! "## "n a path "# dis9"& r? and d li=ht' M? #ath rCs sp 9h -as p pp r d -ith -isd"!s n9apsulat d in Drdu 9"upl ts that h lp d shap !? instin9ts and !? p"liti9s in r !ar$abl -a?s' M? sist r, S? da, #ills !? li# -ith lau=ht r, and I r"utin l? dial h r nu!b r -h n I n d a !""d b""st 4"r instant ! di9al ad&i9 5' M? br"th r is n"t ! r l? !? 9"(auth"r: h is !? alt r( =", !? d"pp l=an= r, !? 9"ns9i n9 , and !? li# lin ' ;ith"ut th !, th r -"uld b n" ! , l t al"n this b""$' A blan$ IOD t" Saadia A""r, -h" $n"-s h"- !u9h h r sharp !ind, h r h"n d p"liti9al und rstandin=, h r &ast $n"-l d= "# th %r"=r ssi& M"& ! nt in Drdu lit ratur , and h r r ad? -illin=n ss t" =" thr"u=h dra#ts "# this -"r$ ha& 9"ntribut d t" this &"lu! ' Sh sh"uld r all? b list d as a 9"(auth"r' Ahan$s A""ri , #"r this and a l"t !"r b sid s' A" th"s "ld #ri nds #r"! EOBs -h" pr"&id d th i!p tus t" s" !an? arl? int ll 9tual &"?a= s, ehsaan mere dil pe tumhaara hai dosto' Ahan$s t" K'A' Sandip, Ashhar Farhan, A!irullah Khan, Rashid Abdul Rah!an, Radhi$a Murth?, RaJ ndra %rasad, Sarita Rani, MuIt dar Khan, %r ti %ar $h, ,arsin= Ra", Ahsan Abid and !an? "th rs, -h"s 9uri"us !inds and arti9ulat t"n=u s !ad th"s hundr ds "# & rb"s Saturda? & nin=s at th S 9und rabad EMBA s" !u9h !"r int r stin= than -at9hin= th - $l? Hindi !"&i "n .""rdarshan'

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A" !? 9"!pani"ns at th Dni& rsit? "# Massa9hus tts -ith"ut -h"! th"s =raduat s9h""l ? ars -"uld ha& b n s" !u9h th p""r r' .iana ;"n=, RaJu Si&asan$aran, B"bb? Ban rJ , Aparna Sindh""r, ;a?n Mill tt , >a?anta . ?, <a!si9haran <a$ulabharana!, Kuldhir Bhati, RaJi& Kash?ap, and sp 9iall? Ma?a EaJni$ - r th sa# $ p rs "# !? sanit? and th s"ur9 "# !? str n=th' To my comrades at CSFH, who provided me with purpose during a period of the pessimism of the intellect and offered me reason to make space for an optimism of the will I owe a lot to !a"a Harish Swamy, !a !avishankar, #irish $garwal, Shalini #era, %sha &acharias, 'amayani Swamy, (rendan )aro*ue, (i"u +athew, $ngana Chatter"i, $shwini !ao, +ubeen (olar, Anant$rishna Marin=anti, >a?ant 7ran$i, Ra&i RaJan and "th rs -h" #i=ht th =""d #i=ht' Ah ! !b rs "# th ESS 9"ll 9ti& and "th rs in th KS"uth AsianC diasp"ra in ,EB L !? p"liti9al humsafars, !? # ll"- parti rs, !? a9Iuir d #a!il? L ha& tau=ht ! a l"t ab"ut s"lidarit? and 9"!!it! nt, and "## r d an ndl ss, and "#t n un9"nditi"nal r s r&"ir "# l"& ' I# I & r #ind !?s l# in a ti=ht sp"t, I 9ann"t thin$ "# a b tt r =r"up t" ha& in !? 9"rn r' %r rana R dd?, Ash-ini Ra", %ra9hi %atan$ar, Rupal Oza, A Jas-i ,a=araJa, AnJali Ka!at, Ra=ini Shah, S"nali Satha? , Ar&ind +r"& r, A?az Ah!ad, Miabi Bhatt rJ , A!ita S-adhin, Saba ;ah d, .a-n %hilip, Far n Ra!Ji, Marian Ealini Aha!bina?a$an, . banuJ .as=upta, >as"n .a Sil&a, S&ati Shah, Sh"!ial Ah!ad, RaJu RaJan, Surabhi Ku$$ , <irali +"$aldas, Sa! Huiah, S"nn? Su9hd &, BiJu Math -, Al ?a!!a Math -, Linta < r=h s , ,a ! M"hai ! n, L na Khan, S $har Ra!a$rishnan, Saadia A""r, Su Sus!an, Aniruddha .as, S!ita ,arula, BalaJi, >a-ad M tni ''' I a! lu9$? t" ha& #"und th !' M? #ri nds in India 9"ntinu t" !a$ a9h "# !? #r Iu nt r turns a h"! 9"!in=' M? l"& and than$s t" Ashhar Farhan, 7lah Hipt""la, Aal"$ ;adh-a, Sal !a Riz&i, R ti$a Kh ra, Arudra Burra, A!irullah Khan, Aza! Khan, Asi?a Khan, Hu! ra Ah! d, S"!a ;adh-a, Bhash-ati S n=upta, Sandh?a < n$atara!an and Shi&ani Bh"udhr?' M? =ratitud t" th"s a9ti&ist(#ri nds -h" shar th &isi"n "# th p" ts "# this b""$, -h" -"r$ a9h da? t" brin= ab"ut a s"9iall? Just

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-"rld, and -h"s 9"ntributi"ns =i& ! h"p and h art1 Aruna R"?, ,i$hil . , S"-!?a Kida!bi, %r ti Sa!pat, Shan$ar Sin=h, Bhan-ar M =h-anshi, Lal Sin=h, Bhunni Sin=h, .auba, Brah!a9hari, Shabna! Hash!i, >a& d Anand, Anand %at-ardhan, A sta S tal&ad, Ra$ sh Shar!a, Anura= Sin=h and hundr ds "# "th rs' A" th"s -h" ha& sustain d ! in -a?s t"" nu! r"us t" ! nti"n, a -h"l l"t "# l"& 1 <iJa? %rashad, San= ta Ka!at, A!ita&a Ku!ar, Lisa Ar!str"n=, Si!"na Sa-hn ?, Bhristi M rrill, Bhris Bh $$uri, Sri$anth ManJunath, . pa$ Bhandras $hariah, Ah!ad Kari!, Shabna! A Jani, ,irupa!a Ra&i, R' Radha$rishnan, K rstin S9h!idt, Krist? Bri=ht, Sha? M9Allist r, S"6 Sp rr?, Ka&ita %alla&, Bhaira&i . sai, .alia Basi"un?, ,a= sh Ku$un""r, Ka!ila Sha!si ''' A" s"! & r? sp 9ial p "pl in !? li# -h" h"p #ull? $n"- h"!u9h th ? ha& ! ant t" ! "& r th ? ars1 Ka!ala <is- s-aran, S? d A$bar H?d r, Ash-ini Ra", San= ta Ra", Rupal Oza, and th in9"!parabl Satish K"lluri' A" Sr $anth KL""n?C B"lla! #"r an int ns l? l"?al #ri ndship, #"r shar d 6pl"its that 9"uld #ill a b""$ all "n th ir "-n' A" th"s -h" !ad "ur annual Kr"ad sh"-C at th Dni& rsit? "# ;is9"nsin su9h a d p pl asur and sh"- r d us -ith th ir = n r"us wah-wahs, !? =ratitud : sp 9iall? t" Aa??ab Mah!ud, B'M' ,ai!, M"ha!!ad D!ar M !"n, Barla % ti &i9h, + ta %at l, Bhris L , Fran9 s %rit9h tt, %hil Lut= nd"r#, Ra&ina A=ar-al, M"hsin and Farhat HaI, and th -"nd r#ul A=ha Shahid Ali' A" 7lah Hipt""la #"r al-a?s b in= th r , sp 9iall? -h n I ha& n d d h r !"st, #"r th Ks!ilin= 9"unt nan9 C r 9 pti"ns at th H?d rabad airp"rt, #"r a hundr d #a&"urs, bi= and s!all' A" BiJu Math -, !? sa# t? n t, !? p"liti9al and !"ral 9"!pass, and !? li# (supp"rt s?st !' A" >a& d A$htar and Shabana Az!i #"r r adin= th !anus9ript and #"r th ir supp"rt' A" Abbas and E"uhanna #"r pr"&idin= #""d that sustain d th s"ul durin= th 9"ld -int rs "# th n"rth ast' A" !? 79uad"rian n i=hb"urs d"-nstairs, sp 9iall? I&an and his !"th r, #"r th"s stair- ll 9"n& rsati"ns and #"r s" #r Iu ntl? sharin= th ir ! als -ith

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! ' A" R nu$a Bhatt rJ and ,andita Bhard-aJ "# R"li B""$s #"r b in= -"nd r#ul, insi=ht#ul, and pati nt dit"rs' It has b n a pl asur -"r$in= -ith th !' A" !? lar= 6t nd d #a!il? -h"s un9"nditi"nal l"& is a s"ur9 "# =r at str n=th1 Ma!u, HaJi, Aari, ,adir, KMirC M"ha!!ad, Apu, Fatti, S"=hra, ,arJis, All""n, Ali Fah r, Shabbir, H?d r, Hasan, >a-adi, Sa$ina, MuJJu, ,arJis, Sabiha, +hazan#ar, A lia, Ali, >a-adi, >""hi, Ma!i, Ath r KBhaiJanC, Aan& r, Mas""!a, ,ishi, Fa#ar, Shaz! n, Bh"ts, Ali Bhai, As!a, ,aJ!a' And t" Hasan KI!a!C, th Biradaraan, H?d r Babu' A" M", #"r his = ntl n r=?, #"r his un#lappabl t !p ra! nt, #"r nt rin= "ur li& s' A" Farah, #"r h r Iui t str n=th, #"r h r l"&in= 9"!passi"n, #"r !a$in= sur that I ha& a sa# ha& n h r ' Salaa!s t" !? 9"!rad s at FOIL, ESS, +hadar, SAMAR, A-aaz, th Br 9ht F"ru!, BSFH, MKSS, th , - E"r$ Aa6i ;"r$ rsC Allian9 and "th rs in th lar= 9"!!unit? "# a9ti&ists and 9"ll 9ti& s -h" h lp $ p ! an9h"r d and r !ind ! that th r ar thin=s =r at r than "n Cs "-n s l# that ar -"rth stu==lin= #"r' Voh subha kabhi to aayegi.

Raza Mir
I b =in b? 6pr ssin= !? hu!bl =ratitud t" th 9"!!uniti s "# l #t a9ti&ists in India and th DS -h" ha& nurtur d !? p"liti9s, !? thi9s, and h"p #ull?, !? l?ri9s' Ahan$ ?"u 9"!rad s, #"r th spa9 t" lau=h and 9r? in a -"rld -h r r lat dn ss is a t"u=h #ind' I pi==?ba9$ "n Ali MirCs =r at list "# #ri nds and r lati& s, and -"uld add than$s "n his b hal# and !in , t" I'K' Shu$la, S'M' Shah d 4Ma!uM5 and Sultan Lat # #"r painsta$in=# dba9$ "n arli r dra#ts' %r"ps t"", t" d ar #ri nd Aa??ab Mah!ud #"r intr"du9in= us t" Habib >alib, and t" K'A' Sandip, -h" "n9 #"r-ard d ! MaJazCs KRaat aur R lC, and s nt !? !ind "n a tr asur hunt that #inds pla9 in this b""$' Farah Hasan pr"&id d tir l ss assistan9 -ith turns "# phras , translati"ns and -as = ntl -ith h r 9"!! nts "n st?l ' A!irullah Khan, Anu %aul, M"ha!! d D!ar M !"n, A!ita&a Ku!ar and Sund p ."u=al h lp d in pla9in= arli r & rsi"ns "# s"! "# th id as in this b""$ in th publi9 d"!ain' Inspirati"n and n9"ura= ! nt #"r this nd a&"ur 9a!

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#r"! &ari d s"ur9 s1 - r ! !b r th lat A=ha Shahid Ali as an arl? nthusiast, and - r =r atl? n9"ura= d b? Asi# Raza, An-ar M"azza!, and > lani Ban"' In th K-"rds(ar (inad Iuat C d part! nt, aa ek harf ko phir dhhoondta phirta hai khayaal! t" ad Iuat l? than$ Fa$ia Sultana, "ur !"th r -h" r ad Sahir t" us b #"r - $n - th Drdu s9ript, "ur #ath r AaIi Ali -h" tr asur d >"sh Malihabadi !"r than his an9 st"rs, "ur sist r S? da -h"s ntir sp 9h is a s"n= unt" its l#, and Sa#dar and Sahir, -h" ar t"" ?"un=

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A note on translation and transliteration

h issu "# -hat is =ain d and l"st in translati"n has b n lab"rat l? dis9uss d in a nu!b r "# pla9 s' Rath r than add #urth r t" that dis9"urs , all - -ant t" sa? is that -hil "ur translati"n 9h"i9 s ha& b n 9"ntin= nt and p rs"nal 4ar nCt th ? al-a?sN5, ha& t nd d t" rr "n th sid "# b in= lit ral rath r than p" ti9' A nu!b r "# translit rati"n s9h ! s ha& b n d & l"p d b? Drdu a9ad !i9s, s"! "# th ! hi=hl? pr 9is and 9"nsist nt' H"- & r, th ? t nd t" b s"! -hat inti!idatin= t" th ? ' A" !aintain th Kp"pularC #la&"ur "# th b""$, - ha& 9h"s n t" =" -ith an in#"r!al st?l ' F"r instan9 , a standard translit rati"n s9h ! -"uld -rit this lin #r"! a Hindi #il! s"n= thus1 "ar fikr ko dh#e$ me$ urata %ala gaya' ; ha& inst ad trans9rib d it as "ar fikr ko dhue& mei& udaata %hala gaya. ; ha& !ad translit rati"ns1 th #"ll"-in= #"r!al st?listi9 9h"i9 s #"r th

1 Ah nasal KnC has b n translit rat d as KGC' Ahis is i!p"rtant b 9aus th #ull KnC s"und is l"n= r than its nasal Iui&al nt' F"r 6a!pl , th -"rd #"r bl""d has t" b pr"n"un9 d s"! ti! s as khoon 4-ith th #ull KnC s"und at th nd5 and at "th rs as khoo& 4-ith th nasal KnC at th nd5' Substitutin= "n #"r th "th r int r# r s -ith th rh?th! "# th p" !' ; ha& , h"- & r, us d a si!pl KnC & n i# th s"und is nasal in th 9as s -h r it is #"ll"- d b? a hard 9"ns"nant, sin9 th -"rd -ill in&it th r ad r t" pr"n"un9 it a99urat l?' S" th -"rd #"r 9"l"ur is -ritt n as rang, n"t as ra&g' 2 Ah -"rds #"r KIC and KinC ha& b n translit rat d as Kmai&C and Kmei&C' @ KaaC has b n us d t" indi9at th l"n= &"- l, 69 pt -h n th -"rd nds -ith it, in -hi9h 9as - 6p 9t that th r ad r -ill naturall? t nd t" dra- "ut th s"und' / Ah =uttural K$hC and K=hC ha& b n und rlin d' I# K$hC and K=hC ar n"t und rlin d in th translit rati"ns, th KhC s"und has t" b aspirat d' Ahis h lps th r ad r di## r ntiat b t- n, sa?, khaana 4t"

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at5 and khaana 4h"us , d- llin=, r""!, 9"!part! nt, dra- r5, b t- n ghani 4thi9$, d ns 5 and ghani 4- alth?, ri9h, "pul nt5' * Ah hard KtC and KdC s"unds ha& b n und rlin d t" h lp di## r ntiat b t- n -"rds li$ dar 4d""r5 and dar 4# ar5, taal 4!usi9al ! asur 5 and taal 4d la?, &ad 5' A note to our fello H!"era#a"is$ -hil - ha& , in th int r sts "# th lar= r r ad rship, r lu9tantl? translit rat d th t-" di## r nt l tt rs "# th Drdu s9ript as kh and ', # l #r t" pr"n"un9 th ! ali$ , #"r1 (aaf aur khai mei& hai kya far'! hame& kya maaloom "um )abaa& apni %halaane ko )abaa& kahte hai&

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Preface
*tho aur uth ke inhi& 'aafilo& mei& mil aao +o man)ilo& ko hai& gard-e safar banaaye hue Aris , and J"in th"s !"&in= 9ara&ans Ahat ha& l #t s & ral d stinati"ns in th ir -a$ Our #ath rCs &"i9 -"uld b""! in th s!all r""! -h r - sl pt, -hil - , l ss int r st d in J"inin= 9ara&ans than in = ttin= a littl !"r ti! in b d, -"uld tr? in &ain t" i=n"r it' It -as his ritualisti9 -a? "# -a$in= us up & r? s9h""l !"rnin=' 7& n th"u=h th 9"upl t -as usuall? an un- l9"! intrusi"n int" "ur slu!b r, it plant d its l# #ir!l? in "ur ps?9h , al"n= -ith s9"r s "# "th rs that r"utin l? ad"rn d dail? 9"n& rsati"ns in "ur h"! and 9"!!unit?' Ah "ral traditi"n "# Drdu p" tr? -as an ss ntial part "# th stru9tur "# # lin= "# "ld(9it? H?d rabad' % "pl uns l#9"ns9i"usl? !phasiz d a p"int "r illustrat d a !""d b? dra-in= up"n a 9"upl t h r and a Iuatrain th r , t" sa? "rdinar? thin=s in 6tra"rdinar? -a?s' Our par nts had an i!pr ssi& 9"!!and "& r a !assi& r p rt"ir "# 9lassi9al and 9"nt !p"rar? p" tr? and -"uld har& st it p ri"di9all?' B"th "# th ! had =r"-n up durin= th h ad? da?s "# th Ind p nd n9 stru==l , at a ti! -h n th Drdu p" ts "# th %r"=r ssi& ;rit rsC M"& ! nt str"d !aJ sti9all? "n th sta= "# 9ultural pr"du9ti"n in th 9"untr?' >"sh Malihabadi, Sahir Ludhian&i, Israr(ul(HaI MaJaz, Kai#i Az!i, Ali Sardar >a#ri, Faiz Ah!ad Faiz, MaJr""h Sultanpuri, and Ma$hd""! M"hiuddin - r h"us h"ld na! s and - l arnt t" appr 9iat th spirit "# th ir p"- r#ul & rs s' Ah ir p" tr? L 9riti9al, insi=ht#ul, an=r?, passi"nat L h lp d in9ul9at in us a s ns "# s"9ial Justi9 , ! diat d "ur und rstandin= "# r alit?, and "## r d us a #ra! -"r$ t" int rpr t s"9ial and p"liti9al 9"nditi"ns' A Faiz p" ! KLahu Ka Suraa=hC 4Ara9 "# Bl""d5 thus 9a! t" !ind -h n an "bs9ur statisti9 ab"ut 11 S pt !b r 2001 9au=ht "ur att nti"n' Ah Dnit d ,ati"ns F""d and A=ri9ultur Or=anizati"n sti!at d that "n th sa! tra=i9 da? -h n th t"- rs 9a! 9rashin=

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d"-n in "ur ad"pt d 9it? "# , - E"r$, ar"und @*,61* 9hildr n star& d t" d ath a9r"ss th -"rld' Ahis & r?da?, r"utin tra= d? Iui tl? b?pass d th -"rldCs 9"ns9i"usn ss' ," dit"rials - r -ritt n d n"un9in= it, n" #la=s #l - at hal#(!ast, n" i!passi"n d sp 9h s - r !ad , n" -ar -as d 9lar d "n p"& rt? and hun= r' FaizCs p" ! 9"!p llin= dr - "ur att nti"n t" this Kbanalit? "# &ilC thr"u=h th #"ll"-in= lin s1 Kahiñ nahiñ hai kahiñ bhi nahiñ lahu ka suraagh Na dast-o naakhun-e qaatil, na aasteeñ pe nishaañ Na surkhi-e lab-e khanjar, na rang-e nok-e sinaañ Na khaak par koi dhabba, na baam par koi daagh Kahiñ nahiñ hai kahiñ bhi nahiñ lahu ka suraagh Na sarf-e khidmat-e shaahaañ ke khooñ-baha dete Na deeñ ki nazr ke bayaana-e jaza dete $a ra)mgaah mei& barsa ke mo’atabar hota ,isi alam pe ra'am hoke mushtahar hota -ukaarta raha be-aasra yateem lahu ,isi to bahr-e sama’at na wa't tha na dimaagh $a mudda’i na shahaadat hisaab paak hua .e khoon-e khaak-nasheenaa& tha ri)'-e khaak hua ,"-h r , n"-h r at all, is an? tra9 "# th Bl""d ,"t "n th !urd r rCs hands, #in= rnails "r sl & ," bl""d r dd ns th t"n=u "# th blad n"r bri=ht n th tip "# th sp ar ," bl""d !ar$s th s"il "r stains th r""#t"p ,"-h r , n"-h r at all, is an? tra9 "# th Bl""d Ahis bl""d -asnCt sh d in th s r&i9 s "# $in=s that it 9"uld r 9 i& r 9"!p ns ,"r -as it sa9ri#i9 d at th altar "# r li=i"n that it 9"uld b r -ard d , ith r did it spill "n in th battl #i ld that it 9"uld b h"n"ur d Or ! !"rializ d "n a battl standard It 9ri d "ut, this h lpl ss, "rphan d Bl""d But n"n had th abilit? t" list n, n"r th ti! , n"r th pati n9 ," plainti## st pp d #"r-ard, n" "n b"r -itn ss and s" th a99"unt -as 9l"s d ;hil th bl""d "# th dirt(d- ll rs s p d sil ntl? int" th dirt FaizCs & rs s indi9t all th"s -h" stand sil nt, indi## r nt t" & r?da?

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hu!an su## rin=' His 9all t" a9ti"n is 6pr ss d & n !"r in KAaJ Baazaar M iG %a(baJa"laaG Bhal"C1 Chashm-e nam aan-e shoreeda kaafi nahi& /ohmat-e ish'-e posheeda kaafi nahi& 0a baa)aar mei& pa-ba aolaa& %halo

6pli9itl?

,ot enough to shed tears, to suffer anguish ,ot enough to nurse love in secret Today, walk in the public s*uare fettered in chains Ahis d !and t" d 9lar "n Cs p"liti9s 6pli9itl? and publi9l? -as !ad at a ti! -h n Drdu p" tr? "## r d a si=ni#i9ant spa9 #"r th arti9ulati"n "# r sistan9 a=ainst 6pl"tati& s?st !s L a spa9 that s !s t" ha& shrun$ 9"nsid rabl? in "ur ti! s' A"da?, Drdu its l# "99upi s a pr 9ari"us p"siti"n in India, and -hil it 9"ntinu s t" b sp"$ n b? a lar= nu!b r "# p "pl , it is lar= l? 6"ti9iz d as an a sth ti9 9"!!"dit?, &ili#i d as th lan=ua= "# th Oth r, "r r l =at d t" th r al! "# n"stal=ia' And in %a$istan, -hil n"t in an? dan= r as a lan=ua= , its pr"=r ssi& lit rar? !"& ! nt is a shad""# its #"r! r s l#, th &i9ti! "# p"st(9"l"nial p"liti9s at th nati"nal and int rnati"nal l & l' Ah &"i9 "# th pr"=r ssi& Drdu p" ts that r s"nat d durin= th anti(9"l"nial stru==l , that s"u=ht t" h"ld th n -l? #"r! d stat t" its pr"!is "# an =alitarian and Just s"9i t?, and that att !pt d t" #"r= a s"lidarit? -ith p "pl sC !"& ! nts a9r"ss th -"rld, is a #aint ! !"r?' Sahir is n"- r ! !b r d !ainl? as a #il! l?ri9ist' Faiz 9"ntinu s t" ha& an i9"ni9 status, but "nl? ins"#ar as h has b n assi!ilat d int" th traditi"n "# th 9lassi9al p" ts' A hand#ul "# "th r &"i9 s r !ain, s"! str"n= r than "th rs' H"- & r, th passi"n and an= r "# >"sh, MaJaz, Kai#i, Ma$hd""!, >a#ri and "th rs -h" 6pli9itl? -r"t ab"ut 6pl"itati"n and "ppr ssi"n, ab"ut Justi9 and Iualit?, and ab"ut r sistan9 and stru==l is lar= l? #"r="tt n' Ahis b""$ =r"-s "ut "# a d sir t" r & rs this K-ill#ul l"ss "# ! !"r?C and t" r 9lai! th l =a9? "# th pr"=r ssi& p" ts in an a= -h n th ir -"rds, insi=hts, and p"liti9s 9"ntinu t" b r l &ant' As th subtitl "# th b""$ L KA B l brati"n "# %r"=r ssi& Drdu %" tr?C L !a$ s 9l ar, "urs is n"t a dispassi"nat , K"bJ 9ti& C a99"unt' It is an att !pt t" r tri & th spirit "# r sistan9 that "n9 r"a! d s" #r l? in th lands9ap "# Drdu lit ratur durin= th %r"=r ssi& -rit rs M"& ! nt'

1*

In that s ns , this b""$ is !"r than a r 9"untin= "# a b?="n a= : it is "ur "-n p"liti9al pr"J 9t' It is n"t Just a hist"r? "# th past, it is a hist"r? "# th pr s nt, and h"p #ull?, it is a hist"r? "# th #utur as - ll'

Mataa-e lauh-o qalam chhin gayi to kya gham hai Ke khoon-e dil meiñ duboli hai ungliyaañ maiñ ne Zabaañ pe mohr lagi hai to kya, ke rakh di hai ar ek halqa-e zanjeer meiñ zabaañ maiñ ne -hy grieve if paper and pen have been snatched away For I have dipped my fingers in the blood of my heart So what if my own speech has been fettered. I have placed $ tongue in the mouth of every link of the chain that binds me / Fai0 $hmad Fai0

16

1
OVER CHINESE FOOD
The Progressive Writers’ Association
Bhadka rahe& hai& aag lab-e naghmagar se hum ,haamosh kya rahenge )amaane ke dar se hum Le de ke apne paas fa'at ek na)ar to hai ,yo& dekhe& )indagi ko kisi ki na)ar se hum 1aana ke is )amee& ko na gul)aar kar sake ,u%h khaar kam to kar diye! gu)re idhar se hum H r - =", st"$in= #ir thr"u=h s"n=(lad n lips Ah # ar "# th -"rld 9an n & r staun9h th #l"- "# "ur -"rds In all, - ha& Just "n &i -, "ur "-n ;h? sh"uld - s th -"rld thr"u=h s"! "n ls Cs ? sN It is tru , - did n"t turn th -"rld int" a =ard n But at l ast - l ss n d s"! th"rns #r"! th paths - tra& ll d L Sahir Ludhian&i

n th & nin= "# 2/ ,"& !b r [email protected]/, th at!"sph r at L"nd"nCs ,an$in= H"t l !ust ha& b n l 9tri9' A =r"up "# ?"un= Indian int ll 9tuals - r n=a= d in an int ns dis9ussi"n "& r a dra#t d"9u! nt that had b n 9ir9ulat d b? th 9"n& n"r "# th ! tin=, SaJJad Fah r' Ah d"9u! nt -as auda9i"us in its s9"p , #"r it s"u=ht t" arti9ulat a !ani# st" #"r th #utur "# Indian lit ratur ' S"! "# th #a9 s in th ! tin= - r t" b 9"! #a!iliar p rs"naliti s' >?"tir!a?a +h"sh -"uld ris t" pr"!in n9 as a $ ? #i=ur in B n=ali lit ratur ' Mul$ RaJ Anand had alr ad? b =un t" =ain =l"bal pr"!in n9 as an 7n=lish n"& list' M"ha!!ad .in Aasir -as t" =" "n t" b 9"! th #"und r "# th !a=azin $airang-i-

1)

,hayaal in Lah"r ' Ah British -rit r Ralph F"6 -as att ndin= in th 9apa9it? "# an ad&is r' Ah #"= "# hist"r? has blurr d th na! s "# "th r att nd s, but th instituti"n that -as ! r=in= thr"u=h this ! tin= -as d stin d t" !aJ sti9all? straddl th traditi"ns "# Indian lit ratur in = n ral and Drdu p" tr? in parti9ular #"r a l"n= ti! ' Ah #a9t that this ! tin= -as b in= h ld in L"nd"n -as n" a99id nt' Rath r, it -as a 9uri"us "ut9"! "# th hist"r? "# th 9"l"nial 6p ri n9 "# India' Man? a!"n= th =ath rin= - r stud nts in 7n=land, -h" had b n s nt b? th ir a##lu nt par nts t" d & l"p pr"# ssi"nal s$ills in ar as su9h as la- and ! di9in ' E t, th ir 6p ri n9 s -ith 9"l"nial s r&itud ba9$ h"! - r #r sh in th ir !inds, and this s!"uld rin= n r=? -as r adil? spurr d b? th ! r=in= anti(#as9ist and s"9ialist 9urr nts all "& r 7ur"p ' Ah #"r!ati"n "# th Dnit d Fr"nt in Fran9 , th pr"t st a=ainst th p rs 9uti"n "# -rit rs li$ + "r=i .i!itr"&, and th -"r$ rsC r b lli"n in Austria in th arl? [email protected], had =al&aniz d th att nd s "# th ,an$in= ! tin=' In th ir !inds, th lit rar? !ani# st" that -as b in= dis9uss d -"uld s r& t" la? th #ra! -"r$ #"r th ! r= n9 "# a n -, !an9ipat d id ntit?' Ahis =ath rin= had its = n sis in an int r stin= pis"d that had ta$ n pla9 in [email protected] -ith th publi9ati"n "# a b""$ in India 9all d 0ngaare 47!b rs5, a s t "# t n sh"rt st"ri s -ritt n b? SaJJad Fah r, Rashid >ahan, Mah!uduzza#ar and Ah! d Ali, -hi9h had atta9$ d a -h"l ran= "# sa9r d 9"-s' Ah st"ri s d alt -ith pr &ailin= #a!ilial and s 6ual !"r s, th d 9ad n9 and h?p"9ris? "# s"9ial and r li=i"us li# in 9"nt !p"rar? India, and t""$ !"r than "n p"tsh"t at r li=i"us "rth"d"6?, atta9$in= it -ith -hat Ah! d Ali lat r r # rr d t" as Kth abs n9 "# 9ir9u!sp 9ti"nC' ;ithin !"nths "# its publi9ati"n, th b""$ = n rat d an upr"ar -ithin Musli! 9ir9l s, and -as 9"nd !n d b? a &ari t? "# "r=anizati"ns as b in= K"bs9 n C and Kblasph !"usC' Ah All India Shia B"n# r n9 , #"r 6a!pl , pass d a r s"luti"n in [email protected]@ sharpl? 9"nd !nin= Kth h art(r ndin= and #ilth? pa!phl t 9all d 0ngaare O -hi9h has -"und d th # lin=s "# th ntir Musli! 9"!!unit? b? ridi9ulin= +"d and his pr"ph ts and -hi9h is 6tr ! l? "bJ 9ti"nabl #r"! th standp"int "# b"th r li=i"n and !"ralit?'C R sp"ndin= t" this "ut9r?, th %"li9 . part! nt "# th Dnit d %r"&in9 s pr"!ul=at d an "rd r "n 1* Mar9h [email protected]@ d 9larin= K#"r# it d t" his MaJ st? & r? 9"p? "# 4th b""$5 ''' "n th =r"unds that th said b""$ 9"ntains !att r th publi9ati"n "# -hi9h is

10

punishabl und r S 9ti"n 23*A "# th Indian % nal B"d 'C Ah 0ngaare auth"rs - r unr p ntant' ;ritin= in th * April [email protected]@ issu "# /he Leader! an Allahabad(bas d n -spap r, Mah!uduzza#arCs arti9l KShall ; Sub!it t" +a==in=NC d 9lar d1 Ah -rit rs "# this b""$ d" n"t -ish t" !a$ an ap"l"=? #"r it' Ah ? l a& it t" #l"at "r sin$ "# its l#' Ah ? "nl? -ish t" d # nd th ri=ht "# laun9hin= it and all "th r & ss ls li$ it O Ah ? ha& 9h"s n 4t" 9ritiIu 5 th parti9ular #i ld "# Isla! n"t b 9aus th ? b ar an? Ksp 9ialC !ali9 t"-ards it, but b 9aus , b in= b"rn int" that parti9ular s"9i t?, th ? # lt b tt r Iuali#i d t" sp a$ #"r that al"n O Our pra9ti9al purp"s is th #"r!ati"n i!! diat l? "# a l a=u "# pr"=r ssi& auth"rs, -hi9h sh"uld brin= #"rth si!ilar 9"ll 9ti"ns #r"! ti! t" ti! , b"th in 7n=lish and th &ari"us & rna9ulars "# "ur 9"untr?' Dnd tt r d b? th -id spr ad 9riti9is!, SaJJad Fah r, th l ad r "# th An=aar =r"up had s t ab"ut tr?in= t" us th #i ld "# lit ratur as a batt rin= ra! t" br a$ d"-n th "rth"d"6 and 9"ns r&ati& #"rti#i9ati"ns "# Indian s"9i t?' Ah ,an$in= H"t l =ath rin= -as a si=ni#i9ant st p in that dir 9ti"n' B? th nd "# th ! tin=, th att nd s had r s"l& d t" #"r!aliz th ir =r"up as an instituti"n, -hi9h -"uld b 9all d th All India %r"=r ssi& ;rit rsC Ass"9iati"n 4h n9 #"rth, th %;A5' Ah %;A -as t" b bas d in India, and SaJJad Fah r &"lunt r d t" =i& it instituti"nal shap in th sub9"ntin nt' B? th !iddl "# [email protected]*, th #inal !ani# st" "# th %;A -as r ad?' Fah r r turn d t" India -ith th d"9u! nt and 9ir9ulat d it a!"n= pr"!in nt Indian lit rar? #i=ur s' Ah !ani# st" #"und an i!! diat 9ha!pi"n in %r !9hand, "n "# th !"st hi=hl? r sp 9t d #i=ur s in Hindustani lit ratur , -h" publish d its Hindi translati"n in th O9t"b r [email protected]* issu "# his J"urnal "ans 4S-an5' Subs Iu ntl?, th 7n=lish & rsi"n "# th !ani# st" -as publish d in th F bruar? [email protected] issu "# L"nd"nCs Left 2eview. Ah t 6t "# th !ani# st" -as as #"ll"-s1 Radi9al 9han= s ar ta$in= pla9 in Indian s"9i t?' Fi6 d id as and "ld b li #s, s"9ial and p"liti9al instituti"ns ar b in= 9hall n= d' Out "# th pr s nt tur!"il and 9"n#li9t a n - s"9i t? is ! r=in=' Ah spirit "# r a9ti"n h"- & r, th"u=h !"ribund and d""! d t" ulti!at d 9a?, is still "p rati& and is !a$in= d sp rat ##"rts t" pr"l"n= its l#'

13

It is th dut? "# Indian -rit rs t" =i& 6pr ssi"n t" th 9han= s ta$in= pla9 in Indian li# and t" assist in th spirit "# pr"=r ss in th 9"untr?' Indian lit ratur , sin9 th br a$d"-n "# 9lassi9al lit ratur , has had th #atal t nd n9? t" s9ap #r"! th a9tualiti s "# li# ' It has tri d t" #ind a r #u= #r"! r alit? in spiritualis! and id alis!' Ah r sult has b n that it has pr"du9 d a ri=id #"r!alis! and a banal and p r& rs id "l"=?' ;itn ss th !?sti9al d &"ti"nal "bs ssi"n "# "ur lit ratur , its #urti& and s nti! ntal attitud t"-ards s 6, its !"ti"nal 6hibiti"nis! and its al!"st t"tal la9$ "# rati"nalit?' Su9h lit ratur -as pr"du9 d parti9ularl? durin= th past t-" 9 nturi s, "n "# th !"st un#"rtunat p ri"ds "# "ur hist"r?, a p ri"d "# disint =ratin= # udalis! and "# a9ut !is r? and d =radati"n #"r th Indian p "pl as a -h"l ' It is th "bJ 9t "# "ur ass"9iati"n t" r s9u lit ratur and "th r arts #r"! th pri stl?, a9ad !i9 and d 9ad nt 9lass s in -h"s hands th ? ha& d = n rat d s" l"n=: t" brin= th arts int" th 9l"s st t"u9h -ith th p "pl : and t" !a$ th ! th &ital "r=ans -hi9h -ill r =ist r th a9tualiti s "# li# , as - ll as l ad us t" th #utur ' ;hil 9lai!in= t" b th inh rit"rs "# th b st traditi"ns "# Indian 9i&ilizati"n, - shall 9riti9iz ruthl ssl?, in its p"liti9al, 9"n"!i9 and 9ultural asp 9ts, th spirit "# r a9ti"n in "ur 9"untr? and - shall #"st r thr"u=h int rpr ti& and 9r ati& -"r$ 4-ith b"th nati& and #"r i=n r s"ur9 s5 & r?thin= that -ill l ad "ur 9"untr? t" th n li# #"r -hi9h it is stri&in=' ; b li & that th n - lit ratur "# India !ust d al -ith th basi9 pr"bl !s "# "ur 6ist n9 t"da? L th pr"bl !s "# hun= r and p"& rt?, s"9ial ba9$-ardn ss and p"liti9al subJu=ati"n, s" that it !a? h lp us t" und rstand th s pr"bl !s and thr"u=h su9h und rstandin= h lp us t" a9t' ;ith th ab"& ai!s in &i -, th #"ll"-in= r s"luti"ns ha& b n ad"pt d1 Ah stablish! nt "# "r=anizati"ns "# -rit rs t" 9"rr sp"nd t" th &ari"us lin=uisti9 z"n s "# India: th 9""rdinati"ns "# th s "r=anizati"ns b? h"ldin= 9"n# r n9 s, publishin= "# !a=azin s, pa!phl ts, t9' A" 9""p rat -ith th"s lit rar? "r=anizati"ns -h"s ai!s d" n"t 9"n#li9t -ith th basi9 ai!s "# th ass"9iati"n' A" pr"du9 and translat lit ratur "# a pr"=r ssi& natur and "# a

20

hi=h t 9hni9al standard: t" #i=ht 9ultural r a9ti"n: and in this -a?, t" #urth r th 9aus "# Indian #r d"! and s"9ial r = n rati"n' A" stri& #"r th a99 ptan9 "# a 9"!!"n lan=ua= 4Hindustani5 and a 9"!!"n s9ript 4Ind"(R"!an5 #"r India' A" pr"t 9t th int r sts "# auth"rs: t" h lp auth"rs -h" r Iuir and d s r& assistan9 #"r th publi9ati"n "# th ir -"r$s' A" #i=ht #"r th ri=ht "# #r 6pr ssi"n "# th"u=ht and "pini"n' Ah !ani# st" -as unabash dl? !"d rnist and anti(r li=i"us in its t n"r, and utiliz d a l #t(lib ral &"9abular? that -as p"pular at that ti! ' It s"u=ht t" pla? an int =rati& r"l in th Indian lit rar? lands9ap thr"u=h th a99 ptan9 "# a 9"!!"n lan=ua= and s9ript' It !ad a 9as #"r buildin= int rnati"nal s"lidariti s' I!p"rtantl?, it !phasiz d r alis!, -ith its insist n9 that lit ratur b us d as a t""l t" displa? th Ka9tualiti s "# li# C' Finall?, d spit th strid n9? "# its t"n , it s"u=ht t" l a& th d""r "p n #"r 9"aliti"ns -ith "th r lit rar? =r"ups K-h"s ai!s d" n"t 9"n#li9t -ith th basi9 ai!s "# th ass"9iati"nC' Ah !ani# st" -as an astut p"liti9al d"9u! nt, and a hi=hl? a!biti"us "n that s"u=ht t" p"siti"n th %;A as th harbin= r "# r &"luti"nar? 9han= s in th lit rar? lands9ap "# India' Ah publi9ati"n "# this !ani# st" had a hu= i!pa9t, sp 9iall? in Drdu lit rar? 9ir9l s' Ah id as it sp"us d - r , h"- & r, n"t ntir l? n -' >ust a ? ar arli r, a ?"un= lit rar? 9riti9 na! d A$htar Husain Raipuri had publish d an ssa? 9all d KAdab aur Finda=iC 4Lit ratur and Li# 5, in -hi9h h had att !pt d t" anal?s th ntir 9"rpus "# Drdu lit ratur , and had d n"un9 d all -"r$s "# #i9ti"n and p" tr? that did n"t dir 9tl? lin$ th !s l& s t" th !at rial 9"nditi"ns "# th s"9i t? in -hi9h th ? - r pr"du9 d' RaipuriCs ssa? in s"! ! asur !ad th !ani# st" asi r t" s ll t" Drdu lit rar? #i=ur s, Just as %r !9handCs supp"rt 4and subs Iu nt nd"rs ! nts b? th Hindi p" ts Su!itranandan %ant, Maithilisharan +upt and Sur?a$ant Aripathi K,[email protected] su99 d d in br"ad nin= th h"riz"n "# th %;ACs in#lu n9 ' Stal-arts "# Indian lit ratur li$ M"ha!!ad IIbal and Rabindranath Aa="r als" pr"&id d l =iti!a9? t" th %;A thr"u=h th ir appr"&al, and & ntuall? Drdu p" ts li$ Hasrat M"hani, >"sh Malihabadi, and FiraI +"ra$hpuri als" J"in d it, as did th A lu=u p" t Sri Sri, th +uJarati p" t D!ashan$ar >"shi, th %unJabi -rit r +urba$sh Sin=h and th Marathi -rit r Anna Bhau Sath ' Ah

21

%;ACs anti(9"l"nialist r putati"n -as nhan9 d and its 9r d ntials nd"rs d b? th #a9t that th British ="& rn! nt 6pr ss d its d p suspi9i"n "# th =r"up' On ) S pt !b r [email protected], th H"! S 9r tar? "# India s nt a pri&at 9ir9ular/ t" r l &ant auth"riti s, -hi9h r ad1 3 am dire%ted to address you in %onne%tion with an organisation known as the -rogressive 4riters’ 0sso%iation 5 /he pro%laimed aims of the asso%iation are %omparatively inno%ent and suggest that it %on%erns itself solely with the organisation of ournalists and writers and the promotion of interest in literature of a progressive nature. /he inspiration however %omes from 5 organisations and individuals who are 5 advo%ating poli%ies akin to those of the %ommunists ... 3 am desired to suggest therefore! that suitable opportunities may be taken to %onvey! preferably in %onversations! friendly warnings about this asso%iation to ournalists! edu%ationists and others who may be attra%ted by its ostensible programmes. It app ar d that th %;A had p r9 pti& l? tapp d int" th =r"unds- ll "# a =r at uph a&al in Indian s"9i t?' Ah #irst all(India ! tin= "# th %;A -as h ld at Lu9$n"- in [email protected], and -as pr sid d "& r b? %r !9hand, -h"s inau=ural addr ss KSahit?a Ka Ddd sh?aC 4Ah %urp"s "# Lit ratur 5 r !ains "n "# th !"st i!p"rtant d"9u! nts "# th !"& ! nt*' Ah !ani# st" "# th ass"9iati"n -as r -"r$ d t" !a$ it !"r in9lusi& "# th"s -h"s p"liti9s - r n"t a&"- dl? s"9ialist' Furth r th d !and #"r a 9"!!"n lan=ua= and s9ript #"r Indian lit ratur -as dr"pp d, r #l 9tin= th p"liti9al r aliti s "# th 9"untr?Cs !ultilin=ual stru9tur ' Ah Hindi & rsi"n "# th !ani# st" als" att !pt d t" arti9ulat a d #initi"n "# K%r"=r ssi& C -hi9h 9"uld a99"!!"dat a -id sp 9tru! "# &i -s and attra9t as !an? p "pl as p"ssibl , and in9lud d th #"ll"-in= additi"nal para=raph1 All th"s thin=s -hi9h ta$ us t"-ard 9"n#usi"n, diss nsi"n, and blind i!itati"n ar 9"ns r&ati& : als", all that -hi9h n= nd rs in us a 9riti9al 9apa9it?, -hi9h indu9 s us t" t st "ur d ar traditi"ns "n th t"u9hst"n "# "ur r as"n and p r9 pti"n, -hi9h !a$ s us h alth? and pr"du9 s a!"n= us th str n=th "# unit? and int =rati"n, that is -hat - 9all %r"=r ssi& ' Fr"! its & r? in9 pti"n, th %;A had a =r"up "# 9"!!itt d s"9ialists at its 9"r but its lar= r ! !b rship -as n"t li!it d t" -rit rs "# an? parti9ular p"liti9al p rsuasi"n' In #a9t, it -as 9"ns9i"usl? "p n d "ut t" in9lud all -rit rs -h" shar d th

22

!ani# st"Cs basi9 9"!!it! nts' Ah %;A thus #un9ti"n d as an u!br lla und r -hi9h pr"=r ssi& -rit rs "# all strip s 9"uld #ind a pla9 ' Ah %;A und rst""d its !issi"n t" b that "# 9"nstru9tin= a Kunit d #r"ntC "# -rit rs a=ainst i!p rialis! and r a9ti"nar? s"9ial t nd n9i s, and #"r a li# (a##ir!in= art' F"r th l"n= st ti! th n, tara''i-pasandi "r Kpr"=r ssi&is!C in Drdu lit ratur -as Justi#iabl? id nti#i d -ith th %;A' , & r b #"r had -rit rs a9r"ss India b n !"biliz d ar"und a sin=l plat#"r! s" ## 9ti& l?, and in n" pr &i"us !"& ! nt6 had a lit rar? s9h""l s" r d #in d th t r!s "# its 9r ati& "utput and its n=a= ! nt -ith its s"9i t? and ti! s'

%%%
;hil th inau=ural ! tin= "# th %;A -as a hu= su99 ss and in9lud d r pr s ntati& lit rar? #i=ur s #r"! !an? lan=ua= =r"ups, th l"n= &it? "# th ass"9iati"n and its l =a9? is pri!aril? lin$ d -ith Drdu lit ratur , and parti9ularl? -ith Drdu p" tr?' %r"=r ssi& p" tr? in Drdu alr ad? had a l"n= traditi"n "# pr"=r ssi&is! and an inh rit d i9"n"9las!' Ah %r"=r ssi& s) - r a= r t" push this in n - r dir 9ti"ns -hil r tainin= th lin$ -ith th ir past' An dit"rial p nn d b? Sibt Hasan, Ali Sardar >a#ri and Israr(ul(HaI MaJaz #"r th inau=ural issu "# $aya 0dab 4, - Lit ratur 5 9lai! d that K%r"=r ssi& lit ratur d" s n"t br a$ "## r lati"ns -ith "ld lit ratur : it !b"di s th b st traditi"ns "# th "ld and 9"nstru9ts n - di#i9 s "n th #"undati"ns "# th s traditi"ns' In #a9t, pr"=r ssi& lit ratur is th !"st trust-"rth? =uardian and h ir "# an9i nt lit ratur 'C Ah %r"=r ssi& p" ts s"u=ht t" $ p th lin$ -ith traditi"n ali& , -hil #"r=in= #r sh paths' Faiz illustrat s this !""d b? d pl"?in= a +halib 9"upl t in his p" ! KKhat! Hui Baarish( San=C 4Ah Rain "# St"n s 7nds5, addin= hi!s l# and th "th r p" ts "# his = n rati"n t" th lin a= "# th"s in -h"s hands Drdu p" tr? had #l"urish d1 ,oo-e aanaa& mei& khula mere lahu ka par%ham Dekhiye dete hai& kis-kis ko sada mere baad 6,aun hota hai hareef-e mai-e mard-afgan-e ish' "ai mukarrar lab-e saa'i pe sala mere baad’ Ah bl""di d #la= "# !? l"& un#urls "n th str t "# !? b l"& d L t us s -h" #"ll"-s in !? #""tst ps K;h" -ill n"- drin$ th h !l"9$ "# l"& Ah Iu sti"n lin= rs "n th -in b ar rCs lips a#t r I ha& ="n C

[email protected]

Ah %r"=r ssi& M"& ! nt in Drdu p" tr? als" thri& d b 9aus it sp"$ "# its ti! , its hist"r? and its p"liti9s' Ah anti(i!p rialist stru==l , th S 9"nd ;"rld ;ar, th trau!a "# %artiti"n, th A lan=ana uprisin=, and th #ailur "# th n - nati"n t" d li& r "n its pr"!is "# a b tt r li# #"r all 9itiz ns, all all"- d th s p" ts t" sp a$ in a &"i9 that r s"nat d -ith th aspirati"ns "# th p "pl ' As Sahir -rit s1 Chalo ke aa sabhi paayemaal rooho& se ,ahe& ke apne har ek )akhm ko )abaa& kar de& "amaara raa) hamaara nahi&! sabhi ka hai Chalo ke saare )amaane ko raa)daa& kar de& B"! l t us as$ all "ppr ss d s"uls A" =i& &"i9 t" th ir -"unds Our s 9r t is n"t ! r l? "urs L tCs shar it -ith th ntir -"rld Ah pr"=r ssi& Drdu p" ts, partl? b? a99id nt and partl? b? 9h"i9 , als" sta$ d a substantial 9lai! in th r al! "# p"pular 9ultur , parti9ularl? in th ar na "# Hindi #il!s' S & ral p" ts "# th ass"9iati"n su9h as Sahir Ludhian&i, Kai#i Az!i, and MaJr""h Sultanpuri 4and t" a l ss r 6t nt, Ali Sardar >a#ri and >an ,isar A$htar5 !ad a na! #"r th !s l& s -ritin= l?ri9s #"r #il!s, thus "99up?in= a pr"!in nt pla9 in th publi9 spa9 ' ;hil !an? #a9t"rs, s"! d tail d in th r st "# this b""$, 9"!bin d t" pr"du9 th as9 ndan9? "# th pr"=r ssi& s nti! nt in Drdu p" tr?, th in9"ntr"& rtibl #a9t, shar d & n b? th str"n= st d tra9t"rs "# th %r"=r ssi& s, is that th %;A b 9a! , in AiJaz Ah!adCs -"rds th Kstr"n= st and pr"6i!at shapin= #"r9 C in Drdu lit ratur #r"! its & r? in9 pti"n and & r? s""n b 9a! id "l"=i9all? h = !"ni9 Kt" th 6t nt that it d #in d th para! t rs "# th br"ad s"9ial a= nda and 9ultural 9"ns nsus a!"n= th = n ralit? "# Drdu -rit rs, in9ludin= th"s -h" - r n"t ! !b r "# th ass"9iati"n: th"s -h" did n"t subs9rib t" th br"ad 9"ns nsus - r r l =at d t" th #rin= s "# th -ritin=(9"!!unit?'C0 Ahis h = !"n?, Ah!ad r !inds us, "b&i"usl? Kdid n"t !at rializ "ut "# thin airC, b in= Kin its "-n ti! , part and par9 l "# th nati"nal !"& ! ntC'

After Independence: The All India Progressive Writers’ Association

2/

Ah %;A, -h"s d"!inan9 had b n stablish d durin= th #r d"! stru==l and its radi9alizin= 9"!pa9t, s""n #"und its l# und r atta9$ a#t r th #"r!ati"n "# th ind p nd nt stat ' B? th arl? 13*0s, th 9ultural 9"ns nsus that th %;A had = n rat d had b =un t" -ith r a-a?' Ah r - r a nu!b r "# #a9t"rs that 9"ntribut d t" this d 9lin ' Ah bi== st "# th s , "# 9"urs , -as th partiti"n "# th nati"n' Ah pr"!is d Ind p nd n9 arri& d, but its surkhi 4r dn ss5 -as n"t that "# th a-ait d s"9ialist Kr d da-nC but 9a! #r"! th bl""d "# th &i9ti!s "# th &i"l n9 that a99"!pani d th di&isi"n "# th 9"untr?' And hardl? had th n - ="& rn! nt #"und its # t -h n it laun9h d a brutall? r pr ssi& atta9$ a=ainst th p asant !"& ! nt "# A lan=ana -hi9h had h ld "ut su9h a hi=h h"p t" th s"9ialist aspirati"ns "# th %;A p" ts' R # rrin= t" th stat &i"l n9 that 9rush d th !"& ! nt, Krish n Bhand r -r"t 1 KA#t r A lan=ana, "ur dr a!s - r sin= d, "ur h"p -as d ad -ithin "ur br asts, this -as "ur dar$ st h"ur' Our #rustrati"n and d sp rati"n l d t" #in= r( p"intin=, int rnal #i=htin=, lit rar? pur= s, and th disint =rati"n "# "ur !"& ! nt'C Ah %r"=r ssi& s als" had t" 9"! t" t r!s -ith th =r"-in= 9"!!unalizati"n "# th p"lit?, an issu that b 9a! in9r asin=l? ur= nt a#t r th %artiti"n "# th 9"untr? al"n= r li=i"us lin s' An un#"rtunat 9"r"llar? -as th 9"!!unalizati"n "# Drdu its l# in India' Drdu su## r d a d bilitatin= bl"- -h n it b 9a! id nti#i d as th lan=ua= "# %a$istan, and b? sp 9i"us 6t nsi"n, th lan=ua= "# Musli!s, r sultin= in, a!"n= "th r thin=s, a l"ss "# stat patr"na= , parti9ularl? in th n"rth, l adin= a bitt r Sahir t" 9"!! nt "n th 9 nt nar? 9 l brati"n "# +halibCs birth1 +in shahro& mei& goon i thi 7halib ki nava barso& *n shahro& mei& aa *rdu be-naam-o nashaa& thahri 0a)aadi-e kaamil ka ailaan hua is din 1a’atoob )abaa& thahri! ghaddaar )abaa& thahri +is ahd-e siyaasat ne ye )inda )abaa& ku%hli *s ahd-e siyaasat ko marhoomo& ka gham kyoo& hai 7halib ise kahte hai& *rdu hi ka shaayar tha *rdu pe sitam dha kar! 7halib pe karam kyo& hai The same cities where once #halib1s voice resounded Have now disavowed %rdu, made it homeless The day that announced the arrival of freedom $lso declared %rdu a cursed and treacherous language

2*

The same government that once crushed a living tongue ,ow wishes to mourn and honour the dead Ah !an ?"u 9all +halib -as a p" t "# Drdu ;h? prais +halib a#t r suppr ssin= his lan=ua= N Ah pr"9 ss "# 9"!!unalizati"n did n"t ntir l? b?pass th %;A ith r' In his b""$, /ara''i -asand 0dab 4%r"=r ssi& Lit ratur 5, Ali Sardar >a#ri, "n "# th 9hi # id "l"=u s "# th ass"9iati"n ad!its that b? 13/3, 6tr !is! and narr"-(!ind dn ss "# a s"rt had nt r d th !"& ! nt1 KAh %artiti"n and th 9"!!unal ri"ts s" i!pair d th 9"nditi"ns that s"! pr"=r ssi& -rit rs !"& d a-a? #r"! pr"=r ssi&is!, s"! b 9a! partisans "# 9"!!unalis! and # ll in th pit "# d 9ad n9 'C 7& ntuall?, th All India %;A did n"t #ind its l# Iual t" th tas$ "# d alin= -ith th 9han=in= ti! s and th ass"9iati"n b 9a! a shad"- "# its #"r! r s l#' It is, h"- & r, un#air t" s $ th r as"ns #"r this d 9lin -ithin th ass"9iati"n al"n ' Ah p ri"d "# th [email protected] and b ?"nd -as 9hara9t riz d b? th r sistan9 "# d"!inat d subJ 9ti&iti s t" th ra&a= s "# "ppr ssi& and 6pl"itati& 9"l"nialis!' Ah !ass !"& ! nts n= nd r d b? th anti(9"l"nial stru==l 9r at d th 9"nditi"ns und r -hi9h th anal?ti9al 9at ="ri s "# s"9ialis! al"n= -ith th ir att ndant binari s L "ppr ss"rP"ppr ss d, 6pl"it rP 6pl"it d, 9apitalPlab"ur, 9apitalistP-"r$ r L #"und r ad? and br"ad a99 ptan9 ' But th 6ub ran9 "# th &i9t"r? "# Ind p nd n9 , da!p n d t" a 9"nsid rabl d =r b? th h"rr"rs "# %artiti"n, sl"-l? turn d int" disillusi"n! nt -ith th nati"n(stat , -hi9h -as in9r asin=l? s n as a pupp t "# !"n"p"l? 9apital and as a s?st ! that r pli9at d arli r !"d s "# 6pl"itati"n, ! r l? r pla9in= #"r i=n lit s -ith l"9al "n s' O& r a p ri"d "# ti! , this disillusi"n! nt !ad -a? #"r r si=nati"n und r th st ad? "nslau=ht "# trans#"r! d p"liti9s, "pp"rtunisti9 l ad rship, and th =r"-th and 9"ns"lidati"n "# =l"bal 9apital' In this 9"nt 6t, th d 9lin "# th %;A 9an b s n n"t s" !u9h as a d # at "# th %r"=r ssi& s as th -ith rin= a-a? "# an id "l"=i9al #"r!ati"n a99"!pani d b? a K-ill d l"ss "# ! !"r?C' Ah h"p "# a r &"luti"nar? trans#"r!ati"n, $ pt ali& #"r a -hil , #ad d -ith a9h bl"- t" s"9ialist !"& ! nts in India and ls -h r , 9ul!inatin=

26

-ith th br a$(up "# th S"&i t Dni"n' ;ritin= "n th da? th S"&i t #la= -as r pla9 d b? th indi&idual #la=s "# th &ari"us r publi9s, Ali Sardar >a#ri -r"t a dir= , -hi9h -hil !"urnin= th 9urr nt !"! nt, s ! d t" b an "bituar? "# th %;A its l#' 0lvida ai surkh par%ham! surkh par%ham alvida 0i nishaan-e a)m-e ma)loomaan-e aalam alvida Deeda-e purnam ne kal dil se kaha tha marhaba 0a lekin kah rahi hai %hashm-e purnam alvida 2a)mgaah-e khair-o shar mei& yaad aayegi teri "aa& mai& ab aur lashkar-e 3blees-e 0a)am alvida 0i furaat-e tishnakaamaan-e ihaad-e )indagi ,hul)um-e tishnaalabi ki mau -e barham alvida Far - ll O R d Fla=, R d Fla= #ar - ll Far - ll, O s?!b"l "# th d?nast? "# th "ppr ss d Aill ? st rda?, !? bri!!in= ? s 9h r d ?"u "n A"da?, th s ? s #ill d -ith t ars, bid ?"u #ar - ll E"u -ill b !iss d in th battl s b t- n =""d and &il A"da? I #ind !?s l# al"n in th #i=ht a=ainst th +r at Satan, #ar - ll O, th ri& r that sla$ d th thirst "# th !art?rs in th stru==l "# li# O, a= r -a& s that # d th par9h d "n s, #ar - ll

After Independence: The All Pakistan Progressive Writers’ Association
Ind p nd n9 br"u=ht ab"ut s & ral 9han= s in th 9ultural and p"liti9al lands9ap "# th nati"ns "# India and %a$istan, !an? "# -hi9h had si=ni#i9ant i!pli9ati"ns #"r th %r"=r ssi& s' F"r "n , th %artiti"n di&id d th Drdu lit rar? 9"!!unit? int" t-", & n i# it did n"t ruptur its shar d s 9ular 9hara9t r3' Alth"u=h this 9"!!unit? -as r 9"nstitut d t" th d =r p"ssibl =i& n th 9"nstraints "# th n - p"liti9al 9"nt 6t L -rit rs #r"! b"th sid s 9"ntinu d t" publish in a9h "th rCs !a=azin s and ta$ part in i!p"rtant int ll 9tual d bat s L th r - r #r sh p"liti9al 9hall n= s and n - id "l"=i9al di&id s t" b d alt -ith' S""n a#t r Ind p nd n9 , th pr"=r ssi& -rit rs "# %a$istan s t ab"ut pr"du9in= 6pli9it 9ritiIu s "# th n -, and in th ir !ind n "9"l"nial, stat , -hi9h - r publish d in s & ral n -spap rs and p ri"di9als und r th u!br lla "# %r"=r ssi& %ap rs Li!it d 4%%L5,

2)

a h"ldin= 9"!pan? that -as s t up b? Mian I#ti$haruddin, a staun9h s"9ialist' Ah stablish! nt, in turn, laun9h d an assault "n th L #t thr"u=h a !ulti(pr"n= d strat =?1 dis9r ditin= th s"9ialist &isi"n b? usin= th B"ld ;ar pr"pa=anda, pr s ntin= th %r"=r ssi& s as Fi#th 9"lu!nists and n !i s "# th %a$istani nati"n(stat and 9"ns"lidatin= th id "l"=i9al #r"nt a=ainst th ! -ithin th lit rar? 9ultural sph r ' Ah s ! asur s - r ba9$ d b? th 9" r9i& p"- r "# th stat -hi9h -as in9r asin=l? dir 9t d a=ainst pr"=r ssi& publi9ati"ns and ! !b rs "# th ass"9iati"n' M tin=s - r r =ularl? disrupt d, publi9ati"ns pr"s9rib d and a9ti&ists i!pris"n d' On "# th !"st =r =i"us "# th s r pr ssi& ! asur s -as th arr st and trial "# Faiz Ah!ad Faiz and SaJJad Fah r 4-h" had b n d put d b? th B%I t" h lp -ith th !"& ! nt in %a$istan5 in th Ra-alpindi B"nspira9? Bas in 13*1' Faiz and Fah r, al"n= -ith s"! s ni"r ar!? "##i9 rs su9h as MaJ"r IshaI, - r 9har= d -ith 9"nspirin= t" "& rthr"- th ="& rn! nt and sp nt s & ral ? ars in pris"n' Ah s a9ti"ns laid th #"undati"n #"r th ulti!at bannin= "# th B"!!unist %art? "# %a$istan 4B%%5 and its &ari"us #r"nts in 13*/' Ah %r"=r ssi& 9ritiIu "# th Musli! L a=u ="& rn! nt and th 9lass int r sts it r pr s nt d b =an al!"st as s""n as %a$istan -as #"r!all? stablish d' Ah lin ta$ n b? th %a$istani L #t -as strid nt in t"n and a==r ssi& in its d !ands10' ;ith th as9 ndan9? "# th n - Ranadi& d"9trin -ithin th B%I, th "ld Kunit d #r"ntC p"li9? "# 9lass 9"llab"rati"n a=ainst i!p rialis! -as aband"n d in #a&"ur "# an 6pli9itl? anti(9apitalist lin 11' Sin9 th B%% -as n"t stablish d till th S 9"nd B"!!unist %art? "# India B"n=r ss in 13/0, th %r"=r ssi& ;rit rsC Ass"9iati"n -as th "nl? "r=aniz d plat#"r! #"r id "l"=i9al -"r$ a&ailabl t" %a$istani l #tists and thus a9Iuir d =r at si=ni#i9an9 ' Alth"u=h th %a$istani %r"=r ssi& ;rit rsC Ass"9iati"n 4A%%;A5 did n"t t 9hni9all? 6ist until its #"r!al stablish! nt durin= th 13/3 9"n# r n9 , indi&idual bran9h s "# th ass"9iati"n had start d #un9ti"nin= i!! diat l? a#t r th %artiti"n in b"th Lah"r and Kara9hi, -hil n - r bran9h s 9"ntinu d t" b stablish d in "th r t"-ns and 9iti s "# th n - stat ' Ah %%L pr"&id d an instituti"nal plat#"r! #"r th %a$istani L #t, parti9ularl? #"r its %r"=r ssi& -rit rs' Ah sta## list "# %%L n -spap rs and p ri"di9als r ad li$ a ! !b rship list "# th %;A' Faiz Ah!ad Faiz -as th dit"r(in( 9hi #, Mazhar Ali Khan -as app"int d as th dit"r "# th -akistan

20

/imes! Ah!ad ,ad ! Has!i dit d 3mro)e, -hil Lail-o-$ihaar -as Sibt HasanCs d"!ain' Ah 9ru9ial r"l pla? d b? %%L as a plat#"r! #"r th %a$istani L #t, sp 9iall? a#t r th ban "n th B%% and th A%%;A, is &id nt #r"! th #a9t that "n "# + n ral A?ub KhanCs #irst a9ts a#t r th O9t"b r 13*0 9"up -as t" ta$ "& r th 9"!pan? and stablish its publi9ati"ns int" "r=ans "# th sarkari 4"##i9ial5 &"i9 ' Ah Ranadi& lin #"und 6pr ssi"n in th rh t"ri9 and ta9ti9s "# th %r"=r ssi& -rit rs & n b #"r A%%;A -as #"r!all? 9"ns"lidat d int" "n all(%a$istan ass"9iati"n in ,"& !b r 13/3' Ah %r"=r ssi& 9ritiIu "# th %a$istani stat , and its 9all #"r a lit ratur "# a s"9ialist r &"luti"n b 9a! !"r and !"r 6pli9it, sp 9iall? in th arti9l s publish d in th !aJ"r %r"=r ssi& !a=azin s "# this p ri"d L 8avera! $a'ush! 8ang-e 1eel and 0dab-e Latif. Ah !"r radi9al ! !b rs "# th A%%;A L Sa#dar Mir, Sibt Hasan, HaJra Masr""r, Ah!ad ,ad ! Has!i, Abdullah Mali$, Ari# Abdul Mat n, Fah r Kash!iri, Mu!taz Hussain, KhadiJa Mast""r, a!"n= "th rs L 9a! t" b $n"-n as th KSa& ra =r"upC' Ah n - Kta$ n" pris"n rsC stan9 "# th B"!!unist %art? -as a si=ni#i9ant d partur #r"! th arli r strat =? "# th Dnit d Fr"nt, -hi9h -as n"- s n as a #"r! "# 9"llab"rati"n' ;hil this !"& has b n "#t n r ad b? 9riti9s as th r as"n #"r th Kis"lati"nC "# th 9"!!unists in %a$istan and #"r th ban pla9 d "n th A%%;A, th %a$istani %r"=r ssi& s t""$ -hat th ? b li & d -as th "nl? p"ssibl prin9ipl d stan9 -ithin th n - n "9"l"nial 9"nt 6t' Ah #a9t that th ? ulti!at l? 9"uld n"t h"ld "ut a=ainst th stat p"- r, at l ast in th "r=anizati"nal 9"nt 6t, sh"uld n"t b und rst""d as a K#ailur C "n th ir part' +i& n th d"! sti9 and int rnati"nal p"liti9al r ( ali=n! nts -hi9h #"ll"- d Ind p nd n9 , it is -"rth n"tin= that th %r"=r ssi& s - r th "nl? "n s -h" 9"nsist ntl? arti9ulat d a si=ni#i9ant 9ritiIu "# th litist stablish! nt' Alth"u=h th l"ss "# "r=anizati"nal and instituti"nal plat#"r!s -as 9l arl? a s & r bl"- t" th L #t, it is in9"rr 9t t" assu! that th ban !ar$s th Kd athC "# th %r"=r ssi& M"& ! nt in %a$istani lit ratur ' Ahis has 9l arl? n"t b n th 9as , as s & ral = n rati"ns "# %a$istani -rit rs and p" ts ha& d !"nstrat d, #r"! Habib >alib and Ah!ad Faraz in th 1360s and 13)0s t" th # !inist p" ts su9h as Kish-ar ,ah d and F h!ida Ri?az in th 1300s and lat r' B sid s, ar=u! nts ab"ut th Kd 9lin C "# th %r"=r ssi& M"& ! nt in %a$istan ar t nabl "nl? i# "n l""$s in th -r"n= pla9 s' B? all

23

a99"unts, pr"=r ssi& p" tr? in %a$istan is ali& and - ll L itCs Just n"t -h r p "pl 6p 9t it t" b 4"r "nl? th r 5' F"r 6a!pl , th pr"=r ssi& &"i9 in %a$istan is in9r asin=l? t" b #"und in n"n(Drdu lit rar? spa9 s su9h as Sindhi, %unJabi and Hind$"' >ust as i!p"rtantl?, th pr"=r ssi& &"i9 in Drdu lit ratur 9an n" l"n= r b id nti#i d -ith "n lit rar? =r"up "r #a9ti"n' Alth"u=h s"9ialis! !a? n" l"n= r b th #ra! "# r # r n9 , th pr"=r ssi& s nti! nt in#us s, in#"r!s, and s"! -"uld sa?, d"!inat s a si=ni#i9ant part "# Drdu lit rar? pr"du9ti"n in %a$istan & n t"da?' Ahis is th l =a9? "# a = n rati"n "# -rit rs, -h" a=ainst all "dds, st""d up t" th stat and th stablish! nt, "#t n pa?in= a h a&? p rs"nal pri9 in th pr"9 ss' In . 9 !b r 1300 th Kara9hi %r ss Blub, dir 9tl? #l"utin= th "rd rs "# th Fia(ul(HaI ="& rn! nt, "r=aniz d a =ath rin= und r th st -ardship "# Sibt Hasan t" # li9itat Habib >alib' >alib had a l"n=(standin= and hard( arn d r putati"n as a #ir brand -h" had "pp"s d !ilitar? di9tat"rships #"r ? ars' A#t r all, this -as th sa! 9"ura= "us p" t -h"s & rs s had d #in d th an= r "# th p "pl at A?ub KhanCs 9"nstituti"n in 1362' >alibCs -"rds, si!pl and rin=in=, had #ra! d th diss nt a=ainst di9tat"rship in %a$istan thus1 Deep is ka mahallaat hi mei& ale Chand logon ki khushiyo& ko le kar %hale Voh o saaye mei& har maslehat ke pale 0ise dastoor ko! subh-e benoor ko 1ai& nahi& maanta9 1ai& nahi& aanta9 A la!p that sh ds li=ht "nl? "n pala9 s Ahat 9at rs t" th -hi!s "# a 9h"s n # Ahat #l"urish s in th shad"- "# 9"!pr"!is Ahis s?st !, this li=ht(star& d !"rnin= I d" n"t a99 ptM >alib -h" -as i!pris"n d s & ral ti! s, in9ludin= durin= th Fia r =i! , had "nl? r 9 ntl? b n r l as d #r"! Jail' Far #r"! b in= t !p r d b? his punish! nt, th A&aa!i Shaa?ar 4%" t "# th % "pl 5 b =an -ith a 9hara9t risti9all? hard(hittin= na)m that atta9$ d th di9tat"r thr"u=h a 9l & r but "b&i"us par"d? that pla? d "n th -"rd )ia 4Li=ht5, 9"ntrastin= it -ith )ulmat 4.ar$n ss51 :ulmat ko 6:ia’! sarsar ko saba! bande ko khuda kya likhna; ,ya likhna; -atthar ko gohar! deewaar ko dar! ugnu ko diya kya likhna; ,ya likhna;

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<k hashr bapa hai ghar ghar mei&! dum ghut-ta hai gumbad-e be-dar mei& <k sha's ke haatho& muddat se rusva hai vatan duniya bhar mei& 0i deedavaro! is )illat ko! 'ismat ka likha kya likhna;,ya likhna; ;h? r # r t" .ar$n ss as Li=ht, -rit "# a rustl as i# it is th -ind, Or "# a !an as i# h is +"dN ;h?N ;h? 9all a st"n a dia!"nd, a d""r a -all ;h? -rit that a #ir #l? is a la!pN ;h?N A 9r? "# =ri # ris s in & r? h"us , - ar s!"th r d in this airl ss t"!b On !anCs a9ti"ns ha& sha! d "ur 9"untr? all "& r th -"rld ; -h" 9an s , -h? sh"uld - 9"nsid r this hu!iliati"n Is but "ur -ritt n #at N ;h?N All that r !ains "# that . 9 !b r 1300 ! tin= is a s9rat9h? audi"tap , but th r 9"rdin= still r s"unds -ith th &"i9 "# r sistan9 and th d t r!inati"n "# stru==l ' >alibCs 9hara9t risti9 sar9as! is "n a!pl displa? in his p" ! s$ - rin= th rul rs "# %a$istan and th ir subs r&i n9 t" th n - i!p rialist "rd r1 =irangi ka o mai& darbaan hota /o eena kis 'adar aasaan hota 1ere ba%h%he bhi 0mreeka mei& padte 1ai& har garmi mei& 3nglistaan hota 1eri <nglish bala ki %hust hoti Bala se o na *rdudaan hota +huka ke sar ko ho aata o 8ir mai& /o leader bhi a)eem-ush shaan hota :ameene& meri har soobe mei& hoti 1ai& wallaah sadr-e -akistaan hota Had I t"" b n a 9"urti r "# th i!p rialists Li# -"uld ha& b n a pi 9 "# 9a$ M? 9hildr n t"" -"uld ha& studi d in A! ri9a And & r? su!! r -"uld ha& b n sp nt in 7n=land' M? 7n=lish -"uld b d &ilishl? 9l & r Had I n"t b n a l"-l? Drdu -aala Had I b"- d !? h ad #"r a $ni=hth""d I t"" -"uld ha& b n 9all d an 6alt d l ad r' I -"uld ha& "-n d lands in & r? r =i"n B? +"dM I 9"uld ha& b n th %r sid nt "# %a$istanM

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An"th r p" t -h" has $ pt th pr"=r ssi& s nti! nt blazin= is Ah!ad Faraz, -h" d spit b in= i!pris"n d and 6il d durin= FiaCs r =i! 9"ntinu d t" 9"!p"s p" !s ab"ut th i!p"rtan9 "# #r d"!, di=nit? and stru==l ' Dsin= th a sth ti9 p"pulariz d b? th arli r %r"=r ssi& s, Faraz -rit s1 2aat ke aa&-gu)aar )ulmat mei& 0)m ki mash’ale& alaae hue Dil mei& lekar baghaavato& ke sharaar Vahshato& ke muheeb saaye mei& 8ar-bakaf! aa&-balab! nigaah-ba-'asr 8urkh-o khoonee alam uthhaaye hue Badh rahe hai& unoo& ke aalam mei& Chand naadaan! %hand deevaane In th !urd r"us dar$n ss Ha&in= lit th t"r9h s "# th ir d t r!inati"n Barr?in= th spar$s "# r b lli"n in th ir h arts In th inti!idatin= shad"-s "# dan= r H ads hi=h, li& s "n th ir lips, and ? s "n th pala9 Barr?in= r d, bl""dstain d bann rs Ah ? !ar9h -ith #r nz? Ah"s #""lish "n s, th"s !ad "n s . spit th "pp"siti"n th ? #a9 d #r"! th stablish! nt, th %r"=r ssi& s !ad a d p i!pa9t "n th p "pl "# %a$istan, parti9ularl? its -"r$ rs and p asants' ;h n th A%%;A h ld its #irst All %a$istan B"n# r n9 in Lah"r in 13/3, it #a9 d si=ni#i9ant harass! nt b? th stat and its alli s -ithin th K9i&il s"9i t?C' +""ns and st""= s l d b? Sar"sh Kash!iri 4th dit"r "# th - $l? Chataan! and a di hard "pp"n nt "# th pr"=r ssi& -rit rs5 tri d t" disrupt th pr"9 din=s' Ha! d A$htar r 9alls that, un#"rtunat l? #"r th hir lin=s, th =ath rin= -as att nd d b? a lar= nu!b r "# p asants 9arr?in= th ir traditi"nal lathis' Sin9 th =at 9rash rs - r n"t pr par d #"r this "pp"siti"n, th ? - r asil? r"ut d' Ah 9"n# r n9 nd d -ith th sp a$ rs and th =u sts s9"rt d d"-n th Mall R"ad a99"!pani d b? th ir i!pr"!ptu =uardsM

Bol, Ke a! Aa"aad #ain Tere
Ah %;A - nt thr"u=h a li# 9?9l "# birth, rapid =r"-th, and & ntual d 9lin and an 6a!inati"n "# this pr"9 ss r & als a l"t

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ab"ut Drdu and its n=a= ! nt -ith issu s "# nati"nalis!, 9lass, r li=i"n and s"9ial Justi9 ' Ah ass"9iati"nCs insist n9 "n a pr"=r ssi& s"9ial s nsibilit? -as s" p"- r#ul that it 9r at d a n ar( 9"ns nsus in th #i ld "# Drdu lit rar? pr"du9ti"n #"r s & ral d 9ad s, d"!inatin= th lit rar? a= nda "# its ti! s d spit th "bsta9l s it #a9 d' Ah %r"=r ssi& s #ashi"n d a n - p" ti9 traditi"n, turnin= th 9"n& nti"nal ! taph"rs "# shamaparwaana 4#la! (!"th5, firaa'visaal 4s parati"n(uni"n5 and husn-ish' 4b aut?(l"& 5 "n th ir h ads in th s r&i9 "# a n - a sth ti9 "# s"9ial 9han= ' Inst ad "# -ritin= =hazals ab"ut pinin= l"& rs, th ? p nn d p"pular p" !s t" 9 l brat pr"=r ss and !"d rnit?' Inst ad "# l =i s t" MaJn""n and Farhad, th ? 9"!p"s d dir= s ab"ut !art?r d r &"luti"nari s li$ %atri9 Lu!u!ba and Martin Luth r Kin=' Ah ri&al in l"& >ra'eeb? -as r 9ast n"t as a hat d #i=ur but as a # ll"- 9"!batant in a r &"luti"nar? 9aus ' Ah pla?#ul i9"n"9las! "# th ="dl ss -as trans#"r! d int" a n"(h"lds barr d atta9$ "n th "rth"d"6? and 9"ns r&atis! "# r li=i"us pra9ti9 s' Ah "nl? s ri"us lit rar? 4and ulti!at l? p"liti9al, sin9 th abs n9 "# p"liti9s is a $ind "# p"liti9s in its l#5 "pp"siti"n t" it -as th lit rar? t nd n9? $n"-n as adidiyat 4a !"r "r l ss dir 9t and s l#( 9"ns9i"us translati"n "# K!"d rnis!C L as an a sth ti9 and #"r!alPst?listi9 !"& ! ntPpr "99upati"n5' Ah >adidi?at M"& ! nt in Drdu lit ratur that 9a! t" th #"r a#t r Ind p nd n9 -as r pr s nt d b? th HalIa( Arbaab( FauI L th Ass"9iati"n "# th A sth t s L -hi9h -as stablish d in "pp"siti"n t" th %;ACs d !and that -rit rs us th ir -"r$s t" #ul#il a s"9ial r sp"nsibilit?' ,"t-ithstandin= this di## r n9 , th r -as a 9"nsid rabl "& rlap b t- n th %;A and th HalIa, b"th in t r!s "# ! !b rship and id "l"=?, sp 9iall? "n th issu s "# nati"nalis! and s 9ularis!' Even though the 2rogressive -riters1 $ssociation eventually collapsed, the 2rogressive +ovement it fostered and the ideals it espoused dominated literary production for most of the century and remain popular to this day The 2rogressives actively engaged in the process of creating a community of writers and poets which saw itself not merely as a group that produced art3for3art1s3sake but as one that engaged with the issues of the times in order to make an intervention in the cause of egalitarianism and "ustice It was a community that was not based on an inherited or

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imposed identity, but one that -as #"und d "n th basis "# id "l"=i s and pra6is, "n that did n"t b li & in th p"ssibilit? "# a Just s"9i t?, and "n that 9"nsist ntl? and 9"ura= "usl? sp"$ truth t" p"- r: s nti! nts that #ind &"i9 in FaizCs p" ! KB"lC 4Sp a$51 Bol ke lab aa)aad hai& tere Bol )abaa& ab tak teri hai /era sutvaa& ism hai tera Bol ke aa& ab tak teri hai Dekh ke aahangar ki dukaa& mei& /und hai& sholay! surkh hai aahan ,hulne lage 'uflo& ke dahaane -haila har ek )an eer ka daaman Bol ye thoda wa't bahut hai +ism-o )abaa& ki maut se pehle Bol ke sa%h )inda hai ab tak Bol o ku%h kahna hai! kah le Sp a$, #"r ?"ur lips ar still #r Sp a$, #"r ?"ur t"n=u is still ?"urs E"ur b"d?, th"u=h #rail, is still ?"urs Sp a$, #"r ?"ur li# is still ?"urs L""$, in th bla9$s!ithCs -"r$sh"p Ah #la! s ar h"t, th st l is r d Ah !"uths "# th l"9$s ar b =innin= t" "p n Ah lin$s "# 9hains ar 9"!in= und"n Sp a$, #"r th littl ti! ?"u ha& is n"u=h B #"r ?"ur b"d? and t"n=u di Sp a$, #"r truth still li& s Sp a$ up, sa? that -hi9h ?"u !ustM

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2
URDU POETRY AND THE PROGRESSIVE AESTHETIC
=an o naadaar tak nahi& pahun%ha 0pne meyaar tak nahi& pahun%ha Ah art that d" snCt r a9h th p""r Has n"t a9hi & d its p"t ntial L Sahir Ludhian&i Ah issu "# Kp "pl Cs artC has "99upi d s9h"lars, thin$ rs, phil"s"ph rs and a9ti&ists "# th L #t #"r "& r a hundr d ? ars 12' A &ari t? "# Iu sti"ns ha& b n rais d in this 9"nn 9ti"n1 ;hat 9"nstitut s p "pl Cs artN ;hat is th r"l "# art in pr"&"$in= s"9ial 9han= N At -hat l & l "# si!pli9it? "r 9"!pl 6it? !ust art b pit9h d t" th p "pl N I# n s"9i t? is b"rn "ut "# th "ld, is n - 9ultur t"" b"rn "ut "# th "ldN Ar l ! nts "# a pr"l tarian 9ultur and 9i&ilizati"n alr ad? pr s nt in th b"ur= "is p"9hN I# s", -hat d" s this i!pl? #"r th"s -h" ar n=a= d in "r=anisin= th -"r$in= 9lassN Is th r a n d #"r 9ultural "r=anizati"ns "# th pr"l tariat al"n= -ith 9"n"!i9 and p"liti9al "n sN ;hat sh"uld art(as(d"9trin l""$ li$ N Ah s - r s"! "# th Iu sti"ns that n=a= d th artists "# th %r"=r ssi& ;rit rsC Ass"9iati"n 4%;A5, -hi9h in its [email protected]* !ani# st" had pr"!is d t" Kr s9u lit ratur and "th r arts #r"! th pri stl?, a9ad !i9 and d 9ad nt 9lass s in -h"s hands th ? ha& d = n rat d s" l"n=: t" brin= th arts int" th 9l"s st t"u9h -ith th p "pl ''' 4t"5 d al -ith th basi9 pr"bl !s "# "ur 6ist n9 t"da? L th pr"bl !s "# hun= r and p"& rt?, s"9ial ba9$-ardn ss and p"liti9al subJu=ati"n, s" that it !a? h lp us t" und rstand th s pr"bl !s and thr"u=h su9h und rstandin= h lp us t" a9t'C Ah %;A b"rr"- d h a&il? #r"! a dis9"urs that had b n pla?in= its l# "ut in th L #t at l ast sin9 th arl? t- nti th 9 ntur?' Ah [email protected] r s"luti"n "# th S"&i t B"!!unist %art? that 9r at d th Dni"n "# S"&i t ;rit rs and pr"!"t d th d"9trin "# S"9ialist

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R alis! "nl? sharp n d th d bat ' Ah %;A t""$ its 9u s #r"! th "rists su9h as + "r=i %l $han"& 4-h" insist d that th b li # in art #"r artCs sa$ aris s "nl? -h n artists ar "ut "# har!"n? -ith th ir s"9ial n&ir"n! nt5, Ma6i! +"r$? 4-h"s 9"nt nti"n -as that Kth r"tt n s"ul "# th b"ur= "isi C #ail d t" und rstand that 9ultural d & l"p! nt sh"uld r sult in pr"=r ss #"r all "# hu!anit? and, th r #"r , pr"du9 d lit ratur that pr"!"t s K9h ats and thi & s as h r" sC5, <ladi!ir Ma?a$"&s$i 4-h"s p"siti"n -as that art sh"uld b addr ss d t" th !ass s, th -"r$ rs and th p asants, and "u=ht n"t t" b dir 9t d at th # - 9"n"!i9 and s"9ial lit s5, Ma" As ( Aun= 4-h" th"u=ht that th artist sh"uld l arn #r"! th p "pl and n"t th "th r -a? ar"und5, and a &ari t? "# "th rs li$ B rt"lt Br 9ht, ;alt r B nJa!in and Lu Qun' Ah arl? appr"a9h "# th -rit rs -h" pr"du9 d 0ngaare 4a 9"ll 9ti"n "# sh"rt st"ri s publish d in [email protected] that spurr d th #"r!ati"n "# th %;A5 s ! d t" ta$ a l a# "ut "# th 1312 !ani# st" -ritt n b? <i9t"r Khl bni$"& titl d KA Slap in th Fa9 "# %ubli9 Aast C -hi9h r 9"!! nd d that th"s -h" - r 9"!pla9 nt ab"ut th past and th pr s nt n d d t" b sh"9$ d int" a9$n"-l d=in= n - s"9i"(p"liti9al r aliti s' 0ngaare did pr 9is l? that, parti9ularl? thr"u=h SaJJad Fah rCs st"r? K>annat $i BashaaratC 4A <isi"n "# H a& n5, a st"r? that ridi9ul d th r li=i"us "rth"d"6? in a rath r sh"9$in= #ashi"n' As th %;A =ain d !"! ntu!, th Iu sti"n "# -hat 9"nstitut d pr"=r ssi& lit ratur -as rais d p ri"di9all? and d bat d &i="r"usl?' Ah #irst !aJ"r 9"ntr"& rs? -ithin th !"& ! nt sur#a9 d ar"und [email protected] -h n Ah! d Ali, "n "# th 9"ntribut"rs t" 0ngaare and th th n dit"r "# th 7n=lish(lan=ua= pr"=r ssi& J"urnal $ew 3ndian Literature 9"nt nd d that th r -as a =r"-in= t nsi"n b t- n -hat h t r! d th K9r ati& s 9ti"nC and th Kp"liti9al s 9ti"nC "# th !"& ! nt' Ah latt r, h 9lai! d, - r pr ssurizin= hi! t" r #us t" publish -"r$ -hi9h -as n"t si=ni#i9ant #r"! th p"int "# &i - "# th -"r$ rs and p asants' S""n a#t r, and pr"babl? as a 9"ns Iu n9 "# this ri#t, Ah! d Ali dr"pp d "ut "# th %;A, and th J"urnal 9 as d publi9ati"n' Ah d bat 9"ntinu d "& r th n 6t s & ral ? ars -ith th s"(9all d Kp"liti9al s 9ti"nC ta$in= 9"ntr"l "& r th !"& ! nt' Mu9h "# th -ritin= #"ll"-in= this -as "# th Kdida9ti9C $ind and lit rar? pr"du9ti"n -as d"!inat d b? -"r$ that -as 6pli9itl? s"9ialist in its p"liti9s' Ahis !"d "# 9ultural pr"du9ti"n #a9 d a si=ni#i9ant a!"unt "#

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r sistan9 and !"r than a littl ridi9ul #r"! &ari"us #a9ti"ns "# Drdu lit ratur [email protected]' In r sp"ns t" this 9riti9is!, Abdul Al ! -r"t a s ri s "# ssa?s titl d 8ome 1isunderstandings about -rogressive Literature in -hi9h, a!"n= "th r thin=s, h ar=u d that, in 9"nt !p"rar? -ritin=, 9"nt nt sh"uld ta$ pr 9 d n9 "& r #"r!' %r "99upati"n -ith #"r!, h 9"nt nd d, -as th hall!ar$ "# indi&idualis! and n =at d th & r? basis "# pr"=r ssi& lit ratur ' Ah passi"n #"r 9"nt nt l d th %r"=r ssi& s t" 9hall n= 6istin= lit rar? n"r!s in !ultipl -a?s' 7& n th & n rabl =hazal 9a! in #"r its shar "# #la$ and -as r # rr d t" as a ! diu! "# r a9ti"nar? th"u=ht and an instru! nt that r #l 9t d an ra "# aagirdaari and ayyaashi 4# udalis! and d bau9h r?5' A$htar Ansar . hl&i, Mu!taz Hussain and Int shar Hussain all -r"t s9athin= 9ritiIu s "# th =hazal ar=uin= that d spit its b aut? and d pth, K 7ha)al apni )ahniyat ki va ah se a)baati lamho& aur aari)i kaifiyato& ki tar umaani ban kar rah aati hai 4B 9aus "# its t !p ra! nt, th =hazal r !ains a ! r translati"n "# !"ti"nal !"! nts and transi nt 9"nditi"ns5C' Ah =hazal, a99"rdin= t" th s int rl"9ut"rs, 9"uld n"t d al -ith th li# "# th 9"!!"n p "pl "r th n - 9ultur and that its tang-daamani! "r narr"-n ss, !ad it an unsuitabl !"d "# 6pr ssi"n #"r pr"=r ssi& th"u=ht' Ahis 9ritiIu , in9id ntall?, -as !"r than a bit "dd sin9 !"st, i# n"t all, "# th pr"=r ssi& Drdu p" ts 9h"s t" -rit =hazals at s"! p"int "r th "th r in th ir lit rar? li& s' MaJr""h Sultanpuri, in parti9ular, n & r r all? sa9ri#i9 d th #"r! at th altar "# 9"nt nt, 9h""sin= inst ad t" r -"r$ this = nr in "rd r t" p n rath r radi9al & rs s in th =hazal traditi"n1 0b ahl-e dard ye eene ka ehtemaam kare& *se bhula ke gham-e )indagi ka naam kare& 8ikhaaye& dast-e talab ko adaa-e bebaaki -ayaam-e )er-e labi ko salaa-e aam kare& 7hulaam rah %huke! tode& ye band-e ruswaai ,u%h apne baa)u-e mehnat ka ehteraam kare& L t th l"& rs pr par t" #a9 th -"rld F"r= t th ir b l"& ds, #"9us "n th s"rr"-s "# Li# A a9h th suppli9atin= hand t" b b"ld Aurn that -hi9h has b n -hisp r d int" a publi9 9r? Sla& s n" !"r , br a$ th # tt rs "# dish"n"ur

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L arn t" r sp 9t th hands that lab"ur Ahis dra!ati9all? di## r nt =hazal in9lud d th startlin= makhta 4si=natur 9"upl t5, that -as d rid d b? !an? purists and ="t MaJr""h a dr ssin= d"-n #r"! Rashid Ah! d SiddiIui #"r stra?in= t"" #ar #r"! 9"n& nti"n1 1eri nigaah mei& hai ar)-e 1os%ow! 1a rooh Voh sar )amee& ke sitaare ise salaam kare& I b h"ld th land "# M"s9"-, MaJr""h L""$, th stars t"" salut it Ah %;A !ana= d t" h"ld th lin #"r th !"st part a=ainst -hat it th"u=ht -as r a9ti"nar? & rs and r l ntl ssl? push d th 9aus "# usin= art as a t""l #"r in&"$in= s"9ial and !at rial 9"nditi"ns and ## 9tin= trans#"r!ati& p"liti9s' Ah a!bi&al n9 "# s"! "# th -rit rs "# this p ri"d did #ind p ri"di9 &"i9 , but #"r th !"st part, th %;A r !ain d th h = !"ni9 #"r9 b hind 9ultural pr"du9ti"n in this p ri"d "# Drdu lit ratur ' ;hil !an? "# its stal-arts - r 9ard(9arr?in= ! !b rs "# th B"!!unist %art?, th %;A -as laun9h d -ith a 9ast "# 9hara9t rs that in9lud d 9"!!unists su9h as SaJJad Fah r, +andhians su9h as %r !9hand and a -h"l h"st "# "th rs -h" "99upi d &ari"us p"siti"ns "n th id "l"=i9al sp 9tru!' ;hat $ pt th s di& rs =r"ups t"= th r -as a shar d s ns "# s"lidarit? in th stru==l a=ainst th British "99upi rs' Ah s"9ial 9"nditi"ns #"ll"-in= Ind p nd n9 - r d &astatin= #"r th %;A' Ah %artiti"n di&id d th nati"n and its -rit rs int" t-"' Ah 9l a&a= -as parti9ularl? trau!ati9 #"r th %;A sin9 its str n=th la? in Drdu, %unJabi and B n=ali: all "# th ! lin=uisti9 9"!!uniti s that #"und th !s l& s "n di## r nt sid s "# th n b"rd rs' S""n a#t r Ind p nd n9 , th n -l? #"r! d stat s "# India and %a$istan b =an t" 6 r9is th ir r pr ssi& p"- r a=ainst th ir "-n 9itiz ns' Ah! d Rahi -rit s1 1aayoosi mei& umr kati thi! aas ne angdaayi si li thi 8o%ha tha 'ismat badlegi! lekin hum ne dhoka khaaya Our li& s - r sp nt in d spair: h"p had b =un t" stir in "ur h arts

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; th"u=ht "ur d stin? -"uld 9han= , but alas, - - r d 9 i& d As Ali Sardar >a#ri put it, th Kr"!anti9is!C n= nd r d b? th r &"luti"nar? # r&"ur "# th Ind p nd n9 stru==l =a& -a? t" Kr alis!C' As a r sp"ns t" th 9han=in= ti! s, th %;A, spurr d b? th l 9ti"n "# th radi9al B'A' Ranadi& 4"& r th !"d rat %'B' >"shi5 t" th p"siti"n "# th + n ral S 9r tar? "# th B"!!unist %art? "# India 4B%I5, 9a! "ut -ith its !"st 6pli9itl? l #tist !ani# st" in 13/3 at th Bhi&andi 9"n# r n9 4n"t 9"in9id ntall?, a si!ilar !ani# st" -as pr"du9 d b? th n -l? #"r! d %a$istan %;A at th sa! ti! 5' In an att !pt t" 9r at id "l"=i9al 9larit? #"r a !"& ! nt that -as thr at nin= t" l"s its b arin=, th !ani# st" t""$ an un9"!pr"!isin=l? s"9ialist stand' Ali Sardar >a#ri #"ll"- d up -ith an dit"rial in $aya 0dab and an ssa? titl d KAaraIIi %asand Shairi $ Baaz MasaaC lC 4S"! Issu s Fa9in= %r"=r ssi& %" tr?5' MaJ"r p ri"di9als "# th ti! su9h as 8hahraa)! 1ahaa) and /ahreek publish d this ssa?, thus si=nallin= t" th ir 9"ntribut"rs that th s - r th n - =uid lin s "# th ti! s' A!"n= "th r thin=s, >a#riCs ssa? s"u=ht t" "## r a #"r!ula "# s"rts #"r -ritin= pr"=r ssi& lit ratur ' S"! "# its su== sti"ns - r 1 15 Ah th ! s "# pr"=r ssi& p" tr? sh"uld b bas d "n gham-e duaraa& "r th 4!at rial5 s"rr"-s "# th -"rld, n"t gham-e aanaa& "r gham-e )aat 4th s"rr"-s "# th h art "r th s l#5' In#iraadi ehsaasPta rube 4p rs"nal # lin=sP 6p ri n9 s5 - r th si=ns "# r a9ti"nar? th"u=hts >ru ’at pasandi ki alaamat?. 25 %" ts "u=ht t" #"9us "n issu s "# #r d"!, r &"luti"n and int rnati"nal stru==l s a=ainst "ppr ssi& 9"nditi"ns and r =i! s' @5 Ah"s -h" lab ll d pr"=r ssi& p" tr? as pr"pa=anda and, th r #"r , 9"nsid r d it in# ri"r - r supp"rt rs "# th status Iu" and "# th 9apitalist "rd r and sh"uld b "pp"s d' /5 %r"=r ssi& p" tr? "u=ht t" b 6pli9it' %" ts sh"uld n"t us ! taph"rs and si!il s >iste’aara and tashbeeh5 t" r # r t" "ppr ssi"n, inJusti9 and brutalit?, but na! th s 9"nditi"ns dir 9tl?' *5 %" ts sh"uld -rit & rs s "# "pti!is! 4ra aiyat5 and s9h s"rr"- and la! nt 4gham! udaasi! afsurdagi5' 65 %" ts -h" i=n"r d th !ass s and th ir stru==l s - r =uilt? "# aband"nin= th ir 9allin='

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In r sp"ns t" >a#riCs 9all, p" ts su9h as ;a!iI >aunpuri, ,i?aaz Haidar, Ari# Abdul A! n, Khatir +hazna&i, Ah! d Ri?az, Sulai!an Ar b and "th rs -r"t & rs s ab"ut -"r$ rsC stru==l s in Bhina, >apan, Bur!a, Mala?, Ind"n sia, K"r a, 7=?pt, Aur$ ?, Iran and Aunisia' Briti9s 9har= that th p" tr? "# this ti! -as bland and pr"=ra!!ati9' A 9"ll 9ti"n "# p" !s pr"du9 d durin= this p ri"d titl d 8hikast-e :indaan 4%ris"nCs . # at5 dit d b? +hula! Rabbani AaabaaG ="t a snid r !ar$ #r"! >"sh Malihabadi, hi!s l# a di hard pr"=r ssi& 1 0afree& bar 7hulaam 2abbaani ,ya nikaala hai mendako& ka uloos B"n=ratulati"ns t" +hula! Rabbani F"r =i&in= us this pr"9 ssi"n "# #r"=s Ah 13/3 !ani# st" -as int nd d t" dra- a lin "# id "l"=i9al 9larit?, but th nthusias! -ith -hi9h th l ad rs "# th %;A - nt a#t r th"s -h" app ar d t" 9r"ss it da!a= d its "-n 9aus ' Ah pr"9 ss "# 9hastisin= th p" ts and -rit rs -h" - r s n as =uilt? "# aband"nin= th ir id "l"=? had start d b #"r th n - !ani# st", but int nsi#i d s""n a#t r' Ah publi9 disa&"-al "# Is!at Bhu=htai, Saadat Hasan Mant", ,'M' Rashid and MiraJi #"r th ir -ritin=s "n s 6 and s 6ualit? is - ll $n"-n' RaJ nd r Sin=h B di -as ta$ n t" tas$ #"r n"t #"9usin= "n p"liti9al th ! s in his -ritin=' 7& n Faiz 9a! und r atta9$, !"stl? #"r his Ka!bi=uit?C and -as & n a99us d 49l arl?, a ludi9r"us 9har= 5 "# b in= a Musli! L a=u s?!pathiz r' Ah r - r , "# 9"urs , s"! in th %;A -h" did b 9"! na!"ur d -ith th Musli! L a=u ' Ibrahi! >al s and ,azir H?d rabadi J"in d th MaJlis Itt hadul Musli! n 4Ass"9iati"n #"r th Dnit? "# Musli!s5 and #"r! d th AnJu!an( Musli! Musanni# n 4Ass"9iati"n "# Musli! ;rit rs5' A9r"ss th b"rd r, M'.' Aas r, Mu!taz Shirin, Sa!ad Shah n and "th rs t""$ up th Musli! L a=u 9aus -ith &i="ur' S"lidarit? bas d "n issu s "# s"9ial Justi9 -as sa9ri#i9 d -ith surprisin= as at th altar "# id ntit? p"liti9s bas d "n r li=i"us a##iliati"ns' In India, 9"nditi"ns #"r th L #t ="t -"rs and th ruthl ss 9rushin= "# th A lan=ana M"& ! nt pr"& d t" b a hu= bl"- t" th aspirati"ns "# th"s -h" - r stru==lin= #"r 9lass Iualit?' A -"rri d Indian %;A issu d a n - !ani# st" in 13*@ -hi9h aband"n d th

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l #tist t"n "# 13/3 in #a&"ur "# a s"#t, lib ral lin that 9ha!pi"n d hu!anis! and nati"nalis! -hil 9ar #ull? a&"idin= an? stat ! nt ab"ut 9lass p"liti9s' In !an? -a?s, th n - !ani# st" si=nall d th b =innin= "# th nd "# th phas "# th d"!inati"n "# th %;A in Drdu lit ratur ' ;hil th p" ts 9"ntinu d t" -rit th ir #i r? & rs , th %;A b 9a! a shad"- "# its #"r! r s l#' ;hat d" s "n th n !a$ "# this p ri"d in th hist"r? "# Drdu lit ratur N H"- d" s "n , #r"! th &anta= "# hindsi=ht, !a$ s ns "# th !"& ! nt and its appr"a9h t"-ards 9ultural pr"du9ti"nN Ah 9ritiIu s "# th %;A ar n"t 6a9tl? in sh"rt suppl?' . spit th #a9t that it pr"du9 d th #in st Drdu p" ts "# th t- nti th 9 ntur?, th ass"9iati"n has b n a99us d "# aband"nin= th =l"ri"us traditi"ns "# th Drdu 9lassi9al p" ts, "# pr"du9in= in# ri"r p" tr?, and "# dida9ti9is!, unsubtl t? and p"l !i9is!' ; -ish t", h"- & r, su== st that th s 9har= s 9an sti9$ "nl? i# - r ad th pr"=r ssi& -rit rs in a d 9"nt 6tualiz d !ann r' In an att !pt t" r tri & th ir 9"ntributi"n t" lit ratur and hist"r? 4and i# - !a? b"rr"- a phras , t" r s9u th ! #r"! th 9"nd s9 nsi"n "# hist"r?5, - "## r "ur ta$ "n th pr"=r ssi& a sth ti9'

***

On 9an !a$ a r as"nabl 9lai! that th p ri"d "# th %;A -as hardl? th #irst att !pt t" us Drdu as a & hi9l #"r s"9ial r #"r!' Ah Lah"r !ushaira 4p" ti9 =ath rin=s5 "# 10)/ is but "n 6a!pl , -h r B"l"n l H"lr"?d, th .ir 9t"r "# %ubli9 Instru9ti"n as$ d Drdu p" ts t" -rit p" tr? !"d ll d "n - st rn 6a!pl s, & n su== stin= th th ! "# th n 6t p" ti9 =ath rin= 4th rain? s as"n: a su== sti"n that -as than$#ull? i=n"r dM5' Furth r, Alta# Husain Hali in his land!ar$ -"r$, 1u'addamah-e 8her-o-8hairi! had pr"p"s d a s?st !ati9 th "r? "# lit rar? 9riti9is!, dida9ti9 in t"n and utilitarian in its bas , su== stin= that Drdu 6pand its &"9abular? "# ! taph"rs 4=" b ?"nd th sham’a-parvaana r"utin 5, st"p -ritin= ab"ut th -"nd rs "# -in , s9h - r pr"a9h s t" "rth"d"6? and 6pr ss a &ari t? "# s nti! nts "th r than l"& 4su9h as s"rr"- and s"9ial pr"bl !s5 -hil -ritin= ab"ut l"& its l# in 9"nt 6ts "th r than th r"ti9 "r th !?sti9al 4b?, #"r 6a!pl , in9ludin= th ! s ar"und th l"& "# "n Cs 9"untr?5' In s"! -a?s, th %;A 6p ri! nt 9an b s n as buildin= up"n this hist"r?, th"u=h th pr"=r ssi& -rit rs - nt #ar b ?"nd HaliCs utilitarianis!' Ah %r"=r ssi& s insist d "n l""$in= at p" tr? thr"u=h

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th l ns "# th p"liti9s "# radi9al s"9ial trans#"r!ati"n' H"- & r, th ? did n"t thr"- th bab? "ut -ith th bath(-at r, 9"nstantl? ar=uin= that th purp"s "# th ir -ritin= -as t" build "n th l =a9? "# th past' An dit"rial p nn d b? Sibt Hasan, Ali Sardar >a#ri and Israr(ul HaI MaJaz #"r th inau=ural issu "# $aya 0dab 4April [email protected] s"u=ht t" 6plain th n"ti"n "# pr"=r ssi& lit ratur in th #"ll"-in= #ashi"n1 It is -r"n= t" sa? that th t r! pr"=r ssi& lit ratur d n"t s pr"t st and hatr d "# all "ld thin=s' %r"=r ssi& lit ratur s s all thin=s in th ir pr"p r p rsp 9ti& and hist"ri9al ba9$=r"und: this & r? #a9t is th t"u9hst"n "# lit rar? a9hi & ! nt' %r"=r ssi& lit ratur d" s n"t br a$ "## r lati"ns -ith "ld lit ratur : it !b"di s th b st traditi"ns "# th "ld and 9"nstru9ts n - di#i9 s "n th #"undati"ns "# th s traditi"ns' In #a9t, pr"=r ssi& lit ratur is th !"st trust-"rth? =uardian and h ir "# an9i nt lit ratur O In "ur &i -, pr"=r ssi& lit ratur is that -hi9h $ ps in &i - th r aliti s "# li# : it sh"uld b a r #l 9ti"n "# th s r aliti s: it sh"uld in& sti=at th ! and sh"uld b th =uid t" a n - and b tt r li# '1/ In this att !pt t" i!a=in this n - and b tt r li# th %;A s t "ut t" 9r at a 9"rpus "# -"r$ that had a n - p"liti9s, -hi9h in turn d !and d a di## r nt a sth ti9' In th #"ll"-in= s 9ti"ns, - tr? and id nti#? a # - d #inin= # atur s "# this a sth ti9'

New Wine, $ld Bottles: The %eworking of Themes
Drdu p" tr? had al-a?s d !"nstrat d a str"n= str a$ "# hu!anis!' Khusrau, ;ali, Mir, Sauda and "th rs sp"$ 9"!p llin=l? "# th hu!an 9"nditi"n and th n d #"r a hu!an and Just s"9i t?' +halib, and lat r IIbal, add d n - d= s t" th ir p" ti9 "utput b? in#usin= th ir & rs -ith s"9ial 9"!! ntar?' But !ainstr a! Drdu p" tr?, #"r th !"st part, r !ain d pr "99upi d -ith l"& , r"!an9 and d ath' 8ham’a-parvaana 4#la! (!"th5, bulbul-sayyaad 4ni=htin=al hunt r5, saaghar- aam-meena 4="bl t(-in (#las$5, and gul-bahaar-khi)aan 4r"s (sprin=(autu!n5 r !ain d its d"!inant th ! s' It t""$ th i9"n"9las! "# th %;A p" ts t" shatt r this !"uld' In MaJazCs & rs , #"r 6a!pl , th !""n, hith rt" a ! taph"r #"r th d sir d b l"& d, -as id nti#i d -ith "bJ 9ts "# s9"rn and hatr d' <k mahal ki aad se nikla voh peela maahtaab +aise mullaah ka amaama! aise baniye ki kitaab

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Fr"! b hind th pala9 r"s th ? ll"- !""n L""$in= li$ th !ullahCs turban, li$ th !"n ?l nd rCs l d= r In th hands "# th %;A p" ts, th ! taph"rs "# Drdu p" tr? - r alt r d as n & r b #"r ' Ah r"s still bl""! d in th sprin=, th 9up "# -in -as still pass d ar"und, th !"th -as still s9"r9h d b? th #la! , th bulbul still san= s"n=s "# l"& , and th l"& rs still pa9 d th str t "# th ir b l"& ds -h" disp ns d #a&"ur t" all but th -r t9h d pr"ta="nists' But as ,'M' Rashid sa?s ab"ut Faiz 4alth"u=h it 9"uld appl? t" s & ral "th rs5, this p" tr? K nabl s th ti! -"rn 9li9h s "# th % rsian and Drdu =hazal t" a9Iuir a r n - d s nsiti&it? and t" b r 9har= d -ith ! anin=, s" that th s"litar? su## rin= "# th disapp"int d r"!anti9 l"& r is trans#"r! d int" th su## rin= "# hu!anit? at lar= 'C Or, as Faiz hi!s l# -rit s1 KOn 9ann"t is"lat "n s l# #r"! th r st "# th -"rld and b "bli&i"us t" th n&ir"n! nt' Is"lati"n, & n i# it is p"ssibl , is an unpr"#itabl a9t b 9aus an indi&idual ''' is a & r? li!it d and "rdinar? b in=' Ah ! asur "# "n Cs d pth is "nl? t" b #"und in "n Cs !"ti"nal 4and ps?9h"l"=i9al5 r lati"nship -ith th hu!an 9"!!unit?, parti9ularl? th"s r lati"nships that in&"l& th sharin= "# pain and su## rin=' Ah s"rr"-s "# l"&in= and th s"rr"-s "# li&in= ar di## r nt #"r!s "# th sa! 6pr ssi"n'C In his pr sid ntial addr ss t" th #irst ! tin= "# th %;A, %r !9hand, ann"un9 d1 "ame& husn ke meyaar badalne honge 4; -ill ha& t" trans#"r! th standards "# b aut?5' Ah %;A p" ts t""$ this t" h art and s t ab"ut alt rin= th a sth ti9 "# th lit ratur and th & r? standards "# lit rar? ! rit' B aut? #"r th ! had t" b s"u=ht n"t Just in th #a9 "# th b l"& d, but in th b"d? "# th t"ilin= -"r$ r' A99"rdin=l?, Ma$hd""! M"hiuddin, addr ssin= th A lan=ana -"!an -"r$in= in th #i ld, -r"t 1 Dekhne aate hai& taare! shab mei& sun kar tera naam +alve subh-o shaam ke hote hai& tu h se hum-kalaam Dekh fitrat kar rahi hai! tu h ko huk- huk kar salaam Ah stars ris at ni=ht up"n h arin= ?"ur na! Ah b aut? "# !"rnin= and & nin= sp a$ "ut t" ?"u B h"ld, th b"unti s "# natur pa? ?"u h"!a= MaJr""h, usin= th & hi9l "# th =hazal t" arti9ulat #r sh th"u=hts

/@

and s $in= t" trans#"r! th 9"!p"s d th #"ll"-in=1

spa9 s -h r

"n

s $s b aut?,

1ai& ke ek mehnat-kash! mai& ke teeragi dushman 8ubh-e nau ibaarat hai! mere muskuraane se 8urkh in'uilaab aaya! daur-e aaftaab aaya 1unta)ir thi ye aankhe& is ki ek )amaane se 0b )ameen gaayegi! hal ke saa) par naghme Vaadiyo& mei& naa%henge har taraf taraane se 1an%hale bunenge ab rang-o boo ke pairaahan 0b sa&var ke niklega! husn kaarkhaane se I a! a -"r$ r, I a! th n !? "# dar$n ss M? s!il is -hat brin=s ab"ut th n - !"rnin= Ah r d r &"luti"n arri& s, that da? "# bri=htn ss da-ns ;hi9h th s ? s ha& b n a-aitin= #"r s" l"n= ,"- th arth -ill sin= s"n=s t" th b at "# th pl"u=h Anth !s -ill dan9 in th &all ?s Ah 9ar #r -ill - a& =ar! nts "# 9"l"ur and #ra=ran9 And b aut? shall ! r= , ad"rn d, #r"! -ithin th #a9t"r? -alls Ballin= a spad a spad 1 th p" tr? "# bluntn ss Blassi9al Drdu p" tr? is su##us d -ith a 9 rtain $ind "# subtl t?' S!ili s and ! taph"rs ar its 9allin= 9ards' ;"rds stand in #"r -h"l s ts "# narrati& s and !"ti"ns' It is l #t t" th rudit r ad r t" drath 9"nn 9ti"ns and !a$ assu!pti"ns ab"ut th p" tCs int nt' ;hil th pr"=r ssi& p" ts hardl? aband"n d this ar!"ur?, th ir & rs s - r 9hara9t riz d b? a 9 rtain bluntn ss "# 6pr ssi"n' On th th ! "# r li=i"n, #"r instan9 , th %r"=r ssi& s t""$ th standard r pr"a9h s t" "rth"d"6? t" a di## r nt l & l' S" -hil Mir is rath r = ntl in statin= his ap"stas? thus1 1ir ke deen-o ma)hab ko! ab poo%hhte kya ho! un ne to (ash'a khain%ha dair mei& baitha! kab ka tark 3slam kiya ;h? d" ?"u n"- as$ Mir ab"ut his #aith: #"r h Sits in th t !pl , ash "n his #"r h ad, ha&in= l"n= #"rsa$ n Isla! A p" t li$ Sahir -rit s1

//

0'aa’ed vahm hai ma)hab khayaal-e khaam hai saa'i 0)al se a'l-e insaan basta-e auhaam hai saa'i Faith is but sup rstiti"n, r li=i"n but a 9rud s?st ! Hu!an int ll 9t has b n h ld 9apti& b? th s sin9

t rnit?

On th th ! "# s"rr"-s "th r than l"& , a stapl s nti! nt "# Drdu p" tr?, +halib sa?s1 /eri wafa se kya ho! talaafi ke dahr mei& /ere siva bhi hum pe bahut se sitam hue E"ur #id lit? n"t-ithstandin=, this -"rld "# r 9"!p ns Has subJ 9t d ! t" "ppr ssi"ns "th r than ?"ur l"& Faiz, "n th "th r hand, is !"r #"rthri=ht1 0ur bhi dukh hai& )amaane mei& mohabbat ke siva 2aahate& aur bhi hai& vasl ki raahat ke siva 1u h se pahli si mohabbat! meri mahboob na maang Ah r ar s"rr"-s in this -"rld "th r than th s"rr"- "# ?"ur l"& B"!#"rts "th r than th 9"!#"rt "# l"& rsC uni"n ."nCt as$ ! #"r that "ld l"& an? !"r An"th r asp 9t "# this dir 9tn ss 9an b s n in th r lati& si!pli9it? "# 6pr ssi"n and lan=ua= that -as #a&"ur d b? th pr"=r ssi& p" ts' Ah ir -ritin=s - r n"t h r! n uti9 puzzl s -h"s ! anin=s had t" b t as d "ut and d bat d' Dnli$ th =hazals "# +halib that still & 6 his translat"rs, th p" tr? "# th %r"=r ssi& s 9an hardl? b a99us d "# b in= un9l ar ab"ut -hat it -ish s t" sa?' Sahir -rit s1 .e duniya do rangi hai <k taraf se resham ode! ek taraf se nangi hai <k taraf andhi daulat ki paagal aish parasti <k taraf ismo& ki 'eemat roti se bhi sasti <k taraf hai 8onaagaa%hi! ek taraf Chaurangi hai .e duniya do rangi hai Ahis -"rld is d"ubl (#a9 d On sid 9"& r d -ith sil$, th "th r na$ d

/*

On th "n hand, th h d"nis! "# blind - alth On th "th r, b"di s s"ld 9h ap r than br ad On th "n hand li s S"na=a9hi, "n th "th r Bh"-rin= 1* Ahis -"rld is d"ubl (#a9 d Ah p" tr? "# th pr"=r ssi& -rit rs als" insist ntl? n=a= d -ith 9"nt !p"rar? issu s and 9"!! nt d "n th !' Ah r -as littl r""! in th ir -"r$ #"r th !?sti9al, th s"t ri9, th r 9"ndit "r th abstra9t' Ah B n=al #a!in , th anti(i!p rialist stru==l s, th disast r "# %artiti"n, th inJusti9 s "# -ar and th A! ri9an int r& nti"n in <i tna! - r all d alt -ith, n"t ! r l? as la! ntati"ns in th !ann r "# shahr-ashoob "r marsiyas 4dir= s5, but as & nts that d s r& d 6pli9it att nti"n and a9ti"n'

The Poetry of Incitement, the Poetry of Anger
Ah n - br d "# r &"luti"nar? Drdu p" ts >*rdu ke adeed in'uilaabi shaayar! as SaJJad Fah r 9all d th !5 t""$ th ir lab l s ri"usl? and s"u=ht t" !a$ th ir p" !s r & rb rat -ith a n"& l passi"n' Ah irs -as a p" tr? "# in9it ! nt: its an= r a=ainst "ppr ss"rs -as palpabl ' >"sh had nd d his p" !, K7ast India B"!pan? $ Farzand"G S C 4A" th S"ns "# th 7ast India B"!pan?5 -ith th lin s1 <k kahaani wa't likhega naye ma)moon ki +is ki surkhi ko )aroorat hai tumhaare khoon ki Ai! is ab"ut t" -rit a st"r? -ith a n - th ! ;h"s r dn ss -ill n d t" parta$ "# ?"ur bl""d In a si!ilar & in, MaJaz "## rs a bl""d? pr"=n"sis t" th British "99upi rs in his p" ! KInIuilaabC 4R &"luti"n51 ,hatm ho aane ko hai sarmaayadaari ka ni)aam 2ang laane ko kai ma)dooro& ka osh-e inte'aam ,hoon ki boo le ke angal se havaae& aayengi ,hoo& hi khoo& hoga nigaahe& is taraf ko aayengi +hopdiyo& mei&! mahal mei& khoo&! shabistaano& mei& khoo& Dasht mei& khoo&! vaadiyo& mei& khoo&! bayaabaano& mei& khoo& ... 0ur is rang-e shafa' mei& ba-ha)aaraa& aab-o taab

/6

+agmagaayega vatan ki hurriyat ka aaftaab Ah rul "# 9apitalis! is ab"ut t" nd Ah passi"n "# th -"r$ rsC r & n= is 9"!in= t" a b"il ;inds b arin= th s9 nt "# bl""d -ill s""n bl"- #r"! th #"r sts Bl""d shall s""n b #l"-in= & r?-h r Bl""d in th huts, th pala9 s, th ni=ht 9ha!b rs Bl""d in th d s rt, in th &all ?, in th d s"lati"n ''' And "n that h"riz"n, a!idst a th"usand tu!ults Shall ris th sun "# "ur landCs #r d"! Apart #r"! th san=uin i!a= r?, it is int r stin= t" n"t th Iuati"n "# th rul "# th British -ith 9apitalis! and th si!ultan "us #"r =r"undin= "# lab"ur rs as th &an=uards "# th #r d"! stru==l ' Ah an= r a=ainst th 9apitalists -h" "ppr ss th -"r$ rs is &id nt in a lar= nu!b r "# p" !s -ritt n b? th %r"=r ssi& s, as in <iIar A!bala&iCs KInt Iaa!C 4R & n= 51 ,haae& bhi ma)door ka! ma)door par ghurraae& bhi Din ko mehnat bhi karaae&! raat ko rulvaae& bhi Bhook se ma)door ke ba%h%he bhi bilke& maae& bhi /uf hai saramaaya parasto& par kahi& mit aae& bhi 3nte'aam! ai inte'aam! ai inte'aam! ai inte'aam ,"t satis#i d -ith appr"priatin= th -"r$ rsC shar , ?"u =r"-l at th ! t"" ,"t n"u=h that ?"u !a$ th ! sla& durin= th da?, ?"u !a$ th ! - p at ni=ht t"" ,"t "nl? d" th -"r$ rsC 9hildr n -ail -ith hun= r, th ir !"th rs 9r? t"" .a!n ?"u, O 9apitalis!(l"& rs, !a? ?"u p rish R & n= , r & n= , r & n= , r & n= Kai#i Az!i, b !"anin= th #at "# th -illin= -"r$ rs -h" #ail t" #ind !pl"?! nt, sp a$s in th ir &"i9 ur=in= th ! t" r aliz that th ir "nl? h"p li s in r b lli"n and r &"luti"n1 ,ahaa& tak ye bil- abr mar mar ke eena Badalne laga hai amal ka 'areena Lahu mei& hai khaulan! abee& par paseena Dhadakti hai nasbe&! sulagta hai seena 7ara ai baghaavat ke tayyaar hoo& mai& H"- l"n= -ill I li& this "ppr ss d d ath(li$ 6ist n9

/)

Ah ti! s ar ab"ut t" 9han= M? bl""d b"ils, !? br"- is s- at? M? puls p"unds, !? 9h st is #i r? R"ar O R &"luti"n, #"r I a! r ad?

&hanging the World: The Possi!ilities of Transformation
% rhaps th !"st si=ni#i9ant # atur "# th pr"=r ssi& a sth ti9 is that -hil th pr"=r ssi& -rit rs 9"n9urr d -ith th 9lassi9al p" ts that hu!an su## rin= -as a uni& rsal 9"nditi"n, th ? & h ! ntl? insist d that this -as n"t a p r!an nt stat "# a##airs, but "n that 9"uld b trans#"r! d thr"u=h a9ti"n' As Sahir -rit s1 3n kaali sadiyo& ke sar se ab raat ka aan%hal dhalke-ga +ab dukh ke baadal pighlenge! ab sukh ka saaghar %hhalke-ga +ab ambar hoom ke naa%hega! ab dharti naghme gaayegi Voh subha kabhi to aayegi Ahat !"rnin=, -h n th & il "# ni=ht -ill slip a-a? #r"! th h ad "# th s dar$ 9 nturi s ;h n th 9l"uds "# su## rin= ! lt, -h n th -in (=lass "# happin ss spar$l s ;h n th s$? dan9 s J"?"usl? and th arth sin=s s"n=s "# d li=ht Sur l?, that !"rnin= -ill da-n s"! da? Ah r -as an und rstandin= that hu!an su## rin= -as bas d "n !at rial 9"nditi"ns "# d pri&ati"n and that stru==l -"uld 9han= th stat "# th -"rld #"r th b tt r! nt "# all' Ah r #"r , Sahir adds th #"ll"-in=1 Voh subha hamee& se aayegi ; ar th "n s -h" -ill brin= ab"ut that !"rnin= And as Faiz ann"un9 s in his ! !"rabl p" !1 "um dekhenge Laa)im hai ke hum bhi dekhenge! hum dekhenge Voh din ke is ka vaada hai +o lauh-e a)al pe likha hai "um dekhenge ; -ill -itn ss it It 9ann"t b but that - t"" -ill -itn ss it

/0

Ahat da? -hi9h has b n pr"!is d t" us Ahat -hi9h has b n ins9rib d "n th par9h! nt "# li# ; t"" -ill -itn ss it Ah 6pli9it "bJ 9ti& "# th s p" ts, i# - !a? appr"priat an"th r sa?in=, -as n"t ! r l? "n "# int rpr tin= th -"rld, but "# 9han=in= it' Sahir 9"n9lud s his do-rangi p" ! -ith th #"ll"-in= lin s1 <k sangam par laani hogi dukh aur sukh ki dhaara $aye sire se karna hoga daulat ka batvaara +ab tak oon%h aur nee%h hai baa'i! har soorat be-dhangi hai .e duniya do-rangi hai Ah s parat str a!s "# J"? and s"rr"- -ill ha& t" b br"u=ht int" a 9"n#lu n9 ; alth -ill ha& t" b r distribut d in a n - #ashi"n F"r as l"n= as th r ar th pri&il = d and th disp"ss ss d, th r 9an "nl? b dis"rd r In this t-"(t"n d -"rld And in th t-"(t"n d -"rld, "n had t" ta$ sid s' A" sit "n th # n9 -as n"t an "pti"n' Ah %r"=r ssi& s 9h" d +"r$?Cs #a!"us Iu sti"ns1 KOn -h"s sid s ar ?"u, !ast rs "# 9ultur N Ar ?"u -ith th handi-"r$ rs "# 9ultur , and #"r th 9r ati"n "# n - #"r!s "# li# : "r ar ?"u a=ainst th !, and #"r th p rp tuati"n "# a 9ast "# irr sp"nsibl !araud rs, a 9ast -hi9h has d 9a? d #r"! th h ad d"-n-ardsNC S", Faiz -rit s1 Chashm-e nam aan-e shoreeda kaafi nahi& /ohmat-e ish'-e posheeda kaafi nahi& 0a ba)aar mei& pa-ba aolaa& %halo Ah t ar? ? s and th st"r!? li# ar n"t n"u=h Ah burd n "# a l"& that is $ pt s 9r t is n"t n"u=h A"da?, 9"! "ut in th publi9 - arin= ?"ur 9hains And in th ir pursuit "# Justi9 , th %r"=r ssi& s s"u=ht t" !a$ 9"!!"n 9aus -ith stru==l s all "& r th -"rld' Ah n"ti"n "# s"lidarit? 6t nd d - ll b ?"nd th narr"- 9"n#in s "# r li=i"n, 9"!!unit?, "r nati"n' F"r th #irst ti! in its hist"r?, Drdu p" tr?

/3

d & l"p d an int rnati"nal s nsibilit?' ;hil IIbal had br"a9h d th n"ti"n "# a transnati"nal 9"!!unit?, his -as "n that -as r""t d in pan(Isla!is!' Faiz, >a#ri, MaJaz, Ma$hd""!, and Sahir, "n th "th r hand, sp"$ -ith # lin= ab"ut <i tna!, %al stin , %aul R"b s"n, Martin Luth r Kin=, and "th r 9ha!pi"ns "# #r d"! and Justi9 '

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In a & r? 9"!p llin= p" ! titl d KMauz""( Su$hanC 4%" tr?Cs Ah ! 5, Faiz brin=s th br a$ b t- n th %r"=r ssi& s and th traditi"nalists int" sharp r li #' Ah p" ! 9an b s n as ha&in= thr s parat !"! nts' In th #irst, Faiz -rit s ab"ut th b l"& d in th !ann r "# th p" ts "# th past1 0a phir husn-e dilaara ki vahi dha hogi Vahi khwabeeda si aankhe&! vahi kaa al ki lakeer 2ang-e rukhsaar pe halka sa voh ghaa)e ka ghubaar 8andali haath pe dhundli si hina ki tahreer 0pne afkaar ki! ash’aar ki duniya hai yahi +aan-e ma)moo& hai yahi! shaahid-e maa’na hai yahi A"da?, th b l"& dCs b aut? -ill a=ain b "n spl ndid displa? Ah"s hal#(9l"s d ? s, ad"rn d -ith $"hl Ahat hint "# blush "n th 9"l"ur "# th 9h $s Ah #adin= lin s "# h nna "n th p r#u! d hands Ahis is th -"rld "# "ur -ritin=, "ur th"u=hts H r li s th s"ul "# "ur 9"!p"siti"ns, this is "ur tru b l"& d And th n, th pr"=r ssi& p" t turns t" l""$ at that -hi9h has hith rt" s9ap d att nti"n1 3n damakte hue shahro& ki faraavaa& makhloo' ,yoo& fa'at marne ki hasrat mei& iya karti hai .e hasee& khet phata padta hai oban in ka ,is liye in mei& fa'at bhook uga karti hai Ah s t !in= !ass s li&in= in th =litt rin= 9iti s ;h? d" th ir li& s d sir n"thin= but d athN Ah s b auti#ul #i lds burstin= -ith abundan9 ;h? d" th ? =r"- n"thin= but hun= rN H"- & r, Faiz r 9"=nizin= that h is sp a$in= t" an in rt b"d? "#

*0

p" ts, 9aptur d and subJu=at d b? th ir past and inur d t" th 9han=in= 9"nditi"ns "# th ti! s, subJ 9ts th ! t" a !ar& ll"us bit "# sar9as!1 .e bhi hai&! aise kaee aur bhi ma)moo& honge Lekin us shokh ke aahista se khulte hue honth "ai! us ism ke kambakht dil-aave) khutoot 0ap hi kahiye kahi& aise bhi afsoo& honge; E s, th r ar th s issu s, sur l? "th rs t"" But ah, th"s s"#tl? partin= lips "# that ra&ishin= b aut? Oh, th"s allurin= lin s "# that b"d? E"u t ll ! : 9an su9h !a=i9 b #"und ls -h r N 0pna mau)oo-e sukhan in ke siva aur nahi& /ab’e shaayar ka vatan is ke siva aur nahi& Ah subJ 9t "# "ur p" tr? 9an b n"thin= but this A p" tCs t !p ra! nt 9an #ind pla9 n"-h r but h r

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But th pr"=r ssi& p" ts had th ir "-n mau)oo-e sukhan! th ! s that th ? !ad th ir "-n and b? 6t nsi"n th"s "# th ir r ad rs' In a r #l 9ti& pi 9 9all d K>an= aur A!anC 4;ar and % a9 5 publish d in $aya 0dab in 13/6, Sahir Ludhian&i 9"nt nd d that th r al 9"ntributi"n "# th p" tr? "# th pr"=r ssi& -rit rs n d d t" b Jud= d b? a di## r nt s t "# para! t rs than th"s us d #"r th n"r!' H -r"t 1 KAh r -as a dar$ -indst"r! "# d ath -hi9h -as ab"ut t" 9"& r th -h"l =l"b and hid #"r & r und r its thi9$ la? rs th"s shinin= stars that 9"uld #ill th d"-ntr"dd n p "pl and 9lass s and i!p"& rish d s 9ti"ns "# hu!an$ind -ith th h"p "# li=ht'C A99"rdin= t" Sahir, n"t a9tin= in th"s 9ir9u!stan9 s -"uld ha& a!"unt d t" a b tra?al "# hu!anit? its l#' In th 9"n#li9t b t- n #r d"! and dar$n ss, l"& and ra9ial hatr d, ri=ht and -r"n=, p" ts had t" 9"ntribut t" th ##"rts t" Kpull p "pl "ut "# th -hirlp""l "# d pr ssi"n and d # atis! and !a$ th ! a-ar "# th ir p"- r' And that is -h? - -r"t th -a? - did'C Sahir, sa?in= !"r "r l ss th sa! thin= in "n "# his p" !s -rit s1 1ere sarkash taraano& ki ha'ee'at hai to itni hai

*1

,e ab mai& dekhta hoo& bhook se maare kisaano& ko 7hareebo&! mufliso& ko! bekaso& ko besahaaro& ko /o dil taab-e nishaat-e ba)m-e ishrat la nahi& sakta 1ai& %haahoo& to bhi khwaabavar taraane ga nahi& sakta I# th r is a r as"n #"r !? an=r? s"n=s, it is this Ahat -h n I s th hun=r? #ar! rs Ah p""r, th "ppr ss d, th d stitut , th h lpl ss M? h art 9ann"t parti9ipat in ass !bli s "# pl asur 7& n i# I -ish, I 9ann"t -rit dr a!? s"n=s "# l"&
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S" -h? did this pr"=r ssi& a sth ti9 thri& in this raN ; su== st that th !"& ! nt -"r$ d b 9aus it sp"$ "# its ti! , its pla9 and its p"liti9s' %r"=r ssi& p" ts 9r at d th ir b st -"r$ durin= !"! nts "# 9risis' Ah anti(i!p rialist stru==l , th #r d"! !"& ! nt, th trau!a "# %artiti"n, th A lan=ana uprisin=, and th #ailur "# th n - nati"n t" d li& r "n its pr"!is "# a b tt r li# #"r all its 9itiz ns all"- d th s -rit rs t" sp a$ in a &"i9 that r s"nat d -ith th aspirati"ns "# th p "pl ' It is us #ul t" r ! !b r that -hil th pr"=r ssi& p" ts -r"t ab"ut -"r$ rsC and p asantsC stru==l s, th ir pri!ar? audi n9 -as th !iddl 9lass -hi9h -as unabl , and p rhaps r lu9tant, t" parti9ipat dir 9tl? in th -"r$in=(9lass !"& ! nts but -as -illin= t" 9ha!pi"n th ir 9aus #r"! th sid lin s' Ah -"r$ rs -"uld brin= ab"ut th r &"luti"n and th r st -"uld th n parta$ "# th Just and =alitarian s"9i t? that -"uld nsu ' But -ith th passa= "# ti! and th 9r ati"n "# th b"ur= "is ind p nd nt stat , that !"! nt pass d' Ah h"p "# a !ass trans#"r!ati"n t"-ards a Just s"9i t?, "n that 9"uld b #ashi"n d b? stru==l and s"lidarit? di!! d 9"nsid rabl?' Stru==l s b 9a! l"9aliz d, th ir int nti"ns l ss =randi"s ' Ah !iddl 9lass s"u=ht its !an9ipati"n, n"t thr"u=h 9hall n=in= th s?st !, but b? l arnin= t" pla? its =a! ' Ah a!bi&al n9 "# th !iddl 9lass -as n" l"n= r -"rth addr ssin=, th pr su!pti"n "# its r"l in s"9i tal trans#"r!ati"n aband"n d' As th pr"=r ssi& 9"nt 6t dissipat d, th pr"=r ssi& a sth ti9 t"" l"st its br"ad app al' But th p"- r "# th p" ts and th ir

*2

9"ntributi"n t" th hist"r? "# Drdu lit ratur -as su9h that th ir &"i9 , -hil n" l"n= r d"!inant, still r s"nat s a9r"ss ti! ' %" tr? app als t" us b 9aus it sa?s -hat - -ant t" sa?, but !"r 9"!p llin=l?, b 9aus it =i& s &"i9 t" -hat - did n"t $n"- - # lt till - a9tuall? h ard it16' In +halibCs -"rds1 Dekhna ta'reer ki la))at ke o usne kaha 1ai& ne ye aana ke goya ye bhi mere dil mei& hai B h"ld th b aut? "# 6pr ssi"n, #"r -h n it -as utt r d I r aliz d that this s nti! nt alr ad? r sid d in !? h art

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Bultural spa9 s ar #ra=il and ar 9"nstantl? n ="tiat d and r 9"nstru9t d b? th p"liti9s "# th ti! ' Ah ? ar &ital t rrains "# n=a= ! nt that !ust 9"nstantl? and 9"ns9i"usl? b br"u=ht int" th s r&i9 "# id "l"=i s' Ah pr"=r ssi& p" ts "## r d us a &isi"n #"r -hi9h th"s a!"n= us -h" b li & in s"9ial Justi9 and in stru==l !ust b =rat #ul' And n"-, !"r than & r, - n d "ur Faiz, "ur MaJaz and "ur Sahir' +halib "n9 -r"t 1 "oo& garmi-e nishaat-e tassavvur se naghma-san 1ai& andaleeb-e gulshan-e na-aafreeda hoo& I sin= -ith th -ar!th "# th J"? !? i!a=inati"n brin=s I a! th ni=htin=al "# that =ard n -hi9h has n"t ? t b n 9r at d' Ahat gulshan-e na-afreeda !a? b 9r at d s""n' Or n"t' But in th ! anti! , h r is Faiz, r !indin= us "# th &alu "# stru==l 1 "ai dasht ab bhi dasht! magar khoon-e pa se =ai) 8eraab %hand khaar-e mugheelaa& hue to hai& Ah d s"lat d s rt - -al$ d thr"u=h still r !ains d s"lat , Faiz But at l ast th thirst "# s"! "# its th"rns has b n Iu n9h d b? th bl""d "# "ur # t

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3
SAARE JAHAAN SE ACHCHA
Progressive Poets and the Pro!lematic of Nationalism
On 2 Mar9h 2002, durin= th 9"!!unal p"=r"! in +uJarat, "n a9t "# d stru9ti"n did n"t r 9 i& !u9h att nti"n, p rhaps b 9aus it -as d-ar# d b? th s9al "# &i"l n9 unl ash d in th stat ' A!"n= th s & ral !"sIu s and dargahs that - r d str"? d -as th t"!b "# "n "# DrduCs arli st p" ts, ;ali . 99ani(+uJrati' ;ali, -h" li& d and -"r$ d in th s & nt nth 9 ntur?, "n9 sp"$ ab"ut th pla9 h -as buri d in th #"ll"-in= -"rds1 Vahaa& saakin ite hai& ahl-e ma)hab! ke ginti mei& na aave& unke mashrab 0gar%he sab hai& voh abnaa-e 0adam! vale beenash mei& rangaarang-e aalam Bhari hai seerat-o soorat su& 8urat! har ek soorat hai vhaa& anmol moorat 8abha 3ndar ki hai har ek 'adam mei&! %hupa 3ndar! sabha kun le adam mei& ,ishan ki gopiyaa& ki nai& hai yeh nasl! rhaee& sab gopiaa& voh na'l! yeh asl S" !an? p "pl "# s" !an? r li=i"ns li& th r , th ir s 9ts 9ann"t p"ssibl? b 9"unt d' 7& n th"u=h th ? ar all 9hildr n "# Ada!, in th ir app aran9 , th ? ar a !ulti9"l"ur d sp 9tru! Surat 4th 9it?5 is #ill d -ith nu! r"us -a?s and surats 4#"r!s5, a9h "n "# th s , a pri9 l ss i!a= At & r? st p, stands th 9"urt "# Indra, and Indra hi!s l# n&i s th s 9"urts' Ahis = n rati"n is n"t "# KrishnaCs ="pis, F"r th"s ="pis - r i!p r# 9t i!itati"ns L this, th r alM Ar"und th sa! ti! that ;aliCs t"!b -as b in= t"rn d"-n, a !"b -as burnin= a h"! that h"us d th 6(B"n=r ss ! !b r "# %arlia! nt, 7hsan >a#ri, and s & ral ! !b rs "# his #a!il?' Ah"u=h

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- did n"t $n"- !u9h ab"ut 7hsan >a#ri, th r p"rts ab"ut hi! a#t r his d ath s ! d t" indi9at h -as a d 9 nt !an, -h" had r #us d t" !"& t" a Ksa# rC Musli! n i=hb"urh""d b 9aus h th"u=ht that -"uld b a b tra?al "# his s 9ular id als and -h"s -i# insist d "n !"&in= ba9$ int" th sa! h"! t" =i& li t" th 9"nt nti"n that th abilit? "# Musli!s and Hindus t" 9" 6ist had b n in9in rat d in th 9"n#la=rati"n "# +uJarat' ; als" #"und "ut that 7hsan >a#ri -as a p" t -h" -r"t in th & in "# th pr"=r ssi& -rit rs' His b""$ (andeel 4Lant rn5 -as #ill d -ith p" !s "n r li=i"us har!"n?, pa9i#is! and nati"nalis!' A-" h"! s burnt "n th sa! da?, t-" h"! s "# t-" Drdu p" ts s parat d b? thr 9 nturi s' Ah span "# ti! b t- n th ir r sp 9ti& d aths 9"ntains th st"r? "# a lan=ua= , its n=a= ! nt -ith 9"l"nialis!, #as9is!, nati"nalis! and s 9ularis!' In this 9hapt r, - int nd t" 6a!in th d pl"?! nt "# Drdu p" tr? as a t""l "# Indian nati"nalis!, parti9ularl? b? th p" ts "# th %r"=r ssi& ;rit rsC Ass"9iati"n 4%;A5 and att !pt t" r #l 9t th st"r? "# nati"nalis! in th !irr"r "# Drdu p" tr?' Sp 9i#i9all?, hi=hli=ht #"ur !"! nts that !ar$ th !"d s "# n=a= ! nt "# th %r"=r ssi& s -ith th pr"bl !ati9 "# nati"nalis!1 th anti(9"l"nial stru==l a=ainst th British, th attitud "# th %r"=r ssi& s t"-ards th S 9"nd ;"rld ;ar, th trau!a "# th %artiti"n, and th r 9"n#i=urati"n "# th ir p"liti9s &is(a(&is th Indian stat '

The Anti'&olonial (tr)ggle as Workers’ *ovement
Saar JahaaG s a9h9ha Hind"staaG ha!aara Hu! bulbul G haiG us$i, &"h =ulsitaaG ha!aara Ahis si!pl K7ast "r ; st, India is B stC s"n=, still #r Iu ntl? h ard in India, -as -ritt n b? M"ha!!ad IIbal ar"und 130* and 9h" d th s nti! nts "# a = n rati"n "# Drdu p" ts' Ah p ri"d "# 10*0s "n-ards, s"! ti! s r # rr d t" as th $ishaat-e 8aania 4R naissan9 5 in Drdu lit ratur 6hibit d a n - s nsibilit? that -as spurr d b? an attitud "# r s nt! nt and r b lli"n a=ainst th ?"$ "# 9"l"nialis!' Ar"und th turn "# th 9 ntur?, th 9all b? Alta# Husain Hali and M"ha!!ad Husain Azad t" p" ts as$in= #"r !ushairas t" b "r=aniz d "n th basis "# th ! s su9h as th l"& "# th nati"n als" pr"&id d an i!p tus t" 'aumi shaa’iri! "r th p" tr? "# nati"nalis!' Drdu p" tr? #"r l"n= had had a traditi"n "# an n=a= ! nt -ith th

**

hu!an 9"nditi"n but th p ri"d "# 1320s "n-ards sa- a n - !""d, "n that >an ,isar A$htar 9alls avaami bedaari ki lehar 4th a-a$ nin= "# th !ass s5' An anth"l"=? "# Drdu patri"ti9 p" tr? 9all d "industan "amara 4Our India5, dit d b? A$htar, 9"& rin= th p ri"d 10*)(13)0 runs int" t-" &"lu! s -ith its th"usand "r s" pa= s 9"ntainin= "& r s & n hundr d p" !s' Ah r - r pl nt? "# standard patri"ti9 pi 9 s, but a lar= nu!b r "# p" !s "# this p ri"d indi9at d th b =innin= "# a n - #"r! "# s"9ial and p"liti9al a-a$ nin=' Ah int r stin= thin= ab"ut this 9"ns9i"usn ss -as that th p" !s "# this ti! su9h as KAh Far! rC b? >"sh, KAh Ris "# th , - SunC b? Ha!idullah, KAh Br? "# th , - Ai! sC b? Sar"sh Kash!iri, KAh Bhall n= "# Li# C b? FiraI +"ra$hpuri, KAh Lab"ur rCs Flut C b? >a! l Manzari, KR &"luti"nC b? Israr(ul(HaI MaJaz, KAh Far! rCs S"n=C b? Mas""d A$htar >a!aal and d"z ns "# "th rs L a9ti& l? s"u=ht t" r #ra! th anti( 9"l"nial stru==l al"n= th binari s "# th 6pl"it rs and th 6pl"it d, th za!indars and th landl ss #ar! rs and th sarmaayadaars and th ma)doors 4th 9apitalists and th lab"ur rs5' Ah O9t"b r R &"luti"n that h lp d #"r! th S"&i t Dni"n -as h ld up as a !"d l and -as s n as a s"ur9 "# inspirati"n' MaJaz in his p" ! KInIuilabC 4R &"luti"n5 9"!p"s d in [email protected]@ -rit s1 ,ohsaaro& ki taraf se surkh aandhi aayegi +aba a aabaadiyo& mei& aag si lag aayegi ... 0ur is rang-e shafa' mei& ba-ha)araa& aab-o taab +agmagaaega vatan ki hurriyat ka aaftaab A r d st"r! is appr"a9hin= #r"! "& r th !"untains Spar$in= a #ir in th s ttl ! nts ''' And "n this h"riz"n, a!idst a th"usand tu!ults Shall shin th sun "# "ur landCs #r d"! Ahis in#lu n9 is &isibl & n in IIbalCs p" tr? "# this p ri"d, -hi9h in9lud d s"! unabash d "d s t" L nin' An int r stin= tril"=? Baale 7ibreel 4+abri lCs ;in=, [email protected]*5 starts -ith a p" ! in -hi9h a startl d L nin #inds hi!s l# #a9 t" #a9 -ith +"d h n & r b li & d 6ist d' Dndaunt d, h l ts l""s a Mar6ist 9ritiIu "# th p""r J"b that +"d -as d"in=, startin= -ith th Iu sti"n1 1ai& kaise sama hta ke tu hai ya ke nahi& hai;

*6

H"- d" ?"u 6p 9t ! t" ha& b li & d in ?"ur 6ist n9 N As th p" ! pr"9 ds, L nin as$s1 K;h"s +"d ar ?"u: "# th sa! "n s -h" li& und r th s$?N F"r as #ar as I 9"uld t ll, th ="ds "# th 7ast ar th #"r i=n rs "# th ; st, -hil th ; st pra?s "nl? t" th shinin= d"llar' Ah appr"priat"rs "# - alth, p"- r and $n"-l d= 6pl"it th p""r -hil pr a9hin= Iualit?: pr"#it #"r "n is d ath #"r !illi"ns'C L nin 9"n9lud s -ith th #"ll"-in= "bs r&ati"n1 /u 'aadir-o aadil hai magar tere ahaa& mei& "ai& tal' bahut banda-e ma)door ke au'aat E"u !a? b p"- r#ul and Just, but in ?"ur -"rld Bitt r ar th li& s "# th sla& s "# lab"ur Ah -at9hin= an= ls !ull this "& r and, 9"n&in9 d b? L ninCs anal?sis, "## r th ir "-n r sp"ns in th s 9"nd p" ! titl d KFarisht"G $a + tC 4Ah S"n= "# th An= ls51 0'l hai be)amaam abhi! ish' hai bema'aam abhi $a'shgar-e a)al tera! na'sh hai natamaam abhi Ah Int ll 9t is still unr in d, L"& still un!""r d Ar9hit 9t "# 7t rnit?, ?"ur d si=n is still in9"!pl t M Suitabl? 9hastis d, +"d in turn "## rs his KFar!aan( Khuda Farisht"G S C 4+"dCs B"!!and t" th An= ls51 *tho meri duniya ke ghareebo& ko agaado ,aakh-e umara ke dar-o deewaar hilaado +is khet se dahkhaa& ko mayassar nahi& ro)i *s khet ke har gosha-e gandum ko alaado Ris , a-a$ n th p""r "# !? land Rattl th pala9 s "# th ri9h ! nCs band A #i ld -h"s 9r"p th #ar! r 9anCt atN Burn, burn & r? =rain "# that -h at In s"! -a?s, this !""d pr"&id d th =r"und in -hi9h th %;A t""$ r""t in th !id(thirti s and #l"urish d in th #"ll"-in= d 9ad s,

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spurrin= th lar= (s9al pr"du9ti"n "# radi9al 9ultural l #tist #i9ti"n and p" tr? in India' Drdu p" tr? r sp"nd d -ith =r at nthusias!, s" !u9h s" that th %;A d #in d th s"9ial a= nda #"r a -h"l = n rati"n "# -rit rs' Sin9 !"st "# th l ad rship and !u9h "# th ran$(and(#il "# th %;A -as 9"!p"s d "# l #tist p" ts and -rit rs, th ="al "# th anti(9"l"nial stru==l -as s n as n"t ! r l? Ind p nd n9 , but th #"r!ati"n "# a s"9ialist s"9i t?' Ah da-n that -as a-ait d -as ="in= t" b a r d "n ' In Ma$hd""!Cs -"rds1 Lo surkh savera aata hai! aa)aadi ka! aa)aadi ka 7ulnaar taraana gaata hai! aa)aadi ka! aa)aadi ka Dekho par%ham lahraata hai! aa)aadi ka! aa)aadi ka B h"ld, th r d da-n "# Ind p nd n9 arri& s Sin=in= th r d anth ! "# lib rt? And l""$, th bann r "# #r d"! -a& s in th -ind F"r th %r"=r ssi& s, th #r d"! stru==l -as in 6tri9abl? int rt-in d -ith th ir s"9ialist aspirati"ns' Ah nd "# "n #"r! "# "ppr ssi"n, th ? b li & d, -"uld 9"! hand in hand -ith th nd "# all #"r!s "# "ppr ssi"n'

The (econd World War and the Progressive +lip'+lop
Ah ad& nt "# th S 9"nd ;"rld ;ar pr"&id d !"r #"dd r #"r th %r"=r ssi& sC p ns' ;h n th British as$ d th p "pl "# India t" J"in it in -hat th %r"=r ssi& s had dubb d th Ki!p rialist -arC, >"sh Malihabadi r sp"nd d -ith a bitin=l? sar9asti9 p" ! titl d K7ast India B"!pan? K Farzand"G S C 4A" th S"ns "# th 7ast India B"!pan?51)1 ,is )abaa& se kah rahe ho aa ! ai saudaagaro 6Dahr mei& insaaniyat ke naam ko oon%ha karo +isko sab kahte hai& "itler! bhediya hai! bhediya Bhediye ko maar do goli pa’e amn-o ba'aa Baagh-e insaani pe %halne hi ko hai baad-e khi)aa& 0adamiyyat le rahi hai hi%hkiyo& par hi%hkiyaa& "aath "itler ka hai rakhsh-e khudsari ki baag par /egh ka paani %hidak do 7ermany ki aag par.’

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8akht hairaa& hoo&! ke mahfil mei& tumhaari aur ye )ikr $au-e insaani ke musta'bil ki ab karte ho fikr; +ab yahaa& aaye the tum saudaagari ke vaaste $au-e insaani ke musta'bil se kya vaa'if na the; "indiyo& ke ism mei& kya rooh-e aa)aadi na thi; 8a%h bataao! kya voh insaano& ki aabaadi na thi; 0pne )ulm-e be-nihaayat ka fasaana yaad hai; Company ka bhi voh daur-e mu rimaana yaad hai; Loot-te phirte the tum ab kaarvaa& dar kaarvaa&; 8ar barahna phir rahi thi daulat-e "indostaa& Dastkaaro& ke angoothe kaat-te phirte the tum 8ard laasho& se garhon ko paat-te phirte the tum 8an’at-e "indostaa& par maut thi %haayi hui 1aut bhi kaisi; /umhaare haath ki laayi hui 0llah 0llah9 ,is 'adar insaaf ke taalib ho aa 1eer +afar ki 'asam! kya dushman-e ha' tha 8iraa ; Voh 0vadh ki begamo& ka bhi sataana yaad hai; .aad hai +haansi ki 2aani ka )amaana yaad hai; "i rat-e 8ultan-e Dilli ka samaa& bhi yaad hai; 8her-dil /ipu ki khooni daastaa& bhi yaad hai; /eesre faa'e mei& ek girte hue ko thaamne ,in ke sar laaye the tum 8haah-e :afar ke saamne; Voh Bhagat 8ingh is ke gham mei& ab bhi dil naashaad hai *s ki gardan mei& o daala tha voh phanda yaad hai; :ahn mei& hoga ye taa)a "indiyo& ka daagh bhi .aad to hoga tumhe& +aliaanwaala Baagh bhi ;ith -hat t"n=u dar ?"u 9"uns l us, O trad rsM E"u sa?1 K R st"r th di=nit? "# hu!anit? in th -"rld H -h" th ? 9all Hitl r is but a -"l# L t us sh""t hi! d"-n, in th na! "# p a9 and stabilit? Ah -inds "# bl a$ autu!n ar ab"ut t" ruin th =ard n Hu!anit? is =aspin= in its d ath thr" s Hitl rCs hand has =rasp d th !an "# th h"rs "# hubris L t us d"us + r!an?Cs #ir -ith th -at r "# th s-"rd'C I a! a!az d b? th -"rds that ! r= #r"! ?"ur ass !bl?M

*3

E"u tal$ ab"ut th #utur "# hu!anit? n"-N ;h n ?"u 9a! h r t" pl? ?"ur s"rr? trad ; r ?"u n"t a9Iuaint d -ith hu!anit?Cs #utur th nN .idnCt th b"di s "# Indians ha& th s"ul "# #r d"!N Sp a$ truth#ull?, -asnCt it a 9"!!unit? "# hu!ansN ." ?"u & n r ! !b r th tal s "# ?"ur unparall l d 9ru lt?N O# th B"!pan?Cs 9ri!inal da?s in p"- rN ;h n ?"u - nt ab"ut l""tin= & r? 9ara&an ;hil th - alth "# India -and r d bar (h ad d E"u, -h" us d t" 9ut "## th thu!bs "# - a& rs, And #ill h"l s in th arth -ith 9"ld 9"rps sN Ah industr? "# India -as und r th shad"- "# d ath And -hat a -r t9h d d athM At ?"ur handsM AllahM AllahM H"- ?"u d !and Justi9 t"da?M S- ar b? M r >a#ar10: -as SiraJ su9h an n !? "# truthN ." ?"u r 9all h"- ?"u harass d th n"bl -"! n "# OudhN R ! !b r th a= "# th Hu n "# >hansi13N R ! !b rN ." ?"u r ! !b r th #li=ht "# th Kin= "# . lhi20N R ! !b r th bl""d? l = nd "# Aipu21 th Li"n(h art dN And t" supp"rt hi! as h -as 9"llapsin= "n his third hun=r? da? ;h"s h ads did ?"u brin= in #r"nt "# Kin= Fa#ar22N Ahat Bha=at Sin=h -h"s ! !"r? still #ills th h art -ith s"rr"Sur l? ?"u r ! !b r th n""s ?"u put r"und his n 9$N Ah s9ars that Indians # lt !ust b #r sh in ?"ur ! !"r? Ah"s that - r in#li9t d at >alian-ala Ba=h' E"u r ! !b r, d"nCt ?"uN , dl ss t" sa?, this p" ! -as bann d i!! diat l? a#t r it -as publish d, and >"shCs J"urnal ,aalim 4Ah % n(;i ld r5 -as #"r9 d t" 9l"s d"-n' Ah Drdu pr ss b 9a! a plat#"r! #"r th anti(-ar p"siti"n "# th %r"=r ssi& s, -h" d 9ri d th British p"siti"n that this -as a -ar #"r Justi9 ' Ah Ki!p rialist -arC -as r"undl? 9"nd !n d and th r - r d !ands t" trans#"r! th -ar int" a r &"luti"n' B"!!unists a9r"ss th nati"n, in9ludin= SaJJad Fah r, - r arr st d and i!pris"n d' %" ts -r"t "# th -ar as "n that -as b in= -a= d #"r - alth and as a si=n that 9apitalis! -as t"tt rin= "n its thr"n ' Ah ir s?!pathi s - r -ith th s"ldi rs -h" - r b in= 9"nd !n d t" di in th s r&i9 "# an i!p rial "rd r' Ahis s nti! nt und r- nt a pr"#"und 9han= -ith Hitl rCs laun9h "# Op rati"n Barbar"ssa L th + r!an in&asi"n "# Russia L in >un 13/1' Ah Jail d l ad rship "# th %;A, !"st li$ l? und r a dir 9ti&

60

#r"! M"s9"-, issu d a stat ! nt #r"! th . "li d t nti"n 9a!p n ar AJ! r L th K. "li th sisC L as$in= #"r un#lin9hin= supp"rt t" th anti#as9ist 9aus ' 7& ntuall?, th p" ts r sp"nd d' Ma$hd""!, -h" had -ritt n a p"i=nant anti(-ar pi 9 9all d KSipaahiC 4S"ldi r5, n"pr"du9 d his K>an=( AazaadiC 4Ah ;ar #"r Fr d"!5, a p" ! that r #l 9t d th n - 9"n#i=urati"n "# alli s1 .e ang hai ang-e aa)aadi 8aara sansaar hamaara hai -oorab! pa%h%him! uttar! dakshin "um 0frangi! hum 0mriki "um Cheeni aanbaa)an-e vatan "um surkh sipaahi )ulm shikan 0ahan paikar! faulaad badan .e ang hai ang-e aa)aadi 0a)aadi ke par%ham ke tale Ahis is a -ar #"r #r d"! Ah -h"l -"rld is "urs Ah 7ast and th ; st, th ,"rth and th S"uth ; 7ur"p ans, - A! ri9ans ; Bhin s s"ldi rs r ad? t" sa9ri#i9 "urs l& s #"r "ur h"! land ; , th r d s"ldi rs, th d str"? rs "# t?rann? Ir"n(b"di d, st l? #i=ur d Ahis is th -ar #"r #r d"! Dnd r th bann r "# #r d"!

The Awaited ,awn of +reedom
Fr d"! did & ntuall? da-n, but th r dn ss "# its 9"l"ur 9a! n"t #r"! its r &"luti"nar?Ps"9ialist # r&"ur but #r"! th bl""d? %artiti"n, and Drdu p" tr? r #l 9t d th !""d "# th ti! s in a s"!b r, !"urn#ul t"n ' Faiz Ah!ad FaizCs #a!"us la! nt KSubh( AazaadiC 4Fr d"!Cs M"rnin=5 6 !pli#i s this !""d1 .e daagh daagh u aala! ye shab ga)eeda sahar Voh inte)aar tha iska ye voh sahar to nahi& ... 8una hai ho bhi %huka hai firaa'-e )ulmat-o noor 8una hai ho bhi %huka hai visaal-e man)il-o gaam Badal %huka hai bahut ahl-e dard ka dastoor $a aat-e vasl halaal-o a)aab-e hi r haraam

61

>i=ar $i aa=, nazar $i u!an=, dil $i Jalan Kisi p 9haara( hiJraaG $a $u9h asar hi nahiG KahaaG s aa?i ni=aar( saba, $idhar $" =a?iN Abhi 9haraa=h( sar( rah $" $u9h $habar hi nahiG Ahis tarnish d li=ht, this ash n da-n Ahis is n"t that !"rnin= -hi9h - - r a-aitin= ''' ,"- th ? t ll us that .ar$n ss has #inall? b n 6pun= d #r"! th Li=ht Ahat "ur %ath has alr ad? ! r= d -ith its . stinati"n Ahat th #"rtun s "# abJ 9t l"& rs ha& turn d su9h that Ah pl asur "# uni"n is n"- % r!itt d, th h ll "# s parati"n F"rbidd n But th #ir in th s"ul, th ? arnin= in th =az , th -"und "# th h art Ar una## 9t d b? th bal! "# th"s -h" s $ t" h al partin=Cs s"rr"- ;h r did th !"rnin= br z 9"! #r"!, -hi9h -a? did it d partN ," "n s !s t" $n"-, n"t & n th la!p that li=hts up th path O## rin= a si!ilar disillusi"n d ta$ , but d pl"?in= a harsh r t"n , SahirCs p" ! KMu#aahi!atC 4B"!pr"!is 5 ann"un9 d1 .e ashn ashn-e masarrat nahi&! tamaasha hai $aye libaas mei& nikla hai rah)ani ka uloos "a)aar shamm-e a'uwwat bu ha ke %hamke hai& .e teeragi ke ubhaare hue naye faanoos Ahis is n"t a 9 l brati"n "# J"?, but a &ul=ar sp 9ta9l Ah sa! pr"9 ssi"n "# r"bb rs has ! r= d - arin= n - 9l"th s A#t r 6tin=uishin= a th"usand la!ps "# r lati"nships A n - la!pshad has b n tr"tt d "ut b? th dar$n ss In a p" ! that -as pr"babl? -ritt n a # - ? ars lat r, Ah!ad Faraz 9h" s th s nti! nts that - r d"!inant a!"n= th %r"=r ssi& s in %a$istan1 0b kis ka ashn manaate ho *s desh ka o ta'seem hua *s desh ka geet sunaate ho +o toot ke hi tasleem hua 3n ma)loomo& ka in ke lahu se

62

/um ne firo)a raate& ki .a un ma)loomo& ka in se ,han ar ki )ubaa& mei& baate& ki ,"- -hat d" ?"u 9 l brat N Ahat 9"untr? that -as t"rn int" t-" ;h"s s"n= d" ?"u sin=N O# that nati"n that 9a! int" b in= "nl? up"n b in= br"$ nN E"u 9 l brat th "n s -ith -h"s bl""d E"u paint d ?"ur ni=hts a rub? shad N Or th"s "ppr ss d -ith -h"! ?"u sp"$ In th !urd r"us t"n=u "# th blad N >"shCs Iui t d spair -as &id nt in his 9"upl t1 Apna =ala $har"sh( tarannu! s phat =a?a Aal&aar s ba9ha, t" ra=( =ul s $at =a?a Ah strain "# s"n= t"r "ur thr"ats ; s9ap d th s-"rd, but - r b h ad d b? th r"s Cs & in Ah di&isi"n "# th nati"n al"n= r li=i"us lin s, parti9ularl? th #"r!ati"n "# %a$istan as a stat #"und d "n th basis "# Musli! nati"nalis!, -as r pu=nant t" th %r"=r ssi& s' Ind p nd n9 had pr"du9 d a 9"nditi"n that -as #ar r !"& d #r"! th ir 9h rish d dr a! "# a s"9ialist, unit d India' Ah us "# r li=i"n as a ! ans t" unit , and 9"ns Iu ntl? di&id p "pl , -as -id l? 9"nd !n d b? th ! "n b"th sid s "# th b"rd r' Ah ? -r"t 6t nsi& l? ab"ut th 9"nditi"ns "# Ind p nd n9 , 9"nt ndin= that it -as th r sult "# a d al !ad b t- n th British ="& rn! nt and an allian9 "# th ri9h and p"- r#ul in India and %a$istan' In an dit"rial publish d in 8avera! Sahir Ludhian&i and ,azir Bhaudhri ass rt d that Kth di#i9 s "# nati"nalis! ''' rais d "n th #als &i - "# r li=i"nC -"uld s""n K9ru!bl t" dustC'[email protected] Ah n -l? #"r! d stat s - r s n as "ppr ssi& , an ass ss! nt that -as b"rn "ut s""n a#t r-ards b? th attitud "# th ="& rn! nts "# b"th India and %a$istan t"-ards th L #t' Abdul MaJ d BhattiCs s"n= d pi9ts th ir"n? "# s l#(rul und r -hi9h -"! n and =irls - r

[email protected]

b in= abdu9t d and rap d1 Beti gaao& bhar ki beti Beti sab ki laa $agar nagar mei& kaudi-kaudi bik gayi beti aa 0aya apna raa 9 Ah =irls -h" - r th ntir &illa= Cs dau=ht rs Ah =irls -h" - r & r?"n Cs h"n"ur Ar n"- b in= s"ld #"r a pittan9 S l#(rul has arri& dM In a 9"!! nt ab"ut this p" !, Fah r Kash!iri 9"nt nd d that it -as "b&i"us that Kth ri"ts and th s"(9all d Ind p nd n9 ar t-" in &itabl asp 9ts "# th i!p rialist p"li9?C2/' FaizCs KSubh( AazaadiC nd d -ith th #"ll"-in= lin s ass rtin= that th arri&al "# Ind p nd n9 -as n"t th nd "# th stru==l 1 0bhi giraani-e shab mei& kami nahi& aayi $a aat-e deeda-o dil ki ghadi nahi& aayi Chale %halo ke voh man)il abhi nahi& aayi Ah burd n "# th ni=ht still - i=hs us d"-n Ah ? and th h art ar still n"t #r M"& "n, #"r "ur d stinati"n hasnCt ? t b n r a9h d /he Disillusionment with the $ation-8tate Ah man)il 4d stinati"n5 #"r !an? "# th %r"=r ssi& s -as a s"9ialist r &"luti"n' Fr d"! #r"! th British -as s n b? !an? "# th ! as th r pla9 ! nt "# "n #"r! "# i!p rialis! b? an"th r' F"r th !, th battl 9"ntinu d' Ah p" ts sa- th ir -"r$ as a ! ans t" build a 9 rtain $ind "# p"liti9al 9"ns9i"usn ss a!"n= th ir !illi"ns "# list n rs' Ah B"n=r ss l ad rship, "n9 &al"uriz d, b"r th brunt "# th atta9$' Ah A lan=ana p asant !"& ! nt had b n h ld al"#t as th b a9"n "# th r &"luti"nar? a= t" 9"! ' Ah rural p""r "# this r =i"n had = n rat d an uprisin= that -as uniIu in its 9ast P9lass parti9ipati"n and its &isi"n "# a n - "rd r' Ahis r &"luti"nar? !"& ! nt that had start d in [email protected] -as still str"n= in 13/) -h n Ma$hd""! -r"t KA lan=aanaC1

6/

Dayaar-e "ind ka voh raahbar /elangaana Bana raha hai nayi ek sahar /elangaana Bula raha hai ba simt-e digar /elangaana Voh in'uilaab ka paighaambar /elangaana Ah l ad r "# a n - India, A lan=ana Ah 9r at"r "# a n - da-n, A lan=ana B 9$"nin= us t"-ards a n - pla9 Ah pr"ph t "# th r &"luti"n, A lan=ana Sin9 th "d t" A lan=ana d !and d a salut t"-ards th s"ur9 "# its inspirati"n, th KArz( Bh nC 4th land "# Bhina5, th p" ! nd d -ith th #"ll"-in= lin s1 8alaam surkh shaheedo& ki sar-)ameen salaam 8alaam a)m-e buland! aahani ya'een salaam 1u aahido& ki %hamakti hui abeen salaam Dayar-e "ind ki mahboob ar)-e Cheen salaam Salutati"ns t" th land "# th r d !art?rs A" th l"#t? purp"s , its ir"n(9lad 9 rtaint? A" th shinin= #"r h ads "# th r &"luti"nari s A" th land "# Bhina, IndiaCs b l"& d But th A lan=ana M"& ! nt -as brutall? 9rush d b? th n -l? #"r! d stat ' >a-aharlal , hru, "n9 th darlin= "# th %r"=r ssi& s, r 9 i& d his shar "# th #la$ and -as subJ 9t d t" &itri"li9 9riti9is! su9h as KCommonwealth ka daas ye $ehru! aur tabaahi laane na paayeC 4KL t us nsur that , hru, th sla& (a= nt "# th B"!!"n- alth d" s n"t -r a$ an? !"r ha&"9C5' Ah disillusi"n! nt -ith th b"ur= "is nati"n(stat -as 6pr ss d in a9 rbi9 t r!s b? Sahir in his p" ! titl d KBhhabb s >an&ar?C 426th >anuar?2*51 0ao ke aa ghaur kare& is savaal par Dekhe the hum ne o! voh hasee& khwaab kya hue; Bekas barehnagi ko kafan tak nahi& naseeb Voh vaada-haa-e atlas-o kamkhwaab kya hue; +amhooriyat-navaa)! bashar-dost! amn-khwaah ,hud ko o khud diye the! voh al'aab kya hue;

6*

B"! , and l t us p"nd r "n th Iu sti"n Ah"s b auti#ul dr a!s "# "urs, -hat b 9a! "# th !N Ah h lpl ss and na$ d 9ann"t & n a##"rd a shr"ud ;hat happ n d t" th"s pr"!is s "# sil$ and satinN . !"9rat, hu!anist, pa9i#ist ;hat happ n d t" all th"s s l#(9"n# rr d titl sN ;hil th 9ritiIu "# th nati"nal l ad rship 9"ntinu d, th %;A l"st !u9h st a! durin= this p ri"d' Ah int rnal stru==l s "# th B"!!unist %art? "# India, sp 9iall? b t- n th !"d rat #a9ti"n h ad d b? %' B' >"shi and th radi9als l d b? B' A' Ranadi& pla? d th !s l& s "ut in th lit rar? ar na as - ll' Ah Ranadi& d"9trin -as !"r "r l ss ad"pt d b? th %;A -ith Abdul Al ! issuin= -hat a!"unt d t" a p"li9? stat ! nt1 KAh s"(9all d nati"nalist ="& rn! nt pr"9lai! th !s l& s as n !i s "# i!p rialis! but !a$ 9"!pr"!is s -ith it' All th ir p"li9i s ar in th int r sts "# 9apitalists -hil th ? pr t nd t" r pr s nt th p "pl ' Ahis 9"ntradi9ti"n is d !"nstrat d in & r? d part! nt "# 9ultur and 9i&ilizati"n, sp 9iall? lit ratur 'C Ah -"rld a99"rdin= t" th n - !ani# st" 413/35 -as split b t- n t-" 9a!ps L th d !"9rati9 and th i!p rialist' Si!ilarl?, India -as di&id d int" # udal r a9ti"nari s in 9"llusi"n -ith #"r i=n and d"! sti9 9apitalists, and th #"r9 s "# pr"=r ssi&is!' Ah 9"n9 pt "# S"9ialist R alis!, as d #in d b? th Statut "# th Dni"n "# S"&i t ;rit rs, -as in&"$ d, d !andin= a truth#ul, hist"ri9all? 9"n9r t d pi9ti"n "# r alit? that s r& d th purp"s s "# id "l"=i9al trans#"r!ati"n and th du9ati"n "# th -"r$ rs in th spirit "# s"9ialis!' Ah %;A d n"un9 d indi&idualis! and th"s -h" n=a= d in art #"r arts sa$ 4adab ba ra-e adab adeeb5, ta$in= !an? "# th ir "-n t" tas$ #"r #ailin= t" li& up t" th s standards' Int rnal #i=hts and pur= s #"ll"- d and -hil th %;A & ntuall? did - ath r th s st"r!s, it ! r= d #r"! th ! as a si=ni#i9antl? - a$ r #"r9 ' Its p ri"d "# un9"nt st d h = !"n? had 9"! t" an nd' ,"t-ithstandin= th #a9t that th !"! nt "# Ind p nd n9 and th #"ll"-in= p ri"d had n"t r sult d in th #ul#il! nt "# th ir s"9ialist dr a!, th %r"=r ssi& s 9"ntinu d t" -rit -ith =r at int nsit? ab"ut issu s "# s"9ial Justi9 ' But th ir aspirati"ns - r n"- di## r nt, th ir nthusias! and h"p #"r an =alitarian s"9i t? n"- t !p r d' Ahis

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p ri"d -as !ar$ d b? th d 9lin "# th !"& ! nt and pr"=r ssi& Drdu p" tr? sp"$ 9hi #l? thr"u=h th r !ainin= &"i9 s "# th"s -h" had 9arri d its bann r s" pr"udl? in th past' S"! "# th !"r int r stin= p" tr? -as pr"du9 d thr"u=h th att !pts "# th %r"=r ssi& s t" s $ n - r 9"n#i=urati"ns b? turnin= th ir att nti"n t" stru==l s ta$in= pla9 in di## r nt parts "# th -"rld' %" !s - r 9"!p"s d "n %al stin , <i tna!, th B"n=", %atri9 Lu!u!ba, th R"s nb r=s, %aul R"b s"n and Martin Luth r Kin=' In s"! -a?s, int rnati"nal s"lidarit? -ith anti(i!p rialist stru==l s t""$ th pla9 "# nati"nalist aspirati"ns in th %r"=r ssi& sC r p rt"ir '

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The tra"ectory that we have laid out can be read in more ways than one For e4ample, one can see this account as a failure of the progressive %rdu poets to come to terms with the shifting terrain of nationalism 5r, one could understand it as the failure of nationalism and modernity to live up to their promises of liberty and e*uality for all In either case, the 2rogressives can be seen as critics of nationalism in the revolutionary tradition of anti3colonial black intellectuals like Frant0 Fanon and C ) ! 6ames, positing universal goals like emancipation and giving prominence to what Fanon called social consciousness over national consciousness For the 2rogressives, the world was a secular space. it was the world of Time, the world of History and above all, a world fashioned by human beings It had no room for revelation, redemption or a transcendental origin $nd if it had a telos, it was the socialist revolution The pursuit of this ideal led them to adopt a variety of strategies based on class solidarity in an attempt to create a socially "ust form of nationalism Ir"ni9all?, th ur= t" r J 9t r li=i"us and s 9tarian id ntiti s -as s" "& r-h l!in= that th 9"nditi"n "# !in"rit? 6ist n9 in a p"larizin= s"9i t? -as n & r r all? addr ss d' On !i=ht ar=u that pr"=r ssi& Drdu p" tr?Cs abdi9ati"n "# th spa9 "# r li=i"n !ad it asi r #"r r tr"=rad and 9"!!unal #"r9 s t" appr"priat it 4th"u=h it -"uld b un#air t" bla! th %r"=r ssi& s #"r this5' A !"r s?!path ti9 r adin= !i=ht b that p rhaps th burd n "# th !in"rit? and th ur= t" pr"& th ir #id lit? t" an India that -as =r"-in= suspi9i"us "# its

6)

Musli! 9itiz ns - i=h d h a&il? "n th !' On 6a!pl "# this 9an b #"und in th ir attitud t"-ards th Sin"(Indian 9"n#li9t "# 1362 and th Ind"(%a$ -ar "# 136*' . spit th #a9t that !an? "# th %r"=r ssi& s had !aintain d a str"n= anti(-ar stan9 in !u9h "# th ir -"r$ 4-ith th Kp "pl sC -arC p ri"d b in= a =larin= 69 pti"n5, th ? p nn d s"! rath r !ilitant & rs s durin= this ti! , 6 !pli#i d b? th #"ll"-in= lin s #r"! Kai#iCs s"n= #"r th !"&i "a'ee'at 4136/51 ,hen%h do apne khoo& se )amee& par lakeer 3s taraf aane paaye na 2aavan koi /od do haath gar haath uthne lage& Chhoone paaye na 8ita ka daaman koi 2aam ho tum! tumhi& Lakhsman saathiyo 0b tumhaare havaale watan saathiyo .ra- a lin "n th sand -ith ?"ur bl""d Ma? n" Ra&an b abl t" 9r"ss it Br a$ th"s hands that ris a=ainst us Ma? n" "n b abl t" t"u9h SitaCs =ar! nt a=ain E"u ar Ra!, and ?"u ar La$sh!an t"", O 9"!patri"ts ; n"- l a& this land in ?"ur 9ar M"st Indian -rit rs t""$ a hard stand a=ainst %a$istan durin= th 136* -ar 4an attitud that -as r #l 9t d "n th "th r sid "# th b"rd r5' Ah n"tabl 69 pti"ns - r th "ld(ti! r %r"=r ssi& s su9h as Ali Sardar >a#ri, -h" insist d "n -ritin= p" tr? ur=in= th p "pl "# b"th 9"untri s t" 6a!in th ir attitud s and t" turn th b"rd r #r"! "n that s parat d nati"ns int" "n that s?!b"liz d $issin= lips1 Voh din aaye ke aansoo ho ke nafrat dil se bah aaye Voh din aaye ye sarhad bosa-e lab ban ke rah aaye ... .e sarhad doobte taaro&! ubharte aaftaabo& ki .e sarhad khoo& mei& lithde pyaar ke )akhmi gulaabo& ki 1ai& is sarhad pe kabse munta)ar hoo& subh-e farda ka Ma? that da? arri& -h n hatr d bbs #r"! th h art in th #"r! "# t ars Ma? that da? arri& -h n this b"rd r b 9"! s th $issin= lips "# th b l"& d ''' Ahis is th b"rd r "# s ttin= stars, "# risin= suns Ahis th b"rd r "# l"& Cs r"s s s"a$ d in bl""d I, #"r l"n=, ha& b n -aitin= at this b"rd r #"r a n - !"rnin=

60

Sahir 9hara9t risti9all? -r"t a str"n= p" !, ur=in= th t-" nati"ns t" turn th ir att nti"n t" "th r, !"r i!p"rtant -ars1 +ang sarmaaye ke tasallut se 0mn amhoor ki khushi ke liye +ang ango& ke falsafe ke khilaaf 0mn pur-amn )indagi ke liye ;a= -ar a=ainst th =rip "# 9apitalis! S $ p a9 #"r th happin ss "# th 9"!!"n p "pl ;a= -ar a=ainst th phil"s"ph? "# -ar S $ p a9 #"r th sa$ "# a har!"ni"us li# % rhaps th !"st #a!"us "# Sardar >a#riCs & rs s ar th s #r"! a p" ! KKaun .ush!an HaiNC 4;h" is th 7n !?N5 that -as 9"!p"s d durin= th 136* -ar and addr ss d t" his %a$istani 9"unt rparts1 /um aao gulshan-e Lahore se %haman bar-dosh "um aaye& subh-e Banaaras ki raushni le kar "imaalaya ke havaao& ki taa)agi le kar -hir us ke baad ye poo%hhenge! kaun dushman hai; E"u 9"! b arin= th =ard ns "# Lah"r "n ?"ur sh"uld rs ; -ill brin= th bri=htn ss "# B narasC !"rnin= Ah #r shn ss "# th Hi!ala?an br z And th n, - 9an as$ "n an"th r1 -h" is th n !?N

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Ah %artiti"n had di&id d th nati"n in !"r -a?s than "n ' Ah p"liti9al partiti"n "# th r =i"n -as #"ll"- d in a =radual #ashi"n b? its 9ultural partiti"n' Ah t nsi"ns b t- n stat and lit rar? id "l"=i s, b t- n th ir durabilit? and !utati"n - r ins9rib d "n th b"d? "# Drdu its l#' Ah ? ar 13/) -as n"t th "nl? partiti"n that th r =i"n -itn ss d' In 13)1, #"ll"-in= a l"n= and brutal r pr ssi"n "# th aspirati"ns "# th B n=ali p"pulati"n "# 7ast %a$istan, th stat "# Ban=lad sh 9a! int" b in=' In a p"i=nant p" ! Faiz, r turnin= #r"! a trip t" th n nati"n, -r"t ab"ut th hatr d and suspi9i"n that n"- #ill d th h arts "# his "n9 (9"!patri"ts1

63

"um ke thahre a nabi itni madaaraato& ke baad -hir banenge aashna kitni mula'aato& ke baad ,ab na)ar mei& aayegi be-daagh sab)e ki bahaar ,hoon ke dhabbe dhulenge kitni barsaato& ke baad Dil to %haaha par shikast-e dil ne mohlat hi na di ,u%h gile-shikve bhi kar lete munaa aato& ke baad /he bahut be-dard lamhe& khatm-e dard-e ish' ke /hi bahut be-mahr sub’he& mehrbaa& raato& ke baad *n se o kahne gaye the =ai)! aa& sad'a kiye 0nkahi hi rah gayee voh baat sab baato& ke baad ; r !ain stran= rs, d spit "ur hist"ri s "# h"spitalit? H"- !an? !"r ! tin=s -ill - n d, b #"r - b 9"! #ri nds a=ainN ;h n a=ain -ill - s th bl""! "# an unsp"il d sprin=N H"- !an? rain#alls -ill it ta$ t" -ash a-a? th bl""dstainsN Ah h art did d sir #i r9 l?, but its -"unds =a& n" r spit I# "nl? - 9"uld shar =ri &an9 s t"", a#t r th pl asantri s - r d"n . &astatin= - r th !"! nts -h n th pain "# l"& 9a! t" an nd < r? 9ru l - r th !"rnin=s a#t r th = ntl n ss "# th"s ni=hts Faiz, that "n thin= -hi9h I - nt th r t" sa? -ith all !? h art Ahat & r? thin= -as l #t unsaid, a#t r s" !u9h had b n sp"$ n

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Ah n=a= ! nt "# th pr"=r ssi& p" ts -ith th issu "# nati"nalis! -as 9"!pl 6 and 9"ntin= nt' At di## r nt p"ints in hist"r?, th %r"=r ssi& s - r d t r!in d nati"nalists stru==lin= a=ainst an i!p rial "rd r, alli s in 9"!!"n 9aus -ith "th r nati"nalist stru==l s, patri"ts a& rs t" l ttin= th pr"!is "# th nati"n(stat b sub& rt d b? a s l#(s r&in= l ad rship and int rnati"nalists -h" r 9"=niz d n" b"rd r in th ir 6pr ssi"ns "# s"lidarit? -ith th"s -h" - r battlin= inJusti9 ' Ah uni#?in= th ! "# th %r"=r ssi& sC n=a= ! nt -ith nati"nalis! -as th ir insist n9 that it b r 9lai! d #r"! th =rasp "# th lit s b? th 9"!!"n p "pl , that it b d #in d b? th !ass s rath r than th l ad rs and that it b h ld a99"untabl t" th 9"ns9i"usn ss "# a

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uni& rsalit? that -as und rs9"r d b? Justi9 and =alitarianis!'

)1

4
FROM HOME TO THE WORLD
The Internationalist -thos
In Mar9h 13**, Faiz Ah!ad Faiz, still i!pris"n d in Ra-alpindiCs M"nt="! r? >ail -h r h had b n int rr d sin9 13*1 #"r Ks diti"us a9ti&iti sC, -r"t KAa >aa" A#ri9aC 4B"! , A#ri9a5, bas d "n a phras h had h ard as a rall?in= 9r? a!"n= A#ri9an anti( 9"l"nial r b ls1 ''' Aa Jaa" !aiG n dh""l s !aatha utha li?a Aa Jaa" !aiG n 9hh l di aan$h"G s =ha! $i 9hhaal Aa Jaa" !aiG n dard s baaz"" 9hhuda li?a Aa Jaa" !aiG n n"9h di?a b $asi $a Jaal KAa Jaa" A#ri9a'C .harti dhada$ rahi hai ! r saath A#ri9a .ari?a thira$ raha hai t" ban d raha hai taal MaiG A#ri9a h""G dhaal li?a !aiG n t ra r""p MaiG tu h""G, ! ri 9haal hai t ri, babar $i 9haal KAa Jaa" A#ri9aC Aa" babar $i 9haal 6Aa Jaa" A#ri9a'’ B"! , A#ri9a B"! , #"r I ha& rais d !? #"r h ad #r"! th dust S9rap d a-a? th =ri # #r"! !? ? s Br"$ n a-a? #r"! th =rip "# pain A"rn a-a? th - b "# h lpl ssn ss B"! , A#ri9aM Ah arthCs h art b ats -ith !in , A#ri9a Ah ri& r dan9 s -hil th !""n $ ps ti! I a! A#ri9a, #"r I ha& ta$ n "n ?"ur #"r! I a! ?"u, and !? =ait is ?"ur li"n(-al$' B"! , A#ri9a

)2

B"! -ith a li"n(-al$ B"! , A#ri9aM I# FaizCs p" ! is a &ibrant 6a!pl "# th int rnati"nalist th"s "# pr"=r ssi& Drdu p" tr?, it is n" 69 pti"n ith r' Ah int rnati"nalist 9"!!it! nt "# th %r"=r ssi& M"& ! nt -as appar nt sin9 its & r? b =innin=' Ah anti(#as9ist stru==l s "# 7ur"p an lit rar? #i=ur s had nthus d th %r"=r ssi& s, and "n "# th #irst "##i9ial a9ti"ns ta$ n b? th n -l? #"r! d %;A, in [email protected]*, -as t" s nd SaJJad Fah r and Mul$ RaJ Anand as th ir r pr s ntati& s t" L"nd"n t" parti9ipat in th 9"n# r n9 "# KInt rnati"nal ;rit rs #"r th . # ns "# Bultur C26' Ahis 9ultur "# int rnati"nalis! -as n"t 6a9tl? n - t" Drdu lit ratur : M"ha!!ad IIbal had b n 6pandin= th h"riz"ns "# Drdu lit ratur Cs n=a= ! nt -ith th -"rld #"r a -hil ' Ah %;A p" ts, h"- & r, t""$ this t" n - l & ls' Ah ass"9iati"n had 9"! int" b in= at a ti! -h n th #r d"! !"& ! nt -as at its h i=ht, and th initial -ritin=s "# its ! !b rs - r #"9us d "n th stru==l a=ainst British "99upati"n' O& rtur s t" int rnati"nalis! t""$ "n t-" #"r!s1 an int rr"=ati"n and 9ritiIu "# 9"l"nialis! and its r lat d issu s 4th S 9"nd ;"rld ;ar, #"r instan9 5 and an 6pr ssi"n "# ad!irati"n #"r th S"&i t r &"luti"n a99"!pani d b? a h"p that IndiaCs #r d"! -"uld r sult in a si!ilar s"9ialist s"9i t?' Ah disillusi"n! nt -ith th 9"ns Iu n9 s "# Ind p nd n9 L 9hi #l?, th partiti"n "# th nati"n stat and its r sultant bl""dbath L and th dis n9hant! nt -ith th n -l? #"r! d b"ur= "is stat , -hi9h a9t d d 9isi& l? and ruthl ssl? a=ainst th !ilitant p asant !"& ! nt "# A lan=ana, t""$ a t"ll "n th rst-hil "pti!is! "# th pr"=r ssi& p" ts' In th ? ars that - r t" #"ll"-, th ? in9r asin=l? turn d th ir att nti"n t" th anti(9"l"nial and anti(i!p rialist stru==l s "# th ir ti! ' Ah shi#t "# #"9us t"-ards th int rnati"nal ar na -as als" spurr d substantiall? b? Ali Sardar >a#riCs ssa? in $aya 0dab titl d KAaraIIi %asand ShaCiri $ Baaz MasaaC lC 4S"! Issu s Fa9in= %r"=r ssi& %" tr?5 in -hi9h h ur= d Drdu p" ts t" =i& 6pr ssi"n t" and hi=hli=ht p "pl Cs !"& ! nts in "th r parts "# th -"rld' S & ral p" ts r sp"nd d nthusiasti9all? t" this 9all and 9"!p"s d & rs s ab"ut Bhina, >apan, Bur!a, Mala?, Ind"n sia, K"r a, Aur$ ?, Iran, and Aunisia, a!"n= "th rs' Ah ! r= n9 "# th ,"n(Ali=n d M"& ! nt at Bandun=,

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Ind"n sia in 13** 49"in9id ntall?, th ? ar "# th -ritin= "# KAa >aa" A#ri9aC5, 9"n9r tiz d th id a "# Ahird ;"rld s"lidarit?, and pr"&id d an"th r basis #"r its p" ti9 6pr ssi"n in pr"=r ssi& p" tr?' Ah 9ultural 69han= #"st r d b? th ,"n(Ali=n d and A#r"(Asian M"& ! nts l d t" th translati"n "# !an? "# FaizCs p" !s in S-ahili, Bhin s and <i tna! s , -hil th -"r$s "# pr"=r ssi& p" ts #r"! ar"und th -"rld2) - r translat d int" Drdu' As Barl" B"pp"la20 p"ints "ut, th pr"=r ssi& p" ts Kstudi d and b"rr"- d #r"! 7n=lish lit ratur , but unli$ th ir # ll"- -rit rs "# arli r = n rati"ns th %r"=r ssi& s als" l""$ d t" th lit ratur "# Fran9 and + r!an? and sp 9iall? Russia #"r additi"nal inspirati"n' ," l"n= r - r -rit rs 9"n#in d t" th parti9ular pr"bl !s and 9"n9 rns "# India: th ? - r thrust int" th !ainstr a! "# int rnati"nal lit rar? and int ll 9tual li# ' Lit rar? !"& ! nts and id as in L"nd"n, %aris and M"s9"- had i!! diat r p r9ussi"ns in . lhi, Lu9$n"- and Lah"r 'C Ahis p ri"d "# Ahird ;"rld s"lidarit? sa- th %r"=r ssi& s 9"!p"sin= p" !s "n issu s su9h as th stru==l s "# Iranian stud nts in 13*3, th M9Barth? ra "# r pr ssi"n "# diss nt in th Dnit d Stat s, th 7ur"p an stud nt uprisin=s in th 1360s, th Al= rian #r d"! !"& ! nt, th %al stinian stru==l and th anti(aparth id !"& ! nt in S"uth A#ri9a' Int rnati"nalist s nti! nt -ithin pr"=r ssi& p" tr? did n"t b =in, "# 9"urs , in this p ri"d, n"r -as it !ad "ut "# -h"l 9l"th' As s"9ialists, th %r"=r ssi& s - r al-a?s int rnati"nalists and th "ri=inal #"9us "# th ir int rnati"nalis! -as, "b&i"usl?, th 9"!!unist r &"luti"n and th int rnati"nal -"r$in=(9lass !"& ! nt L & n IIbal -r"t pa ans t" it and t" its h r" s' . 9ad s lat r 413)0 t" b pr 9is 5, Sahir -"uld -rit th #"ll"-in= ha=i"=raphi9 lin s "n th "99asi"n "# th -"rld-id 9 nt nnial 9 l brati"ns "# L ninCs birth1 3nsaa& ke mu'addar ko aa)aad kiya tu ne 1a)hab ke farebo& se! shaahi ke a)aabo& se Ahr"u=h ?"u, hu!anit? -as r l as d #r"! its #at And -as #r d #r"! th d 9 pti"ns "# r li=i"n, th d pr dati"ns "# !"nar9h?

)/

;h n >ulius and 7th l R"s nb r= - r 6 9ut d in 13*@ b? th DS ="& rn! nt "n th 9har= "# b in= S"&i t spi s, Faiz -r"t a l?ri9al tribut titl d KHu! J" tar $ raah"G ! iG !aar =a? C 4; -h" - r 6 9ut d "n dar$ hi=h-a?s51 /ere honto& ke phoolo& ki %haahat mei& hum Daar ki khushk tahni pe vaare gaye /ere haatho& ki shamm’o& ki hasrat mei& hum $eem-tareek raaho& mei& maare gaye 5 +ab ghuli teri raaho& mei& shaam-e sitam "um %hale aaye laaye ahaa& tak 'adam Lab pe harf-e gha)al! dil mei& 'andeel-e gham 0pna gham tha gavaahi tere husn ki Dekh khaayam rahe is gavaahi pe hum "um o tareek raaho& mei& maare gaye In th d ; - r In th ? ; - r sir #"r th #l"- rs that - r ?"ur lips sa9ri#i9 d "n th dr? bran9h "# th s9a##"ld arnin= #"r th li=ht "# ?"ur hands $ill d in th dar$ nin= str ts '''

As th & nin= "# t?rann? diss"l& d in ?"ur ! !"r? ; -al$ d "n as #ar as "ur # t 9"uld 9arr? us A s"n= "n "ur lips, a la!p "# sadn ss in "ur h art Our =ri # b"r -itn sss t" "ur l"& #"r ?"ur b aut? L""$, - r !ain d tru t" that l"& ; , -h" - r 6 9ut d in th dar$ lan s Ah anti(i!p rialist p"siti"n "# th %;A als" #"und its &"i9 durin= th <i tna! -ar' Kai#i Az!iCs KIbn( Mar?a!C 4Mar?Cs S"n5 i!pl"r d > sus t" 9"! ba9$ #"r th sa$ "# th"s -h" - r b in= $ill d b? ! !b rs "# his #l"9$1 +aao! voh Vietnaam ke angal *s ke masloob shahr! veeraa& gaao& +in ko 3n eel padhne vaalo& ne 2aund daala hai! phoonk daala hai +aane kab se pukaarte hai& tumhe

)*

+" t" th"s Jun=l s "# <i tna! Its 9ru9i#i d 9iti s and d s"lat &illa= s Ahat ha& b n 9rush d and burnt b? Bibl (r ad rs Ah ? ha& b n 9allin= "ut t" ?"u #"r a -hil

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Ah last !aJ"r "r=anizati"nal a9t b? th %;A -as t" h"ld an A#r"( Asian ;rit rsC 9"n# r n9 in 13)0, in -hi9h p" ts #r"! +uin a, S"uth A#ri9a, Sudan, ,"rth and S"uth <i tna!, La"s, and &ari"us parts "# th sub9"ntin nt parti9ipat d' Ahis 9"n# r n9 -as a 9ul!inati"n "# "& r t-" d 9ad s "# s"lidarit? b t- n th pr"=r ssi& p" ts and th ir A#ri9an 9"unt rparts' B? this ti! , A#ri9a had stablish d a str"n= pr s n9 in th 9"ns9i"usn ss "# th Drdu %r"=r ssi& s' ;ritin= in th lat 1360s, Ali Sardar >a#ri had s"u=ht t" arti9ulat a b"nd -ith th K, =r"C, 9lai!in= a sp 9ial r lati"nship b t- n Indians and A#ri9ans1 "abshi mera bhai +angal angal phool %hune Bhai ke paaoo& laal gulaab Ahis A#ri9an, !? br"th r %i9$s #l"- rs in #"r st a#t r #"r st M? br"th r, -h"s # t ar r d R d as r"s s In this p" !, >a#riCs id nti#i9ati"n -ith th A#ri9ans and th ir stru==l s is "b&i"us' ;hat is l"st in th 7n=lish translati"n is th a## 9ti"n that a99"!pani s this s"lidarit?' Ah"s -h" ar #a!iliar -ith th idi"! -ill $n"- that th 9"upl t, +angal angal phool %hune! Bhai ke paaoo& laal gulaab! is #r"! a #"l$ s"n= 6pr ssin= d p #rat rnal #"ndn ss' And a br"th rCs su## rin= 9"!p ll d th p" t t" #ashi"n a p" tr? !b"d?in= a shar d s ns "# =ri # and l"ss' ;h n %atri9 Lu!u!ba, th #irst %ri! Minist r "# th R publi9 "# B"n=" and a staun9h anti( i!p rialist, -as d p"s d #r"! "##i9 and subs Iu ntl? !urd r d, Drdu p" ts 9 l brat d his a9hi & ! nts and !"urn d his d ath' Ma$hd""! 9aptur d th # lin=s "# th %r"=r ssi& s in his p" ! KBhup ,a Rah"C 4B ,"t Sil nt51

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0ur oon%hi hui sehra mei& umeedo& ki saleeb 0ur ik 'atra-e khoo& %hashm-e sahar se tapka 2o) ho ashn-e shaheedaan-e wafa! %hup na raho Baar baar aati hai ma'tal se sada! %hup na raho! %hup na raho On a hi=h s9a##"ld, h"p -as han= d a=ain in th d s rt And an"th r dr"p "# bl""d # ll #r"! th ? "# th !"rn L t th 9 l brati"n "# !art?rs 9"ntinu , b n"t sil nt Ah 6 9uti"n =r"unds 9r? "ut1 b n"t sil nt, d" n"t b sil nt On "# th !"r p"- r#ul p" !s -ritt n "n this "99asi"n -as SahirCs KKh""n %hir Kh""n HaiC 4Bl""d, H"- & r, is Bl""d5' Ah p" ! b =ins -ith an pi=raph, a #ra=! nt "# a Iu"t b? , hru 4id nti#i d b? Sahir as si!pl?, >a-ahar51 A !urd r d Lu!u!ba is s & ral ti! s !"r p"- r#ul than a li&in= Lu!u!ba O :ulm phir )ulm hai! badhta hai to mit aata hai ,hoon phir khoon hai! tapkega to am aayega ,haak-e sehra pe ame ya kaf-e 'aatil pe ame =ar'-e insaaf pe ya paa-e salaasil pe ame /egh-e bedaad pe ya laasha-e bismil pe ame ,hoon phir khoon hai! tapkega to am aayega Laakh baithe koi %hhup %hhup ke kameengaaho& mei& ,hoon khud deta hai allaado& ke maskan ka suraagh 8aa)ishe& laakh udaati rahee& )ulmat ke na'aab Le ke har boond nikalti hai hatheli pe %haraagh :ulm ki 'ismat-e naakaara-o rusva se kaho +abr ki hikmat-e purkaar ke eema se kaho 1ahmil-e ma lis-e a'vaam ki Laila se kaho ,hoon deewaana hai! daaman pe lapak sakta hai 8hola-e tund hai! khirman pe lapak sakta hai /um ne is khoon ko ma'tal mei& %hupaana %haaha 0a voh koo%ha-o baa)aar mei& aa nikla hai ,ahi& shola! kahi& naara! kahi& patthar ban kar ,hoon %halta hai to rukta nahi& sangeeno& se 8ar uthaata hai to hukta nahi& aaeeno& se :ulm ke baat hi kya! )ulm ki au'aat hi kya :ulm bas )ulm hai aaghaa) se an aam talak

))

,hoon phir khoon hai! sau shakl badal sakta hai 0isi shakle& ke mitaao to mitaaye na bane 0ise sholay ke bu haao to bu haaye na bane 0ise naare ke dabaao to dabaaye na bane A?rann? is but t?rann?: -h n it =r"-s, it is &anIuish d Bl""d h"- & r is bl""d: i# it spills, it -ill 9"n= al It -ill 9"n= al "n th d s rt sands, "n th !urd r rCs hand On th br"- "# Justi9 , and "n 9hain d # t On th unJust s-"rd, "n th sa9ri#i9ial b"d? Bl""d is bl""d: i# it spills, it ta$ s r""t' L t th ! hid all th ? -ant, s$ul$ in th ir lairs Ah tra9$s "# spill d bl""d -ill p"int "ut th 6 9uti"n rsC ab"d L t 9"nspira9i s shr"ud th truth -ith dar$n ss 7a9h dr"p "# bl""d -ill !ar9h "ut, h"ldin= al"#t a la!p Sa? this t" t?rann?Cs -"rthl ss and dish"n"ur d . stin? Sa? this t" B" r9i"nCs !anipulati& int nt Sa? this t" th Laila, th darlin= "# th ass !bl?23 Bl""d is -ild, it -ill splatt r and stain ?"ur =ar! nt It is a rapid #la! that -ill s9"r9h ?"ur har& sts Ahat bl""d -hi9h ?"u -ish d t" bur? in th $illin= #i lds Has ris n t"da? in th str ts and th 9"urts S"! -h r as a #la! , s"! -h r as a sl"=an, s"! -h r a #lun= st"n ;h n bl""d #l"-s, ba?"n ts 9ann"t 9"ntain it ;h n it rais s its d #iant h ad, la-s -ill n"t r strain it A?rann? has n" 9ast , n" 9"!!unit?, n" status n"r di=nit? A?rann? is si!pl? t?rann?, #r"! its b =innin= t" its nd Bl""d h"- & r is bl""d: it b 9"! s a hundr d thin=s1 Shap s that 9ann"t b "blit rat d Fla! s that 9an n & r b 6tin=uish d Bhants that -ill n"t b suppr ss d

ls as

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Ah Bi&il Ri=hts M"& ! nt "# th DS -as si!ilarl? a s"ur9 "# =r at inspirati"n t" th %r"=r ssi& s -h" sa- th ir "-n ! !"ri s "# 9"l"nial 69lusi"n r #l 9t d in th pli=ht "# th A#ri9an(A! ri9ans' +andhiCs in#lu n9 "n Martin Luth r Kin= and its i!pa9t "n th

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bla9$ lib rati"n !"& ! nt had alr ad? h lp d stablish a b"nd b t- n p "pl "# th t-" 9"untri s' Lan=st"n Hu=h s, th Harl !( bas d A#ri9an(A! ri9an p" t, had -ritt n1 Mi=ht? Britain tr !bl M L t ?"ur !pir Cs standard s-a? L st it br a$ ntir l? L Mr +handi #asts t"da?' All "# AsiaCs -at9hin= And I a! -at9hin= t"" F"r I a! als" Ji! 9r"- d As India is Ji! 9r"- d b? ?"u Ahis p"- r#ul 6pr ssi"n "# s"lidarit?, bas d "n a 9"!!"n ra9ial 4n"n(-hit 5 id ntit?, is 9h" d b? Ali Sardar >a#riCs p" ! "n %aul R"b s"n1 ,rishn ka geet hai! 7okhul ki hasee& shaam hai tu 0a kale e se lagaale& ke siyaah-faam hai tu E"u ar KrishnaCs s"n=, ?"u ar +"$ulCs b auti#ul & nin= B"! l t us !bra9 , #"r ?"u t"", li$ ! , ar dar$(s$inn d >a#riCs us "# a ra9ializ d 4n"n(-hit 5 id ntit? t" !a$ a 9"nn 9ti"n -ith th 9"l"niz d 9"!!uniti s in "th r parts "# th -"rld, and t" i!pli9itl? pla9 th "pp"siti"n t" "ppr ssi"n al"n= th #ault lin s "# ra9 is parti9ularl? int r stin= -h n s n in th 9"nt 6t "# th #a9t that th %r"=r ssi& s had rar l? d pl"? d ra9ial tr"p s durin= th #r d"! !"& ! nt' Ahis n - s nsibilit? L -hi9h 9"in9id d -ith th und rstandin= "# th ra9ist und rpinnin=s "# 9"l"nialis! arti9ulat d b? th li$ s "# Fan"n 4in Bla%k 8kin! 4hite 1asks?! Ai! B sair and A!il9ar Babral L ! r= d #r"! an und rstandin= "# and an id nti#i9ati"n -ith th anti9"l"nial stru==l s in A#ri9a and th Bi&il Ri=hts M"& ! nt in th DS' It -as n" surpris th n that Martin Luth r Kin= b 9a! a 9 l brat d h r" #"r th %r"=r ssi& s and that his assassinati"n, in 1360, pr"!pt d Ma$hd""! t" -rit this p" !, 9 l bratin= Kin=Cs li# , !"urnin= his d ath and pla9in= his p"liti9s -ithin th br"ad r 9"nt 6t "# "th r int rnati"nal stru==l s su9h as %al stin and

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<i tna!1 .e 'atl 'atl kisi ek aadmi ka nahi& .e 'atl ha' ka! masaavaat ka! sharaafat ka .e 'atl ilm ka hikmat ka aadmiyat ka .e 'atl hilm-o muravvat ka khaaksaari ka .e 'atl ek ka do ka nahi&! ha)aar ka hai ,huda ka 'atl hai! 'udrat ke shaahkaar ka 'atl "ai sham sham-e ghareebaa&! hai subha subh-e "unain .e 'atl 'atl-e maseeha! ye 'atl 'atl-e "usain Voh haath aa bhi mau ood-o kaar farma hai& Voh haath is ne pilaaya kisi ko )ahr ka aam Voh haath is ne %hadhaaya kisi ko sooli par Voh haath vaadi-e 8ina mei&! Vietnaam mei& hai "ar ek gardan-e meena! har ek aam mei& hai& 6,amina shart-e wafa tark-e sar buvad "aafi) Baro gu)aar-e tu ee&-kaar gar nami aayad’@A Ahis is n"t Just th !urd r "# "n !an Ahis is th !urd r "# truth, "# Iualit?, "# n"bilit? Ahis is th !urd r "# $n"-l d= , "# -isd"!, "# hu!anit? Ahis is th !urd r "# 9l ! n9?, "# 9hi&alr?, "# hu!ilit? Ahis is th !urd r "# th all &iat"rs "# "ppr ssi"n Ahis is n"t Just th !urd r "# "n "r t-", but "# a th"usand Ahis is th !urd r "# +"d, "# +"dCs !ast rpi 9 Ahis ni=ht is th ni=ht "# th -r t9h [email protected], this !"rnin= th !"rnin= "# [email protected] Ahis is th !urd r "# th ! ssiah, this th !urd r "# Husain 7& n t"da?, th"s hands r !ain and -r a$ ha&"9 Ah"s hands that rais d th p"is"n d 9hali9 t" s"! "n Cs lips Ah"s hands that push d s"! "n t" th =all"-s Ah"s sa! hands ar still at -"r$ in th &all ? "# Sinai, in <i tna! Ar"und th n 9$ "# & r? #las$, ar"und & r? ="bl t 6Fid lit? d !ands, at th l ast, th -illin=n ss t" sa9ri#i9 "n s l#, Ha#iz I# ?"u ar n"t 9apabl "# this, th n l a& M’

00

Ah ! nti"n "# th &all ? "# Sinai in Ma$hd""!Cs p" ! -as n" is"lat d in9id nt' O& r a p ri"d "# ti! , th %al stinian stru==l #"r a nati"n(stat had b 9"! an issu 9l"s t" th h arts "# th %r"=r ssi& s' F"ll"-in= th d # at "# th Arab #"r9 s in th >un 136) -ar, Faiz -r"t KSar( <aadi( S naC 4At"p th Sinai <all ?5, -hi9h -as, a!"n= "th r thin=s, a s9athin= indi9t! nt "# th h?p"9ris? "# litist pan(Isla!ists that ur= d his r ad rs t" 9ast "## th 9hains "# th "9rati9 6pl"itati"n1 -hir bar' faro)aa& hai sar-e vaadi-e 8eena 0i deeda-e beena -hir dil ko musaffa karo is lauh pe! shaayad 1aabain-e man-o tu naya paimaa& koi utre 0b rasm-e sitam hikmat-e khaasaan-e )amee& hai /aa’eed-e sitam maslehat-e mufti-e dee& hai 0b sadiyo& ke i'raar-e itaa’at ko badalne Laa)im hai ke inkaar ka farmaa& koi utre E t a=ain, li=htnin= shi!! rs at"p th Sinai &all ? O s in= ? As$ th h arts t" lin up a=ain Ahat b t- n ?"u and I, a n - pr"!is !a? d s9 nd F"r n"-, th lit "# th arth ha& d 9r d A?rann? t" b n"r!al And th !u#ti has pr"n"un9 d "ppr ssi"n -"rth "b ?in= A" br a$ this 9 nturi s("ld 9?9l "# a9Iui s9 n9 A n - pr"9la!ati"n !ust d s9 nd, th pr"9la!ati"n "# diss nt Faiz, 6il d t" L ban"n und r th di9tat"rship "# + n ral Fia(ul(HaI, -r"t s & ral p" !s d alin= -ith th Middl 7ast rn 9"n#li9t1 a pi 9 "n th 9it? "# B irut 4KIshI Apn MuJri!"G K" %abaJaulaaG L BhalaCPL"& L ads its %ris"n rs A-a? in Bhains5, an anth ! #"r %al stinian #r d"! #i=ht rs 4K7$ Aaraana Filastini MuJaahid"G K ,aa!C5, a dir= #"r th"s %al stinian !art?rs -h" di d in #"r i=n lands 4KFilastini Sh"hada >" %ard s M iG Kaa! Aa? C5, and p rhaps th !"st #a!"us, a lullab? t" a %al stinian "rphan 4KMat R" Ba9h9h CP; p ,"t, Bhild5, and & n d di9at d his b""$ KM r .il, M r Musaa#irC 4M? H art, M? ;and r r5 t" th %al stinian l ad r Eass r Ara#at' In r sp"ns t" his 9all, a l =i"n "# %a$istani p" ts -r"t -ith =r at # lin= and !path? ab"ut %al stin @@, 9"!parin= th #at "# th %al stinians t"

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th ir "-n "ppr ssi"n und r th di9tat"rship "# Fia(ul(HaI' Ah !"st &"9al "# th s -as, "# 9"urs , Habib >alib, -h" taunt d Fia(ul(HaI in a =hazal that Iui9$l? b 9a! a p"pular anth !1 +ahaa& khatre mei& hai 3slaam! us maidaan mei& aao "amaari aan ke dar pe ho kyoo&! Lebnaan mei& aao 3 aa)at maangte hai& hum bhi ab Beirut aane ki /o ahl-e hukm ye kahte hai& tum )indaan mei& aao +" t" th battl =r"und -h r Isla! a9tuall? is in dan= r ;h? ar ?"u a#t r "ur li& sN +" t" L ban"n And -h n - as$ #"r p r!issi"n t" =" t" B irut Our rul rs inst ad t ll us t" h ad #"r th dun= "ns >alib -as, "# 9"urs , 6p"sin= th h?p"9ris? "# th Fia r =i! -h"s battl 9r? 4b"th b #"r it usurp d p"- r and a#t r-ards -h n Justi#?in= th n d t" KIsla!iz C %a$istani stat and s"9i t?5 -as KIsla! in dan= rC, but -hi9h r #us d t" & n pa? lip s r&i9 t" th a9tual stru==l s "# th p "pl "# L ban"n and %al stin '

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Dlti!at l?, th int rnati"nalist &isi"n and s"lidarit? "# th %r"=r ssi& s 9a! dir 9tl? "ut "# th ir p"liti9s and th = n ral s nsibilit? "# th ti! ' Ah r aliti s "# 9"l"nialis!, and lat r n "9"l"nialis!Pn "(i!p rialis!, b"th r Iuir d and pr"&id d a =l"bal #ra! "# r # r n9 and a basis #"r shar d p"liti9al n=a= ! nt -ith "th r 9"l"niz d andP"r "ppr ss d p "pl s' Int rnati"nalis! in this p ri"d, h"- & r, -as n"t "# a pi 9 : th int rnati"nalis! "# th %r"=r ssi& s, #"r 6a!pl , -as a #ar 9r? #r"! th pan(Isla!is! "# IIbal and his #"ll"- rs' It -as inst ad in#"r! d b? an und rstandin= "# th shar d !at rial 9"nditi"ns "# "ppr ssi"n and stru==l and -as inspir d b? th int rnati"nal -"r$in=(9lass !"& ! nts and th stru==l s "# 9"l"niz d p "pl s a9r"ss th -"rld' Ah r - r "th r Drdu p" ts -h" -r"t pa ans t" th Al= rian #r d"! #i=ht rs and th %al stinian 9aus , but #r"! -ithin a pan(Isla!i9 s nsibilit?' ,"t s" th %r"=r ssi& s, #"r -h"! int rnati"nalis! ! ant a 9"!!"n stru==l a=ainst i!p rialis! and #"r a n - -"rld "rd r'

02

5
DREAM AND NIGHTMARE
The +lirtation with *odernit.
/he full power of the idea of modernity lay in a desire to wipe out whatever %ame earlier! so as to a%hieve a radi%ally new departure! a point that %ould be a true present 5 BB1arshall [email protected] In 13*0, -h n th Sputni$ blast d int" spa9 , it r 9 i& d "n "# its !"st l?ri9al tribut s #r"! an unli$ l? s"ur9 , Sahir Ludhian&i' In a p" ! titl d KM r AhCd K Has n"C 4B auti s "# !? + n rati"n5, Sahir pr s nt d th & nt as a su99 ss "# hu!anit? "& r natur ' Aa$in= ai! at th"s -h" th"u=ht that th ir #utur s - r d t r!in d b? #at 4th stars5, Sahir sa- in th Sputni$Cs ris ? t an"th r si=n that hu!ans had 9"nIu r d th"s & r? h a& nl? b"di s that purp"rt dl? h ld th ir #"rtun s h"sta= 1 Voh buland-baam taare! voh falak-ma'aam taare +o nishaan de ke apna! rahe be-nashaa& hamesha Voh hasee&! voh noor-)aade! voh khala ke shaah)aade +o hamaari 'ismato& par rahe hukm’raa& hamesha ... 1ere a’hd ke haseeno! voh na)ar-navaa) taare 1era ish'-e husn parvar tumhe& na)r de raha hai Voh unoo& o aab-o aatish ko aseer kar %huka tha Voh khala ki vus’ato& se bhikhiraa le raha hai 1ere saath rahne vaalo! mere baad aane vaalo 1ere daur ka ye tohfa! tumhe& saa)gaar aaye ,abhi tum khala se gu)ro kisi seem-tan ki khaatir ,abhi tum ko dil mei& rakh kar koi gul-’i)aar aaye Ah"s 6alt d stars, th"s h a& n d- ll rs ;h" r & al d th !s l& s, but r !ain d b ?"nd "ur r a9h

[email protected]

Ah"s b auti#ul 9hildr n "# li=ht, th"s prin9 s "# spa9 ;h" stablish d th ir &ain $in=d"! "& r "ur #at s ''' O b auti#ul p "pl "# th n - a= , th s & r? stars Ar h r b? b Iu ath d t" ?"u b? !? = n rati"n Ah passi"n that has alr ad? nsla& d -at r and #ir @* ,"- 9"!!ands "b isan9 & n #r"! th d pths "# spa9 E"u -h" li& -ith ! , and ?"u -h" -ill #"ll"- ! in ti! Ma? this =i#t #r"! !? = n rati"n brin= ?"u J"? Ma? ?"u #l? in spa9 l""$in= #"r a sil& r(b"di d b aut? And !a? s"! r"s?(9h $ d "n 9"! l""$in= #"r ?"u Ah r is a passi"nat "pti!is! in SahirCs p" !, -hi9h -"r$s at s & ral l & ls' It 6hibits an uns l#9"ns9i"us int rnati"nalis! in th -a? in -hi9h it appr"priat s a #"r i=n a9hi & ! [email protected] as a !att r "# 9"urs ' It 9uri"usl? us s an unabash dl? r"!anti9 t"n and i!a= r? t" d s9rib a t 9hn"l"=i9al & nt 4th r # r n9 t" seem-tan, sil& r( b"di d b auti s, r #l 9ts a #uturisti9 a sth ti9 in#us d -ith r"!an9 5' Ah r is undis=uis d a- in th #a9 "# this -"nd r that has r nd r d #a!iliar th sa! stars -hi9h, #"r all "# hu!an hist"r?, had b n s?n"n?!"us -ith unr a9habilit? and r !"t n ss' Ah p" ! d !"nstrat s an abidin= #aith in t 9hn"l"=?, 6pr ssin= a b li # that natur -ill ulti!at l? b"- d"-n t" th p"- r "# hu!an nd a&"ur' But ab"& all, it is ab"ut th !ar9h "# hu!anit? "& r th s !in=l? insur!"untabl barri rs in its path, and 9"ns Iu ntl? "# th abilit? "# hu!an b in=s t" triu!ph "& r th rst-hil s?!b"ls "# #atalis!' SahirCs na)m is a p"- r#ul 6a!pl "# th #as9inati"n "# th %;A p" ts -ith th ph n"! n"n "# !"d rnit?, sp 9iall? its t 9hn"l"=i9al and s9i nti#i9 asp 9ts' M"d rnit?, -h th r und rst""d as a parti9ular phas "# -"rld hist"r? "r a parti9ular pist ! , is a slipp r? and !ultila? r d 9"n9 pt, but it has s"! 9hara9t risti9 # atur s that th %r"=r ssi& s - r dra-n t"-ards and inspir d b?' B ntral t" th 9"n9 pt "# !"d rnit? is a d p and abidin= #aith in progress in t r!s "# a t l"s "r nd p"int t"-ards -hi9h hu!anit? !ar9h s in 6"rabl?' Ahis t l"s d" s n"t r pr s nt a ut"pian id al, but a ="al that is - ll -ithin th =rasp "# hu!an nd a&"ur 4#"r th %r"=r ssi& s, th t l"s -as a 9lassl ss s"9i t?5' And it is th hu!an b in= -hi9h is und rst""d t" b th dri&in= #"r9 "# this pr"=r ss, and th a= nt "#

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Hist"r?' Ahis und rstandin= is a99"!pani d b? a b li # in th p"- r "# s9i n9 and t 9hn"l"=? t" 9"nIu r natur and b nd it t" hu!an -ill, and a 9"n&i9ti"n that l"=i9 and r as"n 9an triu!ph "& r !"ribund traditi"ns, sup rstiti"ns and r li=i"n' But th %r"=r ssi& s - r n"t th #irst L & n -ithin th Drdu lit rar? traditi"n L t" b s" na!"ur d b? and in#us d -ith th spirit "# !"d rnit?' It is 9ust"!ar?, #"r 6a!pl , t" r =ard +halibCs l tt rs, -hi9h - r publish d and -id l? r ad, as th #irst instan9 "# !"d rnit? in Drdu pr"s : & n th"u=h s"! "# his p" !s did n=a= -ith 9"nt !p"rar? s"9ial 9"nditi"ns, th ? did s" in an "bliIu #ashi"n' Ah -ritin=s "# M"ha!!ad Husain Azad [email protected](13105 and Alta# Husain Hali [email protected])(131/[email protected]) al"n= -ith th -"r$s "# Sa??id Ah! d Khan 4101)(10305 and Shibli ,"!ani 410*)(131/5 push d th a= nda "# s"9ial r #"r! and !"d rnit? in Drdu lit ratur , si=ni#i9antl? trans#"r!in= its pr "99upati"ns and a sth ti9s in th pr"9 ss' Ah #irst auth nti9all? and Iuint ss ntiall? !"d rn p" t -ithin th Drdu lit rar? traditi"n -as M"ha!!ad IIbal -h"s -"r$ 6pli9itl? n=a= d -ith nati"nalis!, 9apitalis!, s"9ialis!, i!p rialis! and a h"st "# "th r p"liti9al and s"9ial issu s "# his ti! ' IIbalCs r &"luti"nar? 9"n9 pt "# khudi 4s l#h""d5, "r a subJ 9t(9 ntr d rati"nalit?, d alt -ith in his 131* 9"ll 9ti"n titl d 0sraar-e ,hudi 4Inti!ati"ns "# S l#h""d5, 9 l brat d #r -ill and 9"ns Iu ntl? th abilit? "# hu!an b in=s t" d t r!in th ir #at as th !"st i!p"rtant asp 9t "# hu!an natur ' In "n "# his !"st #a!"us 9"upl ts, IIbal sa?s1 ,hudi ko kar buland itna! ke har ta'deer se pahle ,huda bande se khud poo%hhe! bata! teri ra)a kya hai 76alt ?"ur S l# thus, that b #"r & r? t-ist "# #at +"d hi!s l# as$s ?"u, KM? 9r ati"n, l t ! $n"- ?"ur d sir 'C But #"r th 6pr ssi"n "# unap"l"= ti9all? in(?"ur(#a9 , un9"nditi"nal, ta$ (n"(pris"n rs pa ans t" !"d rnit?, - had t" -ait #"r th Mar6ist -rit rs, sp 9iall? th"s -h"s a= nda -as #"r!aliz d und r th instituti"nal l ad rship "# th %;A' Ah 9"n9 pt "# !"d rnit? h ld a & r? s du9ti& app al t" th Drdu -rit rs "# th %;A lin a= ' B"!!itt d as th ? - r t" radi9al s"9ial 9han= , th ? - r dra-n t" an id "l"=? that -as unabash dl?

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i9"n"9lasti9 and d li=ht d in und r!inin= sa9r d 9"-s' Ir"ni9all?, th ? s"! ti! s # ll int" a di## r nt trap, that "# !a$in= a sa9r d 9""ut "# !"d rnit? its l#' Ahat th pr"!is "# !"d rnit? -as "n "# th !"st abidin= in#lu n9 s "n th %;A is "b&i"us & n "n th !"st 9urs"r? "# 6a!inati"[email protected] and is &id nt #r"! th ass rti"ns !ad in its #irst !ani# st"' Ah %;A b li & d that "ld r s"9i"(p"liti9al instituti"ns st""d in th -a? "# pr"=r ss and ad&"9at d a trans#"r!ati"n "# s"9i t? that -as pr di9at d up"n th trans9 nd n9 "# r li=i"n, 9ultur and traditi"ns' It 9"nstantl? und rs9"r d th 9"nt nti"n that lit ratur "u=ht t" r #l 9t !at rial r alit?: lit ratur that -as pr"du9 d #"r its "-n sa$ -as #r"-n d up"n' It #"9us d "bs ssi& l? "n Krati"nalit?C, "#t n d ridin= 6tant lit ratur #"r n"t b in= rati"nal n"u=h #"r th ti! s' It t""$ ai! at th pri stl? 9lass, 6hibitin= a disdain #"r r li=i"n that - nt #ar b ?"nd th sl? i9"n"9las! "# arli r Drdu p" tr?' SahirCs p" ! "n th #li=ht "# th Sputni$ -as hardl? an is"lat d instan9 "# th 9 l brati"n "# !"d rnit? b? th Drdu p" ts' %r"=r ssi& p" ts d pl"? d !"d rn th ! s, d & l"p d n - tr"p s in th ir -ritin=s as !ar$ rs "# th ir ra and p"sit d !"d rnit? its l# as th s"luti"n t" th pr"bl !s that b s t Indian s"9i t?' Ah !"d rnist dr a! "# th s p" ts app ar d t" a9Iuir its "-n a= n9? "& r ti! , b 9"!in= a &itall? i!p"rtant part "# th ir pr"J 9t' Ah ? #r Iu ntl? & n rat d art #a9ts "# th industrial r &"luti"n su9h as !ills, trains, l 9tri9it? and r"9$ ts' MaJazCs KRaat Aur R lC 4Ah ,i=ht and th Arain5 is n"thin= l ss than an l =? t" "n "# th !"st 9lassi9 tr"p s "# !"d rnit? L th train L and "## rs an int r stin= in& nt"r? "# its ad!irabl attribut s' Li$ SahirCs p" !, th !""d h r is r"!anti91 -hir %hali hai rel! istayshan se lehraati hui $eem-shab ki khaam’shi mei& )er-e lab gaati hui Daalti behis %hataano& par hi'aarat ki na)ar ,oh par hansti! falak ko aankh dikhlaati hui Daaman-e taariki-e shab ki udaati dha iyaa& (asr-e )ulmat par musalsal teer barsaati hui :ad mei& koi %hee) aa aaye to us ko pees kar 3rte'aa-e )indagi ke raa) batlaati hui Al(=haraz, badhti 9hali Jaati hai, b ($hau#(" $hatar Shaa?ar( aatish(na#as $a $h""n $haulaati hui

06

On9 a=ain, th train Jauntil? l a& s th stati"n Br a$in= th sil n9 "# th ni=ht -ith its -hisp r d s"n=' Bastin= s9"rn#ul =lan9 s "n th pla9id 9li##s Lau=hin= at !"untains, !a$in= ? s at th s$? A arin= th bla9$ #abri9 "# th ni=ht t" shr ds Sh""tin= 9"nstant arr"-s "# spar$s at th pala9 "# dar$n ss' Brushin= an?thin= that 9"! s in its -a? R & alin= th s 9r ts "# th &"luti"n "# li# ' Dlti!at l? it #li s, # arl ssl?, R"ilin= th bl""d "# th p" tCs #i r? s"ul It is as? t" s -h? th train #un9ti"ns as th si=n "# !"d rnit? in MaJazCs p" !' Ah path "# a train is strai=ht, its d stinati"n una!bi=u"us, its 9"nt"urs sharp( d= d and its r lati"nship -ith natur 9"nt !ptu"us' It !its #ir and pi r9in= -histl s, l aps thr"u=h !"untains and ulti!at l? #as9inat s th !"d rnist p" t in !u9h th sa! -a? that d" ( ? d and lan=uid b auti s 9apti&at d +halib and Fa#ar: h is as irr sistibl? dra-n t" it as th !"th 4parvaana5 is t" th tap r 4sham’a5' It is int r stin= t" n"t that -hil th th ! "# this p" ! is 6tr ! l? un9"n& nti"nal, its lan=ua= and #"r! 9"ntinu t" b inspir d b? an arli r traditi"n, and d pl"? a s t "# ! taph"rs and i!a= s Iuit r 9"=nizabl b? an?"n -h" is #a!iliar -ith =hazals and 9lassi9al p" tr?'

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A 9"!!it! nt t" !"d rnit? als" si!ultan "usl? r #l 9t d and n 9 ssitat d a strid nt disa&"-al "# 9 rtain 9ultural traditi"ns, sp 9iall? r li=i"us "n s' +i& n th hist"r? "# 9"!!unalis! in th sub9"ntin nt, th %;A p" ts - r 9riti9al "# th r"l "# "r=aniz d r li=i"n in 9r atin= int r(r li=i"us stri# and th "bsta9l s it pla9 d in th path "# p a9 and pr"=r ss' In th ir ? s, r li=i"us "rth"d"6? and th "l"=i9al "bs9urantis! - r th KOth rC "# %r"=r ss, and st""d in th -a? "# its lib rat"r? pr"!is ' +i& n that !an? "# th ! - r Musli!, it -as Isla!i9 r li=i"us pra9ti9 s and traditi"ns -hi9h t nd d t" b th #"9us "# th ir ir ' It is -"rth n"tin= that this unr l ntin= 9ritiIu "# r li=i"n -hi9h -as 9hara9t risti9 "# th %;A -as !ar$ dl? di## r nt #r"! its arli r 6pr ssi"ns in Drdu p" tr?' Drdu p" ts li$ +halib and Mir had d & l"p d a st?l "# sl? atta9$s "n r li=i"n, but th ir !"dus "p randi

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had sta? d -ithin th b"unds "# th traditi"n "# gustaakhaana shaa’iri 4lit rall?1 irr & r nt p" tr?5' F"r +halib and Mir, th "bJ 9t "# th p" tCs ridi9ul -as "#t n th s l#(i!p"rtant ? t ulti!at l? bu!blin= r li=i"us #i=ur 1 th shaikh 4th h"l? !an5, th waa’i) 4th pr a9h rPad&is r5, th safeer-e haram 4a!bassad"r "# th !"sIu 5 "r th naaseh 4th 9"uns ll"r5' F"r 6a!pl , +halib sa?s1 KahaaG !ai$haan $a dar&aaza, +halib, aur $ahaaG -aaCiz %ar itna Jaant haiG, $al &"h Jaata tha $ hu! ni$l ;hith r th ta& rn d""r, and -hith r th h"l? !an, +halibN But all I $n"- is this: h -as nt rin= as I l #t Ah i!pli9it 9riti9is! h r is n"t dir 9t d s" !u9h at th pr s9ripti"ns "# th waa’i) as at his h?p"9ris? and th #a9t that h d" s n"t pra9tis th t !p ran9 h pr a9h s' ,"t that r li=i"n its l# is n"t und r atta9$: "nl? its s l#(ri=ht "us in&"9ati"n b? th un-"rth? is la!p""n d' S"! ti! s, in a di## r nt & in, th p" t p"siti"n d a l"& r as a kaafir, th b auti#ul in#id l -h" had th p"- r t" l ad th p" t(pr"ta="nist a-a? #r"! th siraat-al musta'eem, th ri=ht "us path' Ahis d &iati"n #r"! th strai=ht and narr"- -as pr"J 9t d in li=ht(h art d t r!s, as in this 9"upl t b? Mir in -hi9h a spartan r li=i"us 6ist n9 9"! s up sh"rt a=ainst a =l"ri"usl? !is=uid d but t !ptin= pi9ur an li# st?l 1 Dekhi hai ab se us but-e-kaafir ki shakl! 1ir +aata nahi& hai ee tanik 3slaam ki taraf 7& r sin9 I sa- that in#id l statu , O Mir M? h art is n"t & n !ildl? in9lin d t"-ard [email protected] Ah %r"=r ssi& s, "n th "th r hand, - nt b ?"nd this pla?#ul !is9hi &"usn ss and upp d th ant in th ir atta9$s "n r li=i"n, suppl ! ntin= th 9ritiIu "# th h"l? ! n -ith a dir 9t 9"nd !nati"n "# #aith its l#' F"r 6a!pl , Sahir 9uts t" th 9has 1 AIaaid &ah! hai, !azhab $ha?aal( $haa! hai saaIi Azal s zahn( insaaG basta( auhaa! hai saaIi O SaIi, #aith is but sup rstiti"n, r li=i"n an in# ri"r id a Sin9 th da-n "# ti! , this blindn ss has i!pris"n d "ur

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i!a=inati"n H r - ha& a br"adsid a=ainst th & r? n"ti"n "# Faith, -hi9h is s n as n" !"r than #raudul nt "bs9urantis!' Ah %r"=r ssi& s 6pr ss d a d #iant ath is! that s"u=ht t" 9r at a n - -"rld thr"u=h th r pudiati"n "# #aith 4Sahir sa?s ls -h r 1 3lhaad kar raha hai murattab ahaan-e nauD Ath is! is buildin= a n - -"rld5' Li$ -is , MaJaz -rit s brusIu l? t" an i!a=inar? l"& r, -h" is in&itin= th p" t t" b 9"! a b li & r as a pr a!bl t" th ir r lati"nship' His & rs is n"t "nl? dis!issi& "# r li=i"us # r&"ur, but "# th & r? #ruits that su9h an nd a&"ur pr"!is s1 Dair-o kaabe ka mai& nahi& 'aayal Dair-o kaabe ko aashiyaa& na bana 1u h mei& tu rooh-e sarmadi mat phoonk 2auna'-e ba)m-e aarifaa& na bana I b li & n ith r in th t !pl n"r th Kaaba, ." n"t !a$ th ! ?"ur h"! Br ath n"t an t rnal s"ul int" ! I a! n"t ="in= t" =ra9 th 9"!pan? "# th #aith#ul Ahis auda9i"us r #usal t" b 9"("pt d int" an? spiritualit? "r r li=i"n -as a n"& l and int r stin= turn in Drdu p" tr?' On9 r li=i"n -as put in th d"9$ -ith su9h # r"9it?, th %r"=r ssi& s # lt #r t" subJ 9t its pra9titi"n rs and a!bassad"rs t" a9 rbi9 9alu!n?' Ah ir !"9$in= "# r li=i"us &an= lists als" b 9a! in9r asin=l? intransi= nt and un9i&il' >"sh Malihabadi 9"llar d th mufti thus1 /eri baato& se padi aati hai kaano& mei& kharaash ,ufr-o eemaa&! kufr-o eemaa&! ta ku a; ,haamosh-baash9 E"ur dri& l n"- =i& s ! an ara9h In#id lit? and #aith, in#id lit? and #aith, h"- l"n=N Shut upM 76p 9t dl?, su9h pith ts ran a#"ul "# th r li=i"us stablish! nt and th %;A p" ts - r "stra9iz d b? Isla!i9 =r"ups -h" dis9"ura= d th r adin= "# th s -"r$s b? th ir -ards' . spit this, th %r"=r ssi& s 9"ntinu d t" b hu= l? p"pular a!"n= th ?"uth "# th ti! s' In th tu!ultu"us p ri"d that 9hara9t riz d th anti(9"l"nial stru==l s and th ! r= n9 "# th nati"n(stat , th pr"=r ssi& p" ts

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"## r d a 9a&ali r disr =ard #"r r li=i"us pr s9ripti"n that !ust ha& b n a h ad? 9"ntrast t" th 9"ns r&atis! "# th ir ti! s'

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+i& n th ir unabash d 9"!!it! nt t" s"9ialis!, it is hardl? surprisin= that th p" !s "# th %;A paid 9"nsid rabl att nti"n t" th s"9ial 9"nditi"ns "# th ti! , parti9ularl? t" th 9"ntributi"ns "# th 9"!!"n lab"ur rs t"-ards th !"& ! nt "# hu!anit? "n th path "# pr"=r ss' In his #a!"us p" ! KMa$aanC 4H"us 5, #"r instan9 , Kai#i Az!i -r"t &"9ati& l? ab"ut 9"nstru9ti"n -"r$ rs and th ir r"l in #a9ilitatin= th trans#"r!ati"n "# hu!an b in=s #r"! tr ( d- llin= ani!als t" 9i&iliz d 9itiz ns r sidin= in t"-ns and 9iti s1 .e )amee& tab bhi nigal lene pe aamaada thi -aao& ab toot-ti shaakho& se utaare hum ne! *n makaano& ko khabar hai! na makeeno& ko khabar *n dino& ki o gufaao& mei& gu)aare hum ne "aath dhalte gaye saan%ho& mei& to thakte kaise $a'sh ke baad naye na'sh nikhaare hum ne ,i ye deewaar buland! aur buland! aur buland Baam-o dar aur )araa aur sanwaare hum ne 0andhiyaa& tEd liya karti thi shammo& ki lave& +ad diye is liye bi li ke sitaare hum ne Ah arth had #"r & r thr at n d t" s-all"- us Sin9 - d s9 nd d #r"! th br a$in= bran9h s "# tr s, , ith r th s h"us s, n"r th ir r sid nts 9ar t" r ! !b r O# all th"s da?s - sp nt in 9a& s On9 "ur hand l arnt th 9ra#t h"- & r, h"- 9"uld th ? tir N . si=n a#t r d si=n t""$ shap thr"u=h "ur -"r$ And th n - built th -alls hi=h r, hi=h r and ? t hi=h r, L"&in=l? br"u=ht an & n =r at r b aut? t" th 9 ilin=s and d""rs St"r!s us d t" 6tin=uish th #la! s "# "ur la!ps S" - #i6 d stars !ad "# l 9tri9it? in "ur s$i s H"- & r, as th p" ! pr"9 ds, Kai#i pr"du9 s a !"! nt "# diss"nan9 in -hi9h - ar intr"du9 d t" th p"ssibilit? that !"d rnit? and pr"=r ss ar n"t all K=""dC' Ah lab"ur rs, ha&in= 9"nstru9t d th di#i9 , ar &i9t d #r"! its pr !is s and #"r9 d t" sl p "n th dirt "utsid , -at9hin= th -alls "# th pala9 "# th ir 9r ati"n -ith s!"uld rin= ? s' Ah p" t 9"! s #a9 t" #a9 -ith th

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pr"bl ! "# !"d rnit?, und rstandin= that -hil !"d rnit? 9an #a9ilitat th 9"nIu st "# natur r sultin= in th 9r ati"n "# - alth, it has n" sa? in its Iuitabl distributi"n' Kai#i r sp"nds b? 6h"rtin= th lab"ur rs t" r &"lt, pr"!isin= t" parti9ipat in th uprisin=' Ahis is th p" tCs !"! nt "# r 9"=niti"n that a !"d rnit? in th s r&i9 "# 9apital 9ann"t nsur th #ul#il! nt "# its lib rat"r? p"t ntial1 Ban gaya 'asr! to pahre pe ko’ee baith gaya 8o rahe khaak pe hum shorish-e taameer liye 0pni nas nas mei& liye mehnat-e paiham ki thakan Band aankho& mei& usi 'asr ki tasveer liye Din pighalta hai usi tarha saro& par ab bhi 2aat aankho& mei& khatakti hai siyaah teer liye 0a ki raat bahut garm hava %halti hai 0a ki raat na footpath pe neend aayegi 8ab utho! mai& bhi uthoo&! tum bhi utho! tum bhi utho ,oi khidki isi deewaar mei& khul aayegi On9 th pala9 -as built, th ? hir d a =uard ;hil - sl pt in th dirt, -ith "ur s9r a!in= 9ra#t, Our puls s p"undin= -ith 6hausti"n B arin= th pi9tur "# that & r? pala9 in "ur ti=htl? shut ? s' Ah da? still ! lts "n "ur h ads Ah ni=ht pi r9 s "ur ? s -ith bla9$ arr"-s A h"t air bl"-s t"ni=ht It -ill b i!p"ssibl t" sl p "n th pa& ! nt Aris & r?"n M M ' E"u' And ?"u t"" Ahat a -ind"- !a? "p n in th s & r? -alls Ah p" ! is r !ar$abl b 9aus -hil 9 l bratin= !"d rnit?, it als" a9$n"-l d= s its sh"rt9"!in=s #r"! th p"int "# &i - "# th s"9ialist1 !"d rnit? b? its l# is in9apabl "# nsurin= a Just and =alitarian s"9i t? and thus #ails th & r? subJ 9ts -h" - r pr"!is d #r d"! in r turn #"r th ir lab"ur' Ah #ailur "# !"d rnit? hurts b 9aus it & ntuall? 9rush s th #la!b"?ant "pti!is! it had = n rat d in th disp"ss ss d: th b tra?al "# its pr"!is is p"i=nant and h artbr a$in=' But at th sa! ti! , this r alizati"n is lib ratin= #"r it p"ints th -a? t"-ards th path that l ads t" th pr"!is d

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#utur ' Dlti!at l?, h"- & r, th b tra?al -hi9h -as th un$ind st 9ut "# all -as th "n th ? su## r d at th hands "# an"th r Iuint ss ntiall? K!"d rnC art #a9t1 th nati"n(stat ' Ah #ailur "# nati"nalis! its l#, sp 9iall? its inabilit? t" 9"nstru9t a nati"nal 9"!!unit? -hi9h had "& r9"! th barbaris! "# 9"!!unalis! and 9"!!unal &i"l n9 , -as a harsh bl"- t" th %r"=r ssi& s' In his 9hara9t risti9all? dir 9t p" !, KM ra Maazi M r Kaandh % C 4M? %ast "n M? Sh"uld rs5, Kai#i, -"nd rin= at th p rsist n9 "# s 9tarian &i"l n9 in th sub9"ntin nt d spit ? ars "# Kpr"=r ssC, 9"n9lud s1 0b tamaddun ki ho ye eet ke haar 1era maa)i hai abhi tak mere kaandhe pe savaar -adta rahta hai mere maa)i ka saaya mu h par Daur-e khoonkhaari se gu)ra hoo&! %hhupaaoo& kyoo&kar Daant sab khoon mei& doobe hue aate hai& na)ar 1al liya maathe pe tah)eeb ka ghaala lekin Barbariyat ka hai o daagh! voh %hhoota hi nahi& 7aao& aabaad kiye! shahr basaaye hum ne 2ishta angal se o apna hai! voh toota hi nahi& $ow whether Civili)ation wins or suffers defeat 1y past is still seated on my shoulders Ah shad"- "# !? past 9"ntinu s t" #all "n ! I ha& b n bl""d(thirst?, h"- 9an I d n? itN M? t th ar still bl""d stain d I ha& s! ar d 9i&ilit? "n !? #a9 ;hi9h is still p"9$!ar$ d b? th s9ars "# barbarit? I ha& p"pulat d &illa= s, !"& d t" 9iti s But n & r s & r d !? r lati"nship -ith th Jun=l M"d rnit?, & n a#t r th su99 ss#ul 9ul!inati"n "# th anti9"l"nial stru==l , -as ulti!at l? unabl t" &anIuish th d !"ns "# th past

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-hi9h li& "n as a $ind "# b stialit? -ithin hu!an b in=s' Ah %r"=r ssi& sC initial "pti!is! b 9a! t !p r d -ith ti! and -ith disillusi"n! nt "& r th nati"nalis! pr"J 9t' Ah ir p" !s - r #"r9 d t" n ="tiat th t rrain "# a !"d rn lands9ap that -as litt r d -ith th d bris "# d stru9ti"n and &i"l n9 ' Ah ir att !pts t" th "riz this 9"nditi"n t""$ #"r!s that - r "#t n hi=hl? 9"ntri& d and d # nsi& ' F"r instan9 , in a lat r p" ! KSaanpC 4Sna$ 5, Kai#i us s th sna$ as a s?!b"l "# th #unda! ntalis! that t 9hn"l"=i9al pr"=r ss had purp"rt dl? li!inat d1 .e saanp aa o phan uthaaye 1ere raaste mei& khada hai -ada tha 'adam %haand par mera is din *si din use maar dala tha mai& ne Ahis sna$ that bl"9$s !? -a?, %"is d t" stri$ I had $ill d it th da? I s t #""t "n th !""n Kai#i ass rts that hu!an$ind had d 9isi& l? 6"r9is d th b ast "# s 9tarianis! th da? it had s t #""t "n th !""n' M"d rnit?, si=ni#i d b? th landin= "n th !""n, had triu!ph d "& r th ata&isti9 asp 9ts "# hu!an natur ' H"- & r, th p" ! =" s "n t" d s9rib h"- th sna$ did n"t di , but -as ! r l? -"und d: it t""$ r #u= in a t !pl , a !"sIu and a 9hur9h, -h r it -as - ll l""$ d a#t r and !ad str"n= r b? &ari"us r li=i"us #unda! ntalis!s' S" #ar it app ars that Kai#i is -"r$in= -ithin a !"r 9"n& nti"nal !"d , id nti#?in= r li=i"us "bs9urantis! as th pr"bl ! #"r th #ailur "# !"d rnit?' H"- & r, at its nd, th p" ! ta$ s a di## r nt turn1 "ui ab se s%ien%e )ar ki ghulaam +o tha ilm ka aitbaar uth gaya 0ur is saanp ko )indagi mil gayi 7& r sin9 s9i n9 has b 9"! th sla& "# 9apital Kn"-l d= has b n pr"& n untrust-"rth? And this sna$ has #"und li# In this !"! nt, Kai#i id nti#i s th tru &illain "# th pi 9 1 9apital

[email protected]

and its nsla& ! nt "# s9i n9 ' On 9an s at -"r$ in th p" ! a s ns "# d spair ab"ut th !an9ipat"r? p"ssibiliti s "# Kpr"=r ssC as l"n= as Ks9i n9 and r as"nC ar h ld h"sta= b? an 6pl"itati& s?st !'

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Dlti!at l?, th %r"=r ssi& sC un9"nditi"nal "pti!is! -ith r =ard t" th lib rat"r? p"t ntial "# !"d rnit? -as und r!in d b? 9ir9u!stan9 s -hi9h l #t th ! disillusi"n d and s"! ti! s 9"n#us d' M"d rnit? 9ru ll? ann"un9 d its #ailur t" its ard nt b li & rs in s & ral -a?s' Ah taint d !"! nt "# #r d"! and d 9"l"nizati"n, th ra!pant and u=l? s 9tarian 9"n#li9t in urban S"uth Asia, and ab"& all, th inabilit? "# th ind p nd nt stat t" nsur a d 9 nt and di=ni#i d li# #"r its 9itiz ns - i=h d h a&il? "n th pr"=r ssi& p" ts' And -h n this #ailur l""$ d d p int" th ir ? s, th %;A p" ts -r"t th ir b st p" !s, p" !s "# an=uish and ra= , pr"du9in= s & ral h artbr a$ rs that !a? "nl? b d s9rib d as !"d rnit?Cs la! nts, its dir= s' On p" ! that, -hil -ritt n in th arl? da?s "# th !"& ! nt, 9aptur s this a!bi&al n9 &is(R(&is !"d rnit?Cs pr"!is is MaJazCs KAa-aaraC 4<a=ab"nd5' Ah p" ! -as -ritt n t" hi=hli=ht th d p s ns "# ali nati"n that th %r"=r ssi& s # lt -ith # udal Indian s"9i t? and t lls its st"r? #r"! th p"int "# &i - "# an int ns l? ali nat d pr"ta="nist -h" -al$s th str ts at ni=ht, =i&in= &"i9 t" his # lin= "# d spair' His stran= ! nt is d ri& d #r"! an und rstandin= "# his "-n p"& rt?, a # lin= that is 6a9 rbat d as h -al$s past ! rr? str ts -h r th lit ha& 9"nstru9t d arti#i9ial islands "# pr"sp rit? surr"und d b? -alls b hind -hi9h "n 9an pr t nd that all is - ll -ith th -"rld' It als" 9"! s #r"! his $n"-l d= that all this - alth and =ai t? 9"uld ha& b n his t"", had h b n -illin= t" !a$ s"! 9"!pr"!is s' H is, h"- & r, h ld ba9$ b? his K-"rthl ssC 9"!!it! nts t" h"n st? and # alt?' His un as -ith th s9 n ar"und hi! is r #l 9t d in s & ral i!a= s, s"! ti! s "# r li=i"us 6pl"itati"n 4a mullah’s turban5, s"! ti! s "# p nur? 4a !"n ?l nd rCs l d= r5' Ah b aut? "# stars its l# b 9"! s th s"ur9 "# =r at an=uish, -hi9h turns int" a s ns "# #ur? at th nd "# th p" !' H"- & r, in th n - 9 ntur?, - 9an r ad it n"t as th i!pati nt an= r "# th r &"luti"nar?, but th in9h"at , in ##abl and th tra=i9 ra= "# th hu!an b in= -h" is 9au=ht in a dil !!a a=ainst a -"rld that is n ith r 9"!pr h nsibl n"r 9han= abl ' It is th ra= "# th utt rl? h lpl ss and !irr"rs th 9"nditi"n "# th %;A

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p" ts stru==lin= t" !a$ s ns "# th ni=ht!ar that th ir !"d rnist dr a! had turn d int"' 8hahr ki raat aur mai& naashaad-o naakaara phiroo& +agmagaati aagti sadko& pe aawaara phiroo& 7hair ki basti hai! kab tak dar-ba-dar maaraa phiroo& 0i gham-e dil kya karoo&! ai vahshat-e dil! kya karoo& +hilmilaate 'am'amo& ki raah mei& )an eer si 2aat ke aan%hal mei& din ki mohini tasveer si 1ere seene par magar dahki hui shamsheer si 0i gham-e dil kya karoo&! ai vahshat-e dil! kya karoo& .e roopaheli %hhaao&! ye aakaash par taaro& ka aal +aise 8ufi ka tasavvur! aise aashi' ka khayaal 0ah lekin kaun aane! kaun sam he i ka haal 0i gham-e dil kya karoo&! ai vahshat-e dil! kya karoo& -hir voh toota ek sitaara! phir voh %hhooti phul hadi +aane kiski gEd mei& aayi ye moti ki ladi "ook si seene mei& uthi! %hot si dil par padi 0i gham-e dil kya karoo&! ai vahshat-e dil! kya karoo& 2aat hans hans kar ye kahti hai ke maikhaane mei& %hal -hir kisi 8hahnaa)-e la’ala-rukh ke kaashaane mei& %hal .e nahi& mumkin to phir ai dost! veeraane mei& %hal 0i gham-e dil kya karoo&! ai vahshat-e dil! kya karoo& "ar taraf bikhri hui rangeeniyaa& ra’anaaiyaa& "ar 'adam par ishrate& leti hui angdaaiyaa& Badh rahi hai gEd phailaaye hue rusvaaiyaa& 0i gham-e dil kya karoo&! ai vahshat-e dil! kya karoo& 2aaste mei& ruk ke dam le loo& meri aadat nahi& Laut kar vaapas %hala aoo&! meri fitrat nahi& 0ur koi ham-nava mil aaye ye 'ismat nahi& 0i gham-e dil kya karoo&! ai vahshat-e dil! kya karoo& 1unta)ir hai ek toofan-e bala mere liye 0b bhi aane kitne darvaa)e hai& va mere liye -ar museebat hai mera ahd-e wafa mere liye 0i gham-e dil kya karoo&! ai vahshat-e dil! kya karoo& +ee mei& aata hai ke ab ahd-e wafa bhi tod doo& *n ko pa sakta hoo& mai&! ye aasra bhi tod doo& "aa&! munaasib hai ye )an eer-e wafa bhi tod doo&

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0i gham-e dil kya karoo&! ai vahshat-e dil! kya karoo& <k mahal ki aad se nikla voh peela maahtaab +aise mullah ka amaama! aise baniye ki kitaab +aise muflis ki avaani! aise beva ka shabaab 0i gham-e dil kya karoo&! ai vahshat-e dil! kya karoo& Dil mei& ek shola bhadak utha hai! aakhir kya karoo& 1era paimaana %hhalak utha hai! aakhir kya karoo& :akhm seene ka mehak utha hai! aakhir kya karoo& 0i gham-e dil kya karoo&! ai vahshat-e dil! kya karoo& +ee mei& aata hai! ye murda %haand taare no%h loo& 3s kinaare no%h loo&! aur us kinaare no%h loo& <k do ki 'adr kya! saare ke saare no%h loo& 0i gham-e dil kya karoo&! ai vahshat-e dil! kya karoo& 1uflisi! aur ye manaa)ir hai& na)ar ke saamne 8ainkdo& 8ultan-o aabir hai& na)ar ke saamne 8ainkdo& Change)-o $aadir hai& na)ar ke saamne 0i gham-e dil kya karoo&! ai vahshat-e dil! kya karoo& Le ke ek Change) ke haatho& se khan ar tod doo& /a par us ke damakta hai o patthar tod doo& ,oi tode ya na tode! mai& hi badh kar tod doo& 0i gham-e dil kya karoo&! ai vahshat-e dil! kya karoo& Badh ke is 3ndarsabha ka saa)-o saamaa& phoonk doo& 3s ka gulshan phoonk doo&! us ka shabistaa& phoonk doo& /akht-e 8ultaa& kya! mai& saara 'asr-e 8ultaa& phoonk doo& 0i gham-e dil kya karoo&! ai vahshat-e dil! kya karoo& ,i=ht has #all n in th 9it?, and I, unhapp? and d # at d R"a!, a &a=ab"nd "n dazzlin=, a-a$ str ts It is n"t !? n i=hb"urh""d, h"- l"n= 9an I l"it r thusN An=uish d h art, d sp rat h art, -hat sh"uld I d"N In th =litt rin= s$?, th str tli=hts s ! lin$ d li$ a 9hain Ah b"s"! "# th ni=ht h"lds th i!a= "# a b auti#ul da? But th li=hts #all "n !? h art li$ th #lash "# a s9i!itar An=uish d h art, d sp rat h art, -hat sh"uld I d"N Ah s b auti#ul shad"-s, this n t "# stars "n th s$? Li$ a Su#iCs 9"nt !plati"n, a p" tCs th"u=ht But ah, -h" is t" $n"-, t" und rstand a h artCs pli=htN

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An=uish d h art, d sp rat h art, -hat sh"uld I d"N Ah r #alls a sh""tin= star, li$ a spar$l r A strin= "# p arls # ll in s"! b"d?Cs lap, p rhapsN . s"lati"n ris s in !? 9h st, hittin= th h art li$ a bl"An=uish d h art, d sp rat h art, -hat sh"uld I d"N Ah ni=ht lau=hs =ail?, and in&it s ! t" a ta& rn Or 9"! th n, t" th b"ud"ir "# a r"s (9h $ d b aut? 6 I# n"t, th n J"in ! O #ri nd, a!"n= th ruins’ An=uish d h art, d sp rat h art, -hat sh"uld I d"N Bri=ht 9"l"urs and l"& l? i!a= s li s9att r d At & r? st p, J"?s b 9$"n lan=u"r"usl? But l""$ h r , s"rr"-s and d # ats als" pr"## r th ir laps An=uish d h art, d sp rat h art, -hat sh"uld I d"N A" st"p and r st "n th -a? is n"t !? habit A" ad!it d # at and r turn is n"t !? natur But t" #ind a 9"!pani"n, alas, is n"t !? #at An=uish d h art, d sp rat h art, -hat sh"uld I d"N A st"r! "# !is#"rtun li s, r ad? t" -a?la? ! And th"u=h s & ral "p n d""rs still b 9$"n ! An "ld pr"!is "# # alt? h"lds ! ba9$, li$ a 9urs An=uish d h art, d sp rat h art, -hat sh"uld I d"N S"! ti! s I -"nd r, sh"uld I br a$ th"s #""lish &"-sN Sh"uld I & n surr nd r th h"p that l"& -ill b r -ard dN It is p"ssibl , is it n"t, that I 9"uld br a$ this 9hain !ad "# airN An=uish d h art, d sp rat h art, -hat sh"uld I d"N Fr"! b hind a pala9 , ! r= d th ? ll"- !""n Li$ a !ullahCs turban, li$ a !"n ?l nd rCs l d= r Li$ a p""r !anCs ?"uth, a -id"-Cs b aut? An=uish d h art, d sp rat h art, -hat sh"uld I d"N M? h art burns li$ a #la! , -hat sh"uld I d"N Ah 9up "# !? pati n9 bri!s "& r, -hat sh"uld I d"N Ah -"und in !? 9h st is #ra=rant, -hat sh"uld I d"N An=uish d h art, d sp rat h art, -hat sh"uld I d"N I -ant t" plu9$ this d ad !""n, th s d ad stars #r"! th s$? %lu9$ th ! #r"! this nd "# th h"riz"n and #r"! that 9"rn r ,"t Just "n "r t-", I -ant t" plu9$ th ! all "ut

3)

An=uish d h art, d sp rat h art, -hat sh"uld I d"N M? p"& rt?, and th s b auti#ul si=hts t" b h"ld Hundr ds "# - alth? $in=s p"llut !? =az Hundr ds "# Bh n=iz s, hundr ds "# ,adirs t" b h"ld40 An=uish d h art, d sp rat h art, -hat sh"uld I d"N Ah that I 9"uld br a$ & r? s-"rd in th hands "# & r? Bh n=iz %ull "ut th J - l #r"! his 9r"-n and br a$ it t"" ;h? -ait #"r an?"n ls , l t ! br a$ it !?s l# An=uish d h art, d sp rat h art, -hat sh"uld I d"N I -ant t" -al$ int" th Indrasabha/1 and burn it t" th =r"und Burn d"-n this =ard n, and burn d"-n that b d9ha!b r ,"t Just th $in=Cs 9r"-n, I -ant t" burn th ntir pala9 M An=uish d h art, d sp rat h art, -hat sh"uld I d"N

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6.
PROGRESSIVE POETRY AND FILM LYRICS
<eshwar 0llah tere ahaa& mei&! nafrat kyoo& hai ang hai kyoo& /era dil to itna badha hai! insaa& ka dil tang hai kyoo& ... 3s duniya ke daaman par! insaa& ke lahu ka rang hai kyoo& ... Dil ke darwaa)o& par taale! taalo& par ye )ang hai kyoo& O 7 sh-ar, O Allah, -h? this hatr d, this -ar in ?"ur -"rldN/2 E"ur h art $n"-s n" b"unds, -h? ar th h arts "# hu!ans s" s!all and p tt?N''' ;h? is th =ar! nt "# th -"rld stain d -ith hu!an bl""dN''' ;h? ar th d""rs "# h arts l"9$ d, -h? ar th s l"9$s rust dN S" =" s th hauntin=l? b auti#ul s"n= #r"! th 1330 #il! <arth' ;ritt n b? >a& d A$htar and s t t" !usi9 b? A'R' Rah!an 4and in9id ntall?, put t" =""d us b? +"har Raza as th r 9urrin= th ! "# <vil 8talks the Land, a d"9u! ntar? "n th 2002 +uJarat &i"l n9 5, th s"n= is "b&i"usl? a h"!a= t" an"th r "n that -as -ritt n arli r b? Sahir Ludhian&i1 ,huda-e bartar! teri )amee& par! )amee& ki khaatir ye ang kyoo& hai "ar ek fath-o )afar ke daaman pe khoon-e insaa& ka rang kyoo& hai ... +inhe& talab hai ahaan bhar ki unhee& ka dil itna tang kyoo& hai ... 8aro& mei& kibr-o ghuroor kyoo& hai! dilo& ke sheeshe pe )ang kyoo& hai O =r at +"d, -h? d" p "pl "# ?"ur arth -a= -ar "& r landN ;h? is th =ar! nt "# & r? 9"nIu r"r stain d -ith hu!an bl""dN ''' ;h? ar th h arts "# th"s -h" d sir th -h"l -"rld s" s!all and p tt?N ''' ;h? ar th ir h ads s-"ll n -ith prid and arr"=an9 , -h? ar th !irr"rs "# th ir h arts rust dN

33

." th s t-" s"n=s r pr s nt b""$ nds "# a lin that ran #r"! Sahir thr"u=h Kai#i Az!i and MaJr""h Sultanpuri t" >a& d A$htarN Is th r a = n rati"nal 9"ntinuit? "# pr"=r ssi& s nti! nt that Drdu p" ts d pl"? d in th ar na "# p"pular 9ultur thr"u=h th ir Hindi #il! l?ri9sN A#t r all "n 9an, -ith"ut !u9h ##"rt, r 9all a nu!b r "# pr"=r ssi& #il! s"n=s -ritt n b? th Drdu p" ts "# th %;A' In "rd r t" ans- r th s Iu sti"ns, - b"u=ht b""$s "# l?ri9s, 9r"ss( 9h 9$ d -ith "nlin databas s and as$ d #ri nds t" t ll us ab"ut th pr"=r ssi& s"n=s that 9a! t" th ir !ind' Surprisin=l?, th s ar9h ?i ld d a #ar s!all r "utput than - had #irst i!a=in d' , & rth l ss, th r is a st"r? t" b t"ld h r , a narrati& t" un#"ld, a l ss"n "r t-" t" b l arnt'

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Ah d pl"?! nt "# s"n=s t" pr"p l a narrati& has a l"n= and &ari d traditi"n in India' Man? "# th 9"untr?Cs p"pular art #"r!s ha& us d this t 9hniIu #"r a l"n= ti! 1 th Kuti?atta! and Katha$ali in K rala, th >atra in B n=al, th ,autan$i and Ra!lila traditi"ns in ,"rth India, th Marathi Aa!asha, th A ru$uttu #r"! Aa!il ,adu, th Burra$atha in Andhra %rad sh, th Ea$sh=ana #r"! Karnata$a, th Bha&ai #r"! +uJarat, th OJapali #r"! Assa!, th Lila #r"! Orissa and, "# 9"urs , th &ari"us na9t! nts "# th Ra!a?ana and th Mahabharata'43 Ah arl? %arsi th atr , th pr 9urs"r t" Indian 9in !a, als" had its shar "# s"n=s' As >a& d A$htar sa?s in an int r&i -//, in a pla? ab"ut Mar9us and H l na s t in R"! , #"r instan9 , H l na pinin= #"r h r l"& -"uld burst "ut int" a s"n= -iya morey aa nahi& aaye 4M? b l"& d hasnCt 9"! t"da?5' Ah "ri=inal pla?s "# th li$ s "# A=ha Hashr Kash!iri - r subs Iu ntl? adapt d int" Hindi 9in !a' H r is a t?pi9al dial"=u #r"! 0seer-e "irs 4%ris"n r "# +r d5' Ah 9"n& rsati"n is b t- n Bhan= z Khan and his l"& , ,aushaba/*1 ,1 %?aar s $ sa&aal hai 4I ha& a Iu sti"n #"r !? l"& 5' B1 Far!aai? &"h $?a $ha?aal haiN 4%ra?, -hat ar ?"u thin$in=N5 ,1 Ku!haar J" !itti $a $hil"na banaata hai, &"h $is $aa! aata haiN 4Ah 9la? t"? a p"tt r !a$ s, -hat =""d is itN5 B1 Ds s dil bahlaa?a Jaata hai' A=ar &"h $isi $ haath s 9h""t Jaa? , ?a th"$ar s t""t Jaa? , t" $u!haar $" sa$ht !alaal h"=a 4It is t" a!us "n Cs h art' But i# it slips thr"u=h "n Cs #in= rs, "r is br"$ n b? a 9ar l ss #""t, th p"tt r -ill b & r? sad5'

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,1 K?"nG aisa $ha?aal h"=aN 4;h? -"uld h # l s"N5 B1 K?"G$ us sha$hs n $u!haar $i ! hnat barbaad $ar di 4B 9aus th p rs"n has d str"? d th p"tt rCs ##"rt5' ,1 ;aah -aah, subhaanallah' Kh""b baat irshaad $ar di4L"rd b prais d' Ahat -as b auti#ull? said5' +i& n this hist"r?, it is n" surpris th n that Indian 9in !a t""$ s" asil? t" in9ludin= s"n=s as a #"r! "# th atri9al narrati& ' Ah hist"r? "# Hindi #il! l?ri9s a9tuall? pr dat s th tal$i s' Ah standard pra9ti9 durin= th sil nt ra -as t" pr"&id !usi9al a99"!pani! nt t" th #il! #r"! th "r9h stra pit' 7a9h !"&i th atr had its "-n band "# !usi9ians that pla? d al"n= -ith th #il! its l#' Ah #irst instan9 "# pla?ba9$ sin=in= s !s t" ha& "99urr d in 1321 #"r th !"&i Bhakt Vidur' <idurCs -i# , spinnin= a 9har$ha, !"uth d th -"rds "# a s"n= that -as lip(s?n9h d #"r th audi n9 b? a li& sin= r in th th atr 4th audi n9 san= al"n=, "#t n d !andin= n9"r s5' B? th ti! th #irst tal$i , 0lam 0ra, -as r l as d in [email protected], s"n=s had ta$ n 9 ntr sta= in Indian 9in !a 4a99"rdin= t" "n a99"unt, 0lam 0ra had #i#t? #i& M5'

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Ah us "# Hindi #il! l?ri9s as a ! ans "# arti9ulatin= a pr"=r ssi& s nti! nt -as, n"t surprisin=l?, int rt-in d -ith th #r d"! stru==l ' ;hil s"! #il! s9r nin=s in th ,"rth us d th int r&al b t- n th 9han=in= "# th r ls t" l ad th audi n9 int" sin=in= nati"nalist s"n=s, th d pl"?! nt "# l?ri9s t" pr"pa=at r sistan9 -as #irst p"pulariz d in th S"uth' .arin= #il!(!a$ rs in Aa!il ,adu and Andhra %rad sh d #i d th British 9 ns"rs b? usin= th p" !s "# th bann d r &"luti"nar? p" t Subra!an?a Bharati in #il!s, s"! ti! s -ith"ut 9r dit 4#"r 6a!pl , in $avayuvanPM"d rn E"uth, [email protected]): 1enaka, [email protected]*: 0drishtamPFat , [email protected]: and $aam 3ruvarP; A-", 13/)5' Hindi 9in !a, initiall? 9auti"us, s""n #"ll"- d suit' Ah [email protected] #il! +anmabhoomi 4Land "# Birth5 -as "n "# th #irst t" ha& an 6pli9itl? nati"nalist s"n= 4-ritt n b? >'S' Bash?ap51 K>ai Jai Janani Jan!abh""!iC 4Hail t" th land "#"ur birth5' On l?ri9ist -h" 9"nsist ntl? -r"t patri"ti9 s"n=s #"r #il!s -as Ra!9handra ,arainJi .-i& di, b tt r $n"-n as %rad p, -h"s !"st #a!"us s"n= is pr"babl? this "n #r"! th #il! +agriti 4A-a$ nin=, 13*/51 0ao ba%h%ho tumhe& dikhaye& haanki "industaan ki

101

3s mitti se tilak karo! ye dharti hai balidaan ki Vande 1ataram! Vande 1ataram B"! 9hildr n, l t ! "## r ?"u a p $ int" Hindustan Ad"rn ?"ur #"r h ads -ith its s"il, #"r this is th land "# !art?rs <and Matara!, <and Matara! ;ritin= #irst #"r B"!ba? Aal$i s, %rad p s""n J"in d th n -l? 9r at d Fil!istan, -h"s #irst #il! Chal Chal 2e $au awanP;al$ "n, E"uth, 13// 4s9ript d b? th %;A -rit r Saadat Hasan Mant"5 in9lud d a s"n= 6t"llin= th unit? "# Hindus and Musli!s1 1an)il sabhi ki ek hai! raahe& alag alag Voh ek hai! par apni nigaahe& alag alag 1andir mei& hai bhagwaan! voh 1as id mei& khuda hai ,isne kaha "indu se 1usalmaan uda hai Bolo "ar "ar 1ahaadev! Bolo 0llah-o 0kbar Ah"u=h "ur paths ar di## r nt, "ur d stinati"n is th sa! Ah r is but "n +"d, Just di## r nt -a?s "# l""$in= at Hi! In th t !pl H is 9all d Bha=-aan, in th !"sIu , Khuda ;h" sa?s that Hindus and Musli!s ar nCt but "n Sa? Har Har Mahad &, sa? Allah(" A$bar In th 13/0 #il!, 0a ,a "industani 4A"da?Cs Indian5, dir 9t d b? >a?ant . sai and # aturin= Miss R"s , %rith&iraJ, Ish-arlal, Sitara and 9"! dian Bharli /6, %rith&iraJ, pla?in= a nati"nalist, is pi9turiz d -al$in= thr"u=h his &illa= sin=in=1 Charkha %halaao behno ,aato ye ka%hhe dhaage Dhaage ye kah rahe hai& Bhaarat ke bhaag aage Charkhe ke geet gaao Duniya ko ye sunaao Charkha %halaane waala 7andhi hai aage aage Spin th 9har$ha O sist rs And as ?"u 9ut th s thr ads

102

List n as th ? sa? that IndiaCs d stin? has a-a$ n d A ll this t" th -"rld Ahat th 9har$ha spinn r +andhi L ads us all S"! "# th s"n=s that - r -ritt n durin= th Huit India M"& ! nt 9"ns9i"usl? push d th 9 ns"r(i!p"s d b"unds "# a99 ptabilit?' Ah "p nin= s"n= in ,ismat 4Fat , 13/@5, -ritt n b? %rad p and 9"!p"s d b? Anil Bis-as, had th #"ll"-in= 9h"rus1 0a "imaalay ki %hoti se! phir hum ne lalkaara hai Door hato! door hato ai duniya vaalo "industaan hamaara hai Fr"! th p a$ "# th Hi!ala?as, - d #iantl? ann"un9 + t "ut O #"r i=n rs, #"r India is "urs +auta! Kaul, in his int r stin= b""$ Cinema and the 3ndian =reedom 8truggle d"9u! nts an an 9d"t ab"ut h"- th 9 ns"rs - r h""d-in$ d int" thin$in= that th r # r n9 t" K#"r i=n rsC in th s"n= -as ab"ut th >apan s ar!? and n"t th British' ,ismat -as #irst r l as d in Kanpur at th I!p rial Aal$i s' Ah British auth"riti s r 9 i& d in#"r!ati"n that this s"n= -as b in= pla? d r p at dl? "n publi9 d !and' O##i9 r .har! ndra +aur 4th br"th r "# <raJ ndra +aur, auth"r, l?ri9ist and s9r npla? -rit r "# !an? #il!s5 -as s nt t" in& sti=at ' A d t nti"n "rd r und r S 9ti"n 26 "# th . # ns "# India Rul s -as r adi d t" arr st %rad p' .har! ndra +aur r p"rt dl? sa- th #il! #"ur ti! s and #il d a r p"rt sa?in= that an"th r lin in th sa! s"n=, /um na kisi ke aage hukna! 7erman ho ya +apaani 4." n"t b"- b #"r an?"n , b th ? + r!an "r >apan s 5, d !"nstrat d that th s"n= -as n"t anti( British' ,ismat nd d up runnin= #"r 106 - $s at R"6? Bin !a in Bal9utta' Oth r l?ri9ists su9h as %andit ,ar ndra Shar!a 4"amari BaatPOur St"r?, 13/@5, Ha!ar >alalabadi 4ChandPM""n, 13//5, .',' Madh"$ 4-ehle 0apPE"u First, 13//5, Fia Sarhadi 4Badi 1aa, 13/*5, and +"pal Sin=h , pali 40mar 0shaP7t rnal H"p , 13/)5 t""$ h art #r"! this and p nn d #r d"! s"n=s -ith in9r asin= #r Iu n9?' +ra!"ph"n r 9"rds s r& d th purp"s "# p"pularizin= #il! !usi9 b ?"nd th 9in !a halls' Sin9 th r 9"rdin=s - r n"t "# a =r at Iualit?, th l?ri9s - r print d "n 9h ap b""$l ts and distribut d

[email protected]

-ith th r 9"rds' Ah British ad!inistrati"n bann d s & ral "# th s s"n=s, but th b""$l ts 9ir9ulat d #r l? 9arr?in= th -"rd ar"und' Ind p nd n9 unsha9$l d #il!(!a$ rs #r"! th li!itati"ns pla9 d b? th 9 ns"rs "n patri"ti9 s"n=s and l?ri9ists 9 l brat d' S"n=s su9h as th "n #r"! 0himsaP,"n(&i"l n9 413/): 0)aad hum hai& aa se! ailo& ke taale tod doD ; ar #r #r"! t"da?, l t us br a$ th l"9$s "# "ur Jails5 and 1a boorPH lpl ss 413/0: Chala gaya gora angre)! ab kaahe ka dar: Ah -hit British ha& d part d, -hat d" - ha& t" # ar n"-N5 b 9a! !"r and !"r 9"!!"n'

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In th ! anti! , th %;A -as =ath rin= !"! ntu!' Ahis radi9al !"& ! nt br ath d a n - li# int" 9ultural pr"du9ti"n and rapidl? =ain d p"pularit?' ,"t surprisin=l?, th ! diu! "# 9in !a -as s n b? th %;A as a spa9 #"r int r& nti"n' Ah !""d "# th nati"n all"- d ! !b rs "# th ass"9iati"n t" !a$ inr"ads int" th #il! industr? and l #tist -rit rs - r s""n p nnin= s9ripts and st"ri s #"r lar= #il! studi"s, 6p"sin= th lar= !"&i (="in= audi n9 t" s"9iall? 9"ns9i"us id as' An"th r instituti"n that had a 9"nsid rabl i!pa9t "n th &"luti"n "# Indian 9in !a -as th Indian % "pl Cs Ah atr Ass"9iati"n 4I%AA5, th 9ultural -in= "# th B"!!unist %art? "# India 4B%I5' Laun9h d in 13/@ Kt" d # nd 9ultur a=ainst #as9is! and i!p rialis!C, I%AA -"r$ d t"-ards th d & l"p! nt "# an a&ant(=ard 9ultur in India, lar= l? in th atr L its pri!ar? #i ld "# n=a= ! nt L but als" in th ar na "# 9in !a' A lar= nu!b r "# th 9"untr?Cs 9ultural int lli= ntsia L a9t"rs, dir 9t"rs, s9r npla? -rit rs, J"urnalists, l?ri9ists, !usi9ians and t 9hni9ians L 9a! t"= th r t" pr"du9 -"r$ that -as in lin -ith th ir p"liti9s "# s"9ial Justi9 ' ;rit r(dir 9t"r Kh-aJa Ah!ad Abbas, 9in !at"=raph r(dir 9t"r Bi!al R"?, dir 9t"r Bh tan Anand, !usi9 9"!p"s r Salil Bh"udhar?, p" t(l?ri9ists Sahir Ludhian&i and MaJr""h Sultanpuri and a9t"rs BalraJ Sahni and Dtpal .utt - r all lin$ d t" I%AA' K'A' Abbas, a 9"#"und r "# th I%AA, !ad Dharti ,e Lal 4Bhildr n "# th 7arth, 13/65 #r"! a st"r? b? Krish n Bhand r, a #il! that 6a!in d th B n=al #a!in in a d"9u! ntar?(li$ #ashi"n' M"han Bha&naniCs 1a)doorPLab"ur r [email protected]/5, inspir d b? I%AACs pla? /he =a%tory bas d "n a st"r? b? %r !9hand, -as "n "# th #irst "# its

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$ind and "## r d a r alisti9 p"rtra?al "# th pli=ht "# industrial -"r$ rs' Bhandulal ShahCs 0%%hut, a #il! #"9usin= "n th th ! "# unt"u9habilit?, M hb""b KhanCs 1anmohan [email protected] -hi9h 9ritiIu d th patriar9hal "rd r, +agirdarPF udal Landl"rd [email protected])5 -hi9h Iu sti"n d th issu "# land "-n rship, and "um /um 0ur 4ohPI, E"u, and th Oth r [email protected], a #il! ab"ut a -"!an -h" s $s s 6ual and !"ti"nal 9"!#"rt thr"u=h an 6tra!arital r lati"nship L all 9hall n= d 6istin= s"9ial n"r!s in a pr"bin= #ashi"n' ;hil -rit rs and dir 9t"rs b l"n=in= t" th %r"=r ssi& ;rit rsC M"& ! nt !ad a nu!b r "# #il!s that 6hibit d a p"liti9al 9"ns9i"usn ss and a d sir t" pr 9ipitat s"9ial 9han= , it t""$ a -hil #"r th Drdu p" tr? "# th !"& ! nt t" nt r th ar na "# #il! l?ri9s' Alth"u=h Sahir Ludhian&i !ad his d but in 13/1 4in $au awanPE"uth5 and MaJr""h Sultanpuri in 13/6 4-ith 8hah ahan5, th ir arl? l?ri9al "utput b l"n= d t" th traditi"nal = nr "# l"& p" tr?' F"r r as"ns that ar t"" 9"!pl 6 t" =" int" in d tail, th l adin= Hindi p" ts "# th ti! had shi d a-a? #r"! -ritin= #il! l?ri9s' Ah l ad rship "# th Hindi p" ts -as at that ti! d"!inat d b? an "rth"d"6? -hi9h insist d that its ! !b rs r #us t" d =rad th ir art b? -ritin= #"r p"pular 9in !a "r th atr in th 9"!!"n "r ba)aari lan=ua= "# Hindustani' As E"= ndra Mali$ p"ints "ut Klit rar? traditi"ns in Hindi t nd d t" b d"!inat d b? Hindi r &i&alis!, nati"nalis! and r"!anti9is!C'/) Ah l adin= Hindi -rit rs and p" ts "# th ti! #r"-n d up"n s"9ialis! as Kan ali n phil"s"ph? unsuitabl #"r th Indian 9"nt 6t as - ll as up"n p"pular 9ultur as a ! diu! #"r th ir -"r$C/0' Ah Drdu p" ts, "n th "th r hand, - r !"r than a= r t" 6pl"r this n - ! diu! "# 6pr ssi"n' Kai#i Az!i, MaJr""h Sultanpuri and p rhaps !"st si=ni#i9antl? Sahir Ludhian&i start d -ritin= #"r 9in !a and d"!inat d th lands9ap "# its l?ri9al pr"du9ti"n #"r th n 6t # d 9ad s' Oth r pr"=r ssi& p" ts su9h as Shail ndra, Ali Sardar >a#ri, >an ,isar A$htar, , raJ and +ulzar J"in d th #ra? in du 9"urs '

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Ah d 9ad "# th 13*0s pr"& d t" b th ti! -h n pr"=r ssi& l?ri9s 9a! "# a= ' Ahis -as th p ri"d d"!inat d b? th aut urs "# Hindi 9in !a, th !"&i (!a$ rs -ith a &isi"n' K'A' Abbas, Bi!al R"?, RaJ Kap""r, Ka!al A!r"hi and, "# 9"urs ,

10*

+uru .utt s"u=ht t" us 9in !a as a p da="=i9al t""l and a spa9 #"r 9"nstru9tin= s"9ial 9ritiIu ' Ah ir 6pr ssi"n #"und a 9aus in th #ailur "# th #r nati"n t" #ul#il its pr"!is "# an =alitarian s"9i t? -ith Justi9 #"r all 9itiz ns' As th uph"ria "# Ind p nd n9 dissipat d, and as p "pl und rst""d that th nd "# British "99upati"n did n"t ! an th nd "# th ir !is r?, dis n9hant! nt -ith th , hru ="& rn! nt =r -' S"! li$ th I%AA p" t %r ! .ha-an, -h" had -ritt n K>h""! Jh""! $ =aa" aaJC 9 l bratin= th 6it "# th British, 9"ntinu d t" ur= th ?"uth "# th , hru&ian ra t" n=a= in th pr"9 ss "# nati"n buildin=1 Chhoro kal ki baate&! kal ki baat puraani $aye daur mei& likhenge hum mil kar nayi kahaani "um "industaani! hum "industaani F"r= t ? st rda?, ? st rda? is ="n ; shall -rit a n - st"r? #"r th n - ti! s ; Indians, - Indians But #"r a h"st "# "th rs, , hru b 9a! th s?!b"l "# th b tra?al "# th pr"!is "# Ind p nd n9 ' As RaJadh?a$sha and ;ill ! n p"int "ut, this -as a p ri"d r #l 9tin= Kth !"ti"nal and s"9ial 9"!pl 6iti s a## 9tin= th artist -h n th r #"r!is! ass"9iat d -ith , hru&ian nati"nalis! disint =rat d und r th pr ssur "# industrializati"n and urbanizati"n 9r atin= th spa9 #"r Indian !"d rnis! but als" = n ratin= s"9ial disl"9ati"n/3'C Sahir str"d "n t" this sta= li$ a =iant, -ritin= s"n=s #"r !"&i s li$ $aya DaurPAh , - A= 413*)5 and -hir 8ubha "ogiPM"rnin= ;ill B"! 413*05 in a !ann r that -as in $ pin= -ith his r putati"n as a r &"luti"nar? p" t' 8aathi haath badhaana! saathi haath badhaana <k akela thak aayega mil kar bo h uthaana 8aathi haath badhaana B"!rad s, l nd ?"ur handM On al"n -ill tir s""n, l t us b ar this burd n t"= th r, B"!rad s l nd ?"ur handM

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1aati se hum laal nikaale&! moti laae& al se +o ku%h is duniya mei& bana hai! bana hamaare bal se ,ab tak mehnat ke pairo& mei& daulat ki )an eere& "aath badhaakar %hheen lo apne sapno& ki tasveere& 8aathi haath badhaana ; ar th "n s -h" 6tra9t rubi s #r"! th arth, p arls #r"! th s a, All that is "# &alu in this -"rld has b n 9r at d b? us' H"- l"n= -ill lab"ur b 9hain d b? th"s -h" "-n - althN R a9h "ut and snat9h that -hi9h ?"u ha& al-a?s dr a! d "#' B"!rad s, l nd ?"ur handM -yaasa 413*)5, "# 9"urs , is th !"&i that is b st r ! !b r d as SahirCs & hi9l ' A +uru .utt #il! ab"ut a stru==lin= p" t 9"!in= t" t r!s -ith p"st(Ind p nd n9 India, th st"r? = ts its radi9al d= !ainl? #r"! its s"n=s' Ah p" t(pr"ta="nist "# th st"r?, a#t r an a="niz d s ar9h #"r ! anin=, "## rs this disdain#ul ta$ "n th 9urr nt ti! s1 .e mahlo& ye takhto& ye taa o& ki duniya .e insaa& ke dushman samaa o& ki duniya .e daulat ke bhooke rivaa o& ki duniya .e duniya agar mil bhi aye to kya hai; Ahis -"rld "# pala9 s, thr"n s and 9r"-ns Ahis -"rld "# s"9i ti s that hat hu!anit? Ahis -"rld that hun= rs #"r n"thin= but - alth 7& n i# "n "btains this -"rld, s" -hatN And as th p" t, pla? d b? +uru .utt hi!s l#, -and rs thr"u=h th r d(li=ht distri9t and "bs r& s th d sp rati"n that #"r9 s -"! n t" s ll th ir b"di s, h sin=s a s"n= that is a !in"r r -"r$in= "# a p" ! that Sahir had -ritt n arli r 49all d Chakle, "r Br"th ls5 -hi9h - nt1 8anaakhaane tasdee'-e mashri' kahaa& hai&; 4;h r ar th"s -h" prais th purit? "# th 7astN5' Ah st"r? =" s that , hru had =i& n a sp 9h in -hi9h h had r !ar$ d KI a! pr"ud "# India'C +uru .utt as$ d Sahir t" -"r$ this lin int" th r #rain "# th s"n=' Ah r sult -as1 .e koo%he! ye neelaam-ghar dilkashi ke

10)

.e lut-te hue kaarvaa& )indagi ke ,ahaa& hai&! kahaa& hai&! muhaafi) khudi ke; +inhe& naa) hai "ind par voh kahaa& hai&; Ah s Ah s ;h r Ah"s str ts, th s au9ti"n h"us s "# pl asur l""t d 9ara&ans "# li# ar th ?, th =uardians "# s l#(h""dN -h" ar pr"ud "# India, -h r ar th ?N

Ahis taunt -as #"ll"- d b? a harsh indi9t! nt "# th nati"nal l ad rship1 :ara mulk ke rahbaro& ko bulaao .e koo%he! ye galiyaa&! ye man)ar dikhaao +inhe& naa) hai "ind par unko laao +inhe& naa) hai "ind par voh kahaa& hai&; +", # t9h th l ad rs "# th nati"n Sh"- th ! th s str ts, th s lan s, th s si=hts Su!!"n th !, th"s -h" ar pr"ud "# India Ah"s -h" ar pr"ud "# India, -h r ar th ?N

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Ahis !"d "# #il!(!a$in= s""n ran int" pr"bl !s' Ah 9 ns"r b"ard, n"- und r th 9"ntr"l "# th Indian ="& rn! nt, $i9$ d int" = ar, r #l 9tin= th ="& rn! ntCs h?p rs nsiti&it? t"-ards an? r # r n9 t" p "pl Cs stru==l s, parti9ularl? in th 9aus "# s"9ialis!' .ir 9t"r Ra! sh Sai=al -as as$ d t" d l t a lin #r"! his !"&i ,afilaPBara&an -hi9h - nt1 Ah 9ara&an "# th p "pl "# Asia is "n th !"& ' SahirCs lin -aise ka ra mita dena 47nd th rul "# th - alth?5 -as a6 d #r"! an"th r #il!' %rad pCs s"n= #r"! th #il! 0mar 2ahe .e -yaarPMa? Ahis L"& B F"r & r 413615 -as d l t d in its ntir t?, pr su!abl? b 9aus "# th lin s1 "ai9 8iyaasat kitni gandi Buri hai kitni fir'a bandi 0a ye sab ke sab nar-naari "o gaye raste ke ye bhikaari AlasM H"- dirt? ar th p"liti9s "# th ti!

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H"- d spi9abl this s 9tarianis! A"da?, all th s ! n and -"! n Ha& b n turn d int" b ==ars Ah l?ri9s "# -hir 8ubha "ogi - r 9"nsid r d s" radi9al that t-" s"n=s #r"! th #il! - r bann d in India' On -as1 0asmaa& pe hai khuda aur )amee& pe hum 0a kal voh is taraf dekhta hai kam ,is ko bhe e voh yahaa& khaak %haan-ne 3s tamaam bheed ka haal aan-ne 0admi hai& anginat! devata hai& kam +"d is in th h a& ns -hil - ar h r "n arth Ah s da?s, H d" s n"t pa? us !u9h att nti"n ;h" 9an H s nd h r t" si#t thr"u=h th s sands, A" #i=ur "ut th 9"nditi"n "# th s t !in= !ass sN F"r th r ar t"" !an? p "pl , n"t n"u=h d iti s And th "th r -as a par"d? "# th #a!"us IIbal p" !, 8aare ahaan se a%h%ha "indostaa& hamaara 4Our India is b tt r than th r st "# th -"rld51 Cheen-o 0rab hamaara! "indostaa& hamaara 2ahne ko ghar nahi& hai! saara ahaa& hamaara Bhina and Arabia ar "urs, s" is India E t - ha& n" h"! t" li& in: th -h"l -"rld is "urs +itni bhi buildinge& thi&! setho& ne baant li hai& =ootpaath Bambayi ke! hai& aashiyaa& hamaara Ah - alth? ha& distribut d all th buildin=s a!"n= th !s l& s ;hil - ar l #t t" ta$ r #u= "n th #""tpaths "# B"!ba?

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A#t r Ind p nd n9 , th Indian ="& rn! nt !aintain d !"n"p"listi9 9"ntr"l "& r its radi" br"ad9astin=' ;h n B'<' K s$ar su99 d d as th Minist r #"r In#"r!ati"n S Br"ad9astin= in 13*2, h d 9id d t" ban th br"ad9ast "# #il! !usi9 "n All India Radi", 9"nsid rin= it

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si!ultan "usl? t"" &ul=ar, t"" ; st rniz d and t"" st p d in Drdu, 9h""sin= inst ad t" pr"!"t li=ht 9lassi9al !usi9' M"st list n rs si!pl? tun d "& r t" Radi" B ?l"n "r %a$istani stati"ns, b"th "# -hi9h - r br"ad9astin= Hindi #il! s"n=s' In 13*), #il! !usi9 -as ba9$ "n All India Radi" "n a n - 9hann l 9all d <i&idh Bharti' It is pr"babl? #air t" sa? that !"st Hindustani(sp a$in= Indian h"us h"lds had th ir radi"s p r nniall? tun d t" this stati"n' Sin9 th "nl? ! diu! thr"u=h -hi9h th publi9 ="t t" h ar #il! !usi9 -as th radi", stati"n pr"=ra!!in= d t r!in d th s"n=s that th publi9 list n d t"' %"pular d !and, 6pr ss d thr"u=h -rit (ins t" pr"=ra!! s li$ 1an Chaahe 7eet 4Fa&"urit S"n=s5, b =an t" pla? a si=ni#i9ant r"l in th $ind "# !usi9 that -as h ard "n th air-a& s and th r #"r in th $ind "# !usi9 that -as pr"du9 d'

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7& ntuall?, th s"9ial s nsibilit? "# th 13*0s and arl? 1360s l"st its app al, shrin$in= th spa9 a&ailabl #"r pr"=r ssi& 9in !a and 9"ns Iu ntl? pr"=r ssi& l?ri9s' Ah r - r t-" !aJ"r r as"ns b hind this' Ah #irst -as th br a$(up "# th studi" s?st ! in th 1360s, a ph n"! n"n that 9han= d th rul s "# th #il!!a$in= =a! rath r si=ni#i9antl?' S ri"us, s"9iall? 9"ns9i"us 9in !a =a& -a? sur l? but st adil? t" p"pular nt rtain! nt and th spa9 pr"&id d b? th studi"s t" th !a& ri9$ #il!!a$ rs, -rit rs and p" ts -ith r d a-a?' Ah =r"-in= urban p"pulati"n, -hi9h #"r! d th lar= st 9hun$ "# th &i -in= publi9, =ra&itat d t"-ards s9apist #il!s s $in= p rhaps t" #"r= t th ir #rustrati"ns' Opul nt s ts, - ll(9h"r "=raph d s"n=s and a #"r!ulai9 s9ript - r th "rd r "# th n - da?' As th 9riti9 Aruna <asud & puts it, th #il!s that - r pr"du9 d - r !"stl? Kabsurd r"!an9 s pa9$ d -ith s"n=s and dan9 s, !ad li$ #air?tal s -ith a !"ralC'*0 Ah s 9"nd, as % t r Manu l lab"rat s in his b""$ Cassette CultureFG, -as th ad& nt "# th p"rtabl 9ass tt (pla? rs, th arl? "n s arri&in= in th 9"untr? in th lat 13)0s in th hands "# th =u st -"r$ rs r turnin= #r"! th +ul#' Ah # tishizati"n "# th 9ass tt ( pla? r 4 & r?"n -ant d t" ha& "n 5 s?!b"liz d th 9han=in= aspirati"ns "# th !iddl 9lass and its #r shl? dis9"& r d 9"nsu! r p"- r 4-hi9h -as b =innin= t" b unl ash d b? th n -l? institut d p"li9i s "# 9"n"!i9 lib ralizati"n5' ;ith #"r i=n 9"llab"rati"n n"a p"ssibilit?, n - ti (ups li$ Bush(A$ai, Ors"n(S"n?, B%L(San?"

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and Onida(><B start d !anu#a9turin= 9h ap 9ass tt s' Sal s "# r 9"rd d !usi9 9"ns Iu ntl? - nt up #r"! T1'2 !illi"n in 1300 t" T12 !illi"n in 1306 and "& r T21 !illi"n in 1330' B"ur= "is d !"9ra9?, thus unl ash d, pa& d th -a? #"r -hat 9an b 9all d th a= "# Bappi Lahiri 4Indian !usi9 dir 9t"r and pla?ba9$ sin= r5' F""t(tappin=, asil? 9"nsu!abl and subs Iu ntl? disp"sabl tun s b 9a! th "rd r "# th da?, and banal l?ri9s - r - l9"! d1 D se hota hai Dan%e 3 se hota hai 3tem 8 se hota hai 8inger C se hota hai Chorus H se Hr%hestra9 3 am a Dis%o Dan%er99 . #"r .an9 , I #"r It !, S #"r Sin= r, B #"r Bh"rus, O #"r Or9h straM I a! a .is9" .an9 rMM Ah all = dl? anti( stablish! nt #il!s "# th Kan=r? ?"un= !anC da?s did n"t pr"&id !u9h s9"p #"r pr"=r ssi& -ritin= ith r' ; sa? Kall = dl?C b 9aus th r -as n"thin= r all? anti stablish! nt ab"ut this 9in !a: all it did -as t" pr"!"t th i!a= "# an ali nat d, disillusi"n d ?"uth -h" s"u=ht &i=ilant Justi9 b? ta$in= th la- in his "-n hands' It !ust b r 9all d that 8holayPFla! s 413)*, p"ssibl? th bi== st bl"9$bust r pr"du9 d in India and a #il! -h"s in#lu n9 9an still b s n "n Indian 9in !a5 is ss ntiall? a st"r? ab"ut t-" ! r9 nari s #i=htin= subalt rn da9"its "n b hal# "# th # udal za!indar "# th &illa= ' S"n=s in th s #il!s - r us d ! r l? t" int rrupt th narrati& and t" pr"&id s"! li=ht !"! nts' Rh?! b 9a! th hand!aid n "# th tun , and r lati& l? ! anin=l ss l?ri9s #itt d 9"!#"rtabl? in this s tup1 ,oi haseena ab rooth aati hai to aur bhi haseen ho aati hai 8tation se gaadi ab %hoot aati hai to ek-do-teen ho aati hai

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;h n a b aut? = ts ups t, sh b 9"! s & n !"r b auti#ul ;h n a train l a& s th stati"n, it d parts #r"! si=ht 7& n th li$ s "# Sahir - r r du9 d t" -ritin= l"& s"n=s "#, shall sa?, dubi"us ! rit 4su9h as th "n in /rishul that - nt 7apu%hi gapu%hi gam gam! kishiki kishiki kam kam5: his li=ht and #r"th? s"n=s in Deewaar 4,ah doo& tumhe& ya %hup rahoo& dil mei& mere aa kya hai; Shall I t ll ?"u -hat is in !? h art, "r shall I r !ain sil ntN5 - r in p"pular d !and -hil th "nl? s !i(pr"=r ssi& s"n= h -r"t #"r th #il! 4Deewaro& ka angal is ka aabaadi hai naam: Ahis #"r st "# -alls that - 9all a 9it?5 -as d l t d #r"! th !"&i ' Ir"ni9all?, th "n spa9 -hi9h 9"uld ha& pr"&id d r #u= t" th pr"=r ssi& p" ts, th s"(9all d parall l 9in !a !"& ! nt, did n"t "p n its d""rs t" th ir l?ri9s' In this = nr , s"n=s - r s n as an unn 9 ssar? i!p di! nt t" th narrati& ' In th ir att !pt t" pr"du9 a 9in !a "# 9al9ulat d, purp"s #ul naturalis! that an6i"usl? s"u=ht t" distan9 its l# #r"! th ba)aari Hindustani "# 9"!! r9ial #il!s, th alt rnat #il!(!a$ rs ad"pt d a s l#(9"ns9i"usl? Sans$ritiz d Hindi, as is &id nt & n #r"! th titl s "# th #il!s b? Sh?a! B n =al, +"&ind ,ihalini and "th rs1 0nkurPS dlin=! $ishantP,i=htCs 7nd! 1anthanP Bhurnin=! BhumikaPA9t"r! 0akroshPAn=uish! 0rdhasatyaPHal#(truth'

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A #urth r -rin$l -as add d t" th d & l"p! nt "# #il! l?ri9s -ith th ! r= n9 "# A'R' Rah!an -h"s = nius 9aptur d th nati"nCs i!a=inati"n -ith a #r sh brand "# !usi9 that -as a br athta$in= a!al=a!ati"n "# 9lassi9al Hindustani and Barnati9 ra=as, s?n9"pat d Jazz rh?th!s, ! ti9ul"us "r9h strati"n inspir d b? his ; st rn 9lassi9al trainin= and 9"!pl 6 9han= s "# t"n and tun ' His !usi9al s9"r s #"r s"uth Indian #il!s - r su9h hu= hits that th s !"&i s - r dubb d in Hindi and r (r l as d #"r a -id r audi n9 ' Ah un#a!iliar a9t"rs and th 9rud dubbin= - r !"r than "##s t b? th -ild p"pularit? "# th !usi9' L?ri9ists - r br"u=ht in t" -rit #r sh -"rds #"r th s"n=s and "p rat d und r th 9"nstraint "# tr?in= t" -rit s"n=s that -"uld pr"&id an a99 ptabl l & l "# lip s?n9hr"nizati"n*2' Ah sub"rdinati"n "# th l?ri9s t" th tun b 9a! s" "& r-h l!in= that - - r tr at d t" = !s li$ 8trawberry aankhen 4Stra-b rr? ? s5 and /elephone dhun mei& hansne vaali 4Ah "n -h" lau=hs li$ a t l ph"n rin=in=5'

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Ahis ab"ut(turn -as Iuit dra!ati9 sin9 , at l ast until th 1300s, !"st l?ri9ists - r p" ts in th ir "-n ri=ht and #irst -r"t "ut th -"rds t" th s"n= bas d "n th r Iuir ! nts "# th s9ript and th n hand d th ! "& r t" th 9"!p"s rs -h" s t th ! t" a tun ' In an int r&i -, a dis=runtl d Kai#i Az!i 9"!plain d bitt rl? ab"ut th n - tr nd "# l?ri9ists b in= as$ d t" #it -"rds ar"und alr ad? 9"!p"s d !usi9al s9"r s K.e to vahi baat huiC, h said, Kke kisi ne kaha ke ye kabar khudi haiD is si)e ki laash le aao9C 4KIt is li$ b in= t"ld that a =ra& has alr ad? b n du= and n"- an appr"priat l? siz d 9"rps has t" b #"und t" #it in itC5' Ah !"st su99 ss#ul l?ri9ist "# t"da?, >a& d A$htar, sa?s that th !phasis is n"- "n th tun and it is up t" th s"n= -rit r t" #ind th ri=ht -"rds, and Just as i!p"rtantl?, th appr"priat s"und that -"r$s #"r th ! l"d?' Ah #"ll"-in= 9"!! nt b? A$htar is int r stin= in and "# its l#, but als" p"ints t" th di!inishin= i!p"rtan9 "# th -"rds &is(R(&is th s"und1 Ah ! anin= "# th -"rds is i!p"rtant but s" is th ir ph"n ti9 ## 9t' Dlti!at l? th s"n= is b in= -ritt n t" b sun=' S" it sh"uld s"und 6tr ! l? =""d ''' ;hat IC! ="in= t" sa? !i=ht s"und & r? stran= , but & r? s"und has a 9 rtain &isual ## 9t' I# ?"u ta$ KJC1 n"- KJaC has a spar$l that is & r? -hit ' ;hil th s"und "# K9haC als" has a spar$l , itCs s"! h"- ? ll"- "r ="ld n' KAaC s"unds li$ thr"-in= a ball "n a s"lid #l""r' But i# ?"u thr"- th ball "n - t =r"und, th n ?"u = t th s"und KthaC' I# ?"u hit th ball a=ainst a h"ll"- -""d n -all, ?"uCll h ar a KdhaC' S"unds 9r at di## r nt i!a= s in ?"ur !ind' Li$ KdhaC is a sti9$? s"und, K=haC is a d ns s"und, K=aC is 9l an*@' . spit th 9"nstraints und r -hi9h h -rit s, >a& d A$htar d" s pr"du9 th "99asi"nal l?ri9 that r !inds "n "# th ti! that "n9 -as, -h n Hindi #il! s"n=s pr ss d th 9aus "# s"9ial Justi9 , a ti! that s !s t" ha& l"n= ="n 1 =ootpaatho& ke hum rahne vaale 2aato& ne paala hum voh u aale 0akaash sar pe! pairo& tale! hai door tak ye )amee& 0ur to apna koi nahi&! aur to apna koi nahi& Ba%hpan mei& khele gham se! nirdhan gharo& ke bete -hoolo& ki se nahi&! kaanton pe hum hai& lete Dukh mei& rahe! sau gham sahe! dil ye kahe

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2oti ahaa&! hai swarg apna vahi& 0ur to apna koi nahi&! aur to apna koi nahi& ; ar th pa& ! nt d- ll rs ; th li=ht that has b n sh lt r d b? th ni=hts Our 9"!pani"ns ar th s$? ah ad, th =r"und b n ath "ur # t And n"n ls Our 9hildh""d sp nt pla?in= -ith s"rr"Our b ds !ad n"t "# #l"- rs but th"rns ; li& -ith unhappin ss, su## r sadn ss, and sa? -ith "ur h art Ahat "ur h a& n is -h r - 9an #ind br ad

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% t r Manu l, d s9ribin= th Fran$#urt S9h""lCs anal?sis "# p"pular 9ultur , -rit s that K!"d rn 9apitalis! "p rat d thr"u=h th a9Iui s9 n9 "# a d p"liti9iz d, ali nat d and = n rall? stup #i d publi9' Ah !ass ! dia 4and in Ad"rn"Cs th"u=ht, p"pular !usi95, pla? d ss ntial r"l s in l =iti!izin= th status Iu" b? stulti#?in= 9riti9al 9"ns9i"usn ss, 9"!!"di#?in= and disar!in= "pp"siti"nal art, and pr"!"tin= 9"nsu! ris! and th !?th "# a 9lassl ss s"9i t?C */' In this 9"nt 6t, th ! dia #un9ti"n as K!anipulati& instru! ntsC that s $ t" pr"!"t th &"i9 s "# th"s -h" ar 9"!#"rtabl -ith th status Iu" -hil d l =iti!izin= th &"i9 s "# th"s -h" 9hall n= and sub& rt th r lati"nships "# p"- r and d"!inati"n in in Iuitabl s"9ial s?st !s' It is n" surpris th n that th 9"nt nt that is pr"du9 d in Hindi 9in !a, in9ludin= its l?ri9s, t nds t"-ards s9apist #antasi s and 9"!!"dit? # tishis! pla? d "ut in 9hi! ri9al dr a!s9ap s' But at th sa! ti! , it is i!p"rtant t" r !ind "urs l& s that p"pular 9ultur is a sit "# 9"nt stati"ns, n ="tiati"ns, ! diati"ns and r arti9ulati"ns, a spa9 -h r h = !"ni9 and "pp"siti"nal &alu s s?!b"li9all? and 6pli9itl? n=a= "n an"th r' Ahis 9hapt r th n, is partl? th !"urnin= "# that -hi9h has pass d, but it is si!ultan "usl? b"th an att !pt t" r !ind "urs l& s that th 9urr nt stru==l s #"r s"9ial Justi9 ha& a hist"r? and a 9 l brati"n "# th"s -h" h lp d pr"du9 it'

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In th !"&i ,abhi ,abhie 4S"! ti! s, 13)65, Sahir -r"t a s"n= that anti9ipat s th nd "# his p ri"d as a p" t1 MaiG pal d" pal $a shaa?ar h""G %al d" pal ! ri $ahaani hai %al d" pal ! ri hasti hai %al d" pal ! ri Ja&aani hai I a! a p" t "# a bri # !"! nt "r t-" M? st"r? is a passin= "n M? li# is ph ! ral M? ?"uth, transi nt ,al aur aayenge naghmo& ki khilti kaliyaa& %hun-ne vaale 1u h se behtar kahne vaale! tum se behtar sun-ne vaale ,al koi mu h ko yaad kare! kyoo& koi mu h ko yaad kare 1asroof )amaana mere liye! kyoo& wa't apna barbaad kare; 1ai& pal do pal ka shaayar hoo&. A"!"rr"-, th r -ill b "th rs har& stin= th bl""!in= buds "# #r sh s"n=s Oth rs -h" -ill -rit b tt r than I 9"uld, "th rs -h" -ill list n b tt r than ?"u 9an ;h" -ill r ! !b r ! t"!"rr"-, -h? sh"uld an?"n N ;h? -"uld this bus? -"rld -ast its ti! "n ! in th #utur N I a! a p" t "# but th !"! nt But Sahir did !"r than Just -rit in and #"r th !"! nt' H n"t "nl? l #t b hind an " u&r that still pla?s "n "ur radi"s and st r "s, but als" inspir d a -h"l l"t "# "th rs li$ Shail ndra, Hasan Ka!al, >a& d A$htar, and "99asi"nall?, & n th n"t(Iuit (pr"=r ssi& Anand Ba$shi t" #"ll"- in his #""tst ps' List nin= t" a tap "# s"n=s #r"! th 13)1 !"&i DushmanP7n !? 4l?ri9s1 Anand Ba$shi5, did a d"ubl (ta$ -h n a s"n= 4Dilli ka (utub 1inaar dekho! Bambayi shahar ki bahaar dekho: L""$ at . lhiCs Hutub Minar, l""$ at B"!ba?Cs sprin=5 sudd nl? sprun= th lin s1 Logo& ko paise se pyaar dekho :aalim ye sarmaayaadaar dekho L""$ at h"- p "pl l"& - alth

11*

L""$ at th "ppr ssi& 9apitalist Ah -"rd sarmaayaadaar sti9$s "ut b 9aus it is a l =a9? "# th pr"=r ssi& p" ts, th ir 9"ntributi"n t" "ur p"pular &"9abular?' Its 6pli9it us r !inds us "# th ti! -h n l?ri9s and p" tr? - r d #in d b? th %;A, and -h n #il! s"n=s 9"uld, al!"st uns l#9"ns9i"usl?, "## r a 9ritiIu "# s"9ial 9"nditi"ns' % rhaps b 9aus h r 9"=niz d his in#lu n9 , "r p rhaps ! r l? in h"p , Sahir, in a rar !"! nt "# s l#(ass rti"n, add d a 9"da t" his ,abhi ,abhie s"n= that in "ur "pini"n is an apt 9"!! nt "n th = n rati"n "# %;A p" ts1 1ai& har ek pal ka shaayar hoo& "ar ek pal meri kahaani hai "ar ek pal meri hasti hai "ar ek pal meri avaani hai I a! a p" t #"r all ti! s M? st"r? is #"r & r M? li# , un ndin=, M? ?"uth, t rnalM

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7

75H 8$$! H$I 65 'H%SH(55 'I TARAAH, JIS KI U!AN URDU KI TARAH
Dil na-umeed to nahi&! naakaam hi to hai Lambi hai gham ki shaam! magar shaam hi to hai . # at d it !a? b , but th h art d" s n"t d spair S"rr"-Cs & nin= is l"n=, but it t"" -ill pass Ahus b =ins a s"n= #r"! th 133/ Hindi !"&i GICJ B 0 Love 8tory. Ah l?ri9s "# th s"n= ar 9r dit d t" >a& d A$htar, but th & rs ab"& 9"! s #r"! a p" ! b? Faiz Ah!ad Faiz' Ah 9"ntributi"n "# Faiz t" this s"n= is unstat d, un"btrusi& , s a!l ss, and is !bl !ati9 "# th s?!bi"ti9 r lati"nship b t- n Drdu p" tr? and Hindi #il! s"n=s' Ahis 9hapt r 9"nt nds that Hindi #il! !usi9 n"t "nl? "## r d a n - spa9 t" Drdu p" tr?, nsur d its p r#"r!ati& pr s n9 in th 9ultural lands9ap and nurtur d its h rita= but als" trans#"r! d it in th pr"9 ss, $ pin= it in tun -ith th 9ultural !ili u in India' In "rd r t" appr 9iat th ass"9iati"n b t- n Drdu p" tr? and Hindi #il! s"n=s, "n !ust pla9 th r lati"nship in th 9"nt 6t "# th di!inishin= instituti"nal patr"na= "# Drdu b? th p"st(Ind p nd n9 Indian stat as a r sult "# th id nti#i9ati"n "# Drdu as th lan=ua= "# Musli!s and th r #"r th lan=ua= "# "utsid rs' Ah att !pts t" 9"n#lat lan=ua= , s9ript and r li=i"n, sp 9iall? -ith r sp 9t t" th Hindi(Drdu di&id , ha& a l"n= hist"r? datin= ba9$ t" at l ast th 1060s**' <ari"us 9"l"nial d 9r s, in9ludin= Anth"n? Ma9."nn llCs K1300 r s"luti"nC "nl? add d #u l t" th #ir *6' Ah bitt r disput s "& r th lan=ua= p"li9? "# th 9"l"nialist ad!inistrati"n, th anta="nis!s b t- n th pr"p"n nts "# a Kpur C Sans$ritiz d Hindi and a Kpur C % rsianiz d Drdu, th sp"usal "# a 9"!!"n lan=ua= 4Hindustani5

11)

b? a nu!b r "# p "pl in9ludin= Mahat!a +andhi and th p"liti9al #all"uts "# th s d bat s ar - ll d tail d in a nu!b r "# b""$s*) and th int r st d r ad r 9an #ind a - alth "# in#"r!ati"n in th !' . spit th att !pts t" 9"!part! ntaliz th sp"$ n t"n=u int" t-" di## r nt lan=ua= s, it -as "b&i"us that th lin=ua #ran9a "# -hat is n"- 9all d th KHindi(sp a$in=C p"pulati"n "# th 9"untr? -as Hindustani, th lin=uisti9 h ir "# Khari B"li and th #"unt "# b"th Hindi and Drdu' As a !att r "# #a9t, & n th [email protected] 9 nsus "# th sub9"ntin nt did n"t list Hindi and Drdu as s parat lan=ua= s: th di&id b t- n th t-" )abaansKbhashas ! r= d "nl? in subs Iu nt 9 nsus tabulati"ns' B? 1361, Hindustani had b n li!inat d #r"! th 9 nsus as a lan=ua= *0, #"r9in= r sp"nd nts t" 9h""s b t- n Hindi and Drdu and th r b? burnin= a si=ni#i9ant brid= that lin$ d Drdu t" th sp"$ n traditi"ns in th sub9"ntin nt' Ah #all"ut "# th %artiti"n and th d 9isi"n b? th %a$istani lit t" ad"pt Drdu as th nati"nal lan=ua= had a si=ni#i9ant i!pa9t "n th lan=ua= in India' ,"- id nti#i d as th t"n=u "# th n !?, Drdu 9a! t" b s n as a K#"r i=nC lan=ua= and b =an t" b &i - d -ith suspi9i"n b? th stat and 9 rtain pr"p"n nts "# r li=i"us nati"nalis!' Stat patr"na= , parti9ularl? in Dttar %rad sh and Bihar, d-indl d 9"nsid rabl? r sultin= in th r"si"n "# th #"r!al, instituti"nal spa9 s in -hi9h th lan=ua= thri& d, pushin= it int" th p nu!bra "# nati"nal r l &an9 ' %hras s li$ Kd?in= lan=ua= C ar "#t n us d t" d s9rib th 9"nditi"n "# Drdu in India and indi9at"rs li$ Kth nu!b r "# Drdu(! diu! s9h""lsC pr s nt a litan? "# bad n -s -ith r sp 9t t" th pr s nt 9"nditi"ns and #utur "# th lan=ua= ' ;hil th i!pa9t "# th p""r tr at! nt ! t d "ut t" Drdu has b n substantial, "n 9ann"t ! r l? us in rt and st ril t"u9hst"n s t" =au= th &iabilit? "# a lan=ua= ' A 9asual =lan9 ar"und th Indian 9ultural lands9ap r & als that Drdu is still & r? !u9h ali& in th p r#"r! d lin=uisti9 traditi"ns "# India' Furth r, it is a lan=ua= that is "#t n a99"rd d a !?sti#?in=l? hi=h status and &i - d as a si=n "# r #in ! nt in !iddl (9lass and upp r(9rust Indian s"9i t? and Drdu =hazals ar #r Iu ntl? Iu"t d b? Hindi sp a$ rs t" pun9tuat ! ll"!"! nts' M"st ir"ni9all?, th d p(r""t d pr s n9 "# Drdu in India 9an b =au= d #r"! th #a9t that th sp 9h s "# & n th !"st rabid "# anti(Musli! r li=i"us nati"nalists ar r pl t -ith Drdu phras s, ! taph"rs and p" tr?*3' ;hat s"9ial a& nu s th n all"- d DrduCs p r#"r!an9 and na9t! nt in India t" sur&i& in an at!"sph r -h r th traditi"nal

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instituti"ns - r und r r tr atN Our si!pl th sis h r is that th ! diu! "# Hindi #il! s"n=s has pr"& n t" b "n "# th !"st &aluabl r p"sit"ri s #"r th sa# ($ pin= and nurturin= "# Drdu p" tr? and idi"!' It is "b&i"us that 9in !a pla?s a d"!inant r"l in Indian 9ultural li# and that s"n=s #"r! a 9"rn rst"n "# this art #"r!' ;hat is l ss appar nt is th pr p"nd ran9 "# Drdu60 -"rds, phras s and ! taph"rs in Hindi #il! s"n=s' A rand"! p rusal "# #"ur s"n=s, #"r instan9 , turns up -"rds li$ ilte a 4r Iu st, in th s"n= H mere 8ona #r"! th #il! /eesri 1an)il, 13665, aaneman 4!? li# , in +aaneman aaneman #r"! Chhoti 8i Baat, 13)*5, mahsoos 4a-ar , in /u hi tu #r"! Dil 8e, 13305, and saa'i 4-in (b ar r, in ,aise rahoo& %hup #r"! 3nte'am, 13635' Ah"s -h" ar #a!iliar -ith Hindi #il! !usi9 -ill a=r that #ar #r"! b in= is"lat d 6a!pl s, th s ar #airl? 9"!!"n -"rds #"und 6t nsi& l? in Hindi #il! l?ri9s' Ah s -"rds that ha& % rsian 4Farsi5 r""ts, al"n= -ith !an? "th rs, r"utin l? #ind a pla9 in th Hindustani &"9abular? sp"$ n in India, si!pl? b 9aus "# th ir r p at d usa= in th Hindi #il! s"n=s'61 Hindi #il! !usi9 pr"&id s r #u= t" Drdu p" tr? in !an? di## r nt -a?s' H r , - l""$ at s"! "# th s 1 th utilizati"n "# Drdu p" !s, b"th 9lassi9al and 9"nt !p"rar?, in Hindi 9in !a: th in9"rp"rati"n "# Drdu p" ti9 idi"! in s"n=s: th in#lu n9 "# Drdu p" tr? "n s"n=s and th r 9ipr"9al i!pa9t "# #il!s "n Drdu p" ti9s: and th d pl"?! nt "# #a!"us Drdu p" ti9al phras s and 9"upl ts in l?ri9s'

&lassical and &ontemporar. /rd) Poems as +ilm (ongs
Drdu p" tr? -ritt n b? 9lassi9al p" ts has #r Iu ntl? b n us d as l?ri9s in Hindi #il!s, a sa!pl "# -hi9h is sh"-n in Aabl 1 b l"-62' Fr"! th #i#t nth 9 ntur? . 99ani int"nati"ns "# Huli Hutub Shah t" +halibCs ! taph?si9al i!a= r? t" th t"rtur d ali nati"n "# Bahadur Shah Fa#ar, 9lassi9al Drdu p" !s ha& #"und th ir -a? thr"u=h th s s"n=s int" th l 6i9"n "# th Indian publi9'
&'am(les of )or*s of +lassical ,oets -se" as Hin"i .ilm /on0s
,oet A!ir Khusrau Bahadur Shah Fa#ar Mir AaIi Mir Mirza +halib M"ha!!ad IIbal Huli Hutub Shah ;aJid Ali Shah /on0 Kaah $" bi?aah bid s La=ta nahiG hai J ! ra .i$haa?i di? ?""G, $ b $hud $i?a .il( naadaaG, tuJh hua $?a hai Kabhi ai haI Iat( !untazar %i?a baJ p?aala pi?a Jaa? na Baabul !"ra, naihar 9hh""t" hi .ilm D!ra" >aan 413015 Laal Hila 413*)5 Bazaar 413025 Mirza +halib .ulhan 7$ Raat Ki 4136)5 ,ishant 413)*5 Str t Sin= r [email protected]

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Apart #r"! th -"r$s "# p" ts #r"! th distant past, Hindi #il!s ha& als" us d 9"nt !p"rar? Drdu p" !s as l?ri9s #"r s"n=s' Sin9 an in& nt"r? "# su9h -"r$s -"uld b a bit t"" lar= t" d al -ith in an? d [email protected], - #"9us "ur att nti"n "n th %;A s"n= -rit rs in Hindi 9in !a6/ -h"s i!pa9t "n th l?ri9s "# Hindi #il!s -as #"r!idabl ' B"nsid r th 1302 #il! Ba)aar, -h r Far""I Sh i$h s r nad s Supri?a %atha$ -ith th s"n= -hir %hhidi raat! baat phoolo& ki 4Ah tal "# #l"- rs -as r t"ld t"ni=ht5' Ah [email protected] #il! 1uhafi) 4%r"t 9t"r5, -h r . & n, th Hindi t a9h r pla? d b? O! %uri, rush s t" th h"us "# th "ld p" t ,""r 4Shashi Kap""r5 t" ! t hi!, "nl? t" #ind h is t"" lat : ,""rCs #un ral pr"9 ssi"n is passin= b? t" th tun "# 0a baa)aar mei& paa-ba aulaa& %halo 4A"da?, 9"! in # tt rs t" th !ar$ tpla9 5' Or ta$ a -al$ d"-n ! !"r? lan t" th 136* #il! "a'ee'at 4R alit?5, -h n th #"rl"rn s"ldi r pla? d b? SanJa? Khan r ! !b rs th partin= -ith his l"& r thus1 1ai& ye so%h kar us ke dar se utha tha 4I l #t h r d""r h"pin=O5' All th s -"ndr"us !"! nts app ar s" s a!l ssl? int =rat d in th narrati& s "# th !"&i s that "n -"uld thin$ that th -"rds had b n -ritt n sp 9i#i9all? #"r th s9 n , -hil , in #a9t, th s s"n=s - r arli r p" ti9al 9"!p"siti"ns b? Ma$hd""!, Faiz and Kai#i, r sp 9ti& l?' Fil!(!a$ rs had a99 ss t" this r s r& "# p" tr? that th ? 9"uld dra- up"n d p ndin= "n th ir n ds' Ah p" !s als" b n #itt d n"r!"usl? #r"! this: rath r than r !ainin= 9"n#in d t" a s l 9t audi n9 , th ? sudd nl? b 9a! a&ailabl t" th !ass s and - r br"u=ht t" th att nti"n "# a -id publi9' %r"=r ssi& Drdu p" ts t""$ ad&anta= "# this 6p"sur t" intr"du9 a n - brand "# p" tr? t" th ir audi n9 , pi"n rin= a n - a sth ti9 "# r alis! and th r b? pr"du9in= a 9"rpus "# pr"#"und ? t a99 ssibl & rs ' Hindi #il!s als" s r& d t" pr"&id a s"ur9 "# in9"! t" th s p" ts: apart #r"! th hi=hl? su99 ss#ul l?ri9ists li$ Sahir Ludhian&i and MaJr""h Sultanpuri, "th r %;A p" ts li$ Faiz Ah!ad Faiz, FiraI +"ra$hpuri, Israr(ul(HaI MaJaz, Kai#i Az!i, >an ,isar A$htar, Ma$hd""! M"hiuddin and Hasrat M"hani had th ir publish d -"r$ "99asi"nall? d pl"? d in Hindi #il! s"n=s 4s Aabl 2 #"r a partial list5'

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&'am(les of )or*s of ,ro0ressi1e ,oets -se" as Hin"i .ilm son0s ,oet Faiz Ah!ad Faiz Israr(ul(HaI MaJaz Kai#i Az!i MaJr""h Sultanpuri Ma$hd""! M"hiuddin Sahir Ludhian&i /on0 MuJh s pahli si !"habbat Ai =ha!( dil $?a $ar""G H" $ !aJb""r !uJh us n bhulaa?a6* Hu! th , !ataa( $""9ha(" bazaar 7$ 9ha! li $ !and& tal Bhal" $ baar phir s aJnabi .ilm Haidi 413*)5 Ah"$ar [email protected] HaI Iat 4136/5 .asta$ 413)05 Bha Bha Bha 413*@5 +u!raah [email protected]

Su9h s"n=s n"t "nl? in#us d an Drdu s nsibilit? int" th Hindi #il! s"n= but als" 9"ntribut d t" th d & l"p! nt "# a distin9t l?ri9al st?l ' B it FaizCs an=uish d ntr at? t" a b l"& d t" #"r =" l"& #"r a 9"!!it! nt t" s"9ial 9han= , MaJazCs pa an t" th -and rin= urban K"utsid rC, Kai#iCs -ist#ul r 9"unt "# a br a$in= r lati"nship, MaJr""hCs d s9ripti"n "# th 9"!!"di#i9ati"n l"& in th !ar$ tpla9 "# d sir , Ma$hd""!Cs #i r? in&"9ati"n "# th ! r= n9 "# l"& in th h arts "# th passi"nat , "r SahirCs r si=n d a99 ptan9 "# l"st l"& , pr"=r ssi& p" ts us d th ir 6istin= b"d? "# -"r$ t" nri9h Hindi #il! s"n=s i!! asurabl?' Ah s p" !s, 9lassi9al and 9"nt !p"rar?, #"und th ir -a? int" !"&i s in a &ari t? "# -a?s' Hist"ri9al #il!s, "# 9"urs , had a r ad? r as"n #"r usin= th p" !s #r"! th p ri"d that th !"&i -as s t in' Ah 13*/ #il! 1ir)a 7halib 9"uld n"t but us +halibCs =hazals 49h""sin= t" #"9us "n his si!pl r "n s su9h as Dil-e-naadaa& tu he hua kya hai: ;hat has b 9"! "# ?"u, !? inn"9 nt h artN5' Ah 13*) r l as Lal (ila 4R d F"rt5 "n th li# "# Bahadur Shah Fa#ar in9"rp"rat d Fa#arCs p" tr? li$ $a kisi ke aankh ka noor hoo& 4,"r a! I th li=ht "# an? ? 5'66 S"! ti! s th 9hara9t r in th st"r? -as a sin= r =i&in= a publi9 p r#"r!an9 : Supri?a %atha$, #"r instan9 , in Ba)aar 413025 is sh"-n sin=in= MirCs =hazal Dikhaayi diye yoo& ke bekhud kiya 4E"u !ad ! l"s !?s l#5' In th 9as "# 9"nt !p"rar? p" !s, #il!(!a$ rs ith r s l 9t d a p" ! #r"! th r p rt"ir "# th l?ri9ist "r as$ d th p" ts t" Kt- a$C a parti9ular p" ! t" !a$ it !"r a! nabl t" th situati"n "r t" !a$ s"! "# th -"rds !"r a99 ssibl t" th publi9 at lar= ' ;ritin= #"r a br"ad audi n9 ! ant that p" ts had t" i!p"s 9 rtain r stri9ti"ns "n th !s l& s, parti9ularl? in th 9h"i9 "# th s"n=Cs

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&"9abular?' F"r instan9 , -h n +uru .utt 9h"s t" ad"pt SahirCs d spairin= 9"!! ntar? "n B"!ba?Cs br"th ls 68anakhaan-e ta'dees-e mashri' kahaa& hai&C 4;h r ar th ? -h" sin= prais s "# 7ast rn 9ultur N5 #"r his 13*) !"&i -yaasa 4Ah Ahirst? On 5, h as$ d Sahir t" alt r th "p nin= stanza t" !a$ it si!pl r' SahirCs n - mukhda, +inhe& naa) hai "ind par! voh kahaa& hai& 4;h r ar th ? -h" ar s" pr"ud "# IndiaN5 int =rat s s a!l ssl? -ith th r st "# th p" ! and adds n - &alu t" th s"n=' Li$ -is , Kai#i Az!i si!pli#i d th l?ri9s "# "n "# his b st($n"-n p" !s 0urat 4*th meri aan! mere saath hi %halna hai tu he! Aris , !? darlin=, - !ust -al$ t"= th r5 #"r us in th 133) !"& /amanna 4. sir 5' S"! ti! s p" ts -"uld r -"r$ th ir p" !s in s"! #ashi"n t" 9"n& rt th ! int" s"n=s, as >a& d A$htar did b? 6pandin= his alr ad? publish d 'ata 4Iuatrain5 ,athhai aankho& vaali ek ladki 4A =irl -ith br"-n ? s5 #"r us in Dupli%ate 413305, "r as Sahir did b? -ritin= a di## r nt & rsi"n "# his p" ! 1ai& pal do pal ka shaayar hoo& 4I a! a p" t but #"r a !"! nt "r t-"5 #"r a s"n= in th #il! ,abhi ,abhie 413)65 -hi9h - nt 1ai& har ek pal ka shaayar hoo& 4I a! an t rnal p" t5'

+ilm .rics Written !. PWA Poets
Ha&in= stablish d th !s l& s as su99 ss#ul l?ri9ists in Hindi 9in !a, th pr"=r ssi& p" ts trans#"r! d th = nr "# l?ri9(-ritin= substantiall? b? intr"du9in= a &ari t? "# n - th ! s, inJ 9tin= a !"d rn, urban and r alisti9 s nsibilit? and brin=in= in a &ari t? "# n - ! taph"rs int" s"n=s -hi9h thr"u=h = n rati"ns "# hu!!in= ha& n"- b 9"! an int =ral part "# Hindustani usa= ' Ahus th ir "-n brand "# -"rd and -"rdpla? -as un"btrusi& l? in9"rp"rat d int" th lin=uisti9 !"sai9 "# th sub9"ntin nt' At th sa! ti! , th a9t "# s"n=(-ritin= had a r 9ipr"9al i!pa9t "n th ir "-n p" tr? t"", nri9hin= th ir idi"!, 6pandin= th ir &"9abular? and 6t ndin= th ir st?l s' L?ri9ists -"r$ d und r a &ari t? "# 9"nstraints' Ah ? had t" -rit s"n=s that - r r l &ant t" th situati"n, pr"du9 -"rds that -"r$ d -ith th tun and -rit s"n=s that - r r lati& l? sh"rt' Ah 9in !ati9 situati"ns that - r pr s nt d t" th ! - r rath r li!it d' F"r r as"ns that 9an b partl? attribut d t" a99 pt d s"9ial 9"n& nti"ns and partl? t" th prudishn ss "# th 9 ns"rs, Hindi #il!s 9h"s th ! diu! "# s"n= t" 6pr ss r"!anti9 !"ti"ns and s 6ual d sir ' B"ns Iu ntl?, #il! s"n=s - r pr d"!inantl? -ritt n #"r

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situati"ns r lat d t" l"& and r"ti9 passi"n' Ah 9"llab"rati& natur "# s"n=(-ritin= ! ant that s"n=s had t" b th r sult "# a J"int ##"rt b t- n th dir 9t"r, s9ript(-rit r, !usi9 9"!p"s r and l?ri9ist' In9r asin=l?, as th tun s assu! d =r at r i!p"rtan9 , th l?ri9ist -as as$ d t" -rit -"rds t" an alr ad? 9"!p"s d pi 9 "# !usi9 6)' Finall?, th l?ri9ists "p rat d und r th d !ands "# br &it?: till th ad& nt "# th @@(rp! L%s, s"n=s 9"uld "nl? b ab"ut thr !inut s l"n=, and & n n"-, rar l? =" "n #"r !"r than #i& !inut s' Ah s 9"nstraints, "n 9an ar=u , pr"du9 d & r? distin9t 9han= s in th Drdu p" !' . !ands t" -rit l"& s"n= a#t r l"& s"n= !ust ha& - i=h d h a&il? "n th 9r ati&it? "# th p" ts, sp 9iall? th %r"=r ssi& s -h" han$ r d #"r th "pp"rtunit? t" -rit ab"ut Kr al li# C and push a 9 rtain s"9ial a= nda thr"u=h th p"- r#ul ! diu! "# s"n=' %"ssibl? in r sp"ns , th %r"=r ssi& s !ana= d t" intr"du9 a &ari t? "# "th r th ! s int" th ir s"n=s -hil $ pin= th ! -ithin th 9in !ati9 and situati"nal r Iuir ! nts' O#t n, this -as a99"!plish d b? pr"du9in= a s t "# binari s b t- n th purit? "# l"& 4ish'! pyaar5 and th 9"rrupti"n "# th -"rld, r pr s nt d b? t?rann?, - alth, th thr"n "r & n +"d 4)ulm! )arKdaulat! takht! khudaai5' Ah stru==l b t- n th subalt rn l"& rs and th d"!inant s"9ial "rd r -as in&"$ d b? th p" t as a s?!b"l "# "th r battl s b t- n th"s -h" - r dri& n b? passi"n and th"s -h" &alu d !"n ? and p"- r' SahirCs d #iant -"rds r s"und in a s"n= #r"! th [email protected] #il! /a 1ahal1 /akht kya %hee) hai! aur laal-o avaahar hai kya; -yaar vaale to khudaai bhi luta dete hai& ;hat pri9 this thr"n , -hat &alu th s J - lsN Aru l"& rs -ill & n spurn +"dCs $in=d"! On 9"uld als" 9lai! that th 9"llab"rati& natur "# th s"n=-ritin= had a p"siti& i!pa9t "# s"rts "n th -"r$s "# !an? Drdu p" ts' Ah 9"nstraints i!p"s d b? this s tup all"- d th ! t" n=a= -ith inn"&ati& rh?th!s, rh?!in= stru9tur s and t"nal r stri9ti"ns' It -"uld n"t b un#air t" sa? that "n d t 9ts th in#lu n9 "# #il! l?ri9s in s"! "# >a& d A$htarCs n"n(#il! p" tr? and "n 9an "nl? sp 9ulat ab"ut th i!pa9t "# th Kl?ri9 habitC "n SahirCs !ultipl rh?! stru9tur s' But -ritin= #"r 9in !a did all"- p" ts t" #r l? 6p ri! nt -ith stru9tur s and #"r!s "# p" tr? that - r 9"nsid r d

[email protected]

Kin# ri"rC in th 9an"n' Blassi9al Drdu p" tr?, nurtur d as it -as b? th 9"urtl? patr"na= "# $in=s, had d & l"p d an a sth ti9 and 9ultural s nsiti&it? that 9at r d pri!aril? t" !"ti"ns that - r #ar r !"& d #r"! th !at rial r aliti s "# p "pl Cs li& s60' Dnd r this patr"na= , th =hazal b 9a! th d"!inant #"r! "# p" tr?63' Ah %r"=r ssi& s #r Iu ntl? 9ha# d a=ainst th 9"nstri9ti"ns i!p"s d "n th ir subJ 9t !att r b? th =hazal)0 and att !pt d t" push di## r nt p" ti9 #"r!s "r t" us th =hazal sub& rsi& l? t" d pi9t n"n( traditi"nal id as' Ah ir d sir t" 6p ri! nt -ith #"r! #"und a spa9 in th ir l?ri9al pr"du9ti"n -hil th ir ? arnin= #"r !ass("utl ts -as partl? #ul#ill d -h n th ir s"n=s b =an t" b hu!! d "n str ts all "& r th 9"untr?' Ah na)m, traditi"nall? 9"nsid r d a l"- r #"r! "# p" ti9 6pr ssi"n #"und p"pularit? in th 9ultural spa9 , partl? b 9aus "# its us in s"n=s 4#"r 6a!pl , SahirCs Chalo ek baar phir se a nabi ban aaye& hum donoKB"! that - !a? start a#r sh as stran= rs: in 7umraahKAstra?, [email protected]' Ah n d #"r br &it? in th s"n=(situati"n i!p"s d an"th r #ra! -"r$ "n th 9r ati&it? "# th p" ts, 9"!p llin= th ! t" us -"rds -ith 9ar and 9"n"!?, -hi9h suit d th ! Just #in , sin9 this -as alr ad? a part "# th =ra!!ar "# Drdu p" ts s9h""l d in th aust r =hazal traditi"n' Ah trainin= "# th s p" ts in this traditi"n is appar nt, sp 9iall? in th -a? th ir -"rds 9"! a9r"ss as !ultila? r d, and "n th ir abilit? t" !a$ th sa! lin s 9"!!uni9at !ultipl !"ti"nal stat s' F"r instan9 , SahirCs s"n= in "um Dono 4; A-", 13605 9an b r ad ith r as an a9t "# id "l"=i9al 9"!pr"!is "r "# d #iant "pti!is!1 1ai& )indagi ka saath nibhaata %hala gaya "ar fikr ko dhue& mei& udaata %hala gaya I l arnt t" -al$ apa9 -ith li# Bl"-in= all !? -"rri s int" s!"$ On -"nd r#ul 6a!pl "# pith? 6pr ssi"n is th s"n= #r"! Boot -olish 413*/5! in -hi9h Sahir brin=s an 6Iuisit s ns "# ir"n? t" b ar -hil hi=hli=htin= th pli=ht "# th p""r and th h"! l ss' All th"s -h" ha& & r sun= IIbalCs 8aare ahaa& se a%h%ha "indostaa& hamaara 4Our India is B tt r Ahan An? Land in th ;"rld5 -ith prid ar #"r9 d t" 9"! t" t r!s -ith a di## r nt s nti! nt -h n list nin= t" th s"n= -hi9h =" s1

12/

+ebe& hai& apni khaali! kyoo& deta varna gaali Voh santari hamaara! voh paasbaa& hamaara Our p"9$ ts ar !pt?, -h? ls -"uld h abus usN Our =l"ri"us s ntr?, "ur pr"t 9t"r Ah s ntr? in th s"n= is n"t th l"#t? Hi!ala?an ran= "# IIbal that pr"t 9ts India #r"! in&asi"n 4-arbat voh sab se oon%ha! humsaaya aasmaa& ka! voh santari hamaara! voh paasbaa& hamaara: Ahat hi=h st a!"n= !"untains, that Iual "# th s$?, that is "ur s ntr?, "ur pr"t 9t"r5' Inst ad th santari h r is th b at 9"nstabl , -h" dri& s a-a? th h"! l ss #r"! par$ b n9h s and rail-a? stati"ns at ni=ht' In a # - lin s, th s"n= n"t "nl? paints a pi9tur "# th li# "# th p""r, but "## rs a star$ 9ritiIu "# th nati"n(stat as - ll'

The PWA’s (hadow on &)rrent #indi +ilm .rics
7& n 9asual #"ll"- rs "# Hindi #il! !usi9 9"uld n"t ha& but n"t d th alar!in= dip in th standards "# #il! l?ri9s in th 1300s' M"st a#i9i"nad"s thin$ "# this p ri"d as th nadir "# p"pular !usi9, 9hara9t riz d as it -as b? -anin= "ri=inalit? and a =r"-in= t nd n9? t" b"rr"- tun s #r"! ; st rn hits and p"pulat th ! -ith inan l?ri9s)1' It is n"t 9"in9id ntal that th d t ri"rati"n "# #il! !usi9 #"ll"- d th d ath "# s"! "# its b st l?ri9ists su9h as Shail ndra, Hasrat >aipuri, RaJa M hdi Ali Khan and Sha$ l Bada?uni' H"- & r, SahirCs unti! l? d ath in 1300 n"t "nl? r"bb d Hindi 9in !a "# its pr !i r s"n=(-rit r, but als" d alt a !aJ"r bl"- "# a 9 rtain st?l "# pr"=r ssi& l?ri9al 6pr ssi"n' MaJr""h, -h" s ! d t" ha& stablish d a -at rti=ht s parati"n b t- n his l?ri9s and his lit rar? -"r$, 9"ntinu d t" inn"&at and $ pt up -ith th 9han=in= ti! s r !ar$abl?: but his s"n=s, -hil r !ainin= a !ar& l "# in& nti& &"9abular?, rar l? sp"$ "# th !at rial 9"nditi"ns "# th ti! s' H"- & r, "th r p" ts su9h as ,ida Fazli, Hasan Ka!al and Shahr?ar us d th a sth ti9 p"pulariz d b? th %;A -h n th "99asi"n pr s nt d its l# and -h n #il!(!a$ rs "## r d th ! that lu6ur?' Shahr?arCs =hazal in 7aman 4.isapp aran9 : 13)05 =a& &"i9 t" th s ns "# urban an"!i 6p ri n9 d b? th B"!ba? ta6i( dri& r -h" -"nd rs1 8eene mei& alan! aankho& mei& toofaan sa kyoo& hai 3s shahr mei& har sha's pareshaan sa kyoo& hai

12*

,ya koi nayi baat na)ar aati hai hum mei& 0a’ina hame& dekh ke hairaan sa kyoo& hai ;h? d" s th 9h st burn, -h? is th r a st"r! in th ;h? is & r?"n in this 9it? s" uns ttl dN Is th r s"! thin= n - ab"ut ! N ;h? is th !irr"r s" surpris d at !? si=htN Li$ -is , Hasan Ka!alCs s"n= in 1a)door [email protected] har$s ba9$ t" an "ld r s nsibilit? b? d pl"?in= i!a= r? !ad p"pular b? th %;A and 6pr ss s a 9all b? -"r$ rs #"r th ir ri=ht#ul shar "# th - alth th ? h lp 9r at 1 "um mehnat-kash is duniya se ab apna hissa maangenge <k baagh nahi&! ek khet nahi&! hum saari duniya maangengeLJ ;h n - lab"ur rs d !and "ur shar "# this -"rld ,"t Just an "r9hard, n"t ! r l? a #i ld, - -ill d !and th ntir -"rld ? sN

;ith MaJr""hCs d ath in 2000 and th subs Iu nt d !is "# Kai#i Az!i in 2002, pr"=r ssi& Drdu p" tr? l"st !"st "# its #il! l?ri9ists' H"- & r, th 6pr ssi"n "# th pr"=r ssi& a sth ti9 is a r sp"nsibilit? that has b n sh"uld r d ad!irabl? 4i# "#t n s"litaril?5 b? >a& d A$htar, -h" a9$n"-l d= s his d bt t" th %;A in &ari"us pla9 s)@' ;hil >a& d A$htarCs l?ri9s 9"! 9l"s st t" th traditi"ns stablish d b? his %;A pr d 9 ss"rs, h !ana= s t" in#us th ! -ith 9"nt !p"ra nit? and his "-n "ri=inal s nsibilit?' But "n 9ann"t h lp but n"ti9 th shad s "# Sahir in s"! "# his -"r$ su9h as his s"n= -ritt n #"r 1ashaal 4A"r9h, [email protected] ,a’ee yaado& ke %hehre hai&! ka’ee 'isse puraane hai& /eri sau daastaane& hai&! tere kitne fasaane hai& 1agar ek voh kahaani hai! o ab mu h ko sunaani hai :indagi! aa raha hoo& mai& 1ere haatho& ki garmi se! pighal aayegi )an eere& 1ere 'admo& ki aahat se! badal aayegi ta'deere& *meedo& ke diye le kar! ye sab tere liye le kar :indagi! aa raha hoo& mai&

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M !"ri s ha& s & ral #a9 s: th r ar s & ral tal s #r"! th past E"u ha& a hundr d st"ri s, and as !an? parabl s But th r is "n littl st"r?, -hi9h is n"- !in t" t ll Li# , I a! "n !? -a? Ah -ar!th "# !? hands -ill ! lt 9hains Ah s"und "# !? #""tst ps -ill 9han= #"rtun s Barr?in= th s la!ps "# h"p #"r ?"u Li# , I a! "n !? -a? A$htarCs #il! s"n=s ar at ti! s in#l 9t d -ith a d l 9tabl % rsian 4n"t !an? 9urr nt l?ri9ists -"uld us posheedaPhidd n and khwabeedaKdr a!? in a !"&i s"n=, as h d" s in 4a ood, 13305' But h 9an Just as asil? d pl"? an A-adhi #la&"ur 4in th s"n=s "# LagaanKAa6, 2001, #"r instan9 1 Bi uri ki talvaar nahi&! boondo& ke baan %halaaoK."nCt -i ld ! r l? th s-"rd "# li=htnin=, sh"- r us -ith th arr"-s "# raindr"ps5 "r in&"$ th Ra!lila traditi"n 48wades KM? B"untr?, 200*5 and has sh"-n his 9"!#"rt -ith traditi"nal = nr s su9h as th =hazal 48aath 8aathPA"= th r, 13025' ;hil th s 6a!pl s ar a t sti!"n? t" >a& d A$htarCs & rsatilit?, th #a9t that th ? ar all th pr"du9t "# "n p" t is als" indi9ati& "# th 9"!!"n h rita= "# Hindi, Drdu and Hindustani'

(ampling as #omage
Drdu p" tr? and #il! s"n=s #r"! Hindi #il!s ar int rt-in d in "th r -a?s as - ll' Ah r is an"th r #ashi"n in -hi9h Drdu p" tr? and #il! s"n=s #r"! Hindi #il!s ar int rt-in d' Snipp ts and phras s #r"! #a!"us Drdu p" !s #ind th ir -a? int" th l 6i9"n "# Hindi #il! s"n=s' F"r instan9 , -hil -ritin= th titl s"n= "# th 1301 #il! <k Duu e ,e Liye 4F"r 7a9h Oth r5, Anand Ba$shi, a 9ar r l?ri9ist, ins rts a +halib phras in th lin 3sh' par )or nahi&! 7halib ne kaha hai isi liye 4As +halib sa?s1 L"& is n"t b"und b? 9"!pulsi"n5' M"!inCs 9"upl t /um mere paas hoti ho goya! ab koi doosra nahi& hota 4It is as i# ?"u ar -ith ! , -h n th r is n" "n ls ar"und5 is us d in& nti& l? b? l?ri9ist RaJind r Kishan #"r th s"n= 0i meri shah-e khoobaa& in Love in 8imla 413605' +halibCs lin +ee dhoondta hai phir vahi fursat ke raat din 4Ah h art s ar9h s #"r th"s da?s and ni=hts "# l isur 5 #"r!s th mukhda 49h"rus5 "# a s"n= b? +ulzar in 1ausam 4S as"n, 13)*5' Ah s s a!l ss in9"rp"rati"ns, -hil 9l arl? a #"r! "# h"!a= , ar als" r #l 9ti"ns "# th

12)

und rstandin= b? th s l?ri9ists that th #il! audi n9 -ill $n"- th s"ur9 "# th s phras s, r 9"=niz th sa!plin= and appr 9iat th tribut ' Drdu li& s and br ath s in th ! diu! "# th Hindi #il! s"n=, -hil nri9hin= it -ith its &"9abular? and its p" ti9 traditi"n, n =atin= th ##"rts "# lin=uisti9 #unda! ntalists t" -ip it "ut "# IndiaCs nati"nal 9"ns9i"usn ss' Fittin=l?, it is +ulzar, th +halib a#i9i"nad", -h" pr"&id s us -ith lin s that s?!b"liz th l"& "# Drdu s" 9arin=l? #"st r d b? Hindi #il! s"n=s' In Chhaiyyaa& Chhaiyyaa&, th sup r( hit s"n= #r"! Dil 8e 4Fr"! th H art, 13305, +ulzar "## rs a r # r ntial 4r & r ntialN5 "d t" th lan=ua= its l#1 Voh yaar hai o khushboo ki taraah +is ki )ubaa& *rdu ki taraah A #ri nd is li$ a #ra=ran9 ;h"s lan=ua= is 4s- t5 li$ Drdu Ind d 1u h ko is ka ran nahi& hai! log mu he fankaar na maane& =ikr-o sukhan ke taa ir mere shero& ko ash’aar na maane& I d" n"t r =r t that p "pl d" n"t 9"nsid r ! an artist Ahat th trad rs "# th"u=ht and -"rds d" n"t thin$ "# !? p" !s as p" tr?

120

"
AN E#EMPLARY PROGRESSIVE
The Aesthetic Experiment of Sahir Ludhianvi

;ith this 9hara9t risti9all? b"ld & rs , Sahir Ludhian&i ann"un9 d his a sth ti9 6p ri! nt1 his p" tr? -"uld n"t 9at r t" th -hi!s "# his 9riti9s, h -"uld n"t b b"und b? traditi"n "r th d"!inant ! taph"rs "# 9lassi9al p" tr?, h -"uld n"t su99u!b t" th d sir t" b $n"-n as an artist' Inst ad, his -"r$ -"uld s r& as a &"i9 "# th !"& ! nt, as a !ani# st" #"r th -"r$in= 9lass and as a 9"ntributi"n t" th &isi"n "# th L #t' SahirCs 9"rpus "# -"r$ d s r& s a 9l"s l""$ in th 9"nt 6t "# th hist"r? "# th %r"=r ssi& ;rit rsC Ass"9iati"n 4%;A5 si!pl? b 9aus !"r than an? "th r p" t 4-ith th p"ssibl 69 pti"n "# Ali Sardar >a#ri5, h r sp"nd d t" th %r"=r ssi& sC 9all t" sub"rdinat art t" th s r&i9 "# th ="als "# th !"& ! nt' In this s ns , Sahir 9an b s n as a l"?al s"ldi r "# th %;A and its 6 !plar? p" t' It is n"t unusual #"r p" ts t" p"siti"n th !s l& s as a sth ti9 r b ls "r t" 9lai! that th ? d" n"t -rit #"r p"pular a99lai!' A#t r all, & n +halib, d spit his p ri"di9 !"! nts "# s l#(ass rti"n, had -ritt n1 $a sataa’ish ki tamanna na silay ki parvaah 7ar nahi& hai& mere ash’aar mei& maane! na sahi , ith r a 9ra&in= #"r appr 9iati"n, n"r a 9ar #"r r -ard I# !? & rs s app ar ! anin=l ss t" ?"u, s" b it But -hil +halib brush s "## th 9"nt nti"n that h -r"t & rs s that - r di##i9ult t" 9"!pr h nd, Sahir ta$ s issu -ith a di## r nt "pp"siti"n' Sp a$in= t" th"s -h" lab l hi! t"" dida9ti9 and t"" pr"=ra!!ati9 t" d s r& s ri"us att nti"n, h ass rts that #"r hi! p" tr?Cs th ! "u=ht n"t b 9"n#in d t" th 6alt d sph r "# ! taph?si9al 9"nundru!s, but sh"uld n=a= -ith th !at rial r aliti s "# th ti! s' S $in= t" 6plain th s"ur9 "# his inspirati"n,

123

+halib had l"Iu ntl? said1 0ate hai& ghaib se ye ma)aamee& khayaal mei& 7halib! sareer-e khaama! navaa-e sarosh hai Ah s id as 9"! t" ! #r"! th &"id +halib, th s"und "# p n "n pap r is th #lutt r "# an= lsC -in=s Sahir, in dir 9t 9"ntrast, sta$ s 9lai! t" a di## r nt #"unt #"r his -"rds thr"u=h th lin s h us s as th pi=raph "n th #r"ntispi 9 "# his b""$ /alkhiyaa& 4Bitt r ;"rds51 Duniya ne ta rubaat-o havaadis ki shakl mei& +o ku%h mu he diya hai! voh lauta raha hoo& mai& ;hat th -"rld, in th #"r! "# 6p ri n9 s and a99id nts Has b st"- d up"n ! : I h r b? r turn

000
Abdul Hai, as Sahir -as $n"-n b #"r h ad"pt d his #a!"us takhallus)/, -as b"rn int" a za!indar #a!il?' His par nts, h"- & r, s parat d s""n a#t r his birth, and h n & r r all? nJ"? d th !at rial 9"!#"rts "# his 9lass p"siti"n' 7&id ntl? a #ra9ti"us and 9"!bati& , i# !"ti"nall? ! r9urial, ?"uth h -as 6p ll d #r"! 9"ll = , but b? 13/@, this t- nt? thr ? ar "ld had alr ad? publish d a 9"ll 9ti"n "# p" !s, Aal$hi?aaG, p rhaps th b st(s llin= -"r$ "# Drdu p" tr? a#t r th Deevaan-e 7halib' ;hil still in his t- nti s, Sahir b =an t" dit a nu!b r "# J"urnals in9ludin= th #"rtni=htl? 8avera 4.a-n5. A#t r th partiti"n "# th sub9"ntin nt, h sta? d "n in Lah"r but l #t #"r India in 13/3 t" a&"id p rs 9uti"n b? th %a$istani stat , -hi9h -as unhapp? -ith th t"n "# th 9ritiIu it -as subJ 9t d t" in his p ri"di9al)*' Sahir !"& d t" B"!ba?, -hi9h -as t" b his h"! till his d ath, -h r h - nt "n t" ha& a sp 9ta9ularl? su99 ss#ul 9ar r as a l?ri9ist #"r Hindi #il!s' His s"n=s spann d an n"r!"us ran= "# st?l , !"ti"n and 9"nt nt' An=r? d n"un9 ! nt 4.e duniya agar mil bhi aaye to kya haiK7& n i# this -"rld is attain d, s" -hat5, l"&in= pla?#uln ss 4"um aap ki aankho& mei& is dil ko basaa de& toK;hat i# I d"!i9il d this h art in ?"ur ? sN5, 9har!in= bu##""n r? 48ar o tera %hakraaye! ya dil dooba aaye! aa a pyaare paas hamaare! kaahe ghabraaye;KI# ?"ur h ad

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spins, "r ?"ur h art sin$s, 9"! "n budd?, 9"! t" ! Uha& a !assa= V, -h? -"rr?N5, r si=n d s"rr"- 4+aane voh kaise log the inke pyaar ko pyaar mila;KI -"nd r -h" th"s - r -h"s l"& -as r 9ipr"9at d5, p"liti9al 9ritiIu 4+inhe& naa) hai "ind par voh kahaa& hai&;K;h r ar th ? -h" 9lai! t" b pr"ud "# India5 L all #"und th ir -a? in th s"n=s "# a sin=l !"&i 4-yaasa, 13*)5' A#t r /alkhiyaa&! SahirCs p" tr? -as !"stl? 9"n#in d t" l?ri9s th"u=h h did brin= "ut an"th r 9"ll 9ti"n "# -"r$s in 13)1 9all d 0ao ,e ,oi ,hwaab Bune& 4B"! Ahat ; Ma? ; a& a .r a!5' H"- & r, h 9"ntinu d t" b a9ti& in th !ushaira 9ir9l s, and his b""$ "# s l 9t d #il! s"n=s 7aata +aaye Ban aara 4Ah +?ps? Sin=s On5 #inds prid "# pla9 al"n=sid th deevaans, kulliyaats and kalaams "# "th r p" ts' In ## 9t, Sahir -as a publi9 int ll 9tual -h" s"u=ht t" shap th p" ti9 s nsibiliti s "# th 9"!!"n p "pl ' His p" !s ar still hu!! d in str ts, his s"n=s $ p an idi"! ali& and his b""$s 9"ntinu t" b b sts ll rs till t"da?' In this 9hapt r, - 6a!in SahirCs 9"ntributi"ns t" th a sth ti9 "# th %r"=r ssi& M"& ! nt, #"9usin= "n th th ! s that r 9ur #r Iu ntl? in his -"r$1 his att !pts t" =i& &"i9 t" th -"r$ rs, his ard nt sp"usal "# pa9i#is! in an a= 9hara9t riz d b? -ar and &i"l n9 , his 9ritiIu "# th b"ur= "is nati"nalist stat , his un Iui&"9al 9"nd !nati"n "# r li=i"n and its att ndant ills and his assu! d r"l b"th as th sp"$ sp rs"n and th int rl"9ut"r "# th L #t'

1iving 2oice to the ()!altern
In th !"uld "# th "th r %r"=r ssi& s, Sahir 9"nstantl? s"u=ht t" us his p" tr? t" sp a$ "n b hal# "# th unsun= -"r$ rs -h"s lab"ur la? una9$n"-l d= d, "bs9ur d and #"r="tt n b? hist"r? & n -hil th 9r ati"ns "# th ir nd a&"urs - r 9 l brat d' On p" ! that i!! diat l? 9"! s t" !ind is th dra!ati9 KAaJ MahalC in -hi9h Sahir us s a p"- r#ul rh t"ri9al d &i9 t" turn "ur att nti"n #r"! "ur ad!irati"n "# this di#i9 t"-ards th bl""d, s- at and t ars "# th -"r$ rs -h" sla& d in "rd r t" 9"nstru9t it. Ah p" ! is -ritt n in th &"i9 "# th pr"ta="nist -h" r #us s t" ! t his l"& r at this =rand !"nu! nt1 /aa tere liye ek ma)har-e ulfat hi sahi /u h ko is vaadi-e rangee& se a'eedat hi sahi 1eri mahboob! kahi& aur mila kar mu h se ...

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F"r ?"u, th AaJ !a? b th 6pr ssi"n "# L"& And ?"u !i=ht b na!"ur d b? its b auti#ul s ttin= But !? l"& , ! t ! ls -h r ''' 1eri mahboob! unhe& bhi to mohabbat hogi +in ki sannaa’i ne bakhshi hai ise shakl-e ameel *n ke pyaaro& ke ma'aabir rahe be naam-o numood 0a tak un pe alaayi na kisi ne 'andeel. M? b l"& d, th ? t"" !ust ha& l"& d passi"nat l? Ah ?, -h"s 9ra#t has =i#t d this !"nu! nt its b auti#ul &isa= Ah ir l"& d "n s li in un!ar$ d =ra& s .ar$, #"r="tt n, un&isit d B? th nd "# th p" !, th i!a= "# th AaJ Mahal as an "bJ 9t "# b aut? and r & r n9 is d 9"nstru9t d b? Sahir and 6p"s d #"r -hat it r all? is1 th &ul=ar ad& rtis ! nt "# th l"& "# an 6pl"itati& $in= and th sha! #ul 6hibiti"nis! "# th lit , an "b isan9 t" -hi9h -"uld b an insult t" th l"& "# "rdinar? p "pl , in9ludin= that "# th & r? -"r$ rs -h" built it' Sahir #a!"usl? 9"n9lud s1 .e %haman)aar! ye +amuna ka kinaara! ye mahal .e muna''ash dar-o deewaar! ye mehraab! ye taa' <k shahenshaah ne daulat ka sahaara lekar "um ghareebo& ki mohabbat ka udaaya hai ma)aa' 1eri mahboob! kahi& aur mila kar mu h se Ah s =ard ns, th ban$s "# th >a!una, this pala9 Ah s -"nd r#ull? 9ar& d -alls, d""rs, a-nin=s Ar but an !p r"rCs displa? "# - alth Ahat !"9$s th l"& "# th p""r M? l"& , ! t ! ls -h r

War and Peace
;hil SahirCs p" tr? is a 9all #"r s"9ial Justi9 "# &ari"us $inds, his !"st p"i=nant and h art(# lt -"r$ -as -ritt n in th 9aus "# p a9 , "r !"r sp 9i#i9all?, a=ainst th 9r? "# -ar' +r"-in= up in th a#t r!ath "# th First ;"rld ;ar, and as a ?"uth s in= th d stru9ti"n 9aus d b? th S 9"nd ;"rld ;ar, Sahir -r"t his b st

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p" !s -h n h ad&"9at d a=ainst 9"n#li9t' In 13*6, #"ll"-in= th Su z Banal 9risis, -h n th British #"r9 s in&ad d %"rt Said thr at nin= t" s9alat th Arab(Isra l 9"n#li9t int" ? t an"th r =l"bal h"l"9aust, h -r"t his !a=nu! "pus 6%ar9haai?aaGC 4Silh"u tt s5, -hi9h is -ith"ut d"ubt th #in st anti(-ar p" ! in th ntir t? "# Drdu lit ratur ' Ahis in9r dibl? !"&in= na)m is si!pl in its lan=ua= , p"- r#ul in its i!a= r? and d &astatin= in its abilit? t" brin= h"! th d pra&it? "# -ar' Ah p" ! b =ins b? sp a$in= in th #"rl"rn &"i9 "# a !an -h" is &isitin= th s9 n "# his "n9 (#urti& tr?sts -ith his l"& r1 =i)a mei& ghul se gaye hai& ufa' ke narm khutoot :amee& haseen hai! khwaabo& ki sar)amee& ki taraah /asavvuraat ki par%haaiyaa& ubharti hai& ,abhi gumaan ki soorat! kabhi ya'ee& ki taraah Voh ped! in ke tale hum panaah lete the ,hade hai& aa bhi saakat! kisi amee& ki taraah Ah h"riz"nCs # atur s ha& diss"l& d in th -ind Ah -"rld is pr tt?, li$ th lands9ap "# dr a!s Silh"u tt s "# ! !"ri s aris S"! ti! s li$ a d"ubt, and "99asi"nall? li$ 9 rtitud Ah tr s und r -hi9h - had s"u=ht r #u= Still stand, sil nt, li$ s ntin ls Ah r turn brin=s ba9$ ! !"ri s "# th ! tin=s, st"l n inti!a9i s and shar d dr a!s "# a 9ar #r li# , dr a!s that - r s""n t" b shatt r d b? th arri&al "# tr""ps #r"! th ; st in pr parati"n #"r a =r at -ar1 1aghrib ke moha))ib mulko& se ku%h khaaki vardi-posh aaye *thlaate hue maghroor aaye! lehraate hue madhosh aaye ,haamosh )amee& ke seene mei&! khaimo& ki tanaabe& gadne lagi& 1akkhan si mulaayam raaho& par! booto& ki kharaashe& padne lagi& =au o& ke bhayaanak band tale %harkho& ki sadaaye& doob gayi& +eepo& ki sulagti dhool tale phoolo& ki 'abaae& doob gayi& Fr"! th K9ultur dC nati"ns "# th ; st, 9a! a # - $ha$i(9lad ! n Sn rin= bra==arts, lur9hin= in th ir int"6i9ati"n A nt(nails - r du= in th br ast "# th Iui t arth Ah s9rat9h s "# b""ts -"und d th paths "n9 s"#t li$ butt r Ah s""thin= s"unds "# spinnin= -h ls - r l"st in th d a# nin=

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!ilitar? bands Ah #ra=ran9 "# #l"- rs san$ in th s!"uld rin= #u! s "# J ps Ah -ar ra&a= s th 9"n"!? "# th &illa= , and ta$ s a h a&? t"ll "n its s"9ial #abri9' E"un= ! n ar 9"ns9ript d in th ar!? and l a& th ir h"! s, "#t n n & r t" r turn' Ah stru==l #"r sur&i&al and its 9"sts ar d s9rib d in th #"ll"-in= h artr ndin= -"rds1 3flaas-)ada deh'aano& ke! hal-bail bike! khaliyaan bike +eene ki tamanna ke haatho&! eene hi ke sab saamaan bike ,u%h bhi na raha ab bikne ko! ismo& ki ti aarat hone lagi ,hilvat mei& bhi o mamnoo’ thi voh alwat mei& isaarat hone lagi B ==ar d #ar! rs s"ld pl"u=hs, bull"9$s and #i lds In th !ad d sir t" li& , th & r? i!pl ! nts "# li& lih""d - r s"ld And -h n th r -as n"thin= l #t t" s ll, b"di s b =an t" b trad d Ahat -hi9h -as pr"hibit d & n in pri&at , b =an t" b 9"ndu9t d in publi9 Ah -ar d &"urs th dr a!s "# th st"r?Cs l"& rs, -h" ar 9"nd !n d t" -r t9h d li& s, unabl t" Iuit ras th th"u=hts "# that -hi9h 9"uld ha& b n, "# that -hi9h had b n sa9ri#i9 d "n th bl""d? h"riz"n1 8oora ke lahu mei& lithdi hui voh shaam hai ab tak yaad mu he Chaahat ke sunahre khwaabo& ka an aam hai ab tak yaad mu he *s shaam mu he maaloom hua! kheto& ki taraah is duniya mei& 8ahmi hui doshee)aao& ki muskaan bhi be%hi aati hai *s shaam mu he maaloom hua! is kaargah-e )ardaari mei& Do bholi bhaali rooho& ki pah%haan bhi be%hi aati hai *s shaam mu he maaloom hua! ab baap ki kheti %hhin aaye 1amta ke sunahre khwaabo& ki anmol nishaani bikti hai *s shaam mu he maaloom hua! ab bhaa’i ang mei& kaam aaye 8armaaye ke 'ahba khaano& mei&! behno& ki avaani bikti hai I still r ! !b r that & nin= r dd n d b? th sunCs bl""d I still r ! !b r th d n"u ! nt "# th ="ld n dr a!s "# l"& ' Ahat & nin= I r aliz d that & n th t ntati& s!il s "# ?"un= -"! n Ar trad d in this -"rld li$ #ar!s and land Ahat & nin= I r aliz d that in th 9"!! r9 h"us s "# - alth Ah inti!a9? "# t-" inn"9 nt s"uls is als" trad d Ahat & nin= I r aliz d that -h n a #ath r l"s s his #ar! Ah pri9 l ss s?!b"l "# a !"th rCs l"& is als" trad d

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Ahat & nin= I r aliz d that -h n a br"th r di s at -ar In th !ar$ tpla9 "# 9apital, a sist rCs ?"uth is als" trad d Ah pr"ta="nist, assail d b? th s ! !"ri s "# h"p and l"ss, n"ti9 s an"th r 9"upl und r th sa! tr that had "n9 pr"&id d shad #"r hi! and his b l"& d and his h art #ills -ith tr pidati"n, #"r h $n"-s that th 9l"uds "# -ar ar =ath rin= a=ain' Ahis dr ad l ads t"-ards a r s"l& n"t t" l t th -ar 9lai! ? t an"th r dr a!1 "amaara pyaar havaadis ki taab la na saka 1agar inhe& to muraado& ki raat mil aaye "ame& to kashmakash-e marg-e be amaa& hi mili 3nhe& to hoomti gaati hayaat mil aaye Our l"& did n"t sur&i& th sa&a= p"- r "# 9ir9u!stan9 At l ast th ? sh"uld r a9h th d stinati"n "# th ir d sir s ; #"und "urs l& s in th !a lstr"! "# a pitil ss d ath At l ast th ir li# sh"uld b #ill d -ith dan9 and s"n= Ah p" ! nds -ith a passi"nat 9all #"r "r=aniz d pa9i#is!, an app al t" str n=th n th -ill t" r sist -ar, and a -arnin= that paints a =ri! pi9tur "# th 9"st "# r !ainin= sil nt1 ,aho ke aa bhi hum sab agar khamosh rahe& /o is damakte hue khaakdaa& ki khair nahi& +unoo& ki dhaali hui atomi balaao& se :amee& ki khair nahi&! aasmaa& ki khair nahi& 7u)ishta ang mei& ghar hi ale! magar is baar 0 ab nahi&! ke ye tanhaaiyaa& bhi al aaye& 7u)ishta ang mei& paikar ale! magar is baar 0 ab nahi& ke ye par%haaiyaa& bhi al aaye& Sp a$, #"r i# - r !ain sil nt t"da? Ahis burnish d tr asur "# arth has n" #utur In th luna9? "# nu9l ar pr"li# rati"n ,"t Just th arth, & n th s$? has n" #utur In th last -ar, h"! s - r burn d, but this ti! 7& n th l"n lin ss !a? burn a-a?

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In th last -ar, "nl? b"di s burnt, but this ti! 7& n th silh"u tt s !a? burn a-a? Sahir - nt "n t" -rit "th r anti(-ar p" !s in9ludin= "n s t" pr"t st th Ind"(%a$ 9"n#li9t "# 136* and t" !ar$ th Aash$ nt p a9 a99"rd in 13)0' In KAi Shar # Insan"GC 4O Bi&il Hu!ans5, h sa?s1 Bartari ke saboot ki khaatir ,hoo& bahaana hi kya )aroori hai; 7har ki taareekiyaa& mitaane ko 7har alaana hi kya )aroori hai; +ang to khud hi ek masla hai +ang kya mas’alo& ka hal degi; 0ag aur khoon aa bakhshegi Bhook aur ehtiyaa kal degi. A" pr"& "n Cs sup ri"rit? Is it n 9 ssar? t" sh d bl""dN A" li!inat th dar$n ss "# th h"us Is it n 9 ssar? t" s t it ablaz N ;ar its l# is th pr"bl ! ,"t th s"luti"n t" an? All it -ill =i& is #ir and bl""d t"da? Hun= r and b ==ar? t"!"rr"Ah "nl? -ars that Sahir sa- as n 9 ssar? - r th"s a=ainst p"& rt?, hun= r, 6pl"itati"n and "ppr ssi"n' F"r spilt bl""d, -h th r "# #ri nd "r #" , -as hu!an bl""d a#t r all: -h th r -ar -as #"u=ht in th 7ast "r ; st, it shatt r d p a9 #"r & r?"n : -h th r #i lds - r burnt "n "n sid "# th b"rd r "r th "th r, hu!an b in=s -rith d -ith th pain "# star&ati"n' And -h th r b"!bs # ll "n h"us s "r b"rd rs, and b it th 9 l brati"n "# a &i9t"r? "r th !"urnin= "# a d # at, p"st(-ar li& s - r #"r & r s9arr d b? th ! !"ri s "# th d ad' Sahir passi"nat l? s"u=ht a -"rld -h r -ar -"uld b ndl ssl? p"stp"n d b? hu!an -ill and -h r th "nl? #la! s that lit up h"! s -"uld b th"s "# 9h r#ull? lu!in s9 nt la!ps'

Nationalism in the ,ock
Sahir, a staun9h nati"nalist, -as, li$ th r st "# th %r"=r ssi& s,

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disillusi"n d -ith th p"li9i s "# th stat #"ll"-in= Ind p nd n9 ' As ti! -"r "n and th n - stat pr"& d t" b as "ppr ssi& as th displa9 d 9"l"nialists, Sahir t""$ its l ad rship t" tas$ in his s"n= in %?aasa1 :ara mulk ke rahbaro& ko bulaao .e koo%he! ye galiyaa&! ye man)ar dikhaao +inhe& naa) hai "ind par un ko laao +inhe& naa) hai "ind par voh kahaa& hai& %ra?, 9all th l ad rs "# this 9"untr? Sh"- th ! th s lan s, th s si=hts Ball up"n th"s -h" ar s" pr"ud "# India ;h r ar th ?, -h" ar s" pr"ud "# IndiaN Ah r is a bitt rn ss in th s & rs s that 9"ntrasts -ith, sa?, FaizCs = ntl and al!"st -ist#ul r pr"a9h dir 9t d at th stat -hi9h i!pris"n d hi! "n th tru!p d(up 9har= "# tr as"n1 $isaar mai& teri galiyo& pe ai vatan! ke ahaa& Chali hai rasm ke koi na sar utha ke %hale I sa9ri#i9 !?s l# t" ?"ur lan s, !? 9"untr? ;h r it has b n d 9r d that n"n sh"uld -al$ -ith h ad h ld hi=h SahirCs &"i9 , h"- & r, -as un9"!pr"!isin= and & n harsh' Alth"u=h h did -rit "99asi"nall? in a t !p r d t"n , p nnin= patri"ti9 s"n=s li$ 0b koi gulshan na u de! ab vatan aa)aad hai 4L t n" !"r =ard ns b d str"? d, th h"! land is #r n"-5, his 9ritiIu "# th nati"n(stat -as usuall? d li& r d in a dir 9t and passi"nat !ann r' In a p" ! titl d KBhhabb s >an&ar?C 426th >anuar?5, Sahir laun9h s int" a 9ritiIu "# th stat , a99usin= it "# #ailin= t" li& up t" its pr"!is s1 Daulat badhi to mulk mei& iflaas kyo& badha; ,hush-haali-e avaam ke asbaab kya hue; +o apne saath saath %hale! koo-e daar tak! Voh dost! voh ra'eeb! voh ahbaab kya hue; "ar koo%ha shola-)aar hai! har shahr 'atl-gaah! <k ahti-e hayaat ke aadaab kya hue; 8ahra-e teeragi mei& bhatakti hai )indagi *bhre the o ufa' pe voh mahtaab kya hue;

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I# th - alth "# th nati"n has in9r as d, -h? this =r"-in= p"& rt?N ;hat & r happ n d t" th path t"-ards "rdinar? p "pl sC pr"sp rit?N Ah"s that had "n9 -al$ d -ith us t"-ards th =all"-s, ;h r ar th"s #ri nds, th"s 9"!pani"ns, th"s b l"& dsN 7& r? str t is a#la! , & r? 9it? a $illin= #i ld, ;h r did th tiIu tt "# t"= th rn ss disapp arN Li# -and rs ai!l ssl? thr"u=h th d s rt "# dar$n ss, Ah !""ns that had "n9 ris n "n th h"riz"n, -h r ha& th ? ="n N

The Atheist in the *iddle
7& n -hil Sahir 9ha!pi"n d th ri=ht "# Indian Musli!s t" li& in th ir "-n 9"untr? #r "# p rs 9uti"n and -ith"ut b in= &i - d -ith suspi9i"n, h -as a str"n= "pp"n nt "# Isla!i9 "rth"d"6?' O#t n, h r s r& d his harsh st 9ritiIu #"r th instituti"n "# r li=i"n, -hi9h h sa- as n"thin= !"r than a t""l "# 6pl"itati"n' H n"t "nl? 9hall n= d th & r? basis "# r li=i"n but als" d spair d "# a -"rld -h r r li=i"us l ad rs - r all"- d t" 9"ntr"l th aspirati"ns "# th p "pl and 9"nJur d up th i!a= "# an ra -h r th s nsibilit? "# ath is! -"uld #ind a pr"!in nt pla9 in s"9i t?' Ah #"ll"-in= p" ! al!"st r ads li$ a d 9larati"n "# -ar a=ainst Faith, its stablish! nts and its pr"p"n nts1 Be)aar hai kanisht-o kaleese se ye ahaa.$ 8audagaraan-e deen ki saudaagari ki khair 3lhaad kar raha hai murattab ahaan-e nau Dair-o haram ki hay’ola ghaaratgari ki khair 3nsaa& ulat raha hai rukh-e )eest se na'aab 1a)hab ke ehtemaam-e fusoo& parvari ki khair Ahis -"rld is si9$ "# th t !pl , !"sIu , 9hur9h E"u -h" p ddl r li=i"n, b -ar Ath is! is n"- la?in= th #"undati"n "# a n - -"rld Ah plund rin= di#i9 s "# #aith, b -ar Hu!anit? is un& ilin= th r al #a9 "# li# R li=i"nCs -il? arti#i9 , b -ar H r , Sahir =i& s #ull(thr"at d &"i9 t" his disdain "# r li=i"us instituti"ns, b st"-in= up"n th ! th !"st d r"=at"r? "# adJ 9ti& s,

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!a$in= th ! "ut t" b shrill and dish"n st, -hil ath is! >ilhaad? b 9"! s th sa&i"ur "# th da?' It !ust, h"- & r, b n"t d that SahirCs 9riti9is! app ars t" b dir 9t d t"-ards #"r!al, "r=aniz d and instituti"naliz d r li=i"n rath r than its 9ultural pra9ti9 , #"r h "#t n -r"t th = ntl st and !"st s""thin= "# bha ans and duaas #"r his #il! s"n=s' His ilhaad -as n"t a& rs t" th 6pr ssi"n "# s nti! nts su9h as 0llah tero naam! <eshwar tero naam. But -h n th situati"n pr s nt d its l#, h !ana= d t" inJ 9t his 9ritiIu "# r li=i"us di&id s thr"u=h a s"n= in th 13*3 #il! Dhool ,a -hool 4Fl"- r "# th .ust5' Ah s"n= is s t up b? th st"r? in -hi9h a &illa= r #inds an aband"n d bab? and d 9id s t" brin= it up hi!s l#' Sin9 th r is n" -a? "# t llin= -h th r th 9hild is a Hindu "r a Musli!, th &illa= rs -ant t" $n"- -hat #aith th 9hild -ill b rais d t" #"ll"-' Ah !an, addr ssin= th 9hild, sin=s1 /u "indu banega na 1usalmaan banega 3nsaan ki aulaad hai! insaan banega 0%h%ha hai abhi tak tera ku%h naam nahi& hai /u h ko kisi ma)hab se koi kaam nahi& hai +is ilm ne insaano& ko ta'seem kiya hai *s ilm ka tu h par koi il)aam nahi& hai /u amn ka aur sulha ka paighaam banega 3nsaan ki aulaad hai! insaan banega E"u -ill n ith r b 9"! a Hindu n"r a Musli! E"u ar a 9hild "# hu!ans, ?"u -ill b a hu!an b in= It is =""d that ?"u d" n"t ? t ha& a na! Ahat ?"u ar n"t ? t ass"9iat d -ith an? r li=i"n Ahat ?"u ar n"t a99us d "# p"ss ssin= th $n"-l d= ;hi9h has di&id d hu!an b in=s E"u -ill !b"d? th ! ssa= "# p a9 and t"l ran9 E"u ar a 9hild "# hu!ans, ?"u -ill b a hu!an b in=

A Part. Worker, an Interloc)tor
Va h-e berangi-e gul)aar kahoo& to kya ho; ,aun hai kitna gunehgaar! kahoo& to kya ho; /um ne o baat sar-e ba)m na sun-na %haahi 1ai& vahi baat sar-e daar kahoo& to kya ho; ;hat i# I t"ld ?"u th r as"n th =ard n had n" 9"l"urN

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And -hat i# I b 9a! th a99"untant "# sinsN Ah -"rds ?"u did n"t -ant t" h ar in th 9i&il ass !bl?, ;hat i# I sp"$ th"s & r? -"rds "n th =all"-sN Sahir 6 !pli#i d th 9r d" "# Ksp a$in= truth t" p"- rC, b"th "# his "-n a99"rd and at th b h st "# th !"& ! nt, b"th in his p" tr? and his pr"s , b"th thr"u=h his "-n -ritin= and thr"u=h th -"r$ h publish d in th p ri"di9als h dit d' ;hil his 9ritiIu "# s"9ial 9"nditi"ns -as 9 rtainl? his "-n, h -as als" $n"-n #"r l"?all? t" in= th part? lin , sub"rdinatin= his p" ti9 -ill t" it -h n r Iuir d t" d" s"' Barl" B"pp"la, in his unpublish d diss rtati"n, "## rs us an an 9d"t )6 that illustrat s this' ;h n Sahir #irst -r"t KAaJ Mahal ’, th p" ! in9lud d th #"ll"-in= lin s, r # rrin= t" th "rnat d si=ns "# th AaJ1 8eena-e dahr pe naasoor hai&! kohna naasoor +in mei& shaamil hai tere aur mere a daad ka khoo& Ah s d 9"rati"ns ar n"thin= but 9hr"ni9 b"ils "n th b"d? "# th ;hi9h ha& b n paint d -ith th bl""d "# "ur an9 st"rs arth

Ah part? !a9hin r? 6pr ss d its unhappin ss -ith th s nti! nts sin9 it th"u=ht that th -"rds d bas d th pr"du9t "# th lab"ur "# "rdinar? -"r$ rs' Rath r than tr?in= t" 6plain "r d # nd hi!s l#, Sahir si!pl? r -"r$ d th lin s t" r ad thus inst ad1 Daaman-e dahr pe us rang ki gulkaari hai +is mei& shaamil hai tere aur mere a daad ka khoo& Ah s d 9"rati"ns ar !br"id r d -ith th 9"l"ur Ahat 9"! s #r"! th bl""d "# "ur an9 st"rs SahirCs 9"!!it! nt t" th %;A 9aus and his -h"l sal adh r n9 t" th d"9trin "# S"9ialist R alis! all"- d hi! t" p"siti"n hi!s l# as an int rl"9ut"r "# his # ll"- bards' H -as sp 9iall? tr n9hant in his 9riti9is! "# p" ts -h" had 9h"s n n"t t" -rit ab"ut th B n=al #a!in , a tra= d? that -as -id l? s n as ha&in= b n 9aus d b? 9apitalist and 9"l"nialist p"li9i s))' In his 9hara9t risti9 dir 9t #ashi"n, h t""$ his "-n 9"!rad s li$ Faiz, MaJaz and >azbi t" tas$ #"r th ir sil n9 "n th issu , -hil laudin= Ali Sardar >a#ri, >i=ar Muradabadi and Ah!ad ,ad ! Has!i #"r th ir att !pts t" r"us th !ass s a=ainst this "utra= '

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, dl ss t" sa?, Sahir hi!s l# -r"t a l"n= p" !, KBan=aalC! "n th #a!in and !ad s & ral r # r n9 s in his "th r p" !s t" its 9atastr"phi9 ## 9ts "n th p "pl "# th r =i"n' Bl arl?, Sahir sa- hi!s l# as a 9"!pani"n "# th r &"luti"nar? -"r$in= 9lass and s"u=ht t" 9"ntribut t" its su99 ss' And h &isualiz d hi!s l# as pla?in= a r"l as its s"n=(-rit r, its tr"ubad"ur and p rhaps & n its &an=uard1 /um se 'uvvat le kar ab mai& tum ko raah dikhaaoonga /um par%ham lehraana saathi! mai& barbat par gaaoonga Fr"! ?"u I -ill ta$ str n=th, and t" ?"u I -ill b a =uid Rais th bann r "# r &"luti"n, 9"!rad s, and I -ill sin= ?"ur anth !

Theori"ing the Aesthetic
Fa!aana bar(sar( pai$aar hai pur(haul sh"l"G s A r lab par abhi ta$ na=h!a( Kha??aa! hai saaIiM Ah -"rld is in !"rtal 9"!bat -ith d adl? #la! s And ? t ?"u 9"ntinu t" sin= th s"n=s "# O!ar Kha??a!, O saaIiM ,"t-ithstandin= th sh"rt shri#t h has r 9 i& d, SahirCs -"r$ d" s n"t all"- th s ri"us 9riti9 t" -a& it "##, n"t si!pl? b 9aus it is s" p"pular, n"r b 9aus it "## rs its "-n b st d # n9 thr"u=h p ri"di9 r # r n9 s t" its rais"n dC tr , but b 9aus "# th #a9t that Sahir push d th b"undari s "# an 6pli9itl? p"liti9al brand "# p" tr? that s r& d as an a sth ti9 6p ri! nt "# th ti! ' Ah s"9ialist lit rar? th "rist ,i$"lai Bu$harin 9"nt nd d that Kp" ti9 9r ati"n is "n "# th #"r!s "# id "l"=i9al 9r ati"nC, and that p" tr? Kis "n "# th !"st p"- r#ul #a9t"rs in s"9ial d & l"p! nt as a -h"l C sin9 Kth -"rd its l# is th pr"du9t "# s"9ial d & l"p! nt and r pr s nts a d #init 9"nd nsin= p"int in -hi9h a -h"l s ri s "# s"9ial #a9t"rs #ind th ir 6pr ssi"nC)0' Bhrist"ph r Bauld- ll, r # rrin= t" th p"- r "# p" tr? as a uni#?in= t""l #"r th !ass s, -rit s that Kp" tr? is 9hara9t risti9all? s"n=, and s"n= is 9hara9t risti9all? s"! thin= -hi9h, b 9aus "# its rh?th!, is sun= in

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unis"n, and is 9apabl "# b in= th 6pr ssi"n "# a 9"ll 9ti& !"ti"nC)3! -hil + "r= Ah"!s"n d #in s th p" t as a pr"ph t "# th -"r$in= 9lass, "nl? Kat a hi=h r l & l "# subli!ati"nC00' Sahir -as Bu$harinCs p" t, Bauld- llCs s"n= -rit r and Ah"!s"nCs pr"ph t' In a s l#(r # r ntial !"! nt, Sahir 9ar #ull?, ? t passi"nat l?, "p ns up th p"liti9s b hind his p" ti9s in a p" ! 9all d KM r + tC 4M? S"n=s51 1ere sarkash taraane sun ke duniya ye sama hti hai ,e shaayad mere dil ko ish' ke naghmo& se nafrat hai 1u he hangaama-e ang-o adal se kaif milta hai 1eri fitrat ko khoo&-re)i ke afsaano& se raghbat hai 1agar ai kaash dekhe& voh meri purso) raato& ko 1ai& ab taaro& pe na)re& gaad kar aansoo bahaata hoo& /asavvur ban ke bhooli vaardaate& yaad aati hai& /o so)-o dard ki shiddat se pahro& tilmilaata hoo& 1ai shaayar hoo&! mu he fitrat ke na))aaro& se ulfat hai 1era dil dushman-e naghma saraa’i ho nahi& sakta +avaa& hoo& mai&! avaani naa)isho& ka ek toofaa& hai 1eri baato& mei& rang-e paarsaa’i ho nahi& sakta 1ere sarkash taraano& ki ha'ee'at hai! to itni hai! ,e ab mai& dekhta hoo& bhook ke maare kisaano& ko 7hareebo&! mufliso& ko! bekaso& ko! besahaaro& ko /o dil taab-e nishaat-e ba)m-e ishrat la nahi& sakta 1ai& %haahoo& bhi to khwaabaavar taraane ga nahi& sakta. ;h n th -"rld h ars !? an=r? s"n=s, it assu! s Ahat p rhaps !? h art abh"rs l"& s"n=s Ahat I d ri& pl asur #r"! th tur!"il "# -ar and 9"n#li9t Ahat b? natur , I = t pl asur #r"! st"ri s "# bl""dsh d But alasM Ahat th ? 9"uld -itn ss th"s an=uish d ni=hts ;h n I 9ast !? ? s "n th stars and - p ;h n #"r="tt n n9"unt rs #lash up"n ! !"r?Cs ? ;h n #"r h"urs, I tr !bl -ith th int nsit? "# !? =ri # I a! a p" t, th l"& "# natur is !? instin9t M? h art 9an n & r b th n !? "# s"n= -ritin=M I a! ?"un=, and ?"uth is a st"r! "# passi"n M? -"rds 9an n & r b in#l 9t d b? th 9"l"ur "# t !p ran9 M I# th r is a r as"n #"r !? an=r? s"n=s, it is this

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Ahat -h n I s th till rs "# land =" hun=r? ;h n I s th p""r, th "ppr ss d and th h lpl ss M? h art 9ann"t 9"unt nan9 th 9 l brati"n "# hi=h 9ultur 7& n i# I -ish, I 9ann"t =i& &"i9 t" dr a!(lad n s"n=s' H r and ls -h r , Sahir r adil? and -ith"ut th tra9 "# ap"l"=? ad!its that his -"r$ is pr"=ra!!ati9 and has a purp"s ' His p" ti9 att !pt t" r nd r art int" !ani# st" is a 9"ns9i"us a sth ti9 9h"i9 "n his part, n"t th pr"du9t "# his inabilit? t" -rit s"n=s "# l"& , r sultin= in a sin -? int nsit?, a n ar(unpalatabl bitt rn ss, a brusIu t"n and an i!pati n9 -ith th"s -h" did n"t a=r -ith hi!' In KMuJh S"9hn . C 4L t M Ahin$5, Sahir, addr ssin= a b l"& d, -rit s1 $au-e insaa& pe ye sarmaaya-o mehnat ka ta)aad 0mn-o tah)eeb ke par%ham tale 'aumo& ka fasaad Lahlahaate hue kheto& pe avaani ka sama 0ur deh'aan ke %hhappar mei& na batti na dhuaa& .e bhi kyo& hai! ye bhi kya hai! mu he ku%h so%hne de ,aun insaa& ka khuda hai! mu he ku%h so%hne de 0pni mayoos umangon ka fasaana na suna 1eri nakaam mohabbat ki kahaani mat %hed ;rit "n hu!anit? is this 9"ntradi9ti"n "# 9apital and lab"ur ;hil und r th bann r "# p a9 and 9ultur , 9"!!uniti s ri"t Ah -a&? #i lds b st"- a pr"!is "# ?"uth ;hil und r th #ar! rCs r""#, th r is n ith r la!p n"r st"& ' ;hat is this and -h?N L t ! thin$M ;h" is this +"d "# "ursN L t ! thin$M ." n"t brin= up th st"r? "# ?"ur d # at d ?"uth ." n"t brin= up th issu "# !? l"st l"&

The /rd) +reiligrath
. spit th 9 rtitud that und rs9"r s his -ritin=, SahirCs -"r$ is 9hara9t riz d b? a 9 rtain s ns "# hu!ilit?' , & r a& rs t" -ritin= as th !"& ! nt sa- #it and al-a?s r ad? t" 9han= -"rds and phras s in his p" tr? that - r s n as i!pr"p r, h app ars t" ha& s n hi!s l# as s"! "n -h" -as pla?in= his s!all part in th lar= r s9h ! "# thin=s' In th traditi"n "# !an? %;A p" ts, h n & r us d his p" ti9 si=natur 4takhallus? in an? "# his =hazals, und rst""d th

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t !p"ralit? "# his int r& nti"n and a99 pt d th li$ lih""d "# his & ntual ##a9 ! nt #r"! publi9 ! !"r?, -ritin= th #"ll"-in= in 1ai& -al Do -al ,a 8haayar "oo& 4I a! a %" t "# a M"! nt "r A-"51 ,al koi mu h ko yaad kare; ,yoo& koi mu h ko yaad kare; 1asroof )amaana mere liye! ,yoo& wa't apna barbaad kare; ;ill an?"n r ! !b r ! t"!"rr"-N ;h? sh"uld an?"n r ! !b r ! N ;h? sh"uld this bus? -"rld ;ast its ti! "n ! N But ulti!at l?, Sahir -as a p" t' And d spit his ass rti"ns t" th 9"ntrar?, p"ssibl? ? arn d #"r a9$n"-l d= ! nt' A#t r all, it 9"! s -ith th t rrit"r?' +i& n SahirCs p"liti9al l anin=s, it !i=ht b int r stin= t" s -hat Mar6 hi!s l# had t" sa? "n th subJ 9t "# p" ts and adulati"n' In a l tt r t" his #ri nd >"s ph ; ?d ! ? r, Mar6 -r"t 1 K;rit a #ri ndl? l tt r t" Fr ili=rath' ."nCt b a#raid t" 9"!pli! nt hi!, #"r all p" ts, & n th b st "# th ! ''' ha& t" b 9aJ"l d t" !a$ th ! sin=' Our Fr il=rath ''' is a r al r &"luti"nar? and an h"n st !an thr"u=h and thr"u=h L prais that I -"uld n"t ! t "ut t" !an?' , & rth l ss, a p" t L n" !att r -hat h !a? b as a !an L r Iuir s applaus , ad!irati"n' I thin$ it li s in th & r? natur "# th sp 9i s OC Sin9 "n s ar9h s in &ain #"r a & rs in SahirCs p" tr? -h r h trul? thu!ps his 9h st M la +halib 4,ahte hai& ke 7halib ka hai andaa)-e bayaa& aurKIt is said that +halibCs -a? "# sp 9h is uniIu 5, l t us d" it "n his b hal# and a99"rd hi! his ri=ht#ul prid "# pla9 in th 9an"n "# Drdu p" tr?' Sahir -as a p"- r#ul p" t "# diss nt, a 9"ns9i n9 "# s"9i t?, an un9"!pr"!isin= 9riti9 "# th Ri=ht and a strid nt p rsuad r "# th L #t' H -as a r l ntl ss "pp"n nt "# r a9ti"nar? 9ultural and s"9ial instituti"ns' His & rs s - r n & r la9$in= in &irtu"sit? "r d pth' His p" tr? 9"uld b as #in (=rain d as +halibCs and MirCs =hazals, as l?ri9al as FaizCs na)ms and as in#l 9t d -ith phil"s"ph? as HaliCs "r

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IIbalCs musaddas' H -as a prin9ipl d int rl"9ut"r -h" insist ntl? and p"- r#ull? 9ritiIu d th stru9tur s "# 6pl"itati"n and th ir a= nts1 th ruthl ss 9apitalist, th =r d? usur r, th d 9ad nt pri st, th b"ur= "is nati"nalist, th b s"tt d l"& r, th rapa9i"us 9"l"nialist and th s l#(abs"rb d p" t' ; - r #"rtunat t" ha& had hi! in "ur !idst'

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$
JAVED AKHTAR%S &UIVER OF POETIC ARROWS
A L'()*+ S,-./.'0
0gar palak pe hai& moti to ye nahi& kaafi "unar bhi %haahiye alfaa) mei& pirone ka It is n"t n"u=h i# p arls "# t ars ab"und "n ? lash s On !ust ha& th 9ra#t t" - a& th ! int" a n 9$la9 "# -"rds In 133*, Drdu p" tr? r 9 i& d an un 6p 9t d =i#t in th shap "# >a& d A$htarCs 9"ll 9ti"n "# p" !s titl d /arkash 4Hui& r5' It had b n a l"n= ti! sin9 a n - b""$ "# p" tr? had = n rat d su9h nthusias!' 7a= r as - all - r #"r a #r sh &"i9 , - d &"ur d this - ll(pr"du9 d &"lu! 4print d in9id ntall? b? KSahir %ublishin= H"us C, 9 rtainl? n" 9"in9id n9 5, and !ar& ll d at th p" t, -h"s st?l , as th auth"r +"pi Bhand ,aran= d 9lar d "n th dust 9"& r, Kis an "ri=inal &"i9 , n"t s"! "n ls Cs 9h"C' In a #l"- r? #"r -"rd t" th b""$, Hurratulain H?d r, th #a!"us Drdu n"& list, d 9lar d, KDrdu p" tr? #l"-s li$ th ,ia=ara Falls, and its spra? pr"du9 s 9"untl ss sp 9tra, in -hi9h >a& d n"- has add d his "-n littl rainb"-'C 7a9h p" ! in /arkash -as a -"ndr"us J"?, and an 6Iuisit pain' Ah b""$ -as startlin=l? #a!iliar in th -a? it br"u=ht ba9$ ! !"ri s "# th ra "# th pr"=r ssi& p" ts, ? t radi9all? di## r nt in th n -, 9"nt !p"rar? s nsibilit? it 9lai! d #"r its l#' Ah r l ntl ss n=a= ! nt -ith s"9ial 9"nditi"ns -as &id nt in & r? p" !, but th rin=in= pr"!is "# th r &"luti"nar? had b n r pla9 d b? th -ist#ul d ! an"ur "# th r alist' In his pr #a9 t" th b""$, A$htar r 9"rds his r !ar$abl li# in unassu!in= lan=ua= 1 an id?lli9 b =innin= in Lu9$n"- and Ali=arh, a 9"!pl 6 ad"l s9 n9 , th arl? da?s in th B"!ba? #il! industr? as a =h"st s9ript-rit r, th d 9isi"n t" turn d"-n a st ad? J"b #"r th un9 rtain li& lih""d "# a pr"# ssi"nal -rit r and th & ntual triu!ph

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"& r 9ir9u!stan9 s' His -r? 9"!! nts ab"ut th p rs"nal t"ll 6a9t d b? su99 ss bar l? 9"n9 als a - alth "# pain, !asIu radin= as 6p ri n9 ' Ahis 6p ri n9 -as t" #ind 6pr ssi"n in A$htarCs p" tr? in 6tra"rdinar? -a?s' A" und rstand >a& d A$htarCs /arkash, "n n ds t" 9"nt 6tualiz his -"r$ in th li=ht "# th pr"=r ssi& traditi"n in Drdu p" tr? #"r th last hal# a 9 ntur? and !"r ' In !an? -a?s, A$htar is an inh rit"r "# this traditi"n' H is r lat d t" !an? "# th i9"ni9 p" ts "# th %r"=r ssi& ;rit rsC M"& ! nt 4h is >an ,isar A$htarCs s"n, Israr( ul(HaI MaJazCs n ph -, Kai#i Az!iCs s"n(in(la-5' H"- & r, as shall s , his p" tr? r pr s nts as !an? d partur s #r"! this traditi"n as it d" s 9"ntinuiti s' In this 9hapt r, - hi=hli=ht #i& th ! s in >a& d A$htarCs p" tr? and 6a!in th ! in t r!s "# th ir r lati"nship t" th -"r$ "# th %r"=r ssi& s "# an arli r = n rati"n'

The New Protagonist
A$htarCs p" !s 9arr? n ith r th ra- an= r "# SahirCs /alkhiyaa& 4Bitt rn ss5 n"r th a&"- dl? !"d rn b nt "# Kai#i Az!iCs 0avaara 8a de 4<a=ab"nd Ob isan9 s5' Inst ad, th ? app ar t" b a l"t 9l"s r t" th = ntl pain #"und in FaizCs lat r -"r$s, in&"$in= th !""d "# th lin 1 0a ek harf ko phir dhoondta phirta hai khayaal 4A"da?, !? th"u=hts, "n9 a=ain, s ar9h in &ain #"r -"rds t" 6pr ss th !s l& s5' >a& dCs pr"ta="nist is n ith r th p""r and "ppr ss d lab"ur r n"r th # r& nt r &"luti"nar? b nt "n 9han=in= th -"rld, but a !"d rn, ali nat d subJ 9t -h" li& s in a -"rld that has b n taint d b? 9"!pr"!is and -h r th =randi"s pr"!is s "# a n da-n ha& alr ad? unra& ll d' Ah 9"!pl 6 and ali n lands9ap h inhabits pr"du9 s a t"rtur d a!bi&al n9 -ithin hi! -hil h att !pts t" d al -ith th #"r9 s that tu= at hi! #r"! di## r nt dir 9ti"ns' B"nsid r #"r 6a!pl , th p" ! titl d KM"th r A r saC' A$htar b =ins in a laudat"r? !ann r, praisin= th saintl? #i=ur #"r h r -"r$ -ith th d stitut , th i!p"& rish d and th disp"ss ss d, and "## rs th #"ll"-in= tribut 1 /era lams maseeha hai 0ur tera karam hai ek samandar +iska koi paar nahi& hai 0i 1a /eresa 1u h ko teri a)mat se inkaar nahi& hai

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E"ur t"u9h is that "# th h al r And ?"ur =ra9 is li$ a b"undl ss "9 an M"th r A r sa I 9ann"t d n? ?"ur =r atn ss Ha&in= a9$n"-l d= d h r status as a d !i(="d, h b =ins t" s"- th s d "# d"ubt in th narrati& h has Just #"r!ulat d' But his Iu sti"nin= is = ntl and s9h -s an? #"r! "# s l#(ri=ht "usn ss' His 9ritiIu , unli$ th"s "# th %;A p" ts, d" s n"t 9"! #r"! a p"siti"n "# !"ral 9 rtitud but is arti9ulat d in a rath r t ntati& t"n ' It is th 9ritiIu "# a !an -h" und rstands his "-n 9"!pli9it? in th inJusti9 and is 9"ns Iu ntl? un9 rtain ab"ut his ri=ht t" 6pr ss his r s r&ati"ns1 1ai& thahra khudgar) Bas ek apni hi khaatir eene vaala /u h ko mai& kis moonh se poo%hhoo& /u ne kabhi ye kyoo& nahi& poo%hha ,is ne in bad-haalo& ko bad-haal kiya hai;... /u ne kabhi ye kyoo& nahi& dekha Vahi ni)aam-e )ar +is ne in bhooko& se roti %hheeni hai /ere kahne par Bhooko& ke aage ,u%h tukde daal raha hai I stand b #"r ?"u A s l#ish b in=, li&in= ! r l? #"r !? "-n s l# ;hat ri=ht d" I ha& t" as$ ?"u this1 ;h? did ?"u n & r -"nd rN ;h" has br"u=ht !is#"rtun "n th s -r t9h sN''' ;h? ha& ?"u n & r n"ti9 d Ahat th & r? s?st ! "# - alth ;hi9h has snat9h d th br ad #r"! th s p""r ,"-, "n ?"ur d !and A"ss s s"! !"rs ls A"-ards th hun=r? Ah p" ! =raduall? ups th ant , ulti!at l? h"ldin= M"th r A r sa a99"untabl #"r h r r"l in a s?st ! -hi9h thr"-s a # - s9raps

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t"-ards th"s it d str"?s and #"r #ailin= t" ad&"9at that th p""r d !and th ir ri=ht t" a li# "# di=nit? rath r than ha&in= t" b = #"r it' Ah i!pli9it su== sti"n "# th p" ! is that th M"th r is 9"lludin= -ith th #"r9 s "# t?rann?1 0isa kyoo& hai <k aanib ma)loom se tu h ko hamdardi hai Doosri aanib :aalim se bhi aar nahi& hai ;h? is it Ahat ?"u ha& s?!path? #"r th "ppr ss d And ? t ?"u d"nCt spurn th t?rantN ;hat #"ll"-s s parat s A$htar dra!ati9all? #r"! th arli r %;A traditi"n' Dnli$ Kai#iCs passi"nat pr"ta="nist, SahirCs &an=uard "r FaizCs r si=n dl? r s"lut !art?r, A$htarCs &"i9 9h""s s t" abdi9at th !"ral battl =r"und "# 9ritiIu 1 Lekin sa%h hai 0isi baate& mai& tum ko kis moonh se poo%hhoo& -oo%hhoonga to 1u h pe bhi voh )immedaari aa aayegi +is se mai& ba%hta aaya hoo& Behtar hai khaamosh rahoo& mai& 0ur agar ku%h kahna hai to .ahi kahoo& mai& 0i 1a /eresa 1u h ko teri a)mat se inkaar nahi& hai But it is tru I 9an s9ar9 l? as$ ?"u su9h Iu sti"ns F"r i# I d", I -ill b saddl d -ith a r sp"nsibilit? Ahat I ha& s9ap d thus #ar' % rhaps it is b st I r !ain sil nt And i# I !ust sa? s"! thin=, l t ! sa? Just this M"th r A r sa I 9an n & r d n? ?"ur =r atn ss Ah 6Iuisit l? tr"ubl d ir"n? "# th p" ! tr ads th #in lin

1/3

b t- n 9ritiIu and 9"n# ssi"n' Ah p"int 9"! s a9r"ss, and is ar=uabl? r nd r d !"r p"t nt b? A$htarCs t ntati& n ss, #"r in it th r ad rs 9an s th !s l& s r #l 9t d al"n= -ith all "# th ir "-n 9"ntradi9ti"ns' A si!ilar s nti! nt runs thr"u=h s & ral "# A$htarCs "th r p" !s' F"r 6a!pl , in KDlJhanC4.il !!a5, h r #l 9ts "n a d"=( at(d"= -"rld -h r sur&i&al d p nds "n th -illin=n ss t" disr =ard "th rs' It is a -"rld -ith"ut an? r al 9h"i9 -h r "n Cs 9"ns9i n9 is #"r & r and al-a?s(alr ad? 9"!pr"!is d' Ah pr"ta="nist "# this p" !, J"stl d b? a 9r"-d "# !illi"ns, has t" d 9id b t- n b in= tra!pl d b? "th rs and 9rushin= th ! in th 9"urs "# his "-n !ar9h #"r-ard1 Chaloo& /o auro& pe )ulm dhaaoo& 2ukoo& /o auro& ke )ulm heloo& :ameer /u h ko to naa) hai apni munsifi par :ara sunoo& mai& ,e aa kya tera faisla hai I# I -al$ I -ill 9aus pain t" "th rs I# I st"p I -ill su## r th ir t?rann? B"ns9i n9 E"u ar pr"ud "# ?"ur "-n Jud=! nt L t ! h ar ;hat ?"ur d 9isi"n is t"da? Ahis tir d #rustrati"n is a !ar$ r "# A$htarCs uniIu n ss, #"r th 9hara9t rs in his p" ! ha& n" d p ndabl !"ral 9"!pass that 9an =uid th ! in !a$in= th ri=ht d 9isi"n' +"n is th 9 rtitud 6pr ss d b? th %r"=r ssi& s and th "pti!is! that a99"!pani d it: th Just path, i# th r & r -as "n , 9ann"t b #"und' On 9an s this p" !Cs s ns "# d?st"pi9 l"ss in s & ral "th r pi 9 s as - ll' F"r instan9 , K7$ M"hr Ka Sa#arC 4A %a-nCs >"urn ?5 d s9rib s th J"urn ? "# an "rdinar? pa-n -hi9h, a-ar "# th dan= rs it #a9 s, s$il#ull? d"d= s p"- r#ul n !i s and nds up as a lar= r pi 9 , "nl? t" #ind that n"- th & r? p"- r that nsur s its

1*0

sa# t? als" pr"du9 s an ali natin= distan9 #r"! all "th rs, #ri nds and #" s ali$ , n"n "# -h"! 9an 9"! ! anin=#ull? 9l"s t" it' <i9t"r? 6a9ts its pri9 ' *s ke ek haath mei& hai eet us ki Doosre haath mei& tanhaai hai In "n hand, <i9t"r? And in th "th r, L"n lin ss

The New &ritic
;hil th %r"=r ssi& s -r"t in th &"i9 "# th 9ha!pi"ns "# th d"-ntr"dd n -h" s"u=ht t" 9han= th s?st !, A$htarCs pr"ta="nists "#t n l arn t" pla? its =a! "# h?p"9ris?, 6pl"itati"n and =r d' Fa9 d -ith a 9ut(thr"at -"rld in -hi9h h #inds hi!s l# h"p l ssl? i!pli9at d, A$htar d" s n"t pit9h 9a!p "n a !"ral hi=h =r"und, 9h""sin= inst ad t" d pl"? sharp 9?ni9is! as a t""l "# his 9ritiIu 1 AaJ $i duni?a ! iG J n $a Iar na sa!Jh" >" !il p?aar s un l"="G $" z na sa!Jh" L arn th pr"t"9"ls "# li&in= in t"da?Cs -"rld Ar at th"s -h" "## r ?"u l"& as st ppin= st"n s Ah r is n"n "# FaizCs "pti!isti9 a&"-al "# th p" tCs 9"!!it! nt t" truth and 6p ri n9 1 "um parvarish-e lauh-o 'alam karte rahenge! +o dil pe gu)arti hai! ra'am karte rahenge 4; -ill 9"ntinu t" nurtur th l =a9? "# pap r and p n, ;hat "ur h arts ndur , - -ill 9"ntinu t" r 9"rd5' A$htar is 9"ns9i"us that in th 9"nt !p"rar? s"9ial 9"nt 6t th -rit rCs spa9 #"r 6pr ssi"n is li!it d, his a= n9? 9urtail d' In "n pla9 , h -rit s1 +aane kaisa daur hai is mei& ye ur’at bhi mushkil hai Din ho agar to likhoo& use din! raat agar ho! raat likhoo& I -"nd r -hat $ind "# an a= this is, -h r & n this !u9h 9"ura= is t"u=h t" !ust r Ahat i# I s it is da?, I -rit it as da?, that -h n it is ni=ht, I 9all it ni=ht

1*1

It is n"t that A$htar has r linIuish d his ri=ht t" sp a$ his !ind' But & n i# h 9h""s s t" d" that, his audi n9 Cs !ind is #i6 d "n "th r thin=s' Ah upp r 9lass s ar n"t in9lin d t" list n t" anal?sis "r d p th"u=hts' Ah ir att nti"n is ls -h r , its span li!it d' Ah p" tCs #rustrati"n 9"! s thr"u=h a=ain in th #"ll"-in= lin s1 Chaar laf)o& mei& kaho! o bhi kaho *s ko kab fursat! sune faryaad sab /alkhiyaa& kaise na ho ash’aar mei& "um pe o gu)ri! hame& hai yaad sab ;hat & r ?"u ha& t" sa?, sa? it in #"ur -"rds Ah rul r has n" ti! #"r & r? 9"!plaint H"- 9an bitt rn ss n"t in#l 9t !? & rs sN I r ! !b r all that I ha& & r ndur d In th s & rs s A$htar app ars t" b indi9tin= & n his audi n9 , -hi9h d !ands pith? and asil? 9"nsu!abl s nti! nts and has n" ti! #"r 9"!pl 6iti s in sukhan' Li&in= in an ra -h r Drdu p" tr? has b 9"! a 9ultural 9"!!"dit?, -h r =hazals ha& b 9"! pr"du9ts #"r sup r#i9ial and pr t nti"us nJ"?! nt and -h r th 9"!pl 6iti s "# th t"n=u ar b ?"nd th r a9h "# !"st, th sa9ri#i9 "# p" ti9 s nsibilit? at th altar "# an ins nsiti& !ar$ tpla9 =rat s "n A$htar' In an a!azin= p" !, his &itup rati"n is palpabl 1 8hahr ke dukaandaaro! kaarobaar-e ulfat mei& 8ood kya )iyaa& kya hai! tum na aan paaoge... +aanta hoo& mai& tum ko )aukh-e shaayari bhi hai 8hakhsiyat sa aane mei& ek ye maahiri bhi hai -hir bhi harf %hunte ho! sirf laf) sunte ho 3n ke darmiyaa& kya hai! tum na aan paaoge M r9hants "# th 9it?, in th busin ss "# l"& E"u -ill n & r und rstand -hat 9"unts as pr"#it, -hat as l"ss ''' I $n"- that ?"u ha& a tast #"r p" tr? Ahat ?"u 9ulti&at this s$ill t" ad"rn ?"urs l# But ?"u Just plu9$ s?llabl s, list n ! r l? t" -"rds E"u -ill n & r und rstand that -hi9h li s b t- n th ! As an?"n -h" has r ad pr"=r ssi& Drdu p" tr? $n"-s, th -"rd

1*2

K! r9hantC is us d in this = nr as a parti9ularl? d r"=at"r? pith t' A$htar d pl"?s it d lib rat l? and a99us s his addr ss "# b in= an 6pl"it r "# -"rds, s nti! nts and 6pr ssi"n' Ah h"ll"appr 9iati"n "# p" tr?, all t"" 9"!!"n th s da?s, is harshl? 9"nd !n d' Ah i!pli9it 9"!! ntar? h r is that th"s -h" ar 9"nsu! d b? !at rialisti9 9"n9 rns and ar #"9us d "n pr"#it rin= ar in9apabl "# und rstandin= th tru s nti! nt "# p" tr?' ;"rds #"r th s patr"ns "# th arts r !ain ! r l? -"rds: th r al ! anin= 4that -hi9h li s in b t- n th -"rds5 is b ?"nd th ir r a9h' A$htarCs trad !ar$ 9?ni9is! is n"t li!it d t" th stablish! nt "r t" th"s -h" "99up? 6alt d and pri&il = d p"siti"ns in th s?st !' In his -"rld, & n hu!an r lati"ns b 9"! transa9ti"nal and pra=!ati9' In KAa", Aur ,a S"9h"C 4B"! , ." ,"t Ahin$ An? Furth r5, h n ="tiat s a r lati"nship -ith a Kb l"& dC that a9$n"-l d= s th inh r nt #als n ss "# a99 pt d id as ab"ut l"& , r"!an9 , and #id lit?, but 9annil? su== sts that th ? pr t nd t" pla? th =a! b? th s rul s #"r as l"n= as it r !ains !utuall? nt rtainin=' /um meri aankho& mei& aankhe& daal ke dekho -hir mai& tum se 8aari hooti 'asme& khaaoo& -hir tum voh saari hooti baate& dohraao +o sab ko a%h%hi lagti hai 5 +itne din ye mel rahega Dekho! a%h%ha khel rahega 0ur ,abhi dil bhar aaye to ,ah dena tum Beet gaya milne ka mausam 0ao 0ur na so%ho 8o%h ke kya paaoge L""$ d p int" !? ? s And I -ill !a$ t" ?"u All th"s #als pr"!is s And ?"u 9an r p at t" ! th"s #als h""ds Ahat & r?"n -ants t" h ar O

1*@

As l"n= this inti!a9? lasts It -ill b an nJ"?abl =a! And ;h n ?"u ha& had ?"ur #ill E"u 9an t ll ! Ahat th s as"n "# t"= th rn ss has pass d B"! ." n"t thin$ an? !"r F"r -hat is =ain d b? thin$in=N In a -"rld -h r & r?thin= is 9"!!"di#i d, -h r "n "#t n = ts -hat "n -ants thr"u=h d 9 it and s l#(d 9 pti"n, th r is n" spa9 #"r th 6p 9tati"n "# an untaint d l"& ' A$htar s !s in9lin d t" =i& &"i9 t" a ti! in -hi9h 6pr ssi"ns "# passi"n and r"!an9 ha& b 9"! littl !"r than !pt? l"Iu n9 and -h r sa9ri#i9 and 9"!!it! nt ar n" l"n= r &alu d' Ah pursuit "# l"& b 9"! s a =a! t" b pla? d and th pl asur s "# a r lati"nship ar transi nt and t !p"ral' Ah"s -h" s $ truth and a-ar n ss ar d stin d t" #ail' As h sa?s1 0agahi se mili hai tanhaai 0a meri aan! mu h ko dhoka de A-ar n ss has br"u=ht ! l"n lin ss B"! , !? l"& , pl as d 9 i& !

The New %omantic
As - ha& alr ad? s n, A$htarCs attitud t" l"& is 9"nsid rabl? di## r nt #r"! that "# his pr d 9 ss"rs' F"r 9lassi9al p" ts l"& -as a d p, int ns , #"r!ulai9 !"ti"n b"rd rin= "n 9"n9 it' F"r th %r"=r ssi& s l"& -as "#t n a =r"und that J"in d th l"& rs in stru==l , as in Kai#iCs *th meri aan mere saath hi %halna hai tu he 4Ris , !? l"& , that - !ust -al$ t"= th r5' At "th r ti! s, it -as an !"ti"n that had t" b sa9ri#i9 d in "rd r t" a9hi & a =r at r ="al, as in FaizCs 1u h se pahli si mohabbat meri mahboob na maang 4B l"& d, d" n"t as$ ! #"r that "ld l"& an?!"r 5' A$htarCs attitud t" l"& is !ar$ dl? di## r nt, and at ti! s, al!"st 9a&ali r' L"& is

1*/

s"! ti! s a #util and !pt? passi"n, t" b disp ns d -ith b #"r = ttin= "n -ith th !"r i!! diat tas$ "# li&in=' F"r 6a!pl , ha& this t-" lin r that is dis!issi& "# th 9 ntral tr"p s "# l"& p" tr? li$ ish' 4passi"nat l"& 5, vasl 4th uni"n "# l"& rs5 and hi r 4s parati"n51 Lo dekh lo! ye ish' hai! ye vasl hai! ye hi r 0b laut %hale& aao! bahut kaam pada hai All ri=ht, l""$1 this is L"& , h r is Dni"n, and this is S parati"n ,"- l t us r turn, shall - N Ah r is a l"t "# -"r$ t" b d"n ' L"& , -h n it d" s 9"! ab"ut, is n"t & rlastin=' But its l"ss d" s n"t br a$ th l"& r' Dnli$ th tra=i9 MaJn""n, h d" s n"t sp nd his li# si#tin= th sands in s ar9h "# his Laila' A$htar !"urns his l"st l"& in rath r !att r("#(#a9t t r!s that r !ind "n "# an arl? Sahir1

+ohabbat mar gayi, mu"h ko bhi gham hai +ere achche dino9 ki aashna thi )ove has died, I too am sad It was my friend in happier times
Ahis is n"t t" sa? that th p" t d" s n"t su## r th pain "# l"& Cs l"ss: th a9t "# #"r= ttin= is n"t all that asil? a99"!plish d' In his p" ! K.ush&aariC 4.il !!a5, th pr"ta="nist -ants t" ras his ! !"ri s s" that h !a? !"& "n -ith his li# ' But h is p"- rl ss t" d" s" #"r his -r t9h d h art n"t "nl? r ! !b rs all that & r happ n d, but als" that -hi9h 9"uld n"t, that -hi9h had b n l #t unsaid1 1ai& bhool aaoo& tumhe& 0b yahi munaasib hai 1agar bhulaana bhi %haahoo& to kis taraah bhooloo& ,e tum to phir bhi ha'ee'at ho ,oi khwaab nahi& .ahaa& to dil ka ye aalam hai! kya kahoo& ,ambakht9 Bhula na paaya ye voh silsila +o tha hi nahi& Voh ik khayaal

1**

+o aawaa) tak gaya hi nahi& Voh ek baat +o mai& kah nahi& saka tum se Voh ek rabt +o hum mei& kabhi raha hi nahi& 1u he hai yaad voh sab +o kabhi hua hi nahi& I sh"uld #"r= t ?"u E s, that is prud nt But h"- 9an I d" that, & n i# I -ant t"N E"u ar a#t r all a r alit? ,"t a ! r dr a! H r , th 9"nditi"n "# !? h art is s" un#"rtunat 4;r t9h d h artM5 Ahat it has b n unabl t" #"r= t th 9hain "# & nts Ahat n & r t""$ pla9 Ahat "n th"u=ht ;hi9h -as n & r &"i9 d Ahat "n 9"n& rsati"n I 9"uldnCt ha& -ith ?"u Ahat "n 9"nn 9ti"n ;hi9h - n & r had I r ! !b r & r?thin= Ahat n & r happ n d A$htar is an un9"n& nti"nal r"!anti9' His n=a= ! nt -ith l"& is & r? r alisti9 in its 6pr ssi"ns and 6pl"rati"ns "# a!bi=uiti s, &i9issitud s, and 4tra=i95 ir"ni s' His pr"ta="nist "#t n s !s t" b -ist#ul ab"ut a past l"& that 9"uld n"t r a9h #ruiti"n, a l"& that 9asts its shad"-s "n th pr s nt, #"r & r l""!in= "& r his 9urr nt r lati"nship1 %aas aa$ bhi #aasl $?""G haiG Raaz $?a haiN Sa!aJh ! iG ?""G aa?a Ds $" bhi ?aad hai $"Ci ab bhi MaiG bhi tu! $" bhula nahiG paa?a ;h? th distan9 s & n in t"= th rn ssN Ah s 9r t un#urls thus

1*6

Sh als" r ! !b rs an "ld l"& And I t"", ha& nCt su99 d d in #"r= ttin= ?"u Ah l"& rs "# A$htarCs p" !s inhabit th t-ili=ht z"n b t- n bitt r pri"r 6p ri n9 s and un9 rtain shar d #utur s, in a pr s nt that is !ar$ d b? a &ari t? "# & r? r al !"ti"ns, in9ludin= p tt? "n s li$ J al"us? and p"ss ssi& n ss1 Laakh ho hum mei& pyaar ki baate& .e ladaai hamesha %halti hai *s ke ik dost se mai& alta hoo& 1eri ek dost se voh alti hai ; !a? shar a !illi"n -"rds "# l"& But "n #i=ht is "n="in= Sh is J al"us "# "n "# !? #ri nds And I a! J al"us "# "n "# h rs S"! ti! s r lati"nships nd, but th ! !"ri s "# inti!a9i s r !ain, "nl? t" r sur#a9 -h n th 6(l"& rs 9"! t"= th r' In a !"&in= p" ! 9all d KAasaar( Had !aC 4An9i nt R !nants5, A$htar d s9rib s "n su9h !"! nt, 9"!parin= th #ail d r lati"nship and th r !inis9 n9 s it &"$ s t" an ar9ha "l"=i9al #ind "# an an9i nt ruin d 9it? -h"s =l"ri"us past 9an n"- "nl? b dis9 rn d thr"u=h th br"$ n art #a9ts that litt r its du=(up lands9ap 1 <k patthar ki adhoori moorat Chand taambe ke puraane sikke ,aali %haandi ke a ab se )evar 0ur ka’ee kaanse ke toote bartan <k sahra mei& mile :er-e )amee& Log kahte hai& ke sadiyo& pahle 0a sahra hai ahaa& Vahi& ek shahr hua karta tha 0ur mu h ko ye khayaal aata hai ,isi ta'reeb ,isi mahfil mei& 8aamna tu h se mera aa bhi ho aata hai <k lamhe ko

1*)

Bas ik pal ke liye +ism ki aan%h *%hat-ti si na)ar 8urkh bindiya ki damak 8arsaraahat tere malboos ki Baalo& ki mehak Bekhayaali mei& kabhi Lams ka nanha sa phool 0ur phir door tak vahi sahra Vahi sahra ke ahaa& ,abhi ik shahr hua karta tha A shatt r d st"n statu S"! "ld 9"pp r 9"ins Stran= "rna! nts "# bla9$ n d sil& r S & ral br"$ n br"nz & ss ls ; r un arth d In a d s rt And p "pl sa? that 9 nturi s a=" H r -h r th r is "nl? a d s rt A 9it? -as "n9 s ttl d And a th"u=ht stri$ s ! 1 7& n t"da?, at a part? A =ath rin= ;h n I 9"! #a9 t" #a9 -ith ?"u F"r "n s 9"nd >ust #"r "n !"! nt Ah -ar!th "# ?"ur b"d? Ah #l tin= 9han9 ! tin= "# "ur ? s Ah shin "# ?"ur r d bindi?a Ah rustl "# ?"ur 9l"th s Ah #ra=ran9 "# ?"ur hair And s"! ti! s, unint nti"nall? A tin? #l"- r "# t"u9h And th n a=ain, that un ndin= d s rt Ahat d s rt -h r "n9 A 9it? had #l"urish d ;hat is stri$in= in A$htarCs Kl"& p" tr?C is that his 9hara9t rs ar !atur indi&iduals -h"s r"!anti9is! is al-a?s alr ad? und r9ut b? a s ns "# r alis!' Ah l"& r "# an arli r brand "# Drdu p" tr? -h" pa9 s th str ts "# his b l"& d that &ari"usl? nti9 s hi!, 9har!s

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hi!, s du9 s hi! and ulti!at l? br a$s his h art is ="n ' A$htarCs p" !s ar p"pulat d -ith l"& rs -h"s l"& 9an b #l tin=, transa9ti"nal "r tra=i9all? ndurin=' I# th r is an? 9"!!"n =r"und -ith th traditi"n "# Drdu p" tr?, it is this1 th r ar n" happ? ndin=s'

The New Agnostic
A$htar, li$ th %r"=r ssi& s b #"r hi!, is & r? dis!issi& "# r li=i"us "rth"d"6? and ind d "# r li=i"n its l#' H int rr"=at s Faith #"r its r"l in 9"nstri9tin= hu!an a= n9?, its di&isi& n ss, its #als pana9 as and its h"rri#i9 9"!pani"n L s 9tarian &i"l n9 ' Ah stapl st"9$s(in(trad "# th pr"=r ssi& 9ritiIu "# r li=i"n ar t" b #"und in his -"r$, but a=ain, th ? ar tin= d b? a 9 rtain t ntati& n ss "r a t"n=u (in(9h $ hu!ilit?1 Haatil bhi, !aIt""l bhi d"n"G naa! $huda $a l t th K"i $huda tha, t" &"h $ahaaG tha, ! ri $?a auIaat, li$h""GN Ah !urd r r and th &i9ti! - r b"th in&"$in= th na! "# +"d I# th r -as a +"d, -h r -as H N But -h" a! I t" -rit ab"ut thatN In K;aItC! a ! taph?si9al "d t" Ai! , A$htar us s a & r? !"d rnist i!a= r? t" Iu sti"n th "!nipr s n9 "# +"d, p"nd rin= th p"ssibilit? that ti! and spa9 6t nd int" a z"n -h r th r is n" Supr ! B in=1 /o har tasavvur ki had ke baahar 1agar kahi& par .a'eenan aisa koi khala hai ,e is ko 3n kahkashaao& ki ungliyo& ne 0b tak %hhua nahi& hai ,hala +ahaa& ku%h hua nahi& hai ,hala ,e is ne kisi se bhi 6kun’ suna nahi& hai +ahaa& kahi& par khuda nahi& hai Vahaa& ,oi wa't bhi na hoga

1*3

B ?"nd th r a9h "# all i!a=inati"n But s"! -h r Ah r !ust 9 rtainl? b a spa9 Ahat has n"t B n t"u9h d b? th #in= rs "# th 6pandin= =ala6i s A spa9 ;h r n"thin= has ? t "99urr d A spa9 ;h r n" "n has h ard th 9"!!and "# 9r ati"n01 ;h r th r is n" +"d Ah r Ai! t"", -ill n"t 6ist Ah anta="nis! "# th %r"=r ssi& s t"-ards r li=i"n -as 6a9 rbat d b? th ir distr ss at th &i"l n9 #"! nt d in th na! "# #aith, parti9ularl? durin= and a#t r th !"! nt "# Ind p nd n9 ' A$htarCs India, th"u=h #ar r !"& d #r"! th ti! "# th %artiti"n, still stru==l s -ith this d !"n' B"!!unal ri"ts n"- pun9tuat th 9al ndar -ith ! tr"n"!i9 #r Iu n9?: th ? ar plann d, ritualisti9 and "#t n pr di9tabl ' A$htarCs p" !s "n r li=i"us &i"l n9 ar in#us d -ith this 9"nt !p"rar? s nsiti&it? "#t n a99"!pani d b? a Iui t r si=nati"n' In KFasaad S %ahl C 4B #"r th Ri"t5, h startlin=l? &"$ s th t rr"r "# a p"pula9 a-aitin= an in &itabl ri"t -ith bat d br ath1 0a .e shahr ik sahme hue ba%h%he ki taraah 0pni par%hhaai se bhi darta hai +antari dekho 1u he lagta hai 0a tyohaar koi hai shaayad A"da? Ahis 9it?, li$ a #ri=ht n d 9hild F ars its "-n shad"Bh 9$ th 9al ndar I ha& a # lin= Ahat t"da? !i=ht b th da? "# a # sti&al Ah subtl in&"9ati"n "# tyohaar 4# sti&al5 sp a$s &"lu! s, #"r it is a

160

r !ind r "# th #a9t that pr"9 ssi"ns br"u=ht "ut in th na! "# r li=i"n ar "#t n th s"ur9 "# th spar$ that s ts "## th 9"n#la=rati"n' A$htarCs tr at! nt "# th a#t r!ath "# a ri"t is als" uniIu and r #l 9ts a d p s ns "# l"ss that d !ands th !"urnin= "# !"r than !utilat d b"di s and burnt h"! s' In a #"ll"-(up p" ! KFasaad K BaadC, h d s9rib s a h artbr a$in= 9"n& rsati"n b t- n th d p sil n9 a#t r th ri"t and its d &astat d lands9ap ' Ah sil n9 und rstands th n d t" =ri & #"r th d ad, but su== sts that th r !a? b an"th r l"ss t" !"urn #irst1 th l"ss su## r d b? th"s -h" 9a! t" pilla= and l""t, th l"ss "# th pr 9i"us - alth "# 9 nturi s "# 9ultur ' 7ahre sannaate ne apne man)ar se yoo& baat ki 8un le u di dukaa& 0i sulagte makaa& /oote thele /umhi& bas nahi& ho akele .ahaa& aur bhi hai& +o ghaarat hue hai& "um in ka bhi maatam karenge 1agar pahle un ko to ro le& ,e o lootne aaye the 0ur khud lut gaye ,ya luta *ski un ko khabar hi nahi& ,am-na)ar hai& ,e sadiyo& ki tah)eeb par *n bi%haaro& ki koi na)ar hi nahi& Ah d p sil n9 sp"$ thus t" th lands9ap KList n, d str"? d sh"p S!"uld rin= h"us Br"$ n 9art E"u ar n"t th "nl? &i9ti!s h r ' Ah r ar "th rs t"" ;h" ha& als" b n &i9ti!iz d ; -ill !"urn th ! as - ll But l t us #irst - p #"r th"s ;h" 9a! t" plund r But - r th !s l& s l""t d

161

;hat -as l"st Ah ? ha& n" id a Ah ? ar sh"rtsi=ht d F"r th ? d" n"t & n n"ti9 Ah ruins "# a 9ultur 9 nturi s "ld'C A" A$htar, r li=i"n is "n "# th !aJ"r di&isi& #"r9 s in s"9i t?, !u9h li$ -ar, p"liti9s and 9ast hatr d' In a p" ! -ritt n ab"ut a K.arindaC 4B ast5, h 9"!par s hu!an b in=s -ith ani!als, su== stin= that th #"r! r ha& #ar surpass d th latt r in t r!s "# pr"du9in= di&id s and na9tin= 9ru lt?1 1a)hab na ang ney siyaasat! aane na )aat paat ko bhi 0pni darindagi ke aage! hai kis shumaar mei& darinda It $n"-s n ith r r li=i"n, -ar n"r p"liti9s, and n" 9ast hi rar9hi s ith r H"- 9an th b ast 9"!par t" us in "ur b stial 9ru lt?N

The New %ealist
Dnli$ th h r"i9 pr"ta="nists that p"pulat d th p" tr? "# th %r"=r ssi& s -h" -r"t in an arli r ra and inhabit d a di## r nt stru9tur "# # lin=, A$htarCs subJ 9ts ha& "#t n su99u!b d t" th pr ssur s "# a s"9i t? that d !ands a9Iui s9 n9 ab"& all ls ' ; ha& # - "# th tr"ubad"urs that p"pulat d SahirCs p" tr?, th r &"luti"nari s "# Kai#iCs and MaJr""hCs d #iant & rs , th un9"!pr"!is d pris"n rs "# FaizCs )indaan "r th an=r? pr"l tariat "# MaJazCs str ts' A$htarCs subJ 9ts #i=ht a di## r nt battl a=ainst a di## r nt -"rld, in -hi9h dr a!s ar d stin d t" b shatt r d b? Li# 1 1aree)-e khwaab ko ab to shafa hai 1agar duniya badi kadvi dava thi Ah dr a!(a##li9t d ha& #inall? b n 9ur d But Li# pr"& d t" b bitt r ! di9in ' Ah -"rld d !ands its p"und "# #l sh and th pr"ta="nists ha& littl 9h"i9 but t" a9Iui s9 ' Ah b st th ? 9an h"p #"r ar a # - st"l n !"! nts t" 9all th ir "-n1 1ere ku%h pal mu h ko de do! baa'i saare din logo

162

/um aisa aisa kahte ho! sab vaisa vaisa hoga L t ! ha& a # - !"! nts "# !? "-n, O p "pl : th r st "# !? da?s I -ill d" 6a9tl? -hat ?"u -ant ! t"' S"! ti! s a d #iant -arri"r d" s bra& th #"r9 s arra? d a=ainst hi! and ta$ s "n th -"rld, but & ntuall? h is d""! d t" stand al"n , a-aitin= his in &itabl d stru9ti"n' In KShi$astC 4. # at5, A$htar d & l"ps th st"r? "# a -arri"r(h r", -h" a#t r 9"nIu rin= !an? lands #inall? #a9 s d # at' H stands al"n "n a dar$ hill, -aitin= #"r th &i9t"ri"us n !? #"r9 s -h" ar 9"!in= t" $ill hi!, -hil b hind hi! li s th 9harr d r !ains "# th b"at that h had s t "n #ir hi!s l# t" pr & nt an? r tr at "n his part' Ah l ss"n h r is that th &i9t"ri s "# "n Cs past d" n"t =uarant #utur &i9t"ri s, #"r1 1agar thi khwaabo& ke lashkar mei& kis ko itni khabar "ar ek 'isse ka ek ekhtemaam hota hai "a)aar likh le koi fat’ha )arre )arre par 1agar shikast ka bhi ek mu'aam hota hai Littl did th ar!? "# dr a!s r aliz Ahat & r? st"r? has an nd On !a? ins9rib K<i9t"r?C "n a th"usand pla9 s But K. # atC has its "-n pla9 t"" Ah in&"9ati"n "# th khwaabon ka lashkar 4th ar!? "# dr a!s5 su== sts that A$htar !i=ht b sp a$in= ab"ut a -ar "# id as, -h r a prin9ipl d and un9"!pr"!isin= p"siti"n is d""! d t" d # at' A 9l"s r adin= "# /arkash !a$ s 9l ar that A$htar is na!"ur d -ith th 9"n9 pt "# th khwaab 4dr a!5, !u9h in th sa! -a? that Faiz -as 9apti&at d b? th id a "# th 'afas 49a= 5' Ah di## r n9 is that -hil th pris"n r in FaizCs i!a= r? is #"r & r d #iant, A$htarCs h r" is #"r9 d t" p ddl & n his dr a!s' In K>ur! Aur SazaC 4Bri! and %unish! nt5, a plainti## addr ss s th Jud= -h" is pr"s 9utin= hi! #"r th 9ri! "# -ithh"ldin= s"! "# his dr a!s d spit ha&in= nt r d int" a Faustian pa9t -ith s"9i t?1 1u h ko i'raar ,e mai& ne ek din ,hud ko neelam kiya 0ur raa)i-ba ra)a

[email protected]

8ar-e ba)aar sar-e aam kiya 1u h ko 'eemat bhi bahut khoob mili thi lekin 1ai& ne saude mei& khayaanat kar li .aani ,u%h khwaab ba%haakar rakkhe I ad!it Ahat "n da? I au9ti"n d !?s l# And &"luntaril? Mad !?s l# a&ailabl t" th !ar$ t I -as - ll 9"!p nsat d t"", but I -as dish"n st' Ahat is, I $ pt a # - dr a!s #"r !?s l# Ah Kdish"n st?C is dis9"& r d, #"r dr a!s 9ann"t b 9"n9 al d' Ah Jud= h ars th 9as and pass s a Jud=! nt1 th a99us d -ill ha& t" =i& up his dr a!s, his #li=hts "# #an9?, th s"n=s #l"-in= in his & ins, his s"arin= s"ul, his &"i9 , his ! !"ri s, his # lin=s and th"u=hts, his & r? !"! nt' Ah Jud= h"- & r is n"t ? t d"n ' F"r th s ar ! r l? ! ant as r 9"!p ns t" th "n -h" had b"u=ht th plainti##' Ah punish! nt is -"rs : th a99us d -ill n"t b all"- d t" di ' Ah 9"n9 pt "# )eest-e be-amaa& 4a li# -ith"ut ! r9?5 "99urs s & ral ti! s in A$htarCs p" tr?' A$htarCs -"rld is intransi= nt and un9"!pr"!isin=' Ah p"- r stru9tur s ar ntr n9h d and &i9t"r? is n ar i!p"ssibl ' Ah p" tCs h r" s still stru==l and s"! ti! s sa9ri#i9 th !s l& s #"r th ir id als' H"- & r, unli$ th !art?r #i=ur in th p" !s "# his pr"=r ssi& pr d 9 ss"rs -h"s sa9ri#i9 -as publi9 and piphani9, A$htarCs r b l r 9"=niz s that his d ath !a? b unsun=, its !ar$ li!it d, its =ains in9r ! ntal1 1ai& 'atl to ho gaya tumhaari gali mei&! lekin 1ere lahu se tumhaari deewaar gal rahi hai Aru , I -as !urd r d in ?"ur str t But !? bl""d is n"- 9"rr"din= ?"ur -alls Ah !art?rs in th p" !s "# th %r"=r ssi& s -al$ d -ith di=nit? t" th =all"-s, s 9ur in th $n"-l d= that th ir d ath h rald d th

16/

r &"luti"n' H"- & r, in an ra -h r sa9ri#i9 has b n r nd r d in9"ns Iu ntial, A$htar is "#t n dra-n t" d spair1 +eevan eevan hum ne ag mei& khel yahi hote dekha Dheere dheere eeti duniya! dheere dheere haare log $eki ek din kaam aayegi! hum ko kya sam haate ho "um ne bebas marte dekhe kaise pyaare pyaare log In = n rati"n a#t r = n rati"n, - ha& s n th sa! =a! pla? d Ahat th -"rld & ntuall? -"n, and th p "pl - r =raduall? d # at d K+""dn ss -ill "n da? b r -ard dC, d"nCt tr? t" 9"n&in9 ! "# this F"r I ha& s n !an? b auti#ul p "pl di h lpl ssl? And ? t, A$htarCs pr"ta="nists sp a$ truth t" p"- r, la?in= bar th h?p"9risi s and th s"ull ssn ss "# th"s -h" 9h""s th path "# 9"!pr"!is 1 Vasl ka sukoo& kya hai! hi r ka unoo& kya hai "usn ka fusoo& kya hai! ish' ke daroo& kya hai /um maree)-e daanaa’i maslehat ke shaidaa’i 2aah-e gumrahaa& kya hai tum na aan paaoge ;hat is th tranIuilit? "# Dni"n, and -hat th !adn ss "# S parati"nN ;hat ar th n9hant! nts "# B aut?, and -hat th s 9r ts "# L"& N E"u -h" ar a##li9t d b? ;isd"!, -h" ar a sla& t" B"!pr"!is ;hat is th path "# th I9"n"9lastsN E"u -ill n & r und rstand

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11
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The Feminist Poets82
An?"n -h" is #a!iliar -ith th #i ld "# Drdu p" tr? -ill r adil? r 9"=niz and a9$n"-l d= that it is 6tr ! l? = nd r d' Ahis = nd rin= -"r$s at t-" l & ls' First, !"st "# th p" ts ar ! n: &irtu"sit? in & rs is still 9"nsid r d t" b a !al pur&i - and -"! n p" ts, & n - ll($n"-n "n s, 9"ntinu t" b !ar=inaliz d' S 9"nd, th pr d"!inant th ! s and ! taph"rs "# this = nr assu! th p" t(as(!al 4and 9"ns Iu ntl? th r ad r(as(!al 5 and r &"l& ar"und th th ! s "# th b aut? "# th b l"& d, th pli=ht "# th l"& r and th pains "# unr Iuit d l"& ' ;"! n # atur !"stl? as an abstra9ti"n and as th "bJ 9t "# th !al pr"ta="nistCs d sir [email protected]' As Ru$hsana Ah!ad p"ints "ut in h r intr"du9ti"n t" Beyond Belief 4th #irst 9"ll 9ti"n "# # !inist p" tr? publish d in %a$istan5, K4t5h bul$ "# publish d Drdu p" tr? is still l"& p" tr? b"und in th "ld traditi"nal idi"!s and 9"n9 itsC0/' Ah s K9"n9 itsC in9lud th !al p" t as th !b"di! nt "# a= n9? and th -"!an as a ! r "bJ 9t, r pr s nt d as Ka # 9$l ss b l"& d, -h" -as nd"- d -ith h a& nl? b aut? O #air "# #a9 , d" ( ? d, dar$(hair d, tall, -ill"-?, #"r -h"! th p" t -as -illin= t" di but -h" &a9illat d #r"! indi## r n9 , sh?n ss and !"d st? t" -ant"n -ill#uln ss and 9ru lt?0*'C Ah %;A p" ts, n"t-ithstandin= th ir 9"!!it! nt t" s"9ial 9han= and =alitarianis! - r , #"r th !"st part, inh rit"rs "# this l =a9? "# Drdu p" tr? as - ll as its pur& ?"rs' In th ir -"r$, a -"!an -as #r Iu ntl? s n as an 6 !pli#i9ati"n "# b aut? and a r p"sit"r? "# purit?' Sh -as "#t n d pi9t d as a - a$ &i9ti! "# "ppr ssi& stru9tur s -h" d p nd d "n ! n t" sa& and pr"t 9t h r and "n th ir = n r"sit? "# spirit and s ns "# ri=ht "usn ss t" r s9u h r #r"! h r pli=ht' A r pr s ntati& 6a!pl "# this attitud 9an b #"und in SahirCs p" ! KBha$l C 4Br"th ls5 in -hi9h h , -hil paintin= a

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pi9tur "# th h"rr"r "# th #l sh trad and s 6 -"r$, "## rs th #"ll"-in= pl a1 1adad %haahti hai ye "avva ki beti .ashodha ki hum- ins! 2aadha ki beti -ayambar ki ummat! :ulaikha ki beti 8anaakhaan-e ta'dees-e 1ashri' kahaa& hai&; As$in= #"r h lp is this dau=ht r "# 7& Sh -h" shar s Eash"dhaCs = nd r, this dau=ht r "# Radha Ahis ! !b r "# th %r"ph tsC 9"n=r =ati"n, this dau=ht r "# Fulai$ha ;h r ar th ?, th"s -h" sin= pa ans t" th 9ultur "# th 7astN In th ir r"l as s"9ial r #"r! rs, th %r"=r ssi& s did, at ti! s, ta$ issu a=ainst th "ppr ssi"n "# -"! n and s"u=ht t" hi=hli=ht th ir 9"nditi"n' Sp a$in= a=ainst th instituti"n "# th & il in his p" ! K%urdaah Aur Is!atC 4Ah < il and H"n"ur5, MaJaz "## rs th #"ll"-in= 9"!! ntar?1 +o )aahir na ho! voh lataafat nahi& hai +o pinha& rahe! voh sadaa'at nahi& hai .e fitrat nahi& hai! mashiyyat nahi& hai ,oi aur sha’y hai! ye ismat nahi& hai Ahat -hi9h is n"t &isibl 9ann"t b 76Iuisit Ahat -hi9h r !ains hidd n 9ann"t b th Aruth Ahis is n"t ,atur , n"r is it . stin? ;hat & r ls it is, this is n"t <irtu Ah r ar als" th "99asi"nal !"! nts -h n th pr"=r ssi& p" t s s -"! n as p"t ntial r b ls and a= nts -h" ha& a r"l t" pla? in th publi9 spa9 and in s"9ial trans#"r!ati"n' In a p" ! K,auJa&aan Khat""n S C 4A" th E"un= ;"!an5, MaJaz -rit s1 "i aab-e fitna parvar ab utha leti to a%h%ha tha /u khud apne husn ko purdaah bana leti to a%h%ha tha .e tera )ard rukh! ye khushk lab! ye vahm! ye vahshat /u apne sar se ye baadal hata leti to a%h%ha tha /ere maathe pe ye aan%hal bahut hi khoob hai lekin

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/u is aan%hal se ek par%ham bana leti to a%h%ha tha It -"uld b b tt r i# ?"u shru== d "## this -i9$ d & il It -"uld b b tt r i# ?"u us d ?"ur b aut? t" 9"& r ?"urs l# E"ur pal 9"unt nan9 , ?"ur dr? lips, ?"ur an6i t?, ?"ur # ar It -"uld b b tt r i# ?"u dr"& a-a? th s 9l"uds #r"! "& r ?"ur h ad Ahis s9ar# that 9"& rs ?"u is b auti#ul ind d It -"uld b b tt r i# ?"u 9"n& rt d it int" a bann r "# r &"lt ;hil MaJazCs p" !s ta$ a p"siti"n a=ainst th s Iu st rin= "# -"! n b hind th & il, it is i!p"rtant t" n"t that th ir t"n t nds t" b patr"nizin= #"r th ? ar ss ntiall? 6h"rtati"ns b? th !al p" t t" -"! n' % rhaps th p" ! b? a !al pr"=r ssi& p" t that 9"! s 9l"s st t" r pr s ntin= a -"!an as a subJ 9t in h r "-n ri=ht is KAuratC 4;"!an5 b? Kai#i Az!i1 (adr ab tak teri tareekh ne aani hi nahi& /u h mei& sholay bhi hai&! bas ashk-fishaani hi nahi& /u ha'ee'at bhi hai! dil%hasp kahaani hi nahi& /eri hasti bhi hai ek %hee)! avaani hi nahi& 0pni tareekh ka unvaan badalna hai tu he *th meri aan! mere saath hi %halna hai tu he /od kar rasm ke but! band-e khadaamat se nikal :o’f-e ishra’t se nikal! vahm-e na)aakat se nikal $afs ke kheen%he hue hal'a-e a)mat se nikal (aid ban aaye mohabbat! to mohabbat se nikal 2aah ka khaar hi kya! gul bhi ku%halna hai tu he *th meri aan! mere saath hi %halna hai tu he :indagi ahd mei& hai! sabr ke 'aabu mei& nahi& $ab)-e hasti ka lahu kaampte aansu mei& nahi& *dne khulne mei& hai nikhat! kham-e gesu mei& nahi& +annat ek aur hai! o mard ke pahlu mei& nahi& *s ki aa)aad ravish par hi ma%halna hai tu he *th meri aan! mere saath hi %halna hai tu he Ah past hasnCt r 9"=niz d ?"ur -"rth

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E"u ar 9apabl "# pr"du9in= #la! s, n"t Just t ars E"u ar R alit?, n"t ! r l? an int r stin= tal E"ur B in= is !"r than ?"ur ! r E"uth E"u -ill ha& t" r -rit th th ! "# ?"ur Hist"r? Aris !? l"& , that - 9an -al$ t"= th r . str"? th id"ls "# Bust"!, br a$ th sha9$l s "# Araditi"n Fr ?"urs l# #r"! th n# bl ! nt "# %l asur , th #als id as "# . li9a9? St p "ut #r"! th 9"n#inin= 9ir9l "# F !ininit? dra-n ar"und ?"u And i# L"& b 9"! s a pris"n, th n r J 9t th 9"nstraints "# L"& E"u -ill ha& t" 9rush n"t Just th th"rns, but th #l"- rs in ?"ur path t"" Aris !? l"& , l t us -al$ t"= th r Li# li s in Stru==l , n"t in th 9lut9h s "# F"rb aran9 Ah puls "# 76ist n9 is n"t nurtur d b? tr !blin= t ars Fra=ran9 li s in #li=ht and bl""!, n"t in 9urlin= tr ss s Ah r is an"th r h a& n that li s b ?"nd a ManCs pr"t 9ti"n B"! , dan9 in th 6ub ran9 "# its Fr d"! Aris !? l"& , that - !ust -al$ t"= th r Kai#iCs p" ! is radi9al in th -a? it p"siti"ns a -"!an as a # ll"9"!pani"n, in its 6h"rtati"n that -"! n br a$ #r #r"! th 9"n#in s "# traditi"n and 9ust"!, but parti9ularl? in its insist n9 that -"! n n"t "nl? 9rush th Kth"rnsC "# th ir path but als" its K#l"- rsC 4d li9a9?, l =an9 , # !ininit?, =ra9 , and & n l"& 5 that s r& as ! 9hanis!s "# li!itati"n and 9"ntr"l' ;h r it #alls s"! -hat sh"rt is that -hil Kai#i is stablishin= th p"siti"n "# his # !al 9"!pani"n as a 9"!rad , h d !ands that sh sh d h r a99"utr ! nts "# # !ininit? in "rd r #"r h r t" Ka99"!pan?C hi! "n his Iu st' ,"r d" s Kai#i !ana= t" #ull? r J 9t th 9"n& nti"nal 9hara9t rizati"n "# -"! n in th d"!inant dis9"urs "# th ti! , #"r th -"!an "# his p" ! has th 9apa9it? t" pr"du9 #la! s Kin additi"n t"C th abilit? t" sh d t ars: h r 6ist n9 is K!"r thanC h r b aut? and ?"uth' ,"t-ithstandin= a # - s9att r d 6a!pl s "# su9h n=a= ! nts -ith patriar9h?, n"n "# th %;A p" ts & r -r"t in a !ann r that una!bi=u"usl? assu! d -"! nCs ind p nd nt p"- r, subJ 9th""d and a= n9?' F"r this t" happ n in th #i ld "# Drdu p" tr?, - had t" -ait #"r th -"r$s "# th # !inist p" ts #r"! %a$istan, parti9ularl? Kish-ar ,ah d and F h!ida Ri?az' In "rd r t" und rstand and

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appr 9iat th ir -"r$, it is i!p"rtant t" pla9 it in th 9"nt 6t "# th !at rial and s"9ial 9"nditi"ns in %a$istan -ithin -hi9h it -as -ritt n' Ah p"liti9al, s"9ial and 9ultural !ili u "# %a$istan in th 1300s -as d #in d b? + n ral Fia(ul(HaICs Isla!izati"n pr"=ra!! , and its att ndant atta9$ "n -"! nCs ri=hts' FiaCs !is"=?nist p"li9i s - r an arti9ulati"n "# th an6i ti s "# 9lass and = nd r # lt b? !iddl ( 9lass ! n durin= this p ri"d -h" r s nt d -hat th ? sa- as th in9r asin= pr s n9 "# -"! n in th publi9 sph r and # ar d th r p r9ussi"ns this !i=ht ha& in th pri&at sph r "# th #a!il?' It is p rhaps a t sti!"n? t" th #"r9 "# th s an6i ti s that th stat Cs blatantl? s 6ist p"li9i s and th #ar(r a9hin= 9han= s th ? #"r= d -ithin %a$istani s"9i t? and 9ultur did n"t in#"r! th -"r$ "# pr"=r ssi& !al p" ts in an? si=ni#i9ant -a? 4p rhaps th "n 69 pti"n -as Habib >alib, th "nl? "n -h" parti9ipat d in th #a!"us 12 F bruar? [email protected] d !"nstrati"n "r=aniz d b? th -"! nCs !"& ! nt a=ainst th KLa- "# 7&id n9 C5' Ahis burd n -as l #t #"r # !inist p" ts t" b ar' Ah 9hall n= p"s d b? th s # !inist p" ts t" th stablish! nt -"r$ d at di## r nt l & ls1 #irst, th ? - r -"! n p" ts -ritin= in -hat -as an "& r-h l!in=l? !al lit rar? !ili u: s 9"nd, th ? - r # !inists raisin= th ir &"i9 a=ainst an in9r asin=l? h"stil and !is"=?nist s"9ial and 9ultural 9"nt 6t: and third, th ? - r pr"du9in= -"r$ that ## 9ti& l? sub& rt d 6istin=, a99 pt d 9"n& nti"ns "# p" ti9 #"r! and 9"nt nt' Ah p" tr? "# th s # !inists -as n"t 9"n#in d t" -"! nCs issu s: th ? - r #i r9 9riti9s "# th r a9ti"nar? p"liti9al, s"9ial and 9ultural 9han= s ta$in= pla9 in %a$istani s"9i t?' H"- & r, =i& n that th brunt "# th stat Cs r tr"=r ssi& Isla!izati"n p"li9i s al"n= -ith th 9han= s th ? -r"u=ht in "th r asp 9ts "# %a$istani li# -as b"rn b? -"! n 4and !in"riti s5, !"st "# th ir p" tr? did "& r-h l!in=l? addr ss K-"! nCs issu sC su9h as th KFina Ordinan9 C 4-hi9h in9lud d punish! nts su9h as st"nin= adult r rs L b"th !al and # !al L t" d ath, and -hi9h tri d rap &i9ti!s und r 9har= s "# )ina, "r ill =iti!at s 65' ,"t all -"! n p" ts "# th ti! 9h"s t" 9hall n= th pr s9rib d lit rar? #"r!s "r th ! s, n"r -as all -"! nCs Kpr"=r ssi& C p" tr? 4that -hi9h -"r$ d t" sub& rt th patriar9hal stablish! nt5 "# "n pi 9 ' %r"=r ssi& p" tr? -ritt n b? -"! n ran= d #r"! th -"r$ "# %ar& n Sha$ir and AdaCa >a#ri L -h"s p" tr? -as l ss 6pli9itl?

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p"liti9al ins"#ar as it did n"t addr ss 6pli9itl? Kp"liti9alC issu s, and -h" t nd d t" us 9"n& nti"nal p" ti9 #"r!s su9h as th =hazal 4and in th 9as "# >a#ri, s"! "# its standard 6pr ssi"ns as - ll5 L t" that "# p" ts su9h as Kish-ar ,ah d and F h!ida Ri?az, -h"s -ritin=s - r strid ntl? # !inist in th ir t"n and subJ 9t !att r' H"- & r, =i& n th !al (d"!inat d natur "# th Drdu lit rar? stablish! nt, th & r? #a9t "# a -"!an -ritin= =hazals -as its l# sub& rsi& sin9 it in& rt d th i!pli9it 9"n& nti"n that -"! n - r th "bJ 9ts rath r than th subJ 9ts, "r a= nts, "# r"!an9 and d sir ' F !inist p" ts had t" d al -ith a si=ni#i9ant ba9$lash, in9ludin= 9riti9is! #r"! th lar= l? !al status Iu", #"r th ir Kl""s !"ralit?C and th ir K!as9ulinit?C06, and - r #r Iu ntl? subJ 9t d t" th thr at "# &i"l n9 #r"! th stat and indi&iduals0)' Sin9 -"! n - r at th &an=uard "# th !"& ! nt a=ainst FiaCs !artial(la- ="& rn! nt and its p"li9i s, it is n"t surprisin= that th ? - r als" th !"st p"liti9al and pr"!in nt -rit rsPp" tsPartists "# th ti! ' As Kish-ar ,ah d p"ints "ut in h r - ll($n"-n p" !, KHu! +unah=aar Aurat GC 4; Sin#ul ;"! n51 .e hum gunahgaar aurate& hai& +o ahl-e abba ki tamkinat se $a ro’b khaaye& $a aan be%he& $a sar hukaaye& $a haath ode& .e hum gunahgaar aurate& hai& ,e in ke ismo& ki fasl be%he& o log Voh sarfaraa) thahre& $ayaabat-e imtiyaa) thahre& Voh daavar-e ahl-e saa) thahre& .e hum gunahgaar aurate& hai& ,e sa%h ka par%ham utha ke nikle& /o hoot se shaah-raahe& ati mile hai& "ar ek dahlee) pe sa)aao& ki daastaane& rakhi mile hai& +o bol sakti thee& voh )ubaane& kati mile hai& It is - sin#ul -"! n ;h" ar n"t inti!idat d

1)1

B? th !a=ni#i9 n9 "# th"s -h" - ar r"b s ;h" d"nCt s ll th ir s"uls ."nCt b"- th ir h ads ."nCt #"ld th ir hands in suppli9ati"n ; ar th sin#ul "n s ;hil th"s -h" s ll th har& st "# "ur b"di s Ar 6alt d B"nsid r d -"rth? "# distin9ti"n B 9"! ="ds "# th !at rial -"rld It is - sin#ul -"! n ;h", -h n - ! r= 9arr?in= al"#t th #la= "# truth Find hi=h-a?s str -n -ith li s Find tal s "# punish! nt pla9 d at & r? d""rst p Find t"n=u s -hi9h 9"uld ha& sp"$ n, s & r d B sid s b in= a harsh indi9t! nt "# th"s -h" s"ld "ut t" th stablish! nt, th s -"rds als" dir 9tl? sub& rt th d"!inant st r "t?p s "# -"! n as - a$ and in ## 9tual and th ir a99"!pan?in= id as ab"ut K# !ininit?C' Ah phras K- sin#ul -"! nC, r p at d li$ a 9hant thr"u=h"ut th p" !, #un9ti"ns as a slap in th #a9 "# th r li=i"us "rth"d"6? and th stat , r # rrin= as it d" s t" th Fina Ordinan9 -hi9h us s th 9rut9h "# Isla! t" h"ld -"! n r sp"nsibl #"r all s 6 9ri! s' F h!ida Ri?azCs p" ! KBhaadar Aur Bhaardi-aariC 4Ah < il and th F"ur ;alls "# H"! 5 -as an"th r 6pli9it 6a!pl "# th -a? # !inists us d p" tr? as a ! diu! "# diss nt a=ainst th Fia r =i! and as a 9ritiIu "# th h?p"9ris? "# th r li=i"us "rth"d"6?' Ah p" ! d ri& s its titl #r"! th na! "# th 9a!pai=n start d b? FiaCs Isla!i9 Id "l"=? B"un9il, -hi9h -as part "# th = n ral !"& t" r stri9t -"! nCs parti9ipati"n in s"9i t? t" th d"! sti9 sph r ' Ah p" ! is -"rth Iu"tin= in its ntir t?1 "u)oor! mai& is siyaah %haadar ka kya karoongi; .e aap mu h ko kyoo& bakhshte hai&! basad inaayat9 $a sog mei& hoo& ke is ko odhoo& 7ham-o-alam khal' ko dikhaoo& $a rog hoo& mai& ke is ki taareekiyo& mei& khaft se doob aaoo& $a mai& gunahgaar hoo& na mu rim

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,e is siyaahi ki mohr apni abee& pe har haal mei& lagaoo& 0gar na gustaakh mu h ko sam he& 0gar mai& aa& ki amaan paaoo& /o dast-basta karoo& gu)aarish ,e banda-parvar9 "u)oor ke hu ra-e mo’attar mei& ek laasha pada hua hai $a aane kab ka gala sada hai .e aap se rahm %haahta hai "u)oor itna karam to kee e 8iyaah %haadar mu he na dee e 8iyaah %haadar se apne hu re ki bekafan laash dhaamp dee e ,e is se phooti hai o 6ufoonat Voh koo%he koo%he mei& haampti hai Voh sar patakti hai %haukhato& par Barahnagi apni dhaankti hai 8une& )ara dil-kharaash %heekhe& Bana rahi hai& a ab hiyole +o %haadaron mei& bhi hai& barahna .e kaun hai&; +aante to honge "u)oor peh%haante to honge9 .e laundiyaa& hai&9 ,e yarghamaali halaal shab bhar rahe&N Dam-e subha darbadar hai& .e baandiyaa& hai&9 "u)oor ke natfa-e mubarek ke nasb-e virsa se mo’tabar hai& .e bibiyaa& hai&9 ,e )au agi ka khiraa dene (ataar andar 'ataarbaari ki munta)ar hai& .e ba%%hiyaa& hai&9 ,e in ke sar pe phira o ha)rat ka dast-e shaf'at /o kam-sini ke lahu se resh-e saped rangeen ho gayi hai "u)oor ke hu la-e mo’attar mei& )indagi khoon ro gayi hai -ada hua hai ahaa& ye laasha /aveel sadiyo& se 'atl-e insaaniyat ka ye khoo& %hukaa& tamaasha 0b is tamaashe ko khatm kee e "u)oor ab is ko dhaamp dee e9 8iyaah %haadar to ban %huki hai meri nahi& aap ki )aroorat

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,e is )amee& par vu ood mera nahi& fa'at ek nishaan-e shahvat "ayaat ki shaah-raah par agmaga rahi hai meri )ahaanat :amee& ke rukh par o hai paseena to hilmilaati hai meri mehnat .e %haar deewaariyaa&! ye %haadar! gali sadi laash ko mubarek ,huli fi)aao& mei& baadbaa& khol kar badhega mera safeena 1ai& 0adam-e nau ki humsafar hoo& ,e is ne eeti meri bharosa bhari rifaa'at9 Sir M ;hat -ill I d" -ith this bla9$ 9haadar ;h? d" ?"u bl ss ! -ith itN I a! n ith r in !"urnin= that I sh"uld - ar it L A" ann"un9 !? =ri # t" th -"rld ,"r a! I a dis as , that I sh"uld dr"-n, hu!iliat d, in its dar$n ss I a! n ith r sinn r n"r 9ri!inal Ahat I sh"uld s t its bla9$ s al On !? #"r h ad und r all 9ir9u!stan9 s' I# ?"u -ill pard"n !? i!p rtin n9 I# I ha& r assuran9 "# !? li# 00 Ah n -ill I ntr at ?"u -ith #"ld d hands O B n &"l nt On M In Sir Cs #ra=rant 9ha!b rs li s a 9"rps ;h" $n"-s h"- l"n= it has b n r"ttin= th r It as$s #"r ?"ur pit? Sir , b $ind n"u=h +i& ! n"t this bla9$ sha-l Ds it inst ad t" 9"& r that shr"udl ss 9"rps in ?"ur 9ha!b rs B 9aus th st n9h that has burst #"rth #r"! it +" s pantin= thr"u=h th all ?s L Ban=s its h ad a=ainst th d""r#ra! s Att !pts t" 9"& r its na$ dn ss List n t" th h artr ndin= shri $s ;hi9h rais stran= sp 9tr s Ah ? -h" r !ain na$ d d spit th ir 9haadars ;h" ar th ?N E"u !ust $n"- th ! Sir , ?"u !ust r 9"=niz th ! Ah ? ar th 9"n9ubin sM Ah h"sta= s -h" r !ain l =iti!at thr"u=h th ni=ht But 9"! !"rnin=, ar s nt #"rth t" -and r, h"! l ss Ah ? ar th hand!aid ns

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M"r r liabl than th hal#(shar "# inh ritan9 pr"!is d ?"ur pr 9i"us Sp r! Ah s ar th h"n"urabl -i& sM ;h" a-ait th ir turn in l"n= Iu u s A" pa? th ir 9"nJu=al du s Ah s ar th ?"un= =irlsM ;h n Sir Cs a## 9ti"nat hand d s9 nd d up"n th ir h ads Ah ir inn"9 nt bl""d stain d ?"ur -hit b ard r d In Sir Cs #ra=rant 9ha!b rs li# has sh d t ars "# bl""d ;h r this 9"rps li s Ahis, #"r l"n= 9 nturi s th bl""d? sp 9ta9l "# hu!anit?Cs !urd r 7nd this sp 9ta9l n"Sir , 9"& r it up Ah bla9$ 9haadar has b 9"! ?"ur n 9 ssit?, n"t !in M? 6ist n9 "n this arth is n"t as a ! r s?!b"l "# lust M? int lli= n9 =l a!s bri=htl? "n th hi=h-a? "# li# Ah s- at that shin s "n th br"- "# th arth is but !? hard -"r$ Ah 9"rps is - l9"! t" this 9haadar and th s #"ur -alls M? ship -ill !"& #ull(sail in th "p n -ind I a! th 9"!pani"n "# th n - Ada! ;h" has -"n !? 9"n#id nt 9"!rad ship In this p"- r#ul p" !, Ri?az, b? r J 9tin= th %haadar b in= "## r d t" h r b? th s l#(st?l d $ p rs "# p "pl Cs 9"ns9i n9 , als" r J 9ts th Isla!istsC 9"nstru9ti"n "# h r as a s 6ual "bJ 9t that is r Iuir d b? th la- t" b & il d and s Iu st r d -ithin th #"ur -alls "# th h"! ' Sh subJ 9ts th s p"- rs t" bitin= sar9as! b? r p at dl? addr ssin= th ! -ith !"9$ h"n"ri#i9s su9h as Khuz""rC, and a s ri s "# #"r!ulai9 phras s su9h as aan ki amaan paaoo&, dast-basta karoo& gu)aarish, and bandaparvar' Sin9 sh is n"t in !"urnin=, n"r a sinn r "r 9ri!inal sh ar=u s -ith !"9$ inn"9 n9 , that sh d" s n"t und rstand -h? sh is b in= "## r d th bla9$ sha-l 4"r, b? i!pli9ati"n, th s 9lusi"n "# th %haardiwaari5' Ah r st "# th p" ! lists th 9ri! s a=ainst hu!anit? -hi9h h r addr ss is =uilt? "#, parti9ularl? th 4s 6ual5 6pl"itati"n "# -"! n thr"u=h th instituti"ns "# 9"n9ubina= and !arria= , an 6pl"itati"n that "#t n b =ins at a & r? ?"un= a= ' Ah p" ! nds -ith h r 9"n9ludin= that it is h , n"t sh , -h" n ds th bla9$ sha-l s" that h !a? 9"& r his "-n h?p"9ris? and sha! ' Alth"u=h Ri?az n & r ! nti"ns Isla!

1)*

dir 9tl?, it is th abs nt r # r nt in h r t 6t, b 9aus it is und r th %haadar 49"& rP9l"a$5 "# Isla! that -"! n ha& b n subJu=at d #"r Kl"n= 9 nturi sC' Ah Ksp 9tr sC "# all th s # !al &i9ti!s -h" 9arr? th st n9h "# d ath ar th s$ l t"ns in th Isla!istCs 9l"s t t" -hi9h Ri?az Kr sp 9t#ull?C dra-s his, and "ur, att nti"n' Ah last stanza "# th p" ! is -"rth n"tin=, #"r in dir 9t 9"ntrast t" th d pi9ti"n "# -"! n in Drdu p" tr?, Ri?az 9"unt rp"s s h r "-n r adin= "# -"! n a=ainst th traditi"nal as - ll as Isla!ist id al "# K-"!anh""dC and pr"p"s s a n - # !al subJ 9t L an int lli= nt, s nti nt b in= 4as "pp"s d t" "bJ 9t "# d sir and s?!b"l "# lust5, a -"r$ r -h"s Ks- at shin s "n th br"- "# th arthC, a Iuint ss ntiall? !"d rn subJ 9t -h"s Kship -ill !"& #ull(sail in th "p n -indC' Ah r lati"nship b t- n ! n and -"! n is als" r d #in d as "n "# 9"!rad ship b t- n Iuals: this $ind "# 9"!rad ship is "nl? p"ssibl , h"- & r, -ith a radi9all? r in& nt d and r d #in d !an L an Ada! -h" is 9apabl "# -innin= h r 9"n#id n9 and is thus -"rth? "# h r03' In h r p" !, Ri?az la!p""ns th n"r!ati& Isla!ist dis9"urs "# a patriar9hal and pat rnalisti9 r lati"nship b t- n -"! n and ! n and r J 9ts th n"ti"n "# a -"!an as an "b di nt -i# -h" r & ls in h r r"l as th Kli=ht "# th h"! C and "n -h" is supp"rt d b? a husband -h" has unIu sti"n d auth"rit? "& r h r in all !att rs' Ah id a "# an Iual and 9"!pani"nat r lati"nship -ith a !an is thus a radi9al pr"p"siti"n, sp 9iall? -h n a99"!pani d b? i!pli9ati"ns "# a li# "# un# tt r d #r d"! 6pr ss d thr"u=h th tr"p "# th sailin= ship, d lib rat l? 9"unt rp"s d t" th %haardiwaari' It is als" -"rth n"tin= that Ri?azCs us "# -"rds li$ laasha 49"rps 5, gala sada 4r"tt n5, and natfa 4sp r!5 L -"rds n"t n"r!all? us d in p" tr? L al"n= -ith th 6pli9it r # r n9 s t" s 6 and d pra&it? pr"&id an"th r la? r "# sub& rsi& n ss in t r!s "# b"th #"r! and 9"nt nt' E t an"th r p" ! b? Ri?az, titl d KAIl !aC, =" s thus1 0'leema +o "aabeel aur (aabeel ki maa aa’i hai 1aa aa’i 1agar mukhtalif 1ukhtalif bee%h mei& raano& ke 0ur pistaano& ki ubhaar mei& 0ur apne pet ke andar

1)6

0ur kokh mei& 3n sab ki 'ismat kyoo& hai 3k farba bhed ke ba%hhe ki 'urbaani AIl !a Ah sist r "# Ab l and Bain Sist r But di## r nt .i## r nt b t- n h r thi=hs And in th s- ll "# h r br asts And insid h r st"!a9h And in h r -"!b ;h? is it th #at "# all th s b"d? parts A" b sa9ri#i9 d li$ a #att n d ="atN Ah 6pli9it r # r n9 s t" th # !al b"d? ar Ri?azCs r !ind r t" us that th patriar9hal s"9i t? "bJ 9ti#i s its -"! n and tr ats th ! as sa9ri#i9ial la!bs, d stin d t" b but9h r d and 9"nsu! d' Ah p" ! =" s "n t" dra- att nti"n t" th #a9t that AIl !a has a !ind t"", "n that is r nd r d in&isibl b? th patriar9hal s?st !, n"t ! r l? t" hu!an b in=s, but als" t" +"d hi!s l#, -h" has 9h"s n t" r & al his ;"rd t" th -"rld thr"u=h !al pr"ph ts al"n ' Voh apne badan ki 'aidi /apti hui dhoop mei& alte /ele par khadi hui hai -athhar par na'sh bani hai 3s na'sh ko ghaur se dekho Lambi raano& se oopar *bhre pistaano& se oopar -e%heeda kokh se oopar 0'leema ka sar bhi hai 0llah kabhi 0'leema se kalaam bhi kare 0ur ku%h poo%hhe9 I!pris"n d b? h r b"d? Sh stands at"p a burnin= hill Li$ an t9hin= "n a st"n L""$ at this t9hin= 9ar #ull? Ab"& h r l"n= l =s

1))

Ab"& h r br ast(s- ll Ab"& h r 9"nt"rt d -"!b AIl !a has a h ad L t +"d addr ss AIl !a t"" s"! ti! And as$ h r s"! thin=M Ah d 9"nstru9ti"n "# th n"r!ati& id als "# -"!anh""d and # !ininit? -as a r 9urrin= th ! in th -"r$ "# th # !inist p" ts, -h" d pl"? d a radi9all? di## r nt a sth ti9 b"th in th 9h"i9 "# th ir th ! s and th ir lan=ua= in "rd r t" 9hall n= 6istin= standards "# publi9 dis9"urs and p" tr?' KB""dhi MaC 4Old M"th r5, b? th 9"nt !p"rar? %unJabi p" t +ulnar, is an addr ss t" an "ld -"!an -h" has b n r pr ss d b? patriar9hal stru9tur s "# p"- r and 9"ntr"l thr"u=h"ut h r li# and is a d #iant 9all t" all -"! n t" r J 9t th r"l s i!p"s d "n th ! b? s"9i tal and r li=i"us n"r!s' It is int r stin= t" n"t th uns l#9"ns9i"us us "# th 7n=lish -"rd Ks?!b"lC in th p" !, an"th r #l"utin= "# th 9"n& nti"ns "# Drdu p" tr? and its #"r!al di9ti"n' Ahis d pl"?! nt "# & r?da? sp 9h in a lit rar? pi 9 is t sti!"n? t" th #a9t that th Drdu #"r th s p" ts is a li&in= lan=ua= 1 0a tumhaari aankho& mei& aansoo kyoo& hai&; 5 /um kyoo& udaas ho; /um ne to bete ane the5 "aai ma! tumhaara mu'addar Ba%hpan baap ki ghulaami! ladakpan bhaa’i ki ghulaami +avaani shauhar ki ghulaami aur Budhaapa beto& ki ghulaami mei& basar hua 1agar tumhaare to 'admo& tale annat hai -hir poh maagh ki )aalim sardi mei& /umhaare paaoo& barahna kyoo& hai&; /um to ghar ki malika ho -hir tumhaara thikaana ye dhool ka dher kyoo& hai; /um ne to saat beto& ko apne pistaano& ki 7armi se gabroo banaaya hai -hir tumhaare vu ood mei& pyaas kyoo& hai; /umhaara vu ood bhook ka symbol kyoo& ban gaya hai; Boodhi ma meri taraf in na)ro& se kyoo& dekh rahi ho; 1ai& ne voh but tod diye hai& ,ohna ghulaami ki in rivaayaat se mai& ne ,hud ko aa)aad kar liya hai

1)0

1ai& is khush-fahmi se nikal aayi hoo& ,e mere 'admo& tale annat hai 1ai& ne apne pairo& mei& %hamde ke ma)boot oote pahen liye hai& 1ai& ne apne haath se hadoo %hhod diye hai& 1ai& ne apne haath mei& kitaab-o-'alam thaam liya hai 1ai& ne apne sar se baap! bhaa’i! shauhar aur bete ki dee hui 7hulaami ki %haadar ko no%h giraaya hai 0ur apne sar par apni )aat ki rida odh lee hai 1ai& ne apni aankho& se sharm ki patti utaar phenki hai 0ur sheeshe ki ainak aankho& par %hadha lee hai /aake mai& duniya ko apni na)ar se dekh sakoo& Old M"th r ;h? ar ?"u t ar?( ? d t"da?NO ;h? ar ?"u sadN E"u, -h" ha& =i& n birth t" s"nsNO Oh, M"th r, ?"ur #at M E"ur 9hildh""d sp nt in b"nda= t" ?"ur #ath r E"ur ad"l s9 n9 und r th 9"ntr"l "# ?"ur br"th r E"ur ?"uth in b"nda= t" ?"ur husband And ?"ur "ld a= in ?"ur s"nsC s r&itud But d" snCt H a& n li b n ath ?"ur # tNM Ah n -h?, in th 9ru l 9"ld "# -int r Ar ?"ur # t bar N But ?"u ar th Hu n "# th h"! M Ah n -h? is this pil "# dust ?"ur ab"d N E"u ar th "n -h" =a& li# t" s & n s"ns Ah !il$ "# ?"ur br asts =a& th ! str n=th Ah n -h? is ?"ur b"d? thirst?N ;h? has ?"ur B in= b 9"! th s?!b"l "# hun= rN Old M"th r, -h? d" ?"u l""$ at ! this -a?N I ha& br"$ n th id"ls And, #r"! th traditi"ns "# bas s r&itud Fr d !?s l# I ha& br"$ n #r "# th #als b li # Ahat H a& n li s b n ath !? # t I ha& put str"n= l ath r sh" s "n !? # t I ha& thr"-n a-a? th br""! And inst ad h"ld th p n and th b""$ #ir!l? in !? hands Fr"! !? h ad I ha& ?an$ d "## th & il "# b"nda= +rant d b? !? #ath r, br"th r, husband, s"n

1)3

And I ha& 9"& r d !?s l# -ith th !antl "# !? "-n s l#h""d I ha& thr"-n "## th blind#"ld "# sha! #r"! !? ? s And put "n =lass sp 9ta9l s S" that I 9an s th -"rld thr"u=h !? "-n ? s In th Isla!ist rh t"ri9, -"! n ar id aliz d as !"th rs b n ath -h"s # t li s H a& n, and as =""d -i& s -h" ar th ghar ki raniKmalika "r th KIu nsC "# th d"! sti9 r al!' +ulnar 9ritiIu s th s id als b? ins rtin= th #i=ur "# a -"!an -h", d spit ha&in= adh r d t" all th 9"n& nti"ns and 6p 9tati"ns "# th =""d -"!an in h r avatars as dau=ht r, sist r, -i# and !"th r "# Ks & n s"nsC, is n & rth l ss l #t sh lt rl ss and un9ar d #"r' In 9"ntrast, +ulnar "## rs a pr"ta="nist -h" is th Isla!istsC n ! sis1 !"d rn, nli=ht n d, du9at d and un-illin= t" a99 pt th r"l s assi=n d t" h r b? !ainstr a! s"9i t? in = n ral and r li=i"us "rth"d"6? in parti9ular' Sh is s nsibl and hard(n"s d 4a #ar 9r? #r"! th -hi!si9al b l"& d "# !ainstr a! Drdu p" tr?5, - ars l ath r sh" s, ad"pts Ksp 9ta9l sC t" s th -"rld 9l arl? thr"u=h h r "-n ? s, and has r J 9t d th r al! "# abJ 9t d"! sti9it? #"r th -"rld "# l tt rs and th r al! "# int ll 9t' And unli$ th pr"ta="nist "# Ri?azCs p" !, +ulnarCs -"!an d" s n"t app ar t" n d a 4!al 5 9"!pani"n in h r Iu st #"r s l#( a9tualizati"n'

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;hil th # !inist p" ts #"9us d 9"nsid rabl? "n th 9"nditi"n "# -"! n in %a$istani s"9i t?, th ? als" arti9ulat d a 9"!pr h nsi& 9ritiIu "# th ir 9"nt !p"rar? s"9ial 9"nditi"ns' %" !s su9h as Kish-ar ,ah dCs KSard Mul$"G K AaIaa"G K ,aa!C 4A" th L"rds "# th B"ld ,ati"ns5 "## rs a 9"!! ntar? "n 7ur"9 ntris!, -hil KB ns"rshipC and KS 9ti"n 1//30C 9hall n= s th stat Cs r pr ssi& p"li9i s' F h!ida Ri?azCs KK"t&aal Baitha HaiC 4Ah %"li9 Bhi # is ;aitin=5 and KKhaana(AalaashiC 4Ah S ar9h5 d s9rib s h r int rr"=ati"n and th s ar9h "# h r h"! b? th p"li9 ' Ishrat A#r nCs KRihaaCiC 4R l as 5 is a p" ! that tal$s ab"ut h"- th #i=ht #"r lib rati"n #r"! Kth !"untains "# d ad traditi"ns, blind #aith, "ppr ssi& hatr dsC 4-ahaad murda rivaayato& ke! pahaad andhi a'eedato& ke! pahaad )aalim adaavato& ke5 is an "bli=ati"n "- d t" th n 6t = n rati"n, -hil , l!a Sar-arCs KBh"rC 4Ah Ahi #5 r #l 9ts "n th 9ru l dispariti s "# - alth in s"9i t?'

100

In a si!ilar & in, F h!ida Ri?azCs l"n= pr"s (p" ! KK?a Au! %""ra Bhaand ,a . $h"= NC 4;ill E"u ,"t S th Full M""nN5 us s th !""n as a ! taph"r #"r truth, -hil d pl"?in= 9"ll"Iuial t r!in"l"=? t" 9riti9iz 9"nspi9u"us 9"nsu!pti"n and ridi9ul th subs r&i n9 "# th %a$istani s"9i t? t" th p tr"d"llars "# th Saudi $in=d"!' H r ar a # - 69 rpts1 ,ya mai& ise ro)-e raushan kahoo& ,e tapte aasmaan par %heel ne %hakkar kaata hai 0ur shaah-raaho& ke aal mei& /raffi% ka )akhmi darinda ghurraane laga Baa)aaro& mei& Baraamadi aashiya ki shahvat aankhe& malti hui bedaar ho rahi hai& (uvvat-e khareed9 ,otwaal ki moonh-%hadhi faahisha Dekho kaise dandanaati phir rahi hai 1aili! sookhi maae& ,oode ke dher mei& haddiyaa& dhoond rahi hai& Bilbilaate ba%%ho& ko ,haamosh kar dene ke liye 8hahro& ke behurmat ismo& par -la)o& aur mashino& ke phode nikal rahe hai& ,aale dhan ki faisla-kun eet ke hande gaadte ,al ke akhbaaro& mei& in ke ishtihaar dekh leta /umhaari muflisi par 'ah'aha lagaata hua /um apna sar takraao B balke kaat kar phaink do 0pni ma'tool aar)uo& ke 'abristaano& mei& "um tumhaari khopdiyo& se ek minaar %hunenge 0ur is ka koi %halta hua sa naam rakhenge 6 7ul)aar-e 1ustafa’ 6 "aa)a min fa)l-e rabbi’ .a aisa hi koi garma garam naam ,yoonke kaarobaar garam hai ,yoonkar garam hai ye kaarobaar;... .e ek bhayaanak raa) hai +o sab aante hai& aur koi nahi& bataata... "um insaan ko pees kar bauna bana rahe hai& <hya al-shaikh! hamaare kaarnaame ki daad dee iye Bakhshish9 .a akhi9 0ap ke mu'addas petrodollar ki 'asam9

101

Sh"uld I 9all this th da? "# nli=ht n! nt and h"p N ;h n th $it 9ir9l s th burnin= s$? And in th - b "# hi=h-a?s Ah tra##i9 b =ins t" =r"-l li$ a -"und d ani!al In th !ar$ t pla9 Ah Lust #"r i!p"rt d =""ds a-a$ s and rubs h r ? s %ur9hasin= %"- rM Ah int rr"=at"rCs #a&"urit -h"r S h"- sha! l ssl? sh !"& s ar"und ;hil dirt?, dri d(up !"th rs S9a& n= #"r b"n s in =arba= h aps A" sil n9 th ir s"bbin= 9hildr n On th !"l st d b"di s "# 9iti s Mansi"ns and sh"ppin= plazas ha& b =un t" rupt Li$ b"ils . 9larin= th d 9isi& &i9t"r? "# th bla9$ !ar$ t E"u 9an s th ir ad& rtis ! nts in t"!"rr"-Cs pap r S9"##in= at ?"ur p"& rt?1 E"u 9an b at ?"ur h ad a=ainst th -all, in #a9t, 9ut it "## and thr"it a-a? Int" th =ra& ?ard "# ?"ur !urd r d d sir s ; Cll !a$ a !inar t "# ?"ur s$ulls And =i& it s"! tr nd? na! Li$ KAh +ard n "# th %r"ph tC Or KAhis is th B n &"l n9 "# +"dC Or s"! "th r pipin= h"t na! B 9aus busin ss is bris$ ;h? is this busin ss #l"urishin=NO It is a h"rribl s 9r t ;hi9h & r?"n $n"-s but n"n ! nti"nsO ; ar =rindin= hu!ans t" pr"du9 d-ar& s O Sh i$h, prais "ur a9hi & ! ntsM Al!sM O Br"th rM I s- ar b? ?"ur hall"- d p tr"d"llar Dnd rstandin= that th Isla!izati"n pr"J 9t -as a K9ulturalist &asi"nC31 "# th r al issu s #a9in= %a$istan, Ri?az us s h r p" ! t" hi=hli=ht th 9"n9 rns "# th p "pl at lar= -h" li& und r 9"nditi"ns "# star&ati"n and d pr dati"n -hil th 9it? pand rs t" th d sir s "# th lit ' Ah p" ! is r pl t -ith ="thi9 r pr s ntati"n

102

and a pasti9h "# stran= and "!in"us i!a= s su9h as th $it s 9ir9lin= a burnin= s$?, th 9it? as - b "r a trap and th path"l"=i9al and al!"st s 6ual lust #"r i!p"rt d 9"!!"diti s -hi9h a-a$ ns th K-h"r "# pur9hasin= p"- rC' Ahis star$ r # r n9 t" th in9r asin= 9"!!"dit? # tishis! "# th - alth? 9lass s and th s?!b"ls "# this # tish 4th sh"ppin= plazas, th !ansi"ns5 ar d s9rib d as b"ils "n th !"l st d b"d? "# th 9it?, Just as 9"nspi9u"us 9"nsu!pti"n is a s"r "n th dis as d b"d?(p"liti9 "# th nati"n(stat ' Ah satiri9al allusi"ns t" th in#lu n9 "# p tr"d"llars and th thr"-a-a? Arabi9 phras s ar r # r n9 s t" th %a$istani stat Cs pr"9li&it? t" l""$ t"-ards Saudi Arabia #"r a##ir!ati"n in th p"liti9al, 9"n"!i9 and & n 9ultural sph r s, th in9r asin= us "# Arabi9 -"rds "n %a$istan A l &isi"n, th intr"du9ti"n "# Arabi9 as a 9"!puls"r? subJ 9t in publi9 s9h""ls and th Arabizati"n "# Drdu its l#, all "# -hi9h - r a r sult "# th Fia r =i! Cs ##"rt t" !"& & r(#urth r a-a? #r"! an Ind"(Isla!i9 9ultur -hi9h -as shar d -ith India and t"-ards an KIsla!i9C id ntit? d #in d b? Arabi9 l ! nts' Ah "n-ard !ar9h "# 9apital and th "bs9 n 9ultur "# 9"nsu!pti"n it n= nd rs ar d pi9t d thr"u=h th sup ri!p"siti"n "# s 6ualit?, d pra&it?, lust#uln ss and dis as in a -a? that hi=hli=hts th indi## r n9 "# th s?st ! t" th p""r and th disp"ss ss d' F h!ida Ri?azCs th ! thr"u=h"ut h r l"n= p" ! is that Isla!izati"n is si!pl? a rus -ith -hi9h th rul rs d #us diss nt and 9"nstru9t 9"ns nt -hil di&idin= th nati"n sharpl? b t- n th"s -h" ha& 9"n"!i9 and p"liti9al p"- r and th"s -h" d" n"t'

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Ah arri&al "# th # !inist si=nall d th b =innin= "# a t""$ "n th stablish! nt in Ah s p" ts W Kish-ar ,ah p" ts in th r al! "# Drdu p" tr? n - brand "# pr"=r ssi&is!, "n that -a?s that - r radi9al and p"- r#ul' d, F h!ida Ri?az,

Ishrat A#r n, Sa da +azdar, , l!a Sar-ar, Sara Sha=u#ta, F hra ,i=aah, +ulnar and "th rs L trans#"r! d n"t ! r l? th th ! s "# Drdu p" tr?, but als" its lan=ua= and its =ra!!ar' As Ru$hsana Ah!ad -rit s, th s p" ts r pr s nt Kthat strand "# th pr"=r ssi& traditi"n in Drdu p" tr? -hi9h had in th arl? #"rti s s" p"- r#ull? 9"ntribut d t" th #r d"! !"& ! nt'32C Ah ?, !"r than an?"n ls in th 9"nt !p"rar? p ri"d, ar th tru inh rit"rs "# th traditi"n "# pr"=r ssi& p" tr?, its 9ha!pi"ns, and its trailblaz rs' A & r? sh"rt p" ! b? Ishrat A#r n titl d KIntisaabC 4. di9ati"n5 su!s

[email protected]

up th 9"ntributi"n "# th # !inist p" ts t" lit ratur Iuit - ll1 1era 'ad 1ere baap se oon%ha nikla 0ur meri ma eet gayi M? h i=ht Surpass d that "# !? #ath r And thus, !? !"th r -"n

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11
A RE&UIEM ... AND A CELE!RATION
.ahi unoo& ka yahi tau'-o daar ka mausam .ahi hai abr! yahi ikhtiyaar ka mausam Ahis is th s as"n "# passi"n, this th s as"n "# th 9hain and n""s Ahis is th s as"n "# r pr ssi"n, this t"" th s as"n "# r sistan9 ' L Faiz Ah!ad Faiz

Ah n -s "n 10 Ma? 2002 -as h artbr a$in=' Kai#i Az!i, th stal-art "# Aza!=arh, -as n" !"r ' Kai#iCs d ath br"u=ht h"! th #a9t that th ti! "# a = n rati"n "# s"9ialist Drdu p" ts had #inall? 9"! t" an nd' ; had bid #ar - ll t" MaJr""h Sultanpuri in 2000 and t" Ali Sardar >a#ri in 2001' Sahir, Faiz, Ma$hd""!, MaJaz, >"sh, FiraI, >an ,isar'''it s ! d li$ "ns sin9 th ? had l #t' And "n a h"t Ma? & nin=, as p "pl tr""p d int" th B"nstituti"n H"us in , - . lhi #"r a #inal 9"nd"l n9 ! tin=, th !""d -as s"!br ' Kai#iCs #a!"us -"rds, KI -as b"rn in 7nsla& d India, li& d !"st "# !? li# in Fr India, and -ill di in S"9ialist IndiaC - r 9h" d b? d"z ns "# sp a$ rs at th ! tin= and lat r r pr"du9 d in a th"usand "bituari s' But & n as th ul"=i s #"r Kai#i p"ur d in #r"! all "& r th -"rld, "ur !indCs ? -as #"9us d "n +uJarat, -h r Kai#iCs KSaanpC 4Sna$ 5 "# 9"!!unalis! had d &"ur d hundr ds "# inn"9 nts, burnt -h"l n i=hb"urh""ds t" th =r"und and d str"? d pla9 s "# -"rship and t"!bs, in9ludin= that "# th s & nt nth 9 ntur? p" t ;ali . 99ani(+uJrati, -h" had -ritt n th #"ll"-in= 9"upl t "n th t rnal durabilit? "# lit ratur 1 2ah-e ma)moon-e taa)a band nahi& /a 'ayaamat khula hai baab-e sukhan Ah path "# n - th ! s is n"t 9l"s d Ah d""r "# lan=ua= r !ains "p n till d""!sda?

10*

Ah d sp"nd nt !"urn rs at Kai#iCs #un ral !ust ha& -"nd r d1 Kai#i had 9 rtainl? n"t di d in an =alitarian India, but -as it in an India that had #"rsa$ n & n th basi9 prin9ipl s h had ta$ n #"r =rant dN Had th d""rs "# ;aliCs sukhan 9l"s d pr !atur l?N Had Kai#iCs &isi"n, his li# and his lab"ur b n in &ainN Ah"s - r hard da?s #"r th pr"p"n nts "# s 9ularis!, an id al that had b n s" d ar t" th %r"=r ssi& sC h art' And -hil th #at "# Ks 9ularis!C -as tra=i9, it -as #ar b tt r than that "# Ks"9ialis!C, a t r! that had b n &i - d -ith in9r asin= suspi9i"n #"r s & ral ? ars' Ah d"!inan9 "# a n - 9apitalist "rd r a9r"ss th -"rld, th 9"llaps "# id ntiti s and th 9"ns Iu nt Bal$anizati"n "# nati"ns and 9"!!uniti s, th suppr ssi"n "# p "pl sC !"& ! nts and th -ith rin= a-a? "# th dr a! "# a Just -"rld had ta$ n its t"ll' A"-ards th nd "# th ir ti! , th last "# th %r"=r ssi& s 9"ntinu d t" -rit ab"ut s"9ial 9"nditi"ns, but th ir p" tr? "#t n t nd d t" b d?st"pi9' Ah d stru9ti"n "# th Babri MasJid "n 6 . 9 !b r 1332 had si=nall d th arri&al "# a n - a= in Indian p"liti9s' Kai#i Az!i 6pr ss d his an=uish in a na)m titl d K.""sra Ban&aasC 4S 9"nd 76il 5 in th #"ll"-in= -"rds1 -aao& 8ar u mei& abhi 2aam ne dhoye bhi na the ,e na)ar aaye vahaa& khoon ke gahre dhabbe -aao& dhoye bina 8ar u ke kinaare se uthe 2aam ye kahte hue apne dwaare se uthe 2aa dhaani ki fi)a aayi nahi& raas mu he Cheh Disambar ko mila doosra banvaas mu he. "ardly had 2am dipped his feet in the 8arayu ;h n h n"ti9 d dar$ bl""dstains "n th ban$s L a&in= th ri& r -ith"ut -ashin= his # t Ra! b =an his r si=n d J"urn ? ? t a=ain, K Ah 9li!at "# !? 9apital has b n &itiat d On th 6th "# . 9 !b r, I -as 6il d ? t a=ain'C Ali Sardar >a#ri, th di hard nati"[email protected], 6pr ss d his disillusi"n! nt -ith th pr"!is "# nati"nalis!3/ in th #"ll"-in= -"rds1 8una hai bandobast ab sab ba andaa)-e digar honge 8itam hoga muhaafi)! shahr be-deewaar-o dar honge 8a)aae& begunaaho& ko milengi begunaahi ki

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,e fard-e urm se mu rim ke munsif bekhabar honge =alak tharra uthega hoote maatam ki sadaao& se ,afan pehnaaenge allaad! 'aatil nauhagar honge .ateemo& aur bevaao& ke baa)oo baandhe aayenge 8haheedaan-e wafa ke khoo& bhare nai)e pe sar honge +o ye taabeer hogi "ind ke dereena khwaabo& ki /o phir "indostaa& hoga! na us ke deedavar honge ; h ar that ="& rnan9 n"- -ill ha& a di## r nt 9ad n9 A?rann? -ill n"- b th pr"t 9t"r: 9iti s -ill b -ith"ut -alls "r d""rs Inn"9 n9 -ill n"- b a punishabl 9ri! >ud= s -ill pr"# ss i=n"ran9 "# 9ri!inal d ds Ah s$? -ill tr !bl -ith th 9r? "# 9"unt r# it =ri # 76 9uti"n rs -ill b in 9har= "# #un rals, $ill rs -ill "r=aniz !"urnin= Orphans and -id"-s -ill #ind th ir hands and # t b"und Ah h ads "# !art?rs "# th #aith -ill b h ld al"#t "n sp ars3* I# this b th r alizati"n "# IndiaCs an9i nt dr a!s Ah n s""n, th r -ill n ith r b India, n"r an? "# its 9"nn"iss urs %%% Ah %;A 9"ntinu s t" sur&i& in p"9$ ts all "& r th 9"untr? and is "99asi"nall? in th n -s #"r its a9ti&is!' Ah KAbh?uda?a Ra9ha?itala San=ha!C 4%r"=r ssi& ;rit rsC Ass"9iati"n5 r !ains a9ti& in Andhra %rad sh and th K>an&aadi L $ha$ San=hC !aintains th %;A l =a9? in ,"rth India' %;A 9hapt rs in Aa!il ,adu and K rala still r !ain "p n' In %a$istan, d spit b in= bann d sin9 13*1, th %;A is & r? !u9h a part "# th p"pular dis9"urs and th 9"nt !p"rar? # !inist p" ts ha& in#us d a n - li# int" pr"=r ssi& Drdu p" tr?' H"- & r, th d ath "# Sardar >a#ri and Kai#i Az!i p rhaps dra-s a 9urtain "n that =l"ri"us p ri"d in Drdu lit ratur -h n th p" tr? "# r sistan9 d"!inat d 9ultural pr"du9ti"n. Ah #"r!al !"& ! nt that start d in a Bhin s r staurant in L"nd"n in [email protected]* and #"und its #irst &"i9 in Lu9$n"- in [email protected] is n"- "& r' Ah stal-arts -h" =a& that sp 9ial 9ad n9 t" th p" tr? "# th Ind p nd n9 !"& ! nt, -h" !bra9 d an int rnati"nal th"s, -h" 9 l brat d !"d rnis! and r pudiat d 9apitalis!, -h" -r"t s"n=s that - r sun= "n str ts, -h" br"u=ht ab"ut a r &"luti"n in th #"r! "# th Drdu p" ! -hil sp"usin= th 9aus "# 9"nt nt L th ir ra n ds t" b bid adi u' Ah ? - r Iui6"ti9 dr a! rs, 9"ura= "us 9"!batants and # arl ss 9ha!pi"ns "# Justi9 ' And -hil th ? !a? n"t ha& li& d t" s th

10)

#ul#il! nt "# th ir &isi"n, at l ast th ? tri d t" l a& th -"rld a b tt r pla9 than th ? #"und it' %%% Ah thirti th anni& rsar? "# th %r"=r ssi& ;rit rsC Ass"9iati"n, h ld in , - . lhi in 1366, turn d "ut t" b th %;ACs last hurrah' Ah s as"n "# r sistan9 that th !"& ! nt had br"u=ht ab"ut in th #i ld "# Drdu lit ratur -as 9"!in= t" an nd' O& r a th"usand -rit rs #r"! a9r"ss th -"rld - r t" h ar th #inal addr ss "# th + n ral S 9r tar? "# th %;A, Krish n Bhand r, -h" in a p"i=nant !"! nt su!! d up his # lin=s' KOurs -as n" air( 9"nditi"n d !"& ! nt,C h said' KOur st"ri s - r -ritt n in din=? r""!s and dirt? huts: "ur p" !s - r b"rn in pr"9 ssi"ns and -"r$ rsC ! tin=s: "ur s"n=s in p"li9 l"9$(ups' ;h n I t""$ "& r his "##i9 , I as$ d th th n + n ral S 9r tar?, Ra! Bilas Shar!a #"r th #unds "# th ass"9iati"n' H =a& ! a p n9il' ; had n" #unds, n" #il s, n" "##i9 , n" di9taph"n ' And ? t, -ith n"thin= in hand but a p n9il, - -r"t th !"st =l"ri"us 9hapt r in th 9ultural r naissan9 "# "ur p "pl 'C ;hil th %;A had a 9"!pl 6 and 9h 9$ r d hist"r? and -hil its lands9ap -as str -n -ith !isst ps, in#i=htin=, ri&alri s and in9"nsist n9i s, it is p rhaps pr"p r t" nd this b""$ -ith a 9 l brati"n' F"r n" !att r -hat ls !a? b said ab"ut it, th %r"=r ssi& ;rit rsC M"& ! nt "## r d us a &isi"n L pr"&isi"nal, #lu9tuatin=, t ntati& , ? t p"- r#ul L "# a ut"pia that -as 9 ntr d ar"und th n"ti"ns "# =alitarianis! and s"9ial Justi9 ' Ahis uniIu and r !ar$abl !"& ! nt r !ind d us that 9ultural spa9 s ar &ital t rrains "# n=a= ! nt' Ah p" ts -h" s" #r l? "## r d us a l?ri9al and 9"!p llin= !ani# st" "# a9ti"n ha& us in th ir d bt' As +halib "n9 said1 8urma-e muft-na)ar hoo&! meri 'eemat ye hai ,e rahe %hasm-e khareedaar pe ehsaa& mera I a! th $"hl that ad"rns, and !? "nl? pri9 is this Ahat th ? s "# !? patr"n r !ain ind bt d t" ! S" h r , in n" parti9ular "rd r, is a partial 4and n 9 ssaril? in9"!pl t 5 r pa?! nt in th #"r! "# s"! a9$n"-l d=! nts,

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"## r d n"t ! r l? in th spirit "# =ratitud , #"r that -"uld b a - a$ r 9"!p ns , but "# s"lidarit? -ith th spirit "# r sistan9 and r &"luti"n th pr"=r ssi& p" ts n= nd r d1 A" >"sh, #"r his passi"n and his # r&"ur' A" th p" t -h"s spirit is !b"di d in this st"r? - "n9 h ard ab"ut his ti! in H?d rabad' On da?, th rulin= niza! -as passin= thr"u=h a str t a99"!pani d b? his siz abl nt"ura= ' In a99"rdan9 -ith th 9ust"!, all tra##i9 -as halt d -hil th niza! - nt b?' It s" happ n d that a 9"!!"n r -as b in= rush d t" a h"spital' Sin9 r"?al 9"!#"rt, n" !att r h"tri&ial, 9"uld n"t b 9"!pr"!is d, th =uards r #us d t" l t an?"n thr"u=h till th niza! had sa# l? d part d' But b? th n, it -as t"" lat ' Ah l isur l? pr"9 ssi"n had 9lai! d its &i9ti!' >"sh, th shaayar-e in'uilaab, st"r!il? -r"t 1 Fala$ n d $h li?a aur za! G bhi !aan =a?i Kisi $i aa?i sa&aari, $isi $i Jaan =a?i Ah s$? b"r -itn ss, th arth t"" 9ri d S"! "n pass d in spl nd"ur, s"! "n ls di d A" MaJaz #"r his i9"n"9las!, #"r his passi"n, #"r his an= r, #"r his palpabl an=st at th 9"nditi"ns "# his ti! s, #"r his &isi"n "# a b tt r -"rld1 Ku9h nahiG t" $a! s $a! $h-aab( sahar d $ha t" hai >is tara# d $ha na tha ab ta$, udhar d $ha t" hai At th & r? l ast, - dr a! d "# a #r sh da-n At th & r? l ast, - i!a=in d s"! thin= n A" Ali Sardar >a#ri #"r his st ad#astn ss t" th 9aus , #"r his prin9ipl d p"siti"ns and #"r this p rs"nal !"! nt "n Ma? .a?, 20001 >a#ri had p nn d a p"i=nant p" ! ab"ut th br a$(up "# th S"&i t Dni"n -hi9h - nt 0lvida ai surkh par%ham! surkh par%ham alvida 4Far - ll O R d Fla=, R d Fla=, #ar - ll5' ;h n - as$ d hi! t" r 9it it #"r us a # - ? ars lat r h r #us d, 9lai!in= that it -as a dir= -ritt n #"r th !"! nt that si=nall d th 9"!! n9 ! nt "# a unip"lar -"rld d"!inat d b? 9apitalist int r sts, and th r #"r d !and d !"urnin=' H"- & r, n"t -antin= t" disapp"int us, h did narrat th p" !, r pla9in= th -"rd alvida 4#ar - ll5 -ith marhaba

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4bra&"5, 9"n& rtin= it 4in his -"rds5 #r"! a marsiya 4a la! nt5 t" a 'aseeda 4an "d 51 1arhaba ai surkh par%ham! surkh par%ham marhaba. A" Sahir, #"r his 9"!!it! nt t" th !"& ! nt, #"r brin=in= a pr"=r ssi& d= t" Hindi #il! !usi9, #"r -ritin= th #in st and th !"st !"&in= anti(-ar p" ! & r, K%ar9haai?aanC 4Shad"-s5, in -hi9h th pr"ta="nist -h"s l"& had b n sa9ri#i9 d at th altar "# an arli r battl d" s n"t -ish th sa! #at #"r th = n rati"ns that ar t" #"ll"-' 0ur aa ab in pedo& ke tale -hir do saaye lahraaye hain -hir do dil milne aaye hai& -hir maut ki aandhi uth-ti hai -hir ang ke baadal %haaye hai& 1ai& so%h raha hoo& in ka bhi 0pni hi taraah an aam na ho 3n ka bhi unoo& naakaam na ho 3n ke bhi mu'addar mei& likkhi <k khoon mei& lithdi shaam na ho And t"da?, -h n und r th"s sa! tr s A-" "th r shad"-s r nd z&"us A-" "th r h arts ! t Ah st"r!s "# d ath =ath r a=ain Ah 9l"uds "# -ar "bs9ur th s$? Ma? th ? n"t ! t th sa! #at as "urs Ma? th ir passi"n t"" n"t pr"& #ruitl ss Ma? th #utur s "# th s t-" l"& rs ,"t b ins9rib d "n a bl""di d h"riz"n A" Kai#i, #"r his 0avaara 8a de! #"r his 8armaaya, #"r his "pti!isti9 insist n9 that h -"uld di in an =alitarian India' Door se beevi ne %hilla ke kaha /el mahnga bhi hai! milta bhi nahi&

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,yoo& diye itne ala rakkhe hai& 0pne ghar mei& na haroka na munder /aakh sapno& ke sa a rakkhe hai& 0aya ghusse ka ek aisa honka Bu h gaye saare diye "aa&! magar ek diya naam hai is ka ummeed +hilmilaata hi %hala aata hai Fr"! a#ar, !? -i# 9ri d "ut Oil is 6p nsi& , n"r is it asil? a&ailabl ;h? th n d" ?"u li=ht all th s la!psN Our h"! s, -ith n ith r -ind"-s n"r l d= s Ha& n" r""! #"r th s sh l& s #ill d -ith dr a!s A =ust "# an=r? -ind bl 76tin=uishin= all la!ps AllN ,", "n a!"n= th ! 9all d H"p B"ntinu s t" #li9$ r a-a? A" MaJr""h, #"r trans#"r!in= th =hazal in -hi9h th gham-e dauraa& 4th s"rr"- "# li# 5 #"und as !u9h pr"!in n9 as th ghame aanaa& 4th s"rr"- "# th h art5, #"r d #?in= 9"n& nti"n b? =i&in= th "n9 (path ti9 pr"ta="nist "# th =hazal a n - prid and a n h"p 1 /a'deer ka shikva be-maani! eena hi tu he man)oor nahi& 0ap apna mu'addar ban na sake! itna to koi ma boor nahi& 8unte hai& ke kaante se gul tak! hai& raah mei& laakho& veeraane ,ahta hai magar ye a)m-e unoo&! sahra se gulistaa& door nahi& ."nCt bla! Fat , #"r it is ?"u -h" has n" d sir #"r Li# E"u ar unabl t" -rit ?"ur "-n d stin?N Sur l?, n" "n is that h lpl ss ; ar r p at dl? t"ld that th path #r"! th th"rn t" th r"s is str -n -ith d s"lati"n E t, th p"- r "# !? passi"n insists that th =ard n is r"und th 9"rn r #r"! th d s rt A" Faiz, #"r & r?thin= h & r -r"t , #"r insistin= that th path t"

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th =all"-s -as as =l"ri"us as th path t" th l"& rCs h"us , #"r -"rds that pr"&id 9"!#"rt, "## r inspirati"n and = n rat #aith1 (afas hai bas mei& tumhaare! tumhaare bas mei& nahi& Chaman mei& aatish-e gul ke nikhaar ka mausam Bala se hum ne na dekha to aur dekhenge =urogh-e gulshan-o saut-e ha)aar ka mausam Ah 9a= !a? b in ?"ur p"- r, but ?"u d" n"t 9"ntr"l Ah s as"n "# th #l"- rin= "# th bri=ht r"s And s" -hat i# - d" n"t s itN F"r th "n s #"ll"-in= us -ill -itn ss Ah bri=htn ss "# th =ard n, th sin=in= "# th ni=htin=al A" Ma$hd""! M"hiuddin 4th aashi'-e ma)door5, Salaa! Ma9hlishahri, Habib >alib, FiraI +"ra$hpuri, Sa#dar Mir and s9"r s "# "th rs -h"s & rs s sustain d th pr"=r ssi& spirit "# th !"& ! nt' A" Sulai!aan Khat b and Sar-ar .anda #"r -ritin= . 99ani & rs that -as b"th sid (splittin=l? #unn? and sharpl? p"liti9al' A" Ah!ad Faraz, F h!ida Ri?az, Kish-ar ,ah d, Hasan Ka!al, Muna-ar Rana, +auhar Raza and "th rs -h" $ p th pr"=r ssi& s nti! nt ali& and &ibrant' A" >a& d A$htar #"r 9arr?in= th l =a9? "# th"s -h" - nt b #"r hi!, #"r his tarkash #ull "# sharp arr"-s, #"r th d pth "# his #il! l?ri9s' ; a9$n"-l d= th s p" ts #"r th r"l th ? pla? d in th anti(9"l"nial stru==l and th #r d"! !"& ! nt, #"r =i&in= &"i9 t" r sistan9 and r b lli"n a=ainst stru9tur s "# "ppr ssi"n, #"r th ir s"lidarit? -ith p "pl sC !"& ! nts all "& r th -"rld and als" #"r th r"l th ? -ill 9"ntinu t" pla? in shapin= thin=s t" 9"! and #"r inspirin= this = n rati"n "# a9ti&ists -ith th ir -"rds that still stri$ a hundr d 9h"rds in "n Cs h art' Ah ir &isi"n "# a Just s"9i t? r !ains in9"!pl t , but th ir aspirati"ns 9"ntinu t" li& "n' Dekh raftaar-e in'uilaab! =iraa' ,itni aahista aur kitni te) B h"ld th pa9 "# r &"luti"n, FiraI H"- sl"-, and h"- s-i#t

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L t us nd this b""$ th n -ith a n"t "n Kai#i Az!i, th last "# th stal-arts -h" d #in d th %r"=r ssi& M"& ! nt in Drdu p" tr?' Ah span "# Kai#iCs li# ti! 9"ntains th st"r? "# a lan=ua= and its n=a= ! nt -ith th hist"r? "# a nati"n' Kai#i l #t th -"rld -ith th t-in id als "# th %r"=r ssi& s L s"9ialis! and s 9ularis! L in a stat "# inteshaar 4disp rsi"n, 9"n#usi"n, an6i t?5' But & n in th dar$ st !"! nts, his bitt r(s- t -"rds r !ind us "# th still(a-ait d #ul#il! nt "# th pr"=r ssi& p" tsC dr a!1 ,abhi amood! kabhi sirf inteshaar sa hai +ahaa& ko apni tabaahi ka inte)aar sa hai /amaam ism hai& bedaar! fikr khwabeeda Dimaagh pi%hhle )amaane ki yaadgaar sa hai "ui to kaise bayaabaa& mei& aake shaam hui ,e o ma)aar yahaa& hai! mere ma)aar sa hai ,oi to sood %hukaaye! koi to )imma le *s in'uilaab ka o aa tak udhaar sa hai At ti! s in rt, at ti! s 9ha"ti9 Ah -"rld a-aits its "-n d stru9ti"n B"di s a-a$ , th"u=hts dr"-s? Ah !ind, a r #l 9ti"n "# th d ad past Ah sun s ts in a stran= -ild rn ss Ar"und a t"!b that l""$s stri$in=l? li$ !? "-n S"! "n pa? th pri9 , s"! "n ta$ r sp"nsibilit? F"r th r &"luti"n that is still "- d t" us

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ENDNOTES
1 Our a99"unt "# th #"r!ati"n and th hist"r? "# th %r"=r ssi& ;rit rsC Ass"9iati"n has dra-n #r"! a &ari t? "# s"ur9 s, #"r !"st a!"n= th ! b in= Barl" B"pp"laCs !a=ist rial 13)* diss rtati"n 4Barl" B"pp"la, 13)*, Drdu %" tr?, [email protected]*(13)01 Ah %r"=r ssi& 7pis"d ' Dnpublish d d"9t"ral diss rtati"n, Dni& rsit? "# Bhi9a="5' In additi"n, s Ali Sardar >a#ri, 13*3, AaraIIi %asand Adab, Ali=arh1 AnJu!an( AaraIIi( Drdu: SaJJad Fah r, 13*3, Raushnai,, - . lhi1 Azad Kitaab +har: Ali Sardar >a#ri, 130/, AaraIIi %asand A hri$ $i ,is# Sadi, , - . lhi1 . lhi Dni& rsit? %r ss: A!ar A!iri, 1331, AaraIIi %asand Adab1 7$ AanI di >aa? za, Bal9utta1 Os!ania B""$ . p"t: Ralph Russ ll, 1333, KL ad rship in th All(India %r"=r ssi& ;rit rsC M"& ! nt, [email protected]*(13/),C pp' [email protected], in Ralph Russ ll, H"- ,"t t" ;rit th Hist"r? "# Drdu Lit ratur and Oth r 7ssa?s "n Drdu and Isla!, , - . lhi1 O6#"rd Dni& rsit? %r ss' Russ llCs ssa? -as "ri=inall? publish d in 13))' 2 Barl" B"pp"la, ibid, p' )6' @ K,iralaC -as an nthusiasti9 supp"rt r "# th !"& ! nt, a staun9h "pp"n nt "# th 9ast s?st ! and an ad&"9at "# s"lidarit? a!"n= &ari"us 9ast and r li=i"us =r"ups: his p" ! KKu$ur!uttaC 4Mushr""!5 6 !pli#i s th s s nti! nts in a & r? 9"n"!i9al #ashi"n1 Khaansaa!a, baa&ar9hi aur 9h"bdaar Sipahi, sa s, bhishti, =hudsa&aar Aa!Jan &aal $u9h d si $ahaar ,aa , dh"bi, t li, ta!b"li, $u!haar F l-aan, ""nt-aan, =ad -aan 7$ $haasa Hindu(Musli! $haandaan Bh #s, 9""$s and d""r! n F""t s"ldi rs, stabl (hands, -at r(9arri rs, h"rs ! n B arin= th ir Iuip! nt, s"! nati& palanIuin(b ar rs Barb rs, -ash r! n, "il rs, b t l(s ll rs, p"tt rs 7l phant(!ah"uts, 9a! l(rid rs, 9art(dri& rs ;hat a #ull Hindu(Musli! #a!il?' / S Ali Sardar >a#ri, "p' 9it', pp' /0(/2' * R print d in Bis&in Sadi M in >an Kala, dit d b? >an ,at?a Man9h, , . lhi, 2000, pp' )/(00' 6 769 pt p rhaps its pr d 9 ss"rs Sir Sa??idPHaliPAzad'

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) H n9 #"rth, - us th t r! %r"=r ssi& s as a sh"rthand t" r # r t" th Drdu p" ts "# this traditi"n' 0 In th Mirr"r "# Drdu1 R 9"!p"siti"ns "# ,ati"n and B"!!unit? 13/)( 136* b? AiJaz Ah!ad, Indian Institut "# Ad&an9 d Stud?, Si!la, p' 20' 3 As AiJaz Ah!ad 4 ibid, p' 115 puts it Kth bul$ "# th -rit rs "# Drdu at th ti! "# th %artiti"n 9"nstitut d, r =ardl ss "# r li=i"us "r r =i"nal "ri=in, an id nti#iabl s"9ial =r"up, that is, a 9"!!unit? -ith a d ns and shar d stru9tur "# # lin=, -hi9h last d #ar b ?"nd th %artiti"n its l#, d spit th !assi& d !"=raphi9 disl"9ati"ns in th nsuin= ? ars: that a s 9ularist b li # in th 9"!p"sit 9ultur "# Hindus and Musli!s in India -as th pr d"!inant id "l"=i9al p"siti"n in this 9"!!unit?'C 10 Alth"u=h #"r!all? issu d durin= th 9"n# r n9 stablishin= th All %a$istan %r"=r ssi& ;rit rsC Ass"9iati"n, th !ani# st" "# th A%%;A had alr ad? b n Kin ## 9tC sin9 th 9han= in th lin "# th B%I a#t r its 13/0 B"n=r ss' Ah n -, !"r !ilitant part?(lin , 9all d th Ranadi& d"9trin a#t r th n - S 9r tar? + n ral "# th B%I, "##i9iall? d 9lar d th nd "# th strat =? "# th Dnit d Fr"nt' Ah p asant stru==l s in A lan=ana and ls -h r , and th ir brutal suppr ssi"n b? th n - Ks"9ialistC ="& rn! nt "# p"st(9"l"nial India, had r sult d in th 9han= d strat =? as - ll as th 9han= d anal?sis "# th Indian nati"nal b"ur= "isi and its p"liti9al l ad rship r pr s nt d b? , hru and Sardar <allabhbhai %at l' Ah n - lin -as a shi#t #r"! th "ld Dnit d Fr"nt lin "# anti(i!p rialis! t" "n "# anti(9apitalis! and anti(# udalis!, th t-" p"l s ar"und -hi9h 9"!!unist strat =? in th 9"l"nial and p"st(9"l"nial 9"untri s has hist"ri9all? r &"l& d' 11 As th s 9r tar? "# A%%;A, Ah!ad ,ad ! Has!i ar=u d in a r p"rt "n th s ? ars t" th ass"9iati"n, and as !an? %a$istani 9"!!unists ha& &ari"usl? ad!itt d, th n - strat =? -as "n "# L #t ad& nturis!, and -as bas d "n a !is9"n9 pti"n that %a$istan -as n"- a 9apitalist stat , and that th 9"!!unist !"& ! nt in India and %a$istan had nt r d a n - sta= L "n "# !ilitant r &"luti"n' Ranadi& ad!itt d this in his s l#(9riti9is! b #"r th B%I in 13*0 -h n h -as r pla9 d as th + n ral S 9r tar?' 12 S , #"r instan9 , th issu titl d % "pl Cs Art in th A- nti th B ntur?1 Ah "r? and %ra9ti9 br"u=ht "ut b? th >an ,at?a Man9h, >ul? 1333( S pt !b r 2000: On ;h"s Sid Ar E"u, Mast rs "# Bultur ,130), %r"=r ssi& %ublish rs: KHu sti"ns "# Bultur C b? Ant"ni" +ra!s9i, in S l 9ti"ns #r"! Bultural ;ritin=s, 130*, La-r n9 and ;ishart' [email protected] Sp a$ rs at th B"n# r n9 #"r th R #"r! "# Drdu Lit ratur and %" ts -h" put t"= th r a 9"ll 9ti"n titl d Madaa&a 4 dit d b? FurIat Ka$"r-i5 d pl"? d satir and par"di s t" 9ritiIu , a!"n= "th r thin=s, th #r & rs !pl"? d b? th pr"=r ssi& -rit rs, th ir Iu"tidian th ! s, and th ir us "# un9"n& nti"nal tr"p s' 1/ p' 6)'

13*

1* S"na=a9hi is th r d(li=ht distri9t "# Bal9utta, Bh"-rin= , its - alth? n i=hb"urh""d' 16 Ahis th"u=ht -as =i& n &"i9 b? B'M' ,ai! at a 9"n# r n9 pr s ntati"n' 1) Man? "# th p" !s Iu"t d in this b""$, in9ludin= this "n , ar #ra=! nts "# l"n= r p" !s, -ith s & ral stanzas !issin=' ; ha& tri d t" us r pr s ntati& & rs s that !ini!iz l"ss s in narrati& 9"ntinuit?' 10 Ah i9"ni9 b tra? r in Indian hist"r?, -h" sid d -ith th British in th battl "# %lass ? in 1)*), th sit "# th 7ast India B"!pan?Cs #irst !ilitar? triu!ph,-hi9h #"r!all? inau=urat d 9"l"nial rul in India' Bli& d # at d ,a-ab SiraJ( ud(daulah, -h" is r # rr d t" as KSiraJC in th sa! lin "# th p" !' 13 Maharani La$sh!i Bai "# >hansi #"u=ht th British in IndiaCs #irst battl "# Ind p nd n9 in 10*), and -as $ill d in th 9"n#li9t' 20 A#t r th 10*) r &"lt -as suppr ss d, Bahadur Shah Fa#ar, th last Mu=hal $in=, -as 6il d t" Bur!a' 21 Aipu Sultan, -h" -as th rul r "# M?s"r , in th lat i=ht nth 9 ntur?, and #"u=ht a s ri s "# battl s -ith th British b #"r b in= $ill d in th battl "# Sriran=apatna in 1)33' 22 Ah h ads "# Bahadur Shah Fa#arCs t-" s"ns - r r p"rt dl? pr s nt d t" hi! "n a tra? durin= his 6il in Bur!a' [email protected] Sa& ra, Lah"r , ,"' /, p' /, 13/)' 2/ 13/0 Ka Sh Cri Adab, Sa& ra, Lah"r , ,"' * and ,"' 6, 13/0' 2* Ah dat -h n India 9"nstitut d its l# as a r publi9' 26 Ali Sardar >a#ri, "p' 9it', pp' 1)(22' 2) S , #"r instan9 , FaizCs translati"n "# KA L tt r #r"! %ris"nC 4 Findaan S 7$ Khat5 in Faiz, 1301, Sha!( Sh hr( EaaraaG, Lah"r , Kar-an %r ss, p' 103' 20 Barl" B"pp"la, "p' 9it', p' 6/1' 23 Ah r # r n9 h r is t" th Dnit d ,ati"ns' @0 Ahis 9"upl t is Kb"rr"- dC #r"! a p" ! b? th % rsian 9lassi9al p" t, Ha#iz' @1 Ah Kni=ht "# th -r t9h dC r # rs t" th ni=ht that #"ll"- d th !art?rd"! "# I!a! Husain at Karbala in 61 AH' Ahis & nt is "#t n us d as a ! taph"r #"r id alis!, p rs"nal 9"ura= and =r at =ri #' @2 A battl in Isla!i9 hist"r? $n"-n #"r h a&? 9asualti s' @@ F"r a 9"!pr h nsi& and !pathi9 tr at! nt "# th r pr s ntati"n "# th %al stinian stru==l in Drdu p" tr?, s Shahab Ah! d, 1330, KAh %" ti9s "# S"lidarit?1 %al stin in M"d rn Drdu %" tr?,C Ali#, 10, pp' 23(6/' @/ Marshall B r!an, 130), All Ahat is S"lid M lts int" Air1 Ah 76p ri n9 "# M"d rnit?, Ha!!"nds-"rth1 % n=uin, p' @11'

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@* R # rrin=, n" d"ubt, t" "th r !ar$ rs "# pr"=r ss, su9h as h?dr" l 9tri9 da!s and nu9l ar p"- r' @6 O# 9"urs , it is i!p"rtant t" n"t that it is n"t Just an? rand"! K#"r i=nC a9hi & ! nt -hi9h is s" appr"priat d: it is a S"&i t "n ' @) S Alta# Husain Hali, 13/0, MuIadda!a( Sh r(" ShaaCiri 47d' Ra#iI Hasan5' Allahabad1 Rai Sahib Lala Ra! .a?al A=ar-al' F"r a !"r d tail d dis9ussi"n "n HaliCs MuIadda!a, s Barl" B"pp"la, 13)*, pp' /(12' @0 S , #"r 6a!pl , th tr at! nt "# th %;A in Ralph Russ ll, 1332, Ah %ursuit "# Drdu Lit ratur , L"nd"n1 F d B""$s, pp' @/(/0' @3 F"r a d tail d dis9ussi"n "# this tr nd, s Harbans Mu$hia, 1333, KAh B l brati"n "# Failur as .iss nt in Drdu +hazal,C M"d rn Asian Studi s, @@1/, pp' 061(001' /0 Bh n=iz Khan and ,adir Shah ar n"t"ri"us in Indian hist"r? as raid rs and d sp"il rs "# l"9al - alth' /1 A =ath rin= "# $in=s in Hindu !?th"l"=?' S r& s h r as a ! taph"r #"r an ass !bl? "# th lit ' /2 7 sh-ar b in= "n "# th -a?s Hindus r # r t" +"d: Allah is th Musli!sC na! #"r +"d' /@ E& s Ah"ra&al, 2000, Ah Bin !as "# India 41036(20005, , - . lhi1 Ma9Millan, p' **' // ,asr n Munni Kabir, 1333, Aal$in= Fil!s1 B"n& rsati"ns "n Hindi Bin !a -ith >a& d A$htar, , - . lhi1 O6#"rd Dni& rsit? %r ss, p' *1' /* ibid p' *1' /6 As an asid , it is int r stin= t" n"t that Hindi #il! 9"! dians "#t n 9h"s t" ta$ "n Bhristian na! s su9h as >"hnn? ;al$ r, %"ls"n, Bharli , >"hnn? L & r: but that is an"th r st"r?' /) E"= ndra Mali$, 1300, KS"9ialist R alis! and Hindi ,"& lsC in Mar6ist In#lu n9 s and S"uth Asian Lit ratur , dit d b? Barl" B"pp"la, , - . lhi1 Bhana$?a %ubli9ati"ns, p' 11*' /0 S E"= ndra Mali$, ibid, p' 11* and Mu$ul K sa&an, 133/, KDrdu, A-adh and th Aa-ai#1 Ah Isla!i9at R""ts "# Indian Bin !aC, in F"r=in= Id ntiti s dit d b? F"?a Hasan, , - . lhi1 Kali #"r ;"! n, pp 2//(2*)' K sa&an als" tal$s ab"ut th in#lu n9 "# Hindi lit rar? stal-arts su9h as Bharat ndu Harish9handra, %ra!ath ,ath Mitra and Ahib" Babu in th r"l Hindi -rit rs pla? d in th d"!ain "# p"pular 9ultur ' /3 S th ntr? "n +uru .utt in Ashish RaJadh?a$sha and %aul ;ill ! n, 133/, 7n9?9l"pa dia "# Indian Bin !a, , - . lhi1 O6#"rd Dni& rsit? %r ss, p' [email protected]' *0 Hu"t d in E& s Ah"ra&al, "p' 9it', p' *0'

13)

*1 % t r Manu l, [email protected], Bass tt Bultur 1 %"pular Musi9 and A 9hn"l"=? in ,"rth India, , - . lhi1 O6#"rd Dni& rsit? %r ss' *2 Ah instru9ti"ns =i& n t" th s l?ri9ists in9lud d "n s li$ K-rit this & rs -ith"ut usin= th K!C s"undC sin9 sa?in= an?thin= -ith K!C in it r Iuir d th lips t" 9"! t"= th r and -"uld int r# r -ith th lip(s?n9h "# th s"n=C' *@ In ,asr n Munni Kabir, "p' 9it', p' [email protected]' Ahis l"=i9 pr su!abl? l ads A$htar 4in "ur "pini"n, an "utstandin= l?ri9ist5 t" -rit s"n=s li$ 1 Aap $itn s- t $itn n $ h": Birthda? $a Jais $"i 9a$ h" 4E"u ar s" s- t and &irtu"us: >ust li$ a birthda? 9a$ 5' S- t, OK' But a &irtu"us 9a$ NM */ Manu l, "p'9it, p' 3' ** S , #"r 6a!pl , >?"tindra .as +upta, 13)0, Lan=ua= , B"n#li9t and ,ati"nal . & l"p! nt1 +r"up %"liti9s and ,ati"nal Lan=ua= %"li9? in India, B r$ l ?1 Dni& rsit? "# Bali#"rnia %r ss' *6 Mushirul Hasan, 133), L =a9? "# a .i&id d ,ati"n1 Indian Musli!s Sin9 Ind p nd n9 , , - . lhi1 O6#"rd Dni& rsit? %r ss' Hasan als" r 9alls M"hsinul Mul$Cs p"i=nant & rs that s?!b"liz d DrduCs pli=ht, Bhal saath, $ hasrat dil( !ahr""! s ni$l , AashiI $a Janaaza hai, zara dh""! s ni$l 4;al$ al"n=, that th d # at d h art !a? #ul#il its UlastV d sir , A#t r all, it is a l"& rCs 9"rps , =i& it a #la!b"?ant burial5, p' 160' *) On "# th b st s"ur9 s is pr"babl? Bhrist"ph r R' Kin=, 133/, On Lan=ua= , A-" S9ripts1 Ah Hindi M"& ! nt "# th ,in t nth B ntur?, , - . lhi1 O6#"rd Dni& rsit? %r ss' *0 AiJaz Ah! d, 1336, KIn th Mirr"r "# Drdu1 R 9"!p"siti"ns "# ,ati"n and B"!!unit? 13/)(6*C' In Lin a= s "# th %r s nt, , - . lhi1 Auli$a, pp' 20*(200' *3 F"r 6a!pl , Sadh&i Ritha!bara us s -"rds li$ naar baazi, naa!(" nishaaG, lal$aar, shaitaan, dush!an, t9' r"utin l? in h r sp 9h s, -hil h r p" tr? is litt r d -ith -"rds that -"uld 9"n& nti"nall? b s n as Drdu' 60 ;hil - us Drdu in th #ashi"n that is 9"!!"nl? a99 pt d,subs9rib t" th &i - that th lin=uisti9 distin9ti"ns b t- n Hindi and Drdu ar arbitrar?' 61 An int r stin= instan9 "# this is "## r d b? >a& d A$htar, -h" sa?s that MaJr""h Sultanpuri -as th p" t -h" #irst us d th t r! sana!4lit rall?1 id"l5 t" r # r t" a b l"& d' ,"-, it is a stapl #"r! "# addr ssin= a l"& r in Hindi #il! s"n=s'

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62 F"r purp"s s "# 9"n"!?, - ha& "nl? in9lud d a sin=l sa!pl #"r a9h p" t' F"r a !"r 9"!pr h nsi& listin=' [email protected] S th s ar9habl databas "# Hindi #il! s"n=s at http1PP---'9s'-is9' duPXna&in PindiaPs"n=sP, -h r it is p"ssibl t" r tri & th s"n=s b? l?ri9ist' An int r stin= 6 r9is -"uld b t" 9"!par th @002 l?ri9ists #"und at this sit -ith an"th r & r? d tail d databas a&ailabl at http1PP---'urdup" tr?'9"!' Ahis - bsit !aintain d b? ,ita A-atra!ani 9it s ar"und @*0 p" ts, and at l ast 100 na! s ar 9"!!"n a9r"ss b"th th s databas s, ? t an"th r pi 9 "# !piri9al &id n9 "# th d pth "# r lati"nship b t- n Drdu p" tr? and Hindi 9in !a' 6/ F"r a bri # hist"r? "# th lin$a= b t- n th %;A and Indian 9in !a, s Ashish RaJadh?a$sha and %aul ;il ! n, 1330, "p' 9it', p' 100' 6* Ahis s"n= is adapt d #r"! Kai#iCs p" ! KAnd sh C 4%r !"niti"ns5' 66 ;hil this =hazal has traditi"nall? b n attribut d t" Fa#ar, >a& d A$htar in#"r!s us that this -as a9tuall? -ritt n b? his =rand#ath r Muzt r Khairabadi' S ,asr n Munni Kabir, 200*, Aal$in= S"n=s1 >a& d A$htar in B"n& rsati"n -ith ,asr n Munni Kabir, , - . lhi1 O6#"rd Dni& rsit? %r ss, p' @6' 6) In a li=ht r & in, Kai#i Az!i "n9 9"!par d this pra9ti9 t" di==in= a =ra& ah ad "# ti! and d !andin= a 9"rps "# th ri=ht di! nsi"nM 60 7& n +halib -as n"t b ?"nd su9h s?9"phan9?' In th last =hazal "# his di&aan, h !a$ s "bs Iui"us r # r n9 s t" a #inan9ial patr"n, .i?a hai $halI $" bhi ta us nazar na la= , bana hai aish AaJa!!ul Husain KhaaG $ li? 4+"d has b st"- d ri9h s "n th -"rld t" pr"t 9t hi! #r"! n&?, Oth r-is , all - alth -as ! ant #"r AaJa!!ul Husain Khan5' 63 Ah =hazal is stru9tur d r lati& l? stri9tl? and is !ad up "# #i& t" t- nt? aut"n"!"us 9"upl ts' 7a9h lin "# th =hazal has an id nti9al ! t r and rh?th!' Ah 9"upl ts #"ll"- a rh?! s9h ! that =" s aa, ba, 9a, da, t9' Ah #irst t-" lin s and th s 9"nd lin "# & r? "th r 9"upl t t?pi9all? ha& a 9"!!"n ndrh?! 9all d th rad # -hi9h is pr 9 d d b? th rh?!in= Iaa#i?a'As an 6a!pl , h r ar t-" 9"upl ts #r"! a =hazal -ritt n b? Hasrat M"hani and us d in th #il! ,i$aah 4Marria= , 130151 Bhup$ 9hup$ raat din aans"" bahaana ?aad hai Hu! $" ab ta$ aashiIi $a &"h za!aana ?aad hai Khain9h l na &"h ! ra pard $a $"na da#Catan Aur dupatt ! iG t ra &"h !""nh 9hhupaana ?aad hai Ah"s ni=hts and da?s "# t ar sh ddin=, I still r ! !b r E s, that ra "# int ns l"&in=, I still r ! !b r M sudd nl? pullin= a-a? th 9urtain b t- n us

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And ?"u b hind ?"ur dupatta hidin=, I still r ! !b r' Ah rad # in this =hazal is th phras K?aad haiC -hi9h is #"und at th nd "# th #irst t-" lin s and is r p at d at th nd "# & r? s 9"nd lin "# th su99 din= 9"upl ts' Ah rh?!in= Iaa#i?as ar bahaana, za!aana and 9hhupaana' )0 A$htar Husain Raipuri, a s"9ialist lit rar? 9riti9, had -ritt n a land!ar$ ssa? in [email protected]* titl d KAdab Aur Finda=iC 4Lit ratur and Li# 5 in -hi9h h had 9riti9iz d th #"r!at "# =hazal #"r b in= n"thin= !"r than th pla?thin= "# th ri9h and th ind"l nt' Ah %r"=r ssi& s nd"rs d this &i -' )1 % t r Manu l, "p' 9it', pp' [email protected](1*2' Als" s an instru9ti& tabl in th sa! b""$ "n pp' 23)(230, that lists 6a!pl s "# s"n=s in th 1300s and arl? 1330s bas d "n ; st rn tun s' )2 Ah s"n= is & r? si!ilar in rh?! and ! t r t" an "ld r 9"!!unist "r=anizin= s"n= that in9lud s th lin Hu! har $ d sh $ Jhand p $ laal sitaara !aan= n= 4On & r? 9"untr?Cs #la=, - -ill d !and a r d star5' )@ S , #"r instan9 , his 9"!! ntar? in ,asr n Munni Kabir, 1333, "p' 9it' )/ Ah p" tCs n"! d plu! , usuall? ins rt d in th last & rs "# a =hazal as a !ar$ "# auth"rship' M"st p" ts b 9"! $n"-n b? th ir ta$hallus su9h as Kai#i 4Athar Hussain Riz&i5, FiraI 4Ra=hupati Sahai5, Sahar 4Mah ndar Sin=h B di5, t9' )* SahirCs 9"n#li9t d r lati"nship -ith %a$istan is r #l 9t d in th #"ll"-in= ir"ni9 & rs 1 Bhal" us $u#r $ =har s salaa!at aa =a? l $in: Khuda $i !a!l $at ! iG s"$hta $haan"G p $?a =uzri 4Ahan$ +"d - arri& d sa# #r"! th land "# in#id ls: But in +"dCs "-n $in=d"!, -hat happ n d t" th br"$ n(h art dN5' )6 Barl" B"pp"la, "p' 9it', p' 611' )) Ibid, p' /0(/1' )0 ,i$"lai Bu$harin, [email protected]/, K%" tr?, %" ti9s, and th %r"bl !s "# %" tr? in th DSSR'C http1PP---'!ar6ists'"r=Par9hi& Pbu$harinP-"[email protected]/Pp" tr?P1'ht! )3 Bhrist"ph r Baud- ll, 13**, Illusi"n and R alit?1 A Stud? "# th S"ur9 s "# %" tr?' , - E"r$1 Int rnati"nal %ublish rs, p' 60' 00 + "r= Ah"!s"n, 13/*, Studi s in An9i nt +r $ S"9i t?' , - E"r$1 Int rnati"nal %ublish rs, p 2)' 01 Ahis r # rs t" th Hurani9 & rs ab"ut 9r ati"n 4Mar?a!1 @*5, -h r it is said "# +"d1 KO h ! r l? sa?s t" it KB C and it is'C KKunC translat s t" Kb C in Arabi9'

200

02 ; ar =rat #ul t" "ur #ri nds, parti9ularl? Saadia A""r 4-h" sh"uld, in all h"n st?, b list d h r as a 9"(auth"r5, #"r th ir h lp -ith this 9hapt r'; als" -ant t" p"int "ut that # !inist p" tr? and an anal?sis "# th s -"r$s has a &ibrant hist"r? in %a$istan' S , #"r instan9 , , la! Hussain, Sa!i?a Mu!taz, and Rubina Sai="l 4 ds'5, 133), 7n= nd rin= th ,ati"n Stat , <"lu! s I and II, Lah"r 1 Si!"r=h %ubli9ati"ns: and >a-aria Khalid and Sa!ina Rah!an 4 d'5, 133*, Apni ,i=aah1 Aurat"n Ki Li$hi Aa$hl Iaat Aur AanI di >a? za, Lah"r 1 ASR %ubli9ati"ns' [email protected] Ad!itt dl?, s"! !i=ht disput this 9lai!, 9itin= th 6a!pl "# th =hazal in -hi9h b"th th l"& r and th b l"& d ar r # rr d t" in !al t r!s' H"- & r, th th ! s "# th s p" !s and th a9ti"ns "# its pr"ta="nists, parti9ularl? in th 9"nt 6t "# th ti! s, l a& us -ith littl d"ubt ab"ut th = nd r "# th subJ 9tsP"bJ 9ts "# th p" tCs &"i9 ' 0/ Ru$hsana Ah!ad 4 dit"r and translat"r5, 1330, B ?"nd B li #, Lah"r 1 ASR %ubli9ati"ns, p' iii' 0* ibid, p' ii' 06 Ah 9har= "# !as9ulinit? -as !"st "#t n thr"-n at Kish-ar ,ah d b 9aus "# h r blunt p rs"nalit? and h r & n !"r blunt p" tr?' 0) B"th F h!ida Ri?az and Kish-ar ,ah d - r tar= t d r p at dl? b? th stat ' F"urt n 9as s "# s diti"n - r #il d a=ainst th !a=azin dit d b? F h!ida Ri?az, "n "# -hi9h 9arri d th d ath s nt n9 ' Ri?az had t" =" int" 6il t" India al"n= -ith h r #a!il?' ,ah d -as 9"nstantl? harass d in h r J"b as a 9i&il s r&ant and #r Iu ntl? thr at n d' Bas s - r #il d a=ainst h r as - ll' Bl arl?, b"th - r s n as thr ats t" th stat ' 00 A standard -a? "# b =innin= an addr ss t" th prin9 "r !p r"r' 03 Ahis p" ! 9an b int r stin=l? Ju6tap"s d a=ainst Ishrat A#r nCs KAdh""r Aad!i s +u#ta=uC 4.ial"=u -ith an In9"!pl t Man5 in -hi9h th p" t d 9lar s1 MaiG tu!h G apna idraa$("( hsaas $is taraah d""GN Fi$r $ is sa#ar ! iG tu!h G saath $iss taraah l""GN H"- 9an I shar !? th"u=hts and # lin=s -ith ?"uN H"- 9an I ta$ ?"u al"n= "n this J"urn ? "# th int ll 9tN . spit his Kartisti9 s$ills O statur O p rs"nalit?C, th !an b in= addr ss d b? A#r n is s n b? h r as n" !"r !atur than a 9all"- b"? s 1 8irf ek ladke ho tum +o ke roti hui ladkiyo& .a udaano& se mahroom )akhmi-badan titliyo& 8aahil se bandhi kishtiyo& =akhtaon ke toote paro& mei& sisakti hui la))at-aa)aario& mei& panaahe& talaashe +o khilandari si khwahish ke pee%he lapakte hue!

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=akhtaon ke toote paro& mei& sisakti hui la))at-aa)aario& mei& panaahe& talaashe +o khilandari si khwahish ke pee%he lapakte hue! 0pne aadarsh bhi tod de E"u ar a ! r b"? ;h" is attra9t d t" ; pin= =irls ;"und d and #li=htl ss butt r#li s B"ats an9h"r d at th sh"r And -h" s $s san9tuar? in th si!p rin= pl asur s #"und in th br"$ n -in=s "# a d"& ;h" #"r th sa$ "# i!!atur d sir s ;ill sa9ri#i9 his prin9ipl s 30 S 9ti"n 1// in th % nal B"d is us d t" r stri9t ass !bl? "# p "pl in publi9 spa9 s, a 9"!!"n la- d pl"? d t" pr & nt publi9 =ath rin=s and th r #"r , pr ( !pt diss nt' 31 Sa!ir A!inCs t r!' 32 Ru$hsana Ah!ad, "p' 9it', p' i&' [email protected] >a#riCs 9"!!it! nt t" th nati"n(stat ,-as #"r!all? arti9ulat d in his addr ss t" th [email protected] %;A 9"n& nti"n' His sp 9h titl d KOn th F"r!ati"n "# th Hindustani ,ati"n and th %r"bl ! "# its ,ati"nal Lan=ua= C is a&ailabl in Sudhi %radhan 47d'5, 130*, Mar6ist Bultural M"& ! nt in India1 Bhr"ni9l s and ."9u! nts 4<"l' III5, Bal9utta1 %usta$ Bipani, pp' 1*6(21/')' 3/ Ahis p" ! is "b&i"usl? inspir d b? a =hazal b? Mirza +halib, -hi9h b =ins +ulshan ! iG band"bast ba ran=( di=ar hai aaJ 4Ah arran= ! nt in th =ard n is di## r nt t"da?5' 3* Ah i!a= r? is d ri& d #r"! Karbala,-h n th !art?r d I!a! HusainCs h ad -as parad d i!pal d "n a sp ar, and his #a!il? i!pris"n d'

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Let a thousand verses bloom. Anthems of Resistance is about the iconoclastic tradition of Urdu poetry nurtured by Ali Sardar Jafri, Faiz Ahmad Faiz, Javed Akhtar, Fehmida Riyaz and all those ho have been part of the pro!ressive riters" movement in the #ndian subcontinent. $he book hi!hli!hts various aspects of the %&A"s aesthetics and politics such as its internationalist ethos, its romance ith modernity, its en!a!ement ith feminism, its relationship to 'indi cinema and film lyrics, and the vision of a radically ne orld hich its members articulated ith passion. %art history, part literary analysis, part poetic translation, and part unabashed celebration of the %&A era, this book is truly a uni(ue resource.
Ali Husain Mir and Raza Mir grew up in Hyderabad on a steady diet of progressive Urdu poetry. They divide their time between India and the US and earn their living as university professors.

[email protected]

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