22104132 Consumer Buying Behaviour

Published on June 2016 | Categories: Documents | Downloads: 53 | Comments: 0 | Views: 699
of 83
Download PDF   Embed   Report

Comments

Content

Definitions of CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
 The

study of consumer behavior focuses on how individuals make their decisions to spend their available resources (time, money ,effort) on consumption related items  Consumer Behavior is the study of human responses to products/services and the marketing of products/services

Significance of CONSUMER BEHAVIOR


  

The primary purpose of studying consumer behavior is why and how consumers make their purchase decisions To understand marketing and environmental stimuli To know the factors influencing consumer behavior To know how consumers will respond to different product features,prices,advertisement appeals

Significance of CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
 To

distinguish different consumer groups and to develop products that satisfy the needs.  To understand how consumers make purchasing choices among products/services.  To know why same consumer is attracted to different products

Significance of CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
 To

know buying dynamics of consumer  Understanding consumer behavior of target market is essential part of marketing manager  To know growing market segments of company for consumers  Study of consumer behavior enable them to become better and wiser consumers

Significance of CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
 Continuously

upgrading the consumer  To know what features or product design acceptable by consumer  To understand the buying roles of the consumer  To predict post purchase satisfaction or dissatisfaction behavior  Making the consumer individualistic more conscious

Significance of CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
 Help

marketers to assess the consumers needs and wants and to make better strategic marketing decisions  To know cross cultural needs and preferences and consumption habits  Study of internal and external influences which impel them to behave as they do  To understand unethical practices prevailing in the market

Significance of CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
 Consumer

behavior is the field of interdisciplinary dimensions  Psychology The study of individuals individual behavior attitudes, values, belief, perception, learning, personality, motivation  Sociology the study of groups group behavior social class, reference groups, group dynamics

Significance of CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
 Socio

Psychology deals with interpersonal behavior behavior of individuals in group context intergroup collaboration, group decision making, integration of individual needs with group needs  Anthropology Influence of the culture and society on individual.

Model of consumer buying process
Components of consumer buying process a) Identify buying roles b) buying behaviour c) buying research Steps in buying process a) Need/recognition b) Informational search c) evaluation of alternatives d) purchase decision e) Post purchase behaviour

Model of consumer buying process
Buying roles  Initiator/Influencer provides information about the product/service  Gatekeeper controls the flow of information  Decider decides whether to shop the purchase or not  Buyer involves in actual purchase or the product

Model of consumer buying process
 Preparer

transforms the product into consumption  Maintainer provides repair/maintenance services  User use or consume the product  Disposer decides whether to continue or discontinue in using the product

Model of consumer buying process
Types of buying behaviour  Complex buying behaviour It is a behaviour of the consumer when the purchase is highly inexpensive or the products which are bought infrequently and risky  Dissonance reducing buying behaviour- It is a behaviourbehaviour when the consumer is confronted with a unfamiliar brand name in a familiar product class

Model of consumer buying process
 Habitual

buying behaviour - It is a behaviour when the consumer doesn t find difficulty in making a purchase due to awareness of brands  Novelty seeking buying behaviour - It is a behaviour when the consumer involves in the purchase for novel or new brands

Model of consumer buying process
Buying Research  The methods used in conducting buying research :  a) Focus Group Interview  b) In-depth Interview In c) Projective Techniques

Model of consumer buying process
a) Focus Group Interview - conducted by a trained moderator in a natural manner with a group of respondents. A focus group is a sample of respondents from the specified target market. Focus group interview takes place in the form of free-flowing group freediscussion among various target groups. The moderator plays a key role to establish the rapport with the participants to keep the discussion moving forward and probe the respondents to elicit insights into the problem.

Model of consumer buying process
Applications of focus group interview  Understanding consumer perceptions, perceptions concerning a product category  Obtaining impression of new product concepts  Generating ideas about new and existing products  Developing creative concepts of advertising copy from the consumer

Model of consumer buying process
b) In depth interview It is method of obtaining qualitative data. An unstructured, direct, personal interview in which a single respondent is probed by a skilled interviewer to knowing underlying motivations, attitudes and feelings on a topic. The interviewer encourages the respondent to talk freely Applications of In depth interview  Discussion of confidential, sensitive or embarrassing topics or situations where the strong social norms exist

Model of consumer buying process
understanding the complicated behavior of the consumer and other groups  Situations where product consumption experience is sensory in nature ( which is emotional in nature) c) Projective techniques an unstructured and indirect form of questioning that encourages the respondent to project their underlying motivations, attitudes, belief etc regarding the issue of concern.
 Detailed

Model of consumer buying process
 In

projective techniques, the respondents are asked to interpret the behavior of others rather than their own behavior  Ex of projective techniques word association tests, sentence completion tests, story completion tests, picture response or TAT ( Thematic Apperception Test), Role playing, Third person techniques etc.  Word association test respondents are presented with the help of words one at a time and are asked to respond to each with the first word that comes in mind

Model of consumer buying process
 Sentence

completion test respondents are provided with the part of story and required to give conclusion in their own words.  Picture response or TAT ( Thematic Apperception Test) the respondents are shown a picture and asked to tell a story describing it.  Role playing respondents are asked to assume the behavior of someone else and have to role-play their behavior. role-

Model of consumer buying process
 Third

person technique in which respondents are presented with verbal or visual situation and are asked to related the beliefs and attitudes of a third person. The third person may be friend, neighbour or family etc

Model of consumer buying process
2) steps in buying process  a) Need/recognition - It starts when the buyer recognises a problem or need  b) Informational search Information about the felt need by the consumers can be collected through various sources personal sources, commercial sources, public sources, experimental sources

Model of consumer buying process
 Evaluation

of alternatives - Consumer evaluates various alternatives before making a purchase quality, price etc  Purchase decision - The factors that influence the purchase decision are product choice, brand choice, dealer choice, purchase timing & purchase amount

Model of consumer buying process
purchase behaviour - After making a purchase the consumer experiences satisfaction or dissatisfaction in using the product Types of post purchase behaviour  Post purchase satisfaction the defects identified by the consumer should be replaced
 Post

Model of consumer buying process
 Post

purchase action If the consumer is highly satisfied then there is a high probability of repeated purchase  Post purchase use and disposal If the consumer finds a new use after using the product, that should be highlighted by the company through advertising

Product Innovation
 Product

Innovation refers to new - idea, concept, method, practice, product or service which is perceived by someone as new  Innovations take time to penetrate into the members of the social system

Product Adoption
 Adoption

refers to the acceptance or continual use of new product or brand by the individuals  Adoption is a step-by-step mental process step-byof adopting or accepting a new product  Adoption is the process by which the individual passes several stages to arrive at decision in using a new product

Adoption Process
 Stages

in Adoption process  a) Awareness consumer is exposed to innovation, but lacks information  b) Comprehension consumer has information & understanding about the new product. It reveals the interest towards the product

Adoption Process
 c)

Attitude refers to favourable or unfavourable disposition of the consumer towards the product  d) Legitimisation refers to the consumers are highly convinced about the new product  e) Trial The product is tested before acceptance

Adoption Process
Adoption or rejection If the trial is positive, the product is accepted or otherwise the product is rejected Conclusion  Adoption process is helpful in managing product innovation and also in designing promotional strategy
 f)

Categories of Adopters




Innovators constitute 2.5% of the total market. Innovators are first to adopt to new product. They are highly educated, esteem class and also cosmopolitian Early adopters constitute 13.5% of total market. They are the second to adopt new adopt. They are also educated and high social status. They are socially integrated and also the leaders of the social community

Categories of Adopters






Early majority constitute 34% of the total market . They are just before the average member of the social class. Late majority constitute 34% of the total market. They are skeptical . The people are after the average member of the social class Laggards constitute 16% of total market. They are last to adopt new product. They are having low social economic status. They have less interest to try new product and spend less on promotion

Diffusion of innovation
 Diffusion

refers to the acceptance of the innovation which is spread by the communication(mass media, salesman, opinion leaders) to the members of the social system over a period of time  Diffusion refers how new product captures target market  Diffusion is the aggregate of all individuals decision to adopt new product

Factors influence the rate of diffusion
factors explain what is the definition of new product or when it is called the new product according to consumers) Factors 1) Firm oriented definition consistent with the view that a firm which is capable of copy or modify the competitors product was qualified as new product
 These

Factors influence the rate of diffusion
2) Product oriented definition a) continuous innovation it refers to the introduction of the modified product rather than new product b) dynamically continuous creation of new products rather than modified products c) discontinuous innovation consumers feel difficulty to adopt the patterns of new product

Factors influence the rate of diffusion
3) Market oriented definition A product is considered new if it is relatively purchased by the majority of the potential market 4) Consumer oriented definition a) relative advantage the degree to which the potential customer perceive a new product as superior to competitors

Factors influence the rate of diffusion
b) compatibility the degree to which potential customer feel a new product is consistent with the needs of the consumer c) complexity the degree to which the new product is difficult to understand its usage by the consumers d) trialability the degree to which the new product is suitable to try before usage at free of cost

Factors influence the rate of diffusion
e) observability the degree to which the product benefits or attributes can be described to potential consumers by the company sources

Organizational buying process/Industrial buying process
 Definition

: It is defined as the decisiondecisionmaking process by which formal organizations establish the need for purchased products/services to identify, evaluate and choose among alternative brands and suppliers.  It was developed by Fredrick E Webster & Yoram Wind

Characteristics/features of Organizational buying process




1) The organizational buyers are called as producer/manufacturer business units consists of all the individuals/organizations who acquire goods/services that enter into the production of other products/services that are sold, rented or supplied to others. 2) The various types of organizational buying units are in the areas of services, agriculture, forestry, fisheries, wholesalers, retailers, construction units, farming, governmental units etc.



  

3) organizational buyers make purchase decisions in order to satisfy their goals as similar to final consumers. 4) Geographical Concentration buyers are more concentrated by size in organizational market. Ex: textiles are clustered predominantly in south 5) Group Involvement A group of individuals may be involved in buying decision. People from engineering, manufacturing, production, purchase, finance departments along with top management participate in machinery purchase decision.

Characteristics/features of Organizational buying process







Characteristics/features of Organizational buying process 6) Technical knowledge They are professional buyers and are quite knowledgable about products/services. Their purchase is directed by technically competent individuals. 7) Rational Motivators they are economical in nature and the costs & benefits are carefully weighed. Product quality specifications, consistency, assurance, delivery, credit terms, warranty are other elements influencing in the selection of vendors. 8) Formal procedures involves proposals, quotation requests, purchasing contracts, price and product specifications

Characteristics/features of Organizational buying process
  



9) Complexity It requires conscious considerations with higher financial risks 10) lengthy negotiations the size of the order is large and purchaser price is very important. 11) Derived demand the demand for industrial goods will ultimately be derived from the demand for consumer goods 12) Inelastic demand if the total demand for the industrial product remains affected by price changes then demand is inelastic

Characteristics/features of Organizational buying process


 



Ex: the footwear manufacturers are not going to buy more leather if the price of the leather reduces. 13) Fluctuating demand the nature of the demand in industrial goods is highly volatile 14) Straight/routine rebuy It is a buying situation where the purchaser will reorder the product without any modification Ex: electricity, water, office supplies etc

Characteristics/features of Organizational buying process  15) Modified rebuy It is a buying situation where buyer/purchaser wants to modify product specifications/prices.  16) Reciprocal buying a paper manufacturer will by necessary equipment from chemical manufacturer which inturn buys the stationery from the paper manufacturer  17) Leasing organizational buyers go for equipment leasing instead of outright purchase

Steps in Organizational/Industrial buying process
 1)  2)  3)  4)  5)  6)  7)

Problem recognition Need description Vendor search Proposal request Vendor selection Purchase routine selection Post purchase evaluation

Steps in Organizational/Industrial buying process  1) Problem recognition for ex: breakdown of the machine which requires replacement of new parts immediately  2) Need description Industrial buyer tends to define product , quality as the combination which fits the product to use in the future.  3) Vendor search In this organization tries to identify companies who may be the appropriate suppliers of the specified product

Steps in Organizational/Industrial buying process
 Organizational

buyers have a wide range of informational sources to use in their assessment of products & suppliers.  4) Proposal request the company may send a request for proposal to qualified vendor asking them to bid based on product specification.  5) Vendor selection the vendor selection is based on the following criteria :

Steps in Organizational/Industrial buying process  Overall reputation of the supplier, financing terms, technical service offered, convenience in placing the order, data on the reliability of product, quality or price, reliability of the delivery time promised, repair and maintenance service after the date of purchase.  6) Purchase routine selection Involves placing an order specifying all terms with vendor who processes it and ships the product. It is then received, approved and

Steps in Organizational/Industrial buying process  payment is made. Companies often negotiate a contract to cover purchase over specific length of time  7) Post purchase evaluation involves evaluation of supplier s performance by the buyer. It rates the supplier s performance periodically based on quality, price, delivery, post sales service. Vendors may also receive the report so that they may modify their performance for better customer service.

Cognitive Dissonance Theory
 Cognitive

dissonance is a tension between two opposite thoughts after consumer has bought something. The consumer is uncertain of the purchase decision he has made ( whether it is right choice or not)  This theory was developed by the former Stanford University Psychologist Leon Festinger in 1957  Cognition A thought about an object

Cognitive Dissonance Theory
 Cognitive

dissonance refers to the tendency of consumers to worry about the wisdom of major purchases after they have been made.  Ex: A product positioned as a luxury product with an elegant design, expensive packaging, limited distribution, and ads that stress exclusiveness should not be priced at or below an average product create dissonance in the minds of consumers

Cognitive Dissonance Theory
 This

theory suggests that we have an inner drive to hold all our attitudes and beliefs in harmony to avoid disharmony(dissonance discomfort)  This theory refers to the situation involving conflicting attitudes, beliefs or behaviors. Due to this it creates a discomfort which is called dissonance.  When cognitive dissonance occurs after a purchase, it is called post purchase dissonance.

Cognitive Dissonance Theory
 For

instance : when consumers have made a commitment - made a down payment or placed an order for a expensive product (laptop), they often begin to feel cognitive dissonance when the unique qualities of the brand not selected i.e., left behind  The principle of this theory is to reduce post purchase dissonance in consumer purchase decision

Cognitive Dissonance Theory
 It

is one of the theory of Attitude. The basic concept of this theory was derived from the learning hierarchy of attitudes. The hierarchy of attitudes are :  Cognition - Affective -> Conative  (thoughts ->feelings ->actions) i.e, you i.e, think first, feel next & act last.  Attitudes are learned based on some experience or information about object which creates predisposition and cause consistent response.

Cognitive Dissonance Theory
 When

the individual is consistent with the target behavior and the target attitude then it results in consonance. When there is inconsistency between the target behavior and the target attitude then it results dissonance ( which is the theme of cognitive dissonance).  Ex: I like driving car , but if the driving results in accidents or frequent repairs then it creates discomfort or dissonance

Cognitive Dissonance Theory
 In

this ex: driving car is (target behavior A) and as a result of accident and repair which results negative attitude towards the product ( target attitude - B).  This theory states that cognitions are consonant, dissonant and irrelevant. Cognitions are consistent or consonant if A implies B ( A Behavior , B Attitude). Cognitions are consonant when one follows from the another on the basis of logic or experience.

Cognitive Dissonance Theory
 Cognitions

can be inconsistent or dissonant if A is opposite of B. Cognitions are dissonant when they are opposed to one s experience and the relationship of events.  Ex: when an individual buys an expensive car but is not suitable of long drives then it is said to be dissonant  Cognitions can be unrelated or irrelevant if A is not related to B. cognitions are totally irrelevant when two events are not interrelated.

Cognitive Dissonance Theory
 The

extent to which dissonance depends on the significance of the purchase decision, attractiveness of the rejected alternative, the number of the negative views in the choice made, number of options considered , whether the choice is made (forced or voluntary).  Dissonance can be reduced by :  i)changing his/her attitudes  ii) beliefs based on the situation, actively seeking the positive information about chosen alternative

Cognitive Dissonance Theory
 iii)selective

exposure It is the tendency to avoid information inconsistent with one s attitudes/beliefs  Conclusion  Cognitive dissonance helps to reduce post purchase dissonance in consumer purchase decision.  It applies to all situations involving attitude formation and change.  It results in problem-solving and decisionproblemdecisionmaking

Cognitive Dissonance Theory
 Motivation

is a drive that impels the individual to his goal. For ex: as hunger man impels to eat , so does dissonance impels a person to change individual outcomes or behavior.  The marketers need to design consistent marketing mix that matches consumers attitudes, beliefs etc to reduce dissonance

Opinion Leadership
 Opinion

Leaders are the individuals who actively seek information and advice about products/services.  Opinion leaders are also called as influentials.  Ex: Any satisfied customer is a opinion leader.  Opinion leaders have strong informal relationships with the end-users. end-

Opinion Leadership
 Features/characteristics

of opinion leaders  They are socially more active than end users  Opinion leaders are primarily community social leaders whom the mass market is associated because of snob appeal.  Opinion leaders are found in all the areas of society and a specific person can become a opinion leader to a certain product areas and they act as opinion followers to some other areas.

Opinion Leadership
 The

presence of the opinion leaders is effective where the group influence is strong for the products that are visible to whom the buyer respects.  Opinion leaders creates diffused network.  Opinion leaders are prompted by mass media to spread the information while the general public seeks information from them.  If the influence of mass media on public is not direct, powerful or automatic then it is mediated through opinion leaders

Opinion Leadership
 People

who primarily interact within social class and acquire their lifestyle and other ideas from people like themselves are called as opinion leaders.  Opinion leaders are the sources of both information and advice. It is a two way process. The consumers can seek the following information :  Ex: which of the brands are the best, where to shop, who provides the best service, how to make use of the specific product etc

Opinion Leadership
 Opinion

leaders satisfy variety of needs by engaging a product-related conversation productwith the consumer.  They obtain new product or new usage information  They reduce the perceived risk by receiving the primary knowledge from a user about a specific product or brand.  They reduce the search time entailed in the identification of a needed product/service

Opinion Leadership
 Self

involvement motivators reduce post purchase uncertainty. Gain attention or status. Assert superiority and expertise.  Product-involvement motivators express Productsatisfaction or dissatisfaction with a product/service  Social involvement motivators express neighbourhoodness and friendship by discussing about product/service that may be useful to others.

Opinion Leadership
 Message

involvement express one s reaction to a stimulating advertisement by telling others about it  Innovativeness, willingness to talk, selfselfconfidence, adaptability, gregariousness, diffusion etc are some of the qualities of the opinion leaders.

Opinion Leadership
 Measurement

techniques for determining opinion leadership  Self designating method Each respondent is asked a series of questions to determine the degree to which he/she perceives as an opinion leader. This method measures the individual s self perception  Ex: do you influence other people in the selection of the products

Opinion Leadership
 Sociometric

method the members of the social system are asked to identify whom they give advice and to whom they go for advice and information about a product category. This method measures the pattern of the individuals living in the society.  Ex: whom do you ask, who asks you for information about product category.

 Key

informant method carefully selected key information in a social system are asked to designate as opinion leaders  Ex: who are the most influential people in the group  Objective Method it artificially places individuals in a position to act as opinion leaders and measures the results of their efforts. It measures the individuals ability to influence others.

Opinion Leadership

Opinion Leadership
 Conclusion

Opinion Leaders are the individuals who actively seek information and advice about products/services. Opinion leaders may be the friends, neighbours, family members , neighbours, leaders of the social community.  Opinion leadership is effective due to the effective word-of-mouth communication word-of

Opinion Leadership
 Measurement

techniques for determining opinion leadership  Self designating method  Sociometric method  Key informant method  Objective Method

Consumerism
 Consumerism

is a social force which makes the business community more honest, efficient, responsive and responsible.  Consumerism makes manufacturers & sellers compelled to adopt fair trade practices.  Consumerism can be viewed as an opportunity for businessmen to serve the consumers in a better and more effecient way.

Consumerism
 Features/

Characteristics  It proves to be a weapon for marketers to effectively implement the societal concept of marketing.  It helps the consumers to get rid of traders who resort to practices from hoarders, black marketers etc.  It ensures that government takes necessary measures to protect the consumer interests by guaranteeing their legitimate rights.

 It

makes the marketers to provide the true information in their advertisements, truth about labeling & product performance.  Consumerism is the collective action of the consumers to protect their own interest.  It has three determinants business, government and consumers itself.  Through consumerism, it is the moral responsibility of the manufacturer to provide the necessary instructions manual to the consumers along with the product

Consumerism

Consumerism
 To

ensure that the products are safe, products are tested before getting it affixed with the necessary quality standards approval.  Consumer education information and knowledge about company, product etc.  Consumerism is any organised movement of citizens and government to enhance the rights and power of buyer in relation to sellers.

Consumerism
 Factors

influencing consumerism  Poverty & backwardness of the country  Explosive population growth  Unemployment  Illiteracy  Inability to understand the technical complexity of the product.  Disparities in the distribution of income & wealth.

 The

Consumer Protection Act , 1986  It is an important legislation passed by the government of India to ensure a proper system in the protection of consumer rights and the redressal of consumer disputes.  The objectives of this act are  To provide for the better protection of the interests of the consumers  To make establishment of consumer councils and authorities for the settlement of consumer disputes.

Consumerism

Consumerism
 According

to section 2(d) of this act, he who purchases goods for consideration and who hires any services for consideration is a consumer.  To protect the legitimate rights of the consumer.  It includes all the services banking, finance, insurance, transportation etc  This act also ensures right to give protection against marketing of goods which are hazardous, dangerous to life & property

Consumerism
 Right

to give correct information on the quality, quantity, purity and standards of the products/services delivered by the company.  To protect the consumer from unfair trade practices from the marketers.  The right to be able to make a choice from a variety of products at competitive prices.  The right to seek redressal against unfair trade practices and exploitation.  The right to consumer education

Consumerism
 Statutory

Regulators of Consumer Protection Act, 1986  The Monopolies & Restrictive Trade Practices Act ( MRTP Act, 1969)  Drugs Control Act, 1950  Sale of Goods Act, 1935  Essential Commodities Act, 1955  Standard Weights & Measures Act, 1956  Agricultural Products Grading & Marketing Act, 1937

Consumerism
 Topics

covered  Features of Consumerism  Factors influencing Consumerism  The Consumer Protection Act, 1986  Statutory Regulators Consumer Protection Act

Sponsor Documents

Or use your account on DocShare.tips

Hide

Forgot your password?

Or register your new account on DocShare.tips

Hide

Lost your password? Please enter your email address. You will receive a link to create a new password.

Back to log-in

Close