SEMINAR ON ADULT LEARNING AND CONTINUING EDUCATION
Ms. Varnish Kumar
M.Sc. Nursing 1st Year
Submitted on : 06/04/09
ADULT LEARNING AND CONTINUING EDUCATION GENERAL OBJECTIVE At the end of the presentation group will able to gain knowledge about adult learning and continuing education.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES At the end of the presentation group will able to –
Describe about adult learning. To explain about philosophy of adult learning. To explain about adult learning in India. To know about need of learning for adults. To explain about continuing education. To know about continuing education. To understand about continuing education. To explain function of continuing education. To know about philosophy of continuing education. To describe about element of continuing education. To describe planning of continuing education. To explain writing the proposal of continuing education To explain about organization pattern chart of continuing education.
ADULT LEARNING INTRODUCTION
Democracy can succeed only when the general public is adequately educated in the principles and implications of the same. This is possible only when the people are literate. So after the achievement of independence our leaders planned to promote education of the illiterate adult who were entitled to vote.
PHILOSOPHY OF ADULT EDUCATION Adult education does not imply only to make adult literate. In fact, it means to educate total personality of the adult and adult literacy is of fundamental importance for the all round development of the country. We make them literate in other words we help them to acquire command over the tools of knowledge or reading, in acquiring this command, we strive to educate them into economic, social and political problems of the day in order that they may become intelligent citizens for taking right decisions when they are faced with a number of alternatives. If they fail to acquire this skill, the mean and self centered people will exploit them for their own interest. Consequently, the democracy will fail and will yield place to dictatorship. From the above it is clear that the purpose of adult learning is not merely to impart bookish knowledge. In fact it aims at education of the total personality of the adult. This will possible only when we try to develop in them various types of skill with a view to make them successful and socially useful members of the society. We have to help the adult to acquire useful knowledge in professional, political, economic and social spheres.
ADULT LEARNING IN INDIA
Adult education must e taken up earnestly and systematically. Much has been done in the area of adult education in many Western countries. In their comparison e have done very little in this field. In the Western countries adult education has been made available to laborer, women and a many service-class people. Though adult education they have not been made only literate, but they have also further developed their professional skills in commerce, industry, technology and science. They are given free education evening and part-time day classes and University extension classes have been arranged for the benefit of these people. So far we have been able to do a little in this field.
NEED OF EDUCATION FOR ADULTS
Individual equipment and satisfaction of needs. For further education. To enlarge the cultured span of the individual For healthy recreation and relaxation properly planned program of social
education will provided. Political consciousness and civic participation. Social efficiency and co-operation. Economic betterment and self sufficient.
CONTINUING EDUCATION INTRODUCTION
Continuing nursing education is a modern imperative. It must be future-oriented, geared to the facing of new situation and to the making of new responses appropriate for these situations. Continuing nursing education programs should be developed by nurses and conducted within nursing or in general education system in cooperation with the nurses.
DEFINITION “Continuing education is all the learning activities that occurs after an individual has completed his basic education”. Cooper “That education which builds on previous education” – Shannon
Unified approach Relationships with others systems Comprehensiveness Accessibility for women health workers Integration with the management process Analysis of needs as a basis for learning continuity Internally coordinated Relevance in planning Credibility and economic Appropriateness in implementation
NEED To ensure safe and effective nursing care, nurse need to keep abreast with internet, knowledge and technical advances.
Development of nurses will occur by updating their knowledge and prepare them for specialization. For career advancement. Nurses with research aptitudes and preparation are needed. Nurses in administrative positions need to increase their understanding of the administrative process. Nursing functions require a high degree of skill, knowledge, competence and educational preparation. The demand for specialized nursing service is increasing more rapidly. It provides opportunities for educational growth compatible with the realities of both work situation and the home responsibilities. To provide and prepare faculty who see continuing nursing education as a personal responsibility as well as professional and university responsibility. To provide a variety of continuing nursing education opportunities of high quality to nurses in both education and service changes.
To meet the health needs and public expectations. To develop the practicing abilities of the nurse. Recruitment function. Recognize gaps in their knowledge. To test ability to do final academic study. To improve the communication between the participants, faculty, community
and health sector. To test the participants ability to do formal academic study. To shape or support university educational policies and practices. To ensure the quality of education. To grant budget for extension studies. To maintain academic standards. To meet educational requirement.
Continuing nursing education is concerned with the development of the nurses as a person, a practitioner and a citizen. These are closely interrelated, but each must be considered in indentifying philosophy of education. Nurse’s philosophy of life, nursing and education, belief, etc. will influence the philosophy of continuing nursing education. It focuses on individual learner. Philosophy provides a direction for action, it is useful to think through one’s personal philosophy. The educator has to think through his personal values and belief. One’s personal philosophy of education is expresses not by what he says he believes, but by what he does, what one believes about learning. Philosophy is based on values social change. The thoughtful teacher recognizes that one’s philosophy of education is always an emerging one, rather than a static one. Learning must be a continues process throughout the lifespan, not limited to formal courses of study. Facts are more meaningful and more readily learned when there is an opportunity for immediate application.
ELEMENTS The philosophies of continuing nursing education recognize the 1) Learner as a person, as a nurse and as a citizen. Thus continuing nursing education is seen as a totality, a sound philosophy of education recognizes all three aspects of lifelong learning. Diversity is a part of learning process and contributes to the development of the individual so the teacher has to make the learner to involve in nursing and non-nursing courses, e.g. music, dance, participating in extra-curricular activities. It encourages provincialism among nurses, benefit by learning with persons from other walks of life.
The learner in his plays many different roles e.g. adult, family member, learner friend, etc. for every aspect of life there are some continuing elements. It aims as self-directed learning 2) Teacher/Nurse educator He has to accept the concept of life long learning and his responsibility to encourage nurses to recognize the value of participating in different types of educational activities. Teacher should act as a role model. The skillful teacher has to aware of the difference in learning what is already
know and encouraging exploration in those areas yet to be discovered. Guide and counselor to the learner. Motivator and an encourager of students. Evaluator of programs Producing instructional material. Administrative role (Panning, directing, budgeting and evaluation). Universalisation of continuing Nursing Education is necessary.
PRINCIPLES : Provision for school and nursing faculty involvement in planning and teaching the continuing nursing education courses tends to maintain high educational standards for the programme. An adequate staff is essential to planning, implementing and evaluating a programme which is based on learning needs and which has an impact on the quality of nursing care provided. Responsibilities of the director of continuing nursing education are o Determination of learning needs of the nurse population. o Development and implementation of a programme to meet these needs. o Evaluation of results. Staff services are required with sufficient talent and numbers to implement the planned programme. o Advisory.
o Secretarial o Administrative o Supportive (Additional
periodically) o Assistance with Research Publicity questionnaire Evaluation tools Data analysis Computer programming An advisory committee has to be appointed which includes : Faculty members from a variety of areas of nursing practice. Directors of hospital nursing services. Representatives from the state licensing authority, health department and voluntary agencies. Regional Medical programme. Other agencies involved in the delivery of health care in the community.
PLANNING : A successful continuing Nursing education programme is the result of careful and detailed planning. Aspect of continuing nursing education planning Broad planning by institution and agencies responsible for continuing Nursing Education. Specific planning by individuals for their own continuing education. Planning to essential in o Meet the nursing needs o Use available resources o Avoid duplication and fragmentation of effort.
o Help keep at a minimum any gaps in meeting the continuing education needs of nurses. o The selection of teaching faculty may depend upon the availability of the person rather than his expertise or teaching ability.
PLANNING PROCESS : 1) Establishing goals with the purpose of philosophy of the organization. Purpose gives direction in planning. It identifies the reason for existence. Purpose are based on the learning needs and social needs. So it has to be reviewed from time to time and restated as appropriate. 2) Establishing goals and objectives : Planning moves towards goals which are significant and realistic, which can be attained. Goals servers to stimulate and direct action should be reachable. An objective is specific, it is a desired end or accomplishment to be sought. 3) Determining needs and priorities (the course of action required to meet the specific objective) 4) Assess the available resources for establishing the programme. 5) Plan the budget appropriate for the programme.
WRITING THE PROPOSAL The proposal should be written with carefulness clean, concise familiar terms which include enough detail so that reviewers have a thorough understanding of what the project intends to accomplish.
FORMAT FOR PROPOSAL PREPARATION : 1. Cover sheet includes Name of project Summary of project (optional, one paragraph) Name of funding source to which proposal is directed. Name and address of institution submitting project. Name of principal initiator and other involved in proposal preparation. Date of submission. 2. Proposal abstract (optional) 3. Proposal Narrative. A) Statement of objectives : Describe the nature of problem. Document existence of problem with appropriate data. Describe the existing efforts to solve problem or create opportunity. Define target group. State goals of project. B) Procedure : Describe phases or sequences of procedure. Describe work performed at each stage and duration. Show how work will be organized. Personal handling each component of work. C) Facilities requires D) Resources that will be tapped. E) Evaluation procedure. 4. Budget Narrative Explain each budgetary item. Criteria and data used to make estimates.
Breakdown of budgetary materials where appropriate. 5. Appendices : Statement outlining qualifications of institution requesting funds. Vitae of personnel involved. Supporting statement from proposed clientele. Supporting statements from cooperating individuals or agencies.
ORGANISATION Programming of professional courses in Nursing is a joint responsibility of a director of continuing Nursing Education and a Dean of school of nursing the formal channels of communication make possible the optional use of the nursing faculty to explore the needs of continuing nursing.
ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERN CHARTS
ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERN – A Organizational chart of continuing Nursing Education showing joint responsibility for the continuing Nursing Education.
BOARD OF REGENTS
DEAN OF CONTINUING NURSING EDUCATION
DEAN OF SCHOOL OF NURSING
DEAN OF OTHER DEPARTMENTS
DIRECTOR OF CONFERENCES
DIRECTOR OF CONTINUING NURSING EDUCATION
ADVISORY COMMITTEE CONTINUING NURSING EDUCATION
BOARD OF REGENTS
OTHER DEANS ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERN – B
DEAN OF SCHOOL OF NURSING
Organizational chart of continuing education in nursing showing decentralized responsibility for the continuing nursing education programme at a departmental DIRECTOR OF DIRECTOR OF DIRECTOR OF level. CONTINUING NURSING GRADUATE EDUCATION PROGRAMME PROGRAMME
BOARD OF REGENTS
DEAN OF CONTINUING EDUCATION
DEAN OF SCHOOL OF NURSING
DIRECTOR OF GRADUATE AND BASIC PROGRAMMES
ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERN – C CONTINUING OTHER Nursing SCHOOL Organizational chart showing joint responsibility for the continuing EDUCATION OF NURSING education programme on a committee level. COMMITTEE
COORDINATOR FOR CONTINUING EDUCATION
BOARD OF REGENTS
PRESIDENT Organizational chart showing centralized responsibility for the continuing Nursing Education Programme. DEAN OF GENERAL
DEAN OF SCHOOL OF NURSING
DIRECTOR OF NURSING
CONCLUSION : Adult learning Democracy can succeed only when only when the general public is adequately educated in the principles and implications of the same. In adult learning we will discuss in philosophy of adult learning, adult learning in India. Need of education for adult. Continuing Nursing education is a Modern imperative, it must be future – oriented. In continuing education discuss in Definition of continuing education, Features, Need, Function, philosophy, elements, principles planning, planning process, writing the proposal and organization pattern chart.
BIBLIOGRAPHY 1) Neerja K.P textbook of nursing education jaypee brothers medical publishers (LTD) ,First edition 2003, Page No. -386-395 2) Huston, carol J.professional issues in nursing chanllanger and opportunities Lippincot Williams and Wilkins edition 2006 Page No. 356-359 3) Andrist linda C.A. history of nursing ideas,jones and bartlet,boston taronto London ,edition-2006, Page No. 344-345 4) Sharma B.M., Global education series 7 distance education, common wealth, first publish 2007, Page No. 120-130 5) Zwemer ann, professional adjustment and ethics for nurses in India, Publish by K.V Mathew For B.I Publication, Edition 6th, Page No. 233-240