199713tülay Üstündağ

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Haceett Hac tteepe Üniversit Üniversiteesi Eğitim Fakül Fakülte tesi si Dergisi Dergisi 13: 89-94 -94 [19 [1997}

TH E A DV ANT AGES OF USI NG DRAMA AS A MET H OD OF EDUCA TI ON I N ELEME LEMEN NTARY TARY SCHOO HOOLS Tülayy Üst Tüla Üstünd ündaağ. 1 1 The The Impo Import rtaane neee of Or Oraama

This is art rtic icle le dis discus ussses the advanta ntages of ABSTRACI : Th using using dra drama as a met method hod of edu duccation ion in eleme lement ntaary schohools. ls.T he he article icle consist ists of fiv ivee main par ts ts:definit initio ionn of dra drama, ma, dra drama in educ ducatio ion, n, the adv dvaanta ntages of us using ing dr draama i n el ementary school s, cur rent si tuati on and r ecommendation ions. T he he firs irst par t can be divid ivideed int into two sub-g ub-gro roup upss: the impo import rtaance nce of dr draama and form formss of dr draama. ma. T he he second part deals with ith dr am ama in schools in general and dra drama in ele lem ment ntaary schoo hools ls.. In the third part part the advantages of using ing dra ram ma in elem lementa ntary schools are disiscuss ussed. One of the hem m is self actua ualilizzation ion and the other her one is perso rsonal nal or emo mottio iona nall developm lopmeent. nt. In the fo four urtth pa part rt is curr ent si tuati on i n drama. Fi nall y the l ast part i s r ecommendations. KEY WORDS WORDS::

Drama,, eleme Drama lement ntaary scho hool, ol, adv dvaant ntaages of using using drama drama,, meth method. od.''

ÖZET: Bu makale kalede de ilko ilkoku kuld ldaa bir yönt nteem ola olarak rak drarama manın nın kul kulla lanılm nılmaasının avant ntaajları jları tart tartış ışılma ılmakt ktaadır. Maka Makale be beşş ana bö bölüm lümde denn ol oluş uşma makt ktaadır dır:: drama dramanın nın tanım tanımı,ı, eğitimde itimde dra drama, ma, ilk ilkok okul ulda da dra dramanın manın kulla kullanıl nılma massının ının avanta ntajları jları ve öne neri rile ler. r. Birin irincci bölü lüm m iki iki alt bölümd lümdeen oluş luşma makd kdır ır:: draramanın öne nem mi ve dra ram manın nın biçim içimle leri ri.. İkin İkinci bölüm lüm genel olara larakk okull kullaarda rdaki dra ram ma ile ile ilgili ilgilidi dir. r. Üç Üçün ünccü bölüm lümde ilkilkok okul ulda da dra dramay mayı kulla kullanm nmaanın avanta ntajları jları tartış rtışılm ılmaakta ktadır dır.. Bunla Bunlarda rdann bir birii ke kend ndini ini gerç rçeekleş kleştirme tirme diğ diğeeri ise ise bir bireeysel ya da duygusal gelilişşmedir. ir. Dörd rdüüncü bölüm lüm dram ramada günümü nümüzd zdeeki durum durumdu dur. r. Son bö bölüm lüm ise ise öne önerilerdir rilerdir.. Anahta Anah tarr Sözc Sözcükle ükler: r:

Drama, i lk okul , dramayı kul lanman lanm anın ın avant avantajla ajları, rı, yön yönte tem. m.

1 Oef Oefinit initio ion n of Ora Orama

Drama is the most sig ignnif ific icaant model of learnin rningg and i s abasi c acti vi ty for l earni ng. i t i s the way of he help lpin ingg child hildre renn to think hink about the heir ir ind indiv ivid idua uall or social ial pro robblem lems. Child ildre renn can le leaarn to explo lore re is isssues, events nts and conn nneections ions,, by me meaans of dram rama. In drama, chi l dr en draw on thei r knowledge and experi rieenc ncee of the rea real worl rldd in ord rdeer to cre reaate a make ke-bel i ev eve worl d [l], T hhuus, drama i s one of the few ar eas of the cur ri cu culum whi cchh i s bui lltt on dreams and voices.


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Dara ram mafoisrmtheofcencotre excaist isttio enc. e; Dbra ecmaausep, ro itvid isesa valu lua ble mmouf ni nic ion ram rov ide chil hildr dreen wit ithh an op oppo port rtun unit ityy to wor orkk tog ogeeth theer coo oope pe-rat rativ iveely on a shared red lilife fe.. A s a res resul ultt, it giv ivees chi hild ldre renn the cha hang ngee to expr preess the hems mseelv lvees mo more re effe ffecti tivvely in eve veryd ryday ay sit situa uations tions [2]. [2]. Mareaaver, dram Mare rama encourag rages chililddren to lea learn how to in infflu lueence others and how to put themselv lvees in other people's shoes.Th This is activ ivit ityy is thought to have edu duccatio iona nall valu luee. Same peopl plee da daim im tha hatt try ry-ing ing to be in sameone else lse's shoes and to ima imagin inee in certa rtain situ ituaatio tions ns giv ivees a ph phyysic icaal, vis isua uall and imm immeediate expe perie rienc ncee or dis disccus usssing th thee same th thing ingss [31 [31. 1 2 Fo Form rmss of Or Oraama

Dramatic form rmss are in inddusiv ivee of aıı other educatio iona nall and art rtss form formss. Tha Thatt is is,, in dr draama mattic activ ivit ityy can be emp mploy loyeed lang langua uagge, mu mussic ic,, da danc ncee and ma mavveme ment nt.. T he her e ar e two mai n categor i es of dramati c forms: playa pla yand nd impro improvis visaation tion.. 1 2 1 Play Play is unplan unplanne ned d it is the prero reroggativ ivee of chililddren ren and it diff iffers from work [41.Th Thrrough play chi llddr en lear n to get on wi tthh others and to fi nndd out how they stand i n relati aann to others. In fac fact, chi hilldr dreen' n'ss pl plaay is pu purp rpos osiy iyee and requ require iress con onssid ideera rabl blee effort [5].it [5].it is the only lyaand the natura rall vehid idee thro rouugh which ich they learn about themselves and the world ld.. Dr ama i s si mi l ar to pl ay i n that i t i s useful i n develo lopi ping ng pl plaay so tha hatt chi hild ldre renn can extend thems hemseelv lvees cre reaativ tiveely and con onsstr truc uctiv tiveely [61 [61.Wit .Withh dra drama ma and pla playy chi l dr en ought to be abl e to express and communi mu niccate their fee feeliling ngss and un unde ders rsttand ndin inggs in their own ways [7]. H oow wever, thei r response i s not onl y pe pers rson onaalis liseed in dra drama ma,, it is ba baccia iaııy ııy socia ociaL. L. 1 2 2 Imp Improvisation is a form of dramatie pla layy whie ieh h has a re reg gula larr shape i t i s known to be a form form of rep repres resent ntaatio ionn and is ackn knoowledg ledgeed by the actors to be de deaarl rlyy separat rated fr froom lilife fe.. In education, this his form can be caııed ııed child dra ram ma or crea reativ ivee drama rama or simi imila larr te term rmss can be us useed. Dr Draama mattic impr improv ovis isaati tion on folllloowed by refl refleectio ionn giv ivees chi hild ldre renn prac ractice ice in rea reasoni ning ng and ackn knoowledg ledgin ingg [8]. [8]. Fu Furt rthe herm rmoore, re, it may help child ildre renn to find find dram rama very attrac ractiv ivee becaus usee

U ni ni vveer ssii ty ty, F ac acul ultty of Educ Educaati oon, n, Depa Deparr ttme ment nt

of Curr urr ic icul ulum um and I ns nstr uc ucti an. an.


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they can res respond in anatural ral way during ing their play lay activ ivit itie iess. it also lso pr proovide ides emotio iona nall conte ntent in the heir ir so socia cializa lization tion [9]. [9]. Acc Accord rdin ingg to Court rtnney, pla layyand im imppro rovvis isaatio ionn symb mboolize lize the rea real life life situa ituattio ions ns whic ichh child hildre renn expe perie rienc ncee. The Theyy un unde ders rsttand the essenc ncee of hu huma mann expe perie rienc ncee within ithin fo foccus useed me meaanin ningg and col olla labo bora rattio ionn in whic hich ide ideaas are mu muttua ually lly expl plor oreed [1 [100]. 2. Dr Draama in Ed Educ ucaatio ionn Educ Educaatio ion, n,w whic hich is the pr proocess of help lpin ingg people to fi nd essenti al meani ngs i n li fe, i nvol ves both teachi ng and l eami ng. T o thi s end, dr ama can be use usefu full fo forr lea learn rning ing in th thee curric urricul ulum um.. The There refo fore re,, edu du-catio ionn and drama rama are simil imilaar in that hat the heyyare clo lossely l i nked i n the leami ng process and they deal wi th children. T rraadi ti onal educati on may be summed up the cente nter as cur urric ricul ulum um cent ntre redd ou outtsid idee the chi hild ld.. How How-ever, the new movement in educatio ion, n, whic ichh has inintro rodduc uceed the conce ncept of chi hild ld cente ntere redd educa ucatio ion, n, is combi ned wi th chi ld ldr en's pl ay. i t i s a fact that the meaanin me ningg of child hild cent nteere redd edu duccati tion on is de deeeme medd clo losse to child hildre ren' n'ss pla playy rath ratheer tha than sub ubje jecct cente ntere redd edu duccation ion [11 [11]. Mo More reoover, dram rama is seen as the pla layy way to edu duccation. ion. Bot othh imag imagina inattio ionn and pl plaayare inh inheere rent nt part rtss of effectiye iye educatio ionn. Th Thuus, dram rama is a vit itaal pa part rt of edu duccation ion in scho hool olss [1 [122]. 2.1. Dr Draaın ınaa in Schools T he school i s a form of communi ty i n whi ch every rytthing hing conc nceent ntra rattes on he help lpin ingg a chi hild ld to share hare in the inh inherit rited res resour urcces of the rac race. Wh Wheen child ildre renn fir irsst enter school, most are faced wit ithh an envir iroonment where lea leaming ing is more cognit itiv iveely and emoti on onal 1y demandi ng ng than that experi eennced i n the home [13 [13].At the mo mom ment the teache her, r, who is kno knowle ledg dgeeable about child hildre ren' n'ss di diff ffic icul ulttie iess, sho houl uldd fi find nd dr draama mo mode dels ls to re relie lievve the hem. m. Whil Whilee using using dr draama fo forr rela relaxxin ingg meaning ning,, stud udeents nts can int interp rpre rett their own feelilinngs, lea leam to work together in a conduciv ivee envir iroonment which ich permits its them to solv lvee proble lem ms cre reaative ively. ly. The These activit ivitie iess, whic ichh are the most im im-po port rtaant aspec pect of na nattur uraal le leaami ming ng in edu duccatio ion, n, hav have diff diffeere rent nt view iews con onccemi ming ng the their use use in school hoolss.

J . of Ed. 13 [Ed.

be used as a method to teach parti cul ar subj ects, suc uchh as hi hisstor oryy or socia ociall stud udie iess. The The second group of drama is envisa isagin ingg drama as an art form in it itss own ri rigght. it pl plaaces res respo pons nsib ibili ilitty on chi ldren to work on the sti mul i gi ven by the te teaacher. her. Usua Usually lly th thee te teaache herr pla playys a rela relativ tiveely pa passsiy iyee ro role le.. Th This is activ ivit ityy means that chililddren ren have to produce i ddeeas, deci de among themsel ves how to put tcharacters. hem together and then crea reate a scene wit ithh it itss own Ac Acccord rdin ingg to Doro Dorotthy He Heaathc hcot otee, all dr draamatic activ ivit itie iess can be lo loccated on a cont ntin inuu uum m, fro rom m the most cl assi c or hi gghhly styl i zed, to the most domesti c or casual ual [15 [15].A ne new w dime imens nsio ionn of experi rieenc ncee in dr draama can be very qui ck ly reached by shi fti ng fr om one pl plaace on thi hiss con onti tinu nuum um to ano notthe her. r. The clas lassic mo mode de requ requinis inis grea reat con onccent ntra ratio tionn and contro ntroll so it seems di diff ffic icul ultt as a way in intto dr draama ma.. Yet Yet, the domestic mode lo loooks easier, ier, it is casual and simililaar to every rydday human rela relattions ionshhip ip.. Fo Forr this rea reason, a teache herr selec lects the app ppro roppri riaate ki kind nd of drama rama on the basis of needs of the class which ich is imp import rtaant in the the pre pressent circ circums umsta tanc ncees [16 [16]. 2.1.2. Common Character i sstti ccss of Usi Usi nngg Dr ama in Educatio ionn: Th Theere are plen lenty of propert rtie iess of drama dra ma bu butt th thee com ommo monn cha hara raccte teris ristic ticss of us using ing dra drama ma in edu duccation tion are as follo follows ws[1 [177J:


Im Imaagin inaatio ionn and crea reativ ivit ityy: Th Thee concepts of im maagi nnaati on on and creati vvii ttyy could be sai d to be essentia iall in inggred redient ientss in dra ram ma. Th Theese are usuallllyy focuss ussed on un undderst rstand ndin ingg hu huma mann behavio iouur in term rmss of how pe peoopl plee feel and behave in cert rtaain sit itua uattio ions ns.. - Pla Play: Pla Play is a profoundly imp important activ ivit ityy in the proc rocess of chara raccter develo loppment and one that the they sha hare re wit ithh hig highe herr spec pecies ies, suc uchh as apes pes. - Th Thee socia iall aspect of dra ram ma: Dr Draama help lpss the in in-he here rent nt qu quaalit litie iess of the pers person on ma makin kingg th thee effor ffort, t, pa part rt-ly by ine inere reaasing the sens nsiv ivit ityy inv invol olvved in sha harin ringg wit ithh other people and part rtly ly by determin rminin ingg for hims imself the sort of the worl rl,,d he wis ishhes to liliffe in in..

2.1.1. V ie iews of Draı na i n School s: T here ar e som omee view iews conc nceeming ing dr draama in schoo hools. ls. Ac Acccor ordi ding ng to Lyn Lynn Mc McG Greg regor, educatio ionnal dram rama can be clas lassifie ifiedd in intto two gro rouups: le leaamin ingg thro rouugh dra ram ma and envisa nvisagging dra drama ma [14 [14].

- Cr Creeativ ivee pr prob oble lem m sol olvving thr hrou ouggh dr draama ma:: Dr Draama is a social ial activ ivit ityy sin incce chililddren ren work together on pr prob oble lem m sol olvving thr hrou ouggh dr draama ma,, th theeyare wor orkin kingg toward rdss expres ressin ingg their solu luttio ionns. Th This is can be communi mu niccated to ot othe hers rs and fin inis ishhed scene whi hicch is perform rmeed and which ich serv rvees as a communica icatin ingg lilinnk be betw tweeen th theem and ot othe hers rs..

Thee firs Th firstt gro roup up of dr draama emp mpha hassise ises the expl plooraratio ionn of iss issues ues and people ple thro hroug ughh dr draama ma.. it is an explo lora rattio ion, n, whic hich inv involve lves both the teache herr and chi hild ld,, re ressultin ltingg in disc iscussion ion of the is isssues in invvolv lveed. it can

-orme Perf Perfor manc en: t Dr Dra mati tiv vit itie areenno notttheaylw lwa ay,s perf rfo rm edorma in nce fro ron ofama anticacudacienc ieti nce eies . sWh Whe are, re theyare sometime imes a result of chililddren wantin ingg to com ommu munic nicaate th theeir wo work rk to ot othe hers rs..



The Th eA dv dv an tag es of of U sisi n gD ra r am a as as a M et eth od of Ed E du cati an i n E le lem en tm Sch ools

2 2 Drama Drama in El Eleement mentaary Schools


M ul ulti cul tur al educati on on i s not co nc nce med onl y with ith what hat happ happeens in the clas lassro rooom. it als lsoo adr dreesses the the br broa oade derr org orgaanis nisaationa tional,l, curr urric icula ularr and com ommu munit nityy is isssues ues whic hich hav have a dire direcct beari ring ng dr draama in schoo hools ls.. New New education ional ide ideas have been id ideeallllyy suit iteed to using ing dram rama in the elem lementa ntary school cla lasssroo room by int intro rodu duccing pro probl bleem-s m-sol olvving and crit ritic icaal-t l-thin hinking king activ ivit itie iess th thro roug ughh mu mutu tuaal di disscou ours rsee be betw tweeen te teaache hers rs and students [18]. A bboove al l that students can act out

their activit ivitie iess if theyare between the age of 7 and 12. 12. Ne New w educators agre reee that contin ntinuuit ityy is very im im-po port rtaant and that hat if all teache hers rs are train raineed to use use dr draama thi s woul d help to safeguar d the student's opportunity ity for dramatic experi rieence in ele lem mentary school hoolss [19 [19]. ].At At this point point Akın Akın''s the hessis can be re refe ferre rredd [20]. What i s more, i n the el ementary school i t i s poWha tenti al al l y easi er er for dr ama to act as an i nt ntegrati ng force in curr rric icuulum and for teachers to draw on dif if-foefrent relnt jecot uatcre rea rde rea id idee Stra ran eamsui ng nbgjec oamsesin forrd omer dtroamcre a.atAe saTwoom m abnlgeer point ints out in drama rama in ele lem menta ntary sçhool olss , the lilink nk between dra drama and ot othe herr curric urricul ulaar activ ivit itie iess can be dynami c and not mer ely a passi ye means to convenie nient nt follo follow w up activ tivitie itiess [2 [211]. 2 21 Mod Models for Dra Dramatic Act Actio ion n: Th Theere are three ree models for dram ramatic actio ionn: Explo lorratory, ilil-lustra lustratiy tiyee and exp xpre resssiye [2 [222]. 2 2 1 1 Explo Explorator ratory: y: The The explo lorratory model is the most common in cla lasssro roooms.In fact, most how to do i t dr ama texts deal wi th th thi s model whi cchh i s the most wide idely kno known among ngsst stud udeents nts. Te Teaache hers rs use thi s model for students to explor e new ex-

periences. 2 2 1 2 mustr mustrati ative: ve: Th Thee stud udeents nts try to analy nalyzze thei r own i nn nner meani ng ng by means of i llllustr ati ve ve model of drama whi ch ch uses thei r mental powers, body and voi ce ce. T hhii s model all ow students to use dr amati c acti on for understandi ng personal r elationships. 2 2 1 3 Expressive: T he expressi ye model i s us useed to comm mmun unic icaate id ideeas. Th This is mode dell has a socia iallly pra pratic tical al sig significa nificance nce.. 2 2 2 Us Usin ing g Dr Draama as a Met Method: Th Theere are two thing thingss that hat sho houl uldd be cle leaarly unde unders rsttoo oodd whe henn dr draama i s chosen as a method: the meani ng ng of dr ama and

purpo pu rposses of dra drama ma.. 2 2 2 1 Meaning: eanin g: Te Teaaching ing should always be a refl refleective ive activit ivityy but it is often di difffi ficcult ult to see in the classroom. Th Thee teacher's trad radit itio ionnal ro role le is ques-


ti tion oneer. Que Questio ionin ningg is lik likeeiy to be te teaache her' r'ss mo mosst us useeful tool and i t also used to check on the l evel of l eami nngg i n the cl ass. On the whole, these ki nndds of lessons contain more disc iscussio ionn than actio ionn. Th This is mettho me hodd do doees no nott dev develo lopp the crea reativ ivit ityy of stu tude dent ntss so that theyare no nott giv iveen the maxim imuum opport rtuuni nitty to exp xpre resss th theeir ow ownn ide ideaas. Tea Teache hers rs,, who believ lieve tha hatt the mo mosst effe ffectiv ivee us usee of dr draama in eleme lement ntaary scho hoools, ls, do no nott alllloow this sit it-uat uatio ion. n. Th Theey na nattice ice pe pers rsoona nall ne neeeds of in indi divvid idua uall students and ar e awar e of thei r reacti ons, who i s i so solatted, thi la hink nkin ingg, feelin lingg, so tha hatt teachers hers can assess feedback for each in inddiv ivid iduual student, so bri rinngin ingg a socia iall or ima imagin inaativ ivee capacit ityy in intto the clas lassro rooom for satisfa isfacctio ionn and fu fulf lfililme ment nt by us usin ingg dram rama as a method [23]. it is the teacher work rkin ingg wit ithh the student ntss wit ithhin the dram rama, who wililll builildd on the students' id ideeas and ~ake a br i dge for them between thei r own experien ience of the world and the meanin ingg of drama, so that hat bo botth ins insig ight ht and un unde ders rsta tand nding ing arise rise from from the acti vi vi ty [21]. i t i s the process of acti nngg and i ma magi nnaati tion oning ing me meaanin ningg thr hrou ouggh acting th thaat is impo import rtaant nt.. The educatio ionnal sig ignnific ificaance nce is that the chilildd wililll lea leam thro throug ughh his ow ownn experie perienc ncee. There Therefo fore re,, dr draama in educa ucation tion ha hass eno normo rmous us po pote tent ntia iall for for th thee te teaache herr [25 [25]. No book and no method can repl ace a teacher . On the contrary, if drama is successful it wililll be because of the ski killllss teachers use to motiy iyee their student ntss, to builildd on their contri ribbutio ionns and focus and pace the diff ifferent activ ivit itie iess in the classroom. it is only nly thr hrooug ughh the teache her' r'ss own comm mmit itme ment nt to, and in invvolv lveement in in,, the work rk,, that dra ram ma wililll rea realilizze it itss ful ulll potent ntia iall as a mediu ium m for le leaamin ingg. 2 2 2 2 Purposes:

Dra Drama is eme merg rging ing as a po pow wer-

ful fu mo mod le ming ming hro oug ugh ic ude ntssthain rekin encalurag ra geddel toof lea gaain mastthr ery ohvewr hich thheirstud owennt ink ing g. Fu Furt rthherm rmoore, re, the here re are some pur urpo posses for us usin ingg drarama as a method which ich is as folllloows: - Dra ram ma afford rdss students an opport rtuuni nitty to work together co-op -opera rattiv iveely on a shared red proje rojecct.It alsa lsa inccrea in reases the chi hild ld''s awarene renesss of the di divverg rgeenc ncee of vie iew ws both wit ithhin the clas lassro rooom and wit ithhin the wide derr socia sociall conte context xt.. - Dr ama extends both the r ange and quali ty of the the child hild''s lang langua uagge us usaage. It pro provvides ides an op oppo port rtuni unity ty for try ryin ingg out diff ifferent rent model s of dis isccourse rse and can cre reaate an imp impetus for a wid idee varie riety of ora rall and wri rittte tenn form formss. - Dr Draama can als lsoo offer fer chi hild ldre renn the op oppo port rtun unit ityy of crit ritic icaally app ppra rassing th theeir ow ownn and ot othe her' r'ss work ork.. - Dram rama is a part rtic icuularly useful way of openin ingg


Tü/ayy Üstündağ Tü/a Üstündağ


up ppro robblem lems, themes and topic icss that are of soci< i<ilil concem. i t enables chi ld ldren to vi eew w such subj ect matter fro rom m varyin ryingg persp rspectiv ivees and to ra rais isee their own awareness of the complexi ttyy of the i ssues i nnvolved. - Dram rama inv involves child ildren in a comple lexx pro roccess of selec lection, ion, demand ndin ingg of the hem m an abili ilitty to cho hooose between var i ous effects and devi ces i n or der to sha hape pe a un unifie ifiedd and coh oheere rent nt ut utte tera ranc ncee. 3. T hhee A ddvvantages of U sisi ng Dr aı na A s a M eetthod of Educati on on i n El ementary School s So far it can be seen fro rom m the artic rticle le that dra ram ma is an imp impor orta tant nt dev device ice of edu duccationa tionall exp xpeerie rienc ncee whic hichh should be avai l abl e to al l students i n el ementary scho hoools ls.. This This sectio ionn of the art rtic icle le is conce nceme medd wit ithh the the adv dvaant ntaages of usin usingg dra drama ma.. The There are two main advanta ntages of using ing dra ram ma: one of them is self actuali ualizzatio ion, n, the othe herr one is pe perrso sona nall or emo motio tiona nall deve develop lopme ment. nt. 3.1 .1.S .Seelf Actua Actualiza lization tion The e firs ir dva ntalglow e wosf susin us dra leme ment schoTh ols isstthaadv t aitnta lo tuing degndr ts atmoa winorkele tognta ethary er and to share responsibil ibilit ityy for the development of self actuali ualizzatio ionn whic hich is the main main obje jecctiv ivee of edu du-catia iann and which ich alsa lsa contin inuues thro rouughout liliffe. If a stude udent achie hieves self actualiz ualizaatio ion, n, he will have the qualilitties ies of being ing rea realis listic ic,, cre reaativ ivee, trust and inindependent. In dra ram ma student ntss activ iveely eng ngaage in sit ituuatio ions ns whic ichh make sense to them in terms of their past expe perie rienc ncees and the heir ir pre present le levvels of unde unders rsttand nding ing.. Because of this, is, each dra ram ma activ ivit ityy pro rovvid idees them with ith new experie rienc ncees and fre ressh persp rspectiv ivees. This This kindd of activit kin ivityy caus usees self actualiz ualizaatio ionn in chil hild. d. In add dditio ition, n, bo both th tea teache herr and stude tudent nt pa part rtic icipa ipatio tionn ar e equal ly i mpor tant for the success of dr ama. Som omee teachers hers withi ithinn the colllleectiy iyee drama rama pro roccess rather than to monito itor students from outsid idee. Th This is perm rmit itss teachers and stud udeents nts to adopt social ial ro role less, whic ichh is quite ite diff ifferent from those they mig ighht normallllyy assum umee in the mo more re form rmaal teache herr-sstud udeent di di-alo loggue of the clas lassro rooom. Th Thee teac ache hers rs'' use use of dram rama pro rovvide ides opport rtuunitie itiess to help students engage in more abstrac ract lev levels of think inkin ingg in response to the dr draama mattic situa ituattion ion [26 [26]. The teache her' r'ss pr prim imaary aim is to de devvis isee dr draama mattic situa ituattio ions ns whic ichh enco ncoura urage students to engage in in inddepend ndeent thin inki kinng in ord rdeer to gain fr freesh ins insig ight htss abou outt the hems mseelv lvees and the heir ir wor orld ld [27]. I n accordance wi th the descri pti on of dr ama giv iveen in this paper self actualilizzatio ionn is the fir irsst advant ntaage for the stud udeent ntss. Self actuali ualizzatio ionn le leaads to


]. of Ed. 13

other effects as wel L . T hese can be summar i zed follows:


-To giv ivee stud udeent ntss an oppo port rtun unit ityy to examin inee their ownn pr ow prob oble lems ms wit ithh a ne new w pers perspe pecctiv ivee. - T o show student the di recti an i n whi ch he or she is goi oing ng.. -T -Too make students to reflec lect on experi rieence and see wha hatt they do in comma mann wit ithh othe herr peopl plee. - T o go beyand the ti ght fr amewor k of the curri ricculum ulum in sub ubje jeccts, suc uchh as scienc iencee, la lang ngua uagges and mathematics. -To giv ivee stu tude dent ntss fre freeeda dam m be besside idess res respo pons nsibil ibility ity.. - T o show students how they can stay wi th somethi nngg they don't l i kkee and wor k through i t to a po point int of accom ccomplis plishme hment. nt. -To in inccrea rease stud udeent nt''s vocabul ulaary and help them de devvelo lopp a fine finerr con onttro roll of rh rheeto toric ric th thro roug ughh int inteera racctio ionn wi th other s and through tappi ng subj ecti ye experience. 3.2. Pers Persoona nall or Em Emootio iona nall Dev Develo lopm pmeent Pers Person onaala larr emo moti tion onaal dev develo lopm pmeent is the secon ondd adv dvaant ntaage of us using ing dra drama ma in ele leme ment ntaary scho hool olss. Th Thee new id ideea in educatio ionn, that is drama, opens up possi bbii llii ti es es for free choi ce ce and i nnddi vvii dual decisio isions ns..Th Theerefo refore re,, it he help lpss the in indi divvid idua uall to expl ploore many ma ny aspe peccts of the worl rldd and even his own fee feelin linggs and emoti on. I f dr ama i s use d wi th l eami ng and te teaachin hingg exp xpeerie rienc ncees in ele leme ment ntaary scho hools ols,, it wo would uld he help lp stud udeent ntss to de devvelo lopp in the desired ired ways. Dr Draama wi llll also provi ddee a bri ddgge for the students who under stand to become the i r rol e i n shari ng r esponsib pon sibilitie ilitiess wit withh th theeir class classma mate tess. Fu Furt rthe herm rmor oree, to act ou outt a dr draama mati ticc activ ivit ityy, a cla lasss of stud udeent ntss mus ustt cooperat rate, all have to agree ree to try to sust ustain the dr draama ma,, to sup uppo port rt on onee ana nath theer' r'ss effor ffortts to bel i eve, to share thei r personal i deas and i nterpr preetati tito tons ns wit ithh ot othe hers rs [28 [28].W ha hatt is mo more re,, dr draama ma mayy become the cataly lysst for the establilisshment of in intterperso rsona nall rela relattio ions nshhip ipss outsid idee of the cla lasssro rooom so that it wililll lead to personalar emotio ionnal develo loppment. To this end nd,, the advant ntaages of usin ingg dra ram ma are as follows: -T -Too help students disc iscover that they kn knoow more tha than th theey th thou ougght th theey kne knew w. -To lea lead stud udeent ntss to see the rea real worl rldd mo more re clea learIy in liligght of wha hatt is rev revealed led by the ima imagin ineed one ne.. - T o help students captur e more and mor e of what hat is impl implic ictt in any experie perienc ncee.




The A dva dvan ttaag es es of U sisi nngg D r aam m a as a M et eth od od of E du du ca cati on on i n E le lem en en ta tar y S ch ch ooools

_ T o devel op a tol er ance for a var i ety of persona onalitie litiess and ide ideaas. - To make an abstrac ract conc nceept or expe peri rieenc ncee veıy concre ncrette so the student ntss can und ndeerst rstand and have con onttro rolo lovver it. it. Give iven this, is, it can be inf inferre redd that there are variouss hid ou hidde denn adva dvant ntaages of using using dr draama in ele leme ment ntaaıy scho hoools. ls. For For this rea reasons, ns, the use use of drama rama in edu duccatio ionn deserv rvees a mor oree pr proomi mine nent nt pl plaace in toda dayy's ele le-mentaıy school curr rrie ieuula. la. it would seem that dra ram ma is more powerf rfuul than any other medium ium in educati on. A s a fi nal remark, dr ama operates most effectiv iveely as a teaching ing or le leaarning ing methods in elementaı y school that all ows encouragement for de deve veloping loping currie currieula ula.. 4 Curre Current nt Situa ituattion ion in Dra Drama ma Dif Differe ferent nt semina minars rs and cours oursees to int intro rodduc ucee drarama have been gi ven T he A ssoci ati on for Contempora raıy ıy Dra ram ma and at vari rioous hig ighher educatio ionn institutions inst itutionsin in Turkey sinc sincee 1980. Althoug Althoughh eac achh se semina minarr was was des designe ignedd to addr ddreees sp speecif cifie ie dis discip cipline liness, the the series ries

re reaaec-s he hed d ol, a,n prim impr imima pre ss,ive ivsepe ccro ros -s ecctio ion pr prof ofe ions pr pre -sc cho hool pr aeıy, ıy pec ia iallss-se edu duc atnio ionn ofand artestseio achacns: h-: ers rs,, Min Minis isttry of Edu Educatio ionn offic icia ials ls,, chilildd psychologis og ists ts,, child hildre ren' n'ss the theatr tree actors tors [2 [299]. Som omee topie topiess are st stat ateed as follow follows: s: Crea reative ive Dram rama in School

The Vita Vitall Imp Impor orttanc ncee of Dr Draama in Ed Educ ucaati tion on Pl PlaayiDra iDram ma with ith Chililddre renn-Pl Plaay/D /Dra ram ma for Chilil-dr dreen Tra Traini ining ng of Dr Draama Le Leaade ders rs New Ne w Ide Ideaas fo forr the Expe Experie rienc nceed Dr Draama Te Teaache herr In Ank Ankaara, ra, 80 of the pr priv ivaate ki kind ndeerg rgaart rteens as well as some pr priv ivaate ele lem menta ntaıy scho hoools have drama rama

le les sogra soram nsm , dre ram ralat mtead tteoacdiff heffe rs andsub dra ram acteiv ivit ity pr prog rela di ere rent nt ubje jeccmtsa sin uc uchhthaes po poe tı tıy y,y stoıy, ıy, music, ic, paint intin ingg and the lilike ke.. The The Ass Associa iattio ionn for Cont Conteemp mpooraıy raıy Dr Draama seeks to func unctio ionn as a centntra rall aut utho hori ritty for for the train rainin ingg of ne new w dr draama teachers and of offe fers rs ins inseerv rvie ieee tr traaini ining ng on re requ queest to kin kinde derg rgaarte tens ns,, eleme lemerit ritaaıy and secon onda daıy ıy school hoolss. Mor Moreeov oveer, the Min Minis isttıy of Educ Educaation ion org rgaaniz nized a train rainin ingg pro roggra ram m in dram rama for pr pree-se -serv rvie ieee ki kind ndeerg rgaart rteen teachers and at th thee un univ iveers rsit ityy le levvel, several ral ins insttit itut utio ions ns in Ankara ka ra offer cours rsees in cre reaativ ivee dra ram ma on both und ndeergrad raduate and gra radduate le levvels thro rouugh vari rioous depa part rtm ment ntss. Cur urre rent ntly ly,, some the hesses were wri rittten by gradua gra duate te st stude udents nts [30 [30]. o m  

5. In or der to i mpl ement drama i n teachi ngle leaarn rnin ingg pro roccess in all ele lem mentary schools ls,, the follo low wing wou ould ld be of gre reaat imp impor orttanc ncee.


1. Part Partie ieul ulaaıy the teachers hers of eleme lement ntaaıy scho hoools shoul houldd jo join in in ins inseerv rvie ieee tra raini ining ng so th thaat the heyy can lea learn about usi ng drama as a method i n el ementaı y sch chool ools. s. Bes Beside idess te teaache chers, rs, admin dminist istra rativ tivee st staaff, suc uchh as di dire recctor orss, ins inspe pecctor orss and sub ubje jecct ma matt tteer spec pecia ialis listts, shoul houldd be tr traaine inedd in the same dr draama cou ours rsees. 2. Some books and peri rioodica icals whieh ieh deal wit ithh usi ng drama as a method i n elementaı y schools sthhose ou ould em avdee saom vailila foiea achers he rs as dr toama in info forı thos eldwbho ha hav ome eabcle la lasssfor ieralteop opini inion onsssoon dra ma. . rınn 3. Th Thee As Asssocia iattio ionn for Co Cont nteempo pora raıy ıy Dr Draama ma,, Uni Uni-versit rsitie iess, pa part rtie ieul ulaarly fac facul ultties ies of edu duccati tion on,, and th thee Ministıy Minis tıy of Ed Educ ucaation tion sho hould uld org orgaaniz nizee semin minaars, rs, workworksho hops ps or confe nferenc rencees on the adv dvaant ntaages and ways of using using dra drama ma as a me meth thod od in eleme lement ntaaıy scho hool olss. BffiLlOGRAPHY [1] [1] ü' ü'Ne Neill, ill, C.a C.and A. Lamb Lambeert rt..(19 (1989): Drama Drama Str truc uctu ture ress. A Pr Praactica ical Ha Hand ndbbook ook for for Te Teaache hers rs.. Lond Londoon: Hu Huttchi hinnson on.. p.ll p.ll [2] [2] McG McGre reggor, or,L. L.(1 (19976). Deve Develop lopme ments nts in Drama Drama Te Teaaching ching.. Londo Lon don: n: üp üpeen Books Books..p.l0 p.l066 [3] [3] Court Co urtne neyynn. , R(19 R(1 980).The ).The Drama Dramati ticc Cu Curric rriculu ulum. m. Londo London: n: Heinemann. Heinema p.lll [4] [4] Court Courtne neyy, R(1 R(1980).The ).The Drama Dramatic tic Cu Curric rriculu ulum. m. Londo London: n: Heinema Heine mann. nn. p.3 p.33 [5 [5]] Chris Christtie ie,,]. F. and E.P. E.P.jo john hnssen. n.(1 (19983). The Role Role of Pl Plaay in Socia ocial-ln l-lnte telle llecctu tuaal De Devvelopme lopment nt .Re Revi vieew of Educ Educaationa tionall Re Ressearch, rch, vol. vol. 53, no.1 no.1.p.9 p.93 [6] [6] San, n,I. I.(1 (19991). Cr Creeative ive Dr Draama in Educ Educaation ion .Anka Ankara Univeers Univ rsity ity,, Journa Journall of Educ Educaatio tionn Scienc iencees Fa Faccult ultyy, vol. 27, 27, no.1.p.5 no.1.p.576 76 [7 [7]] Alle Allen, n, ].(1 ].(19981). Dr Draama in Scho hool olss.Its The Theor oryy and Pr Praactice tice.Londo .London: n: He Heine inema mann nn Educ Educationa tionall Books Books.. p.4 p.42 [8] [8] Ph Philb ilbin, in, M. and J. S. Mye Myers rs..(19 (1991). Cla Classsro room om Dra Drama . The Social 'S 'Studies.v tudies.voI oI.8 .82, 2,no.5. no.5.p.1 p.179 79 [9] [9] Ce Cebı, bı,A. A.(1 (19985). Drama Drama as an active tive Te Teaachin hingg Me Meth thod od . Unpubl Unpu blis ishe hedd Maste Masterr Thes Thesis. is.Ankara Ankara Unive Univers rsity ity,, Fac Facult ultyy of Educa Education tion Scienc Sciencees,p.1 s,p.122 22 [10 [10] Court Courtne neyy, R(19 R(1980).The ).The Drama Dramatic tic Cu Curric rriculu ulum. m. Londo Lon n: . don: Heinemann.p.33

[1 [111] Bolt Bolton on,, G.(19 (1985). Cha Chang ngees in Think Thinking ing About About Dr Draama in Edu Education ion . Th Theeory ln lntto Pr Praactice ice.vol. xxıV, no. no. 3. p.152 [12 [12] Ustund Ustundaag,T.( T.(11988) The Effica Efficaccy of Drama Drama in Educ Education tion i n the P ri mar y School as a T eachi ng M ethod .Unpu Unpubl blis ishe hedd Maste Masterr Thes Thesis. is.Hac Hacett tteepe Unive Univers rsity ity,, lntitutee of Social lntitut ocial Scie cience nces, s,p. p.ll. ll. [13 [13] Ve Verrio rrior, r, P. P.(1 (19985). Fa Facce To Fa Facce: Neg Negotia otiatin tingg Me Meaanin ningg Th Thro roug ughh Dr Draama . Th Theeory ln lntto Pr Praactice ice. vol. ol. xxiV, no no.. 3. p. 181 [14 [14] MeGre MeG reg gor,L.( or,üp L.(1 De nts in Drama Drama Te Teaaehing. hing. Lond Londo on: üpe e1n97B6). ooks okDeve s. velop p.lopme 2 ments [15] Wag Wagne ner, r,BB.).(19 (1989). Dorot rothy He Heaateote: Dr Draama as a Le Leaarning Medium. Medium. London: London: Hutchins Hutchinson. on.p. p.1173



Tü/ayy Üstündağ Tü/a Üstündağ


] . of Ed. Ed. 13

[1 [166] He Heaatcot otee, D. and P. He Herb rbeert. rt.(1 (19985) A Dr Draama of Lea Leamin ingg: Ma Mant ntle le of the Expe Expert rt . The Theory Into Into Pra Practice ice, vol. XXI V, no. no.33.p .p.1 .1778 [1 [177] Us Usttunda undagg,T. T.(1 (19994) Dr Draama in Cont Conteempor mporaary Ed Educ ucaatio ionn .Education ion in Li Liffe. No Novvember/ December, vol. 37,p.8-9 [1 [188] Philb Philbin, in,M. M. and ]. ].SS.Myers Myers.. (19 (1991) Cla Classroom room Dr Draama . The Soc ocia iall Studie tudiess. vol. vol. 82, no no..5. p. p.1179 [1 [199] Do Dodd dd,,N. and W. Hicks Hicksoon.(1 n.(19977). Dr Draama and The Theatre

[24 [24] O'Ne O'Neill, ill, C. and A. Lamb Lambeert rt..(19 (1989). Dra Drama ma Str truc uctu ture ress.A Pracctica Pra tical Hand Handbo book ok for for Te Teaache hers rs..Londo London: n: Hutc Hutchin hinsson on.. p.10 [25 [25] Adlguz Adlguzeel,H. l,H.O. O.(1 (19993). The Re Rele letio tions nship hip be betw tweeen Play Play and Cr Creeative ive Dra Drama . Unpub Unpublis lishe hedd Mas Maste terr Thes Thesis. is. Ankara kara Univers University ity,, facu faculty lty of Educa Educatio tionn Scienc ciencees.p. s.p.2226 [2 [266] Ve Verri rrior or,, P. P.(1 (19985). fac face To fac face: Ne Neggotia otiatting Me Meaanin ningg Th Thro rouugh Dra ram ma . Th Theeory In Intto Pr Praactice ice vol. xxıV, no. 3. p.150 p.150

in Educa Educatio tion. n. London: London: Heine Heinemann. mann.p. p.1128 [200] Akın,M.( [2 Akın,M.(11993). Soc ociom iomeetr tryy and Crea Creativ tivee Drama Drama . Unpublis publishe hedMa dMasste terr The Thessis is..Ankara Ankara Unive Univers rsity ity,, fac facult ultyy of Ediıcation Sc Scienc iences es.. [211] O' [2 O'Ne Neill, ill, C. and A. Lamb Lambeert rt..(19 (1989). Drama Drama Struc tructu ture ress.A Pract Practica icall Handbo Handbook ok for Tea Teachers. hers.Lond London: on: Hutc Hutchins hinson. on. p.17 [222] Byron [2 Byron,, K.( K.(11986). ).Dra Drama ma in the the Englis Englishh Clas Classroom. room. Lon Lon-don:: Methue don Methuenn Co.Ltd Co.Ltd..p. p.441 [2 [233] Do Dodd dd,,N. and W. Hicks Hicksoon.(1 n.(19977). Dr Draama and The Theatre in Edu Educa catio tion. n. London: London: Heine Heinemann. mann.p. p.999

Bea ales, leols, Dra ].N.a ].N.and B.Ze (19 (19tur 90ity ).y .The Effect ctsol s ofCHigh SBe chool ho Dr amnd a oB. n Zeme Somel. cial iall. Ma Mat urit Th TheeEffe Scho hool oun un-selor, selor, vol. vol.38 38,, no.1,S no.1,Seeptembe ptember.p. r.p.50 50 [28] Wag Wagne ner, r,BB.].(1989). Dorot rothy He Heaatcote: Dra ram ma as a Le Leaaming Medium. Medium. London: London: Hutchins Hutchinson. on.p. p.2227 [29 [29] San, n,I.( I.(11995). The The De Devvelopme lopment nt of Educ Educaation tionaal Dra Drama ma in Turkey Turkey .USA:S USA:Stag tage of Art.S Art.Summe ummer Issu, Issu, p.3 p.33 [30 [30] San, n,I.( I.(11996). A Me Meth thod od on De Devveloping loping Cr Creeativi tivity ty and A Disc Disciplin iplineeon Dev Developin lopingg Cr Creeative ive pers person on:: Cr Creeative ive Dra Drama in Tu Turk rkeey .New New Tu Turk rkeey,Educ Educaation ion Spe peccial ial IsIssue,, ]anua sue ]anuary/f ry/feebruary, bruary, p.1 p.157. [


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