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SELECTIVE ATTENTION Tendency of a consumer to pay attention only to messages that address a need or interest or are consistent with the consumer's attitudes, opinions, and beliefs. Selective attention is why consumers make more impulse purchases when they go to the grocery store on an empty stomach than when they go after a meal. A marketer can bypass selective attention by delivering its message in the absence of competing stimuli such as to the captive audience in a doctor's waiting room.

SELECTIVE RETENSION A perceptual process in which consumers retain in long term memory only a small fraction of the advertising messages that reach to them. If the consumer’s initial attitude toward the brand is positive and he or she rehearses support argument, the message is likely to be accepted and have high recall. If the initial attitude is negative and the consumer rehearses counter arguments, the message is likely to be rejected but stays in long-term memory. PERSUASIVE ADVERTISING Persuasive advertising is a component in an overall advertising strategy that seeks to entice consumers into purchasing specific goods or services, often by appealing to their emotions and general sensibilities. This particular advertising strategy is different from informative advertising, which essentially provides the customer with hard data about the nature and function of the product. With persuasive advertising, the assumption is that the consumer already understands the basic nature of the product, but needs to be convinced of the desirability and the benefits that set a particular product apart from the competition. One of the more effective approaches to persuasive advertising is to focus on specific benefits of the product. While those same benefits may also be found with competing products, the idea is to convey that a given product provides that benefit in a way that is hard to find elsewhere. For example, advertising for a given shampoo may note that the product contains ingredients designed to nourish dry hair, leaving the hair shiny and manageable. Even though other products contain similar ingredients, this particular shampoo gains a reputation for being ideal for people with hair that is dry and brittle, and thus attracts a specific sector of consumers. Another approach to persuasive advertising is to convey the perception that using a given product will help an individual be more successful with some area of his or her life. A brand of mouthwash may use media advertising to convey the message that using the product assures the breath is fresh for a longer period of time, and therefore helps to enhance the confidence of the user when interacting with other people. This same general approach is used with perfumes and colognes, where the advertising creates the perception that anyone who uses the product will be more attractive and socially successful. It is important to note that persuasive advertising does not actually state that if the consumer uses a given product, the effect illustrated in the advertising will automatically take place. The idea is to convey the perception that there is a good chance that the consumer will experience some type of benefit that is similar to what is portrayed in the print ad or the television commercial. In fact, some examples of persuasive advertising go as far as to include a disclaimer that the situation displayed in the advertising is only an example, and not the only possible outcome. This approach is often used in advertising for legal firms, in that the disclaimer notes that the advertising does not imply that the services provided by the firm are necessarily superior to those provided by other legal firms. INDUSTRIAL ADVERTISING Also known as business to business or b2b advertising, industrial advertising is the strategy of attracting the attention of another business and convincing that company to purchase the goods and services offered by another business. This type of advertising will likely use all the normal forms of generating publicity, including the placement of print ads in appropriate periodicals, direct mail campaigns, and any other means that is likely to produce the desired sales. Industrial advertising is common within just about every profession or industry type, and helps to meet the demand for a wide range of items that are necessary to conducting business within that industry. With an industrial advertising situation, the key component is to provide something that a particular business needs in order to function. For example, a business that produces raw olefin fiber will seek to attract the attention of a business that refines various man-made and natural fibers for the creation of upholstery for furniture, car seats, and other objects. In terms of services, a telephone company will want to attract the attention of businesses that operate call centers, and require a number of inbound and outbound telephone lines for that call center. The exact strategies used in an industrial advertising campaign will vary somewhat, depending on the nature of the industry involved. Print ads in trade magazines related to the industry are one common approach. The ads are often geared to attract the attention of decision-makers within other companies, and motivate them to seek out more information about what the producer can offer in the way of quality goods or services. To reinforce these ads in trade magazines, the same basic format may be used for a direct mail piece that is sent out to those same decision-makers. The same basic text and graphics may also be the basis for a targeted email advertising campaign, with the emails sent only to individuals who have indicated through some third party that they are interested in receiving emails of that type. Just about any type of products can be marketed to other businesses. In manufacturing circles, promoting raw materials, manufacturing equipment, and the parts needed to keep that equipment operational are often the focus of b2b or industrial advertising. In like manner, communications services, network systems support, business travel support, and all sorts of services are promoted as part of an advertising campaign. There are even businesses that specialize in designing promotional materials for other businesses, such as giveaway items for use at conventions and other gatherings, or for distribution among existing and prospective clients. If a company needs a certain good or service

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in order to enhance the productivity of the operation, there is certain to be other companies who have what they need, and are actively advertising in different mediums that the company is certain to make use of on a regular basis. CORPORATE ADVERTISING Corporate advertising is a promotional strategy that is designed to not only interest consumers in products and services offered by the company, but also to cultivate a positive reputation among consumers and others within the business world. The focus of corporate advertising is on the company itself, with the attention to the products produced by the corporation being a by product of the advertising effort. This type of corporate marketing is often employed along with advertising campaigns that are directly focused on the goods and services produced by the company. The main function of corporate advertising is to generate and enhance a sense of confidence and appeal among vendors and consumers. Depending on the exact nature of the corporate marketing approach, the advertising may also be developed with an eye of enhancing the reputation of the company among its peers in a community or within a given sector of the marketplace. In any application, the idea is to build the most agreeable public image for the corporation as possible. It is not unusual for a company to engage in corporate advertising as a means of dealing with some incident or factor that has damaged the reputation of the company. Factors may include unsubstantiated claims made about the business practices of the company, or some aspect of the quality of the products produced by the corporation. Corporate advertising campaigns may also help to restore consumer confidence when a takeover or merger involving the company takes place. From this perspective, a well-crafted corporate advertising campaign is a powerful tool for use in damage control situations, and may be capable or restoring confidence after the public perception of the business has been tarnished in some manner. While corporate advertising does include some mention of company products, the object of this type of advertising is not directly aimed at generating sales. Instead, corporate ads focus on the strength and reliability of the company as a whole, the integrity that the business employs in all its business relationships, and how the company seeks to better the circumstances of the geographic locations where it operates. As part of this process, it is not unusual for one or more of the leading products to be mentioned, but there is usually no mention of pricing or upcoming discounts of products found within corporate advertising campaigns. Those are left to product advertising efforts that focus specifically on the goods produced for sale. ADVERTISING INFORMATION Our Campaigns Work Whatever your goals, Directions can help to build your campaign with a balance of both direct newsletter advertising and high visibility on our website. We can support your brand through banner advertising, media sponsorships, and targeted surveys. We are extremely cost effective in reaching a worldwide readership and have helped many companies such as Microsoft, ESRI, Autodesk, Intergraph, MapInfo, MapQuest, Sun Microsystems, and others with successful ad campaigns. Loyal Readers Directions is an internet publication, first and foremost. We are committed to delivering the top industry stories with comprehensive analysis, and our readers rely upon us daily for the most comprehensive news coverage – when it happens! In one easily-navigable place, our readers receive a complete resource to the information they need. Editorial Experience The editors of Directions Media publications represent combined industry experience of over 80 years. Readers look to them for both editorial objectivity and comprehensive news analysis. Each has served directly in management roles as either users of location technology or in senior management roles with software solution providers. They represent the most experienced staff among all GIS industry publications. Media Sponsorship Directions Media takes pride in its partnerships with several conferences as a media sponsor such as URISA, GITA, National States Geographic Information Council, GEOdiffusion, ASPRS, The Vespucci School, NAVTEQ's LBS Challenge, ESRI's Annual User Conference, MapInfo's MapWorld, DGI Europe, LiDAR Mapping Forum, and others. Learn more about our reader demographics and the audience we serve through Directions Media. TRANFORMATIONAL ADVERTISING An ad that associates the experience of using (consuming) the advertised brand with a unique set of psychological characteristics that would not typically be associated with brand experience to the same degree without exposure to the advertisement. Transformational ads create feelings, images meanings, and beliefs about the product or service that may be activated when consumers use it, transforming their interpretation of the usage experience. STATEGIC VS TACTICAL ADVERTISING

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There are two types of marketing: 1. Strategic Marketing and 2. Tactical Marketing Strategic marketing has to do with What you Say, How you Say it and Who you Say it To. In other words, it's the content of your marketing message. Tactical marketing is the execution of your strategic marketing plan as far as generating leads, placing media, creating marketing tools and implementing a follow-up system. In other words, it's the medium your message is delivered in. How Big Is The Distinction Between Strategic and Tactical Marketing? The distinction between strategic and tactical marketing is huge. Most people mistakenly assume that when you talk about marketing that you're automatically talking about Tactical Marketing such as: * Placing ads * Lead generation * Creating brochures * Sending out mailers * Attending trade shows * implementing a follow-up system They fail to realize that the strategic side of the equation: What you Say How you Say it Who you Say it To - is almost always more important than the marketing medium where you say it. To succeed as an Internet Marketer, a thorough understanding of this difference is crucial. The basic definition of good communication is: * Have something good to say * Say it well * Say it often The best marketing and advertising in the world can not make a bad company good. Oh it may generate some attention and make some advertising agency a lot of money or win them an award (, but saying something good about a company that can not execute what it claims is a recipe for failure. A traditional advertising agency will use the C&R method of marketing Creativity and Repetition tries to capitalize on some creative ad using something that is unusual or exciting and then blast it all over the world using TV, Bill boards, newspapers, magazines, etc. in an attempt to build "Brand" awareness. EXAMPLE OF THEMATIC CAMPAIGN Pepsico has rolled out a new thematic campaign for its lemon-flavoured beverage, 7UP. The campaign expands on the theme of ‘lemon refreshment’ with an aim of reiterating the ‘fresh and cool’ positioning of the brand. ABOVE THE LINE BELLOW THE LINE PROMOTIONAL MIX. Above the line (ATL), below the line (BTL), and through the Line (TTL), in organizational business and marketing communications, are advertising techniques.

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In a nutshell, while ATL promotions are tailored for a mass audience, Bs are targeted at individuals according to their needs or preferences. While ATL promotions can establish brand identity, BTL can actually lead to a sale. ATL promotions are also difficult to measure well, while BTL promotions are highly measurable, giving marketers valuable insights into their return-on-investment. Promotional activities carried out through mass media, such as television, radio and newspaper, are classed as "above the line" promotion. "Below the line" promotion refers to forms of non-media communication or advertising, and has become increasingly important in the communications mix of many companies, not only those involved in fast moving consumer goods, but also for industrial goods. "Through the line" refers to an advertising strategy involving both above and below the line communications in which one form of advertising points the target to another form of advertising thereby crossing the "line". Above the line sales promotion ATL is a type of advertising through media such as television, cinema, radio, print, web banners and web search engines to promote brands. This type of communication is conventional in nature and is considered impersonal to customers. It differs from BTL advertising, which uses unconventional brand-building strategies, such as direct mail and printed media (and usually involves no motion graphics). It is much more effective when the target group is very large and difficult to define. The term comes from top business managers and involves the way in which Procter & Gamble, one of the world’s biggest advertising clients, was charged for its media in the 1950s and 1960s. Advertising agencies made so much commission from booking media for clients that the creative generation and actual production costs of making TV ads was free hence above the line. Everything else they paid for and was therefore below the line.Since then, models have changed and clients are no longer charged for their media in that way The line Used loosely, ATL still means mass media. However the media landscape has shifted so dramatically that advertisers have reconsidered the definitions of mass media. For some marketers the "line" divides the realm of "Awareness or Attention focused marketing" and that of "Interest + Desire focused marketing". Since audience numbers in the Interest and Desire phase of the AIDA sales model narrow down to a fraction of the Awareness audience, the line could be drawn right below the awareness set of activities. Loosely put, everything done prior to a customer's actual entry into a retail outlet is ATL for these retailers, as they define shop-floor activities as the true BTL set of activities which decide on which brand sells eventually. Below the line sales promotion BTL sales promotion is an immediate or delayed incentive to purchase, expressed in cash or in kind, and having short duration. It is efficient and cost-effective for targeting a limited and specific group. It uses less conventional methods than the usual ATL channels of advertising, typically focusing on direct means of communication, most commonly direct mail and e-mail, often using highly targeted lists of names to maximize response rates. BTL services may include those for which a fee is agreed upon and charged up front. BTL is a common technique used for "touch and feel" products (consumer items where the customer will rely on immediate information rather than previously researched items). BTL techniques ensures recall of the brand while at the same time highlighting the features of the product. Another BTL technique involves sales personnel deployed at retail stores near targeted products. This technique may be used to generate trials of newly launched products. Through the line More recently, agencies and clients have switched to an "Integrated Communication Approach", or "through the line" approach. TTL is a neologism describing an existing process, according to Altaf Jasnaik, Corporate Communications and Branding Manager at Sharp Middle East & Africa. In the TTL approach, a mix of ATL and BTL are used to integrate a marketer's efforts and optimize returns from these separate investments. Recently the TTL approach has shifted its emphasis more towards BTL. The idea remains to optimize the return on marketing budget spent by focusing one's energy on winning smaller yet more crucial BTL battles than ATL wars with well-funded competition. According to EBS Worldwide, mainstream mass broadcast marketing is increasingly being viewed as uneconomical, in terms of return on investment, which is where BTL marketing fits in. a few examples could be - bus stand hoardings, pamphlets,small informational sheets along with the newspaper.etc PUBLIC SERVICE ADVERTISING Public service advertising is designed to inform the public on issues that are frequently considered to be in the general best interests of the community at large. Typically, it reflects a political viewpoint, philosophical theory, religious concept or humanitarian notion. It is also commonly referred to as a public service announcement (PSA) or a community service announcement (CSA). The ads are usually broadcast on radio or television, but may also appear in newspapers or magazines. They are prevalent in industrialized countries throughout the world.

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PSAs are commonly aimed at altering public attitudes by raising consciousness about particular issues. Health, conservation and safety themes are prevalent in many PSAs. The public service advertising campaigns are often sponsored by trade associations, civic organizations, non-profit institutions or religious groups. The U.S. military, in addition to paid advertising, regularly produces PSAs as part of their recruitment efforts. Some PSA ads use celebrity spokespersons to garner attention. Others attempt to appeal to the masses through portraying risks and issues relevant to ordinary men, women and children. A common misconception about public service advertising is that it includes political campaign ads, which are actually privately funded. Most public service advertising involves joint efforts of the private and public sectors. Non-profit groups and government agencies commonly team up with private mass media, promotion and advertising firms to produce spots for radio, television and print media. Most commonly, the non-profit agency creates the message and an advertising firm develops the campaign, polishes it to meet industry standards and plans its distribution, all free of charge. Television and radio stations usually broadcast these ads at no charge, and magazines and newspapers customarily publish them for free as well. In recent years, it has become commonplace for U.S. television stations to feature public service advertising spots immediately following a broadcast that has focused on an issue considered sensitive and of concern to many members of the general public. These PSA broadcasts generally offer addresses, Web sites and toll-free telephone numbers for information sources. Some of the topics focused on in the PSAs have included rape, child abuse, domestic violence, AIDS and civil rights. Reach and Frequency Reach and Frequency are advertising terms. Reach is the number of different people who are exposed an advertising message at least once. Frequency is the number of times thay are exposed to the message. A related term is coverage, which is the potential number of people exposed to a message. In print media, reach and coverage are usually synonymous; in broadcast, coverage refers to the number of households living in communities that carry the broadcast, not those that actually are tuned in. On the Internet, you have global coverage, an attractive concept. What you need to be concerned with however, is reach, the number of individuals who actually visit your page, and frequency, the number of times they return . If you buy banner ads (advertising you pay for on other people's sites; more about that later) the sponsor should be able to report the number of people exposed to your ad and the number of "click through," or the number of people who click on the hyperlink to visit your site. They should also be able to collect data translating this into more effective reach and frequency. The coverage of the Internet is attractive to people marketing to diverse markets, where advertising using traditional media would be prohibitively expensive.

Advertising agency An advertising agency or ad agency is a service business dedicated to creating, planning and handling advertising (and sometimes other forms of promotion) for its clients. An ad agency is independent from the client and provides an outside point of view to the effort of selling the client's products or services. An agency can also handle overall marketing and branding strategies and sales promotions for its clients. Typical ad agency clients include businesses and corporations, non-profit organizations and government agencies. Agencies may be hired to produce an advertising campaign. Types of advertising agencies Ad agencies come in all sizes and include everything from one or two-person shops (which rely mostly on freelance talent to perform most functions), small to medium sized agencies, large independents such as SMART and multi-national, multi-agency conglomerates such as Omnicom Group, WPP Group, Publicis, Interpublic Group of Companies and Havas. Limited-Service Advertising Agencies Some advertising agencies limit the amount and kind of service they offer. Such agencies usually offer only one or two of the basic services. For example, although some agencies that specialize in "creative" also offer strategic advertising planning service, their basic interest is in the creation of advertising. Similarly, some "media-buying services" offer media planning service but concentrate on media buying, placement, and billing. When the advertiser chooses to use limited-service advertising agencies, it must assume some of the advertising planning and coordination activities that are routinely handled by the full-service advertising agency. Thus, the advertiser who uses limited-service agencies usually takes greater responsibility for the strategic planning function, gives greater strategic direction to specialist creative or media agencies, and

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exercises greater control over the product of these specialized agencies, ensuring that their separate activities are well-ordered and coordinated. Specialist Advertising Agencies In addition to the full-service, general-line advertising agencies, there are also agencies that specialize in particular kinds of advertising: recruitment, help-wanted, medical, classified, industrial, financial, direct-response, retail, yellow pages, theatrical/entertainment, investment, travel, and so on. Specialization occurs in such fields for a variety of reasons. Often, as in recruitment advertising, for example, specialized media or media uses are involved that require knowledge and expertise not ordinarily found in a general-line agency. In other cases, such as medical or industrial advertising, the subject is technical and requires that writers and artists have training in order to write meaningful advertising messages about it. Such specialist advertising agencies are also usually "full-service," in that they offer all the basic advertising agency services in their area of specialization plus other, peripheral advertising services related to their area of specialization. In-House Advertising Agencies Some advertisers believe that they can provide such advertising services to themselves at a lower cost than would be charged by an outside agency. Interactive agencies Interactive agencies may differentiate themselves by offering a mix of web design/development, search engine marketing, internet advertising/marketing, or e-business/e-commerce consulting. Interactive agencies rose to prominence before the traditional advertising agencies fully embraced the Internet. Offering a wide range of services, some of the interactive agencies grew very rapidly, although some have downsized just as rapidly due to changing market conditions. Today, the most successful interactive agencies are defined as companies that provide specialized advertising and marketing services for the digital space. The digital space is defined as any multimedia-enabled electronic channel that an advertiser's message can be seen or heard from. The 'digital space' translates to the Internet, kiosks, CD-ROMs, DVDs, and lifestyle devices (iPod, PSP, and mobile). Interactive agencies function similarly to advertising agencies, although they focus solely on interactive advertising services. They deliver services such as strategy, creative, design, video, development, programming (Flash and otherwise), deployment, management, and fulfillment reporting. Often, interactive agencies provide: digital lead generation, digital brand development, interactive marketing and communications strategy, rich media campaigns, interactive video brand experiences, Web 2.0 website design and development, e-learning Tools, email marketing, SEO/SEM services, PPC campaign management, content management services, web application development, and overall data mining & ROI assessment. The recent boost in the interactive agencies can also be attributed to the rising popularity of web-based social networking and community sites. The creation of sites such as MySpace, Facebook and YouTube have sparked market interest, as some interactive agencies have started offering personal and corporate community site development as one of their service offerings. It still may be too early to tell how agencies will use this type of marketing to monetize client ROI, but all signs point to online networking as the future of brand marketing and Interactive being the core of Brand's Communication and Marketing Strategy. Due to the social networking explosion, new types of companies are doing reputation management. This type of agency is especially important if a company needs online damage control. If a customer becomes disgruntled, it is very easy to damage a company's reputation via social networking sites. Because of how rapidly the information spreads, it becomes absolutely necessary to address any rumors, gossip or other negative online press immediately. Search engine agencies Lately, pay per click (PPC) and search engine optimization (SEO) firms have been classified by some as 'agencies' because they create media and implement media purchases of text based (or image based, in some instances of search marketing) ads. This relatively young industry has been slow to adopt the term 'agency', however with the creation of ads (either text or image) and media purchases, they do technically qualify as 'advertising agencies'. Social media agencies Social media agencies specialize in promotion of brands in the various social media platforms like blogs, social networking sites, Q&A sites, discussion forums, microblogs etc. The two key services of social media agencies are:

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social media marketing online reputation management

Healthcare communications agencies Healthcare communications agencies specialize in strategic communications and marketing services for the Healthcare and Life Science industries. These agencies distinguish themselves through an understanding of the strict labeling and marketing guidelines mandated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and industry group guidelines, most notably ADVAMED and PHARMA.

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Medical education agencies Medical education agencies specialize in creating educational content for the Healthcare and Life Science industries. These agencies typically specialize in one of two areas:

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Promotional education - education and training materials tied to the promotion of a given product or therapy Continuing medical education - accredited education and training materials created for continuing physician and medical professional education.

Other agencies While not advertising agencies, enterprise technology agencies often work in tandem with advertising agencies to provide a specialized subset of services offered by some interactive agencies: Web 2.0 website design and development, Content management systems, web application development, and other intuitive technology solutions for the web, mobile devices and emerging digital platforms. The student-run advertising agency model, which mainly operates out of university classrooms or as a student groups, provides free advertising services to clients in exchange for the educational opportunity. Agency departments Creative department The people who create the actual ads form the core of an advertising agency. Modern advertising agencies usually form their copywriters and art directors into creative teams. Creative teams may be permanent partnerships or formed on a project-by-project basis. The art director and copywriter report to a creative director, usually a creative employee with several years of experience. Although copywriters have the word "write" in their job title, and art directors have the word "art", one does not necessarily write the words and the other draw the pictures; they both generate creative ideas to represent the proposition (the advertisement or campaign's key message). Once they receive the creative brief from their account team, the creative team will concept ideas to take to their creative director for feedback. This can often be a back and forth process, occurring several times before several ads are set to present to the client. Creative departments frequently work with outside design or production studios to develop and implement their ideas. Creative departments may employ production artists as entrylevel positions, as well as for operations and maintenance. The creative process forms the most crucial part of the advertising process. Account services Agencies appoint account executive to liase with the clients. The account executives need to be sufficiently aware of the client’s needs and desires that can be instructed to the agency’s personnel and should get approval from the clients on the agency’s recommendations to the clients. Creativity and marketing acumen are the needed area of the client service people. They work closely with the specialists in each field. The account manager will develop a creative brief, usually about a page that gives direction to the creative team. The creative brief often includes information about the target audience and their attitudes and behaviors. The creative team will take the brief and, aware of their parameters, develop original copy and graphics depending on media strategy. Media services The media services department may not be so well known, but its employees are the people who have contacts with the suppliers of various creative media. For example, they will be able to advise upon and negotiate with printers if an agency is producing flyers for a client. However, when dealing with the major media (broadcast media, outdoor, and the press), this work is usually outsourced to a media agency which can advise on media planning and is normally large enough to negotiate prices down further than a single agency or client can. They can often be restrained by the client's budget, in which, the media strategy will inform the creative team what media platform they'll be developing the ad for. Modern agencies might also have a media planning department integrated, which does all the spot's planning and placements Production Without the production department, the ads created by the copywriter and art director would be nothing more than words and pictures on paper. The production department, in essence, ensures the TV commercial or print ad, etc., gets produced. They are responsible for contracting external vendors (directors and production companies in the case of TV commercials; photographers and design studios in the case of the print advertising or direct mailers). Producers are involved in every aspect of a project, from the initial creative briefing through execution and delivery. In some agencies, senior producers are known as "executive producers" or "content architects". Other departments and personnel In small agencies, employees may do both creative and account service work. Larger agencies attract people who specialize in one or the other, and indeed include a number of people in specialized positions: production work, Internet advertising, planning, or research, for example.

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An often forgotten, but integral, department within an advertising agency is traffic. The traffic department regulates the flow of work in the agency. It is typically headed by a traffic manager (or system administrator). Traffic increases an agency's efficiency and profitability through the reduction of false job starts, inappropriate job initiation, incomplete information sharing, over- and under-cost estimation and the need for media extensions. In small agencies without a dedicated traffic manager, one employee may be responsible for managing workflow, gathering cost estimates and answering the phone, for example. Large agencies may have a traffic department of five or more employees. Advertising interns are typically university juniors and seniors who are genuinely interested in and have an aptitude for advertising. Internships at advertising agencies most commonly fall into one of five areas of expertise: account services, interactive, media, public relations and traffic. University students working on the creative side can find internships as a assistant art director or assistant copywriter. An internship program in account services usually involves fundamental work within account management as well as offering exposure to other facets of the agency. The primary responsibility of this position is to assist account managers. Functions of the account management intern may include: • Research and analysis: Gathering information regarding industry, competition, customer product or service; as well as presenting findings in verbal/written form with recommendations • Involvement in internal meetings and, when appropriate, client meetings • Assisting account services in the management of creative projects Interns often take part in the internal creative process, where they may be charged with creating and managing a website as well as developing an advertising campaign. Hands on projects such as these help interns learn how strategy and well-developed marketing are essential to a sound advertising and communications plan. During their internship, the intern will experience the development of an ad, brochure and broadcast or communications project from beginning to end. During the internship, the intern should be exposed to as much as possible within the agency and advertising process.

Advantages Of Print Media What are the Advantages Of Print Media over a number of other advertising media formats. The advertising media format of the moment has to be Online advertising - but does it clean up in every department? The traditionalists (and magazine and newspaper publishers) will say no and the fact of the matter is that magazine advertising and newspaper advertising does have its advantages in the media advertising mix. One of the main advantages of print media is its capacity to excite and stimulate when people are in a relaxed frame of mind. Even though Internet Advertising has the edge in cost per lead terms, it is print media that seems to stay with us. If you run a campaign of magazine advertisements you are unlikely to be able to monitor the effectiveness of that schedule in direct response terms. However, print media seems to be moving away from direct response anyway and is now positioning itself as a corporate, brand awareness or back-up media to other formats of advertising. One of the other main advantages of print is its credibility. If you see it in print, it usually holds a higher position of respect and value - one thing that the internet is falling down on, due to the fact that it is very much a content-led format and therefore depends very much on results from search engines. Of course, people who want to make money from ad clicks are abusing this, by putting up very poor content. Whatever you say about print media, it is here to stay and continues to be a valuable tool for advertisers, publishers and readers like you and me. DIRECT MARKETING OBJECTIVE From marketing giants such as AT&T to American Express to General Electric to a small neighborhood momand-pop business, an increasing number of businesses are realizing direct marketing objectives and how to achieve success by accomplishing these direct marketing objectives. One such direct marketing objective that drives business success is to generate sales leads. Companies both large and small can utilize any number of direct marketing tools to qualify potential customers. This can be done, for example, by sending a letter, a marketing package, a postcard or an e-mail that provides the potential customer with a brief overview of the product or service. This direct mail piece usually includes a type of response mechanism such as a website to visit, an 800# to call for additional information or a postcard to return.

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This can lead to accomplishing additional direct marketing objectives. These direct marketing objectives involve simply offering information that the customer has requested regarding a particular product or service. In this way, you know the customers needs and desires, and how your product can fulfill it. Another direct marketing objectives is to establish name recognition or consumer branding. By showering your customer with a variety of types of direct marketing pieces, you begin to increase your company’s name recognition. While we have previously mentioned several forms of direct marketing a few additional types o direct marketing objectives might include fliers that are distributed or information inserted in the newspaper or even a display or exhibition providing informational packets complete with business cards that give information on your product or service. The response on this, however, is not calculated as easily as with marketing materials that are provided via direct mail. The bottom line is that the key to accomplishing any or all of the direct marketing advantages mentioned here is to increase sales of a product or service with a faster response rate at a more efficient cost to the company. SOCIAL ESPECT OF ADVERTISING 1. Social aspects of advertising Advertising as a part of firm’s marketing effort operates in the society. It has to therefore follow the social norms. Key areas of debate regarding society and advertising are: Deception Manipulation Taste 2. Social aspects of advertising o Deception: it refers not only to the information content in advertising but may also arise from misplace emphasis in presentations. o According to federal trade commission of the USAo “ Advertising as a whole must not create a misleading impression although every statement, separately considered, may be literally truthful” 3. Social aspects of advertising o Manipulation :- The freedom of choice of consumers is restricted by the power of advertising since it can manipulate buyers into making a decision against their will or interest. o Manipulation is done through emotional appeals. These companies can utilize advanced and very scientific advertising techniques and thus make an impression on consumers. 4. Social aspects of advertising o Taste:- Sometimes ads are offensive, tasteless, irritating, boring and so on. o Sources of distaste o Sexual Appeals o Shock advertising 5. Social aspects of advertising o Some examples of the Advertisements with social aspects:o Grow-more-trees advertisements o Drink milk o Eat healthy food, eat eggs o Mother’s milk is best for the baby o Say no to drugs every time o Get your child vaccinations in times 6. Legal aspects of advertising o The government in each country has to make sure that advertisements appearing do not flaunt of their rules & regulations. o It should not:o show anti-national feelings o contain misleading information about the product o Violate government rules 7. Legal aspects of advertising o Some examples of the Advertisements with legal aspects:o Get your car checked for pollution o Drinks & driving do not mix o Weight, price, manufacturing date, date of expiry should be mentioned on the packing case 8. Ethical aspects of advertising o Ethics are the moral standards against which behavior is judged o Key areas of debate regarding ethics and advertising are:  Truth in advertising  Advertising to children  Advertising controversial products 9. Ethical aspects of advertising o Truth in Advertising  Deception is making false or misleading statements.  Puffery ( commercial exaggeration ) is legal.  Cannot legislate against emotional appeals 10. Ethical aspects of advertising

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Advertising to Children—Issues  Advertising promotes superficiality and materialism in children.  Children are inexperienced and easy prey.  Persuasion to children creates child-parent conflicts.  What does the literature say about kid’s abilities to process persuasive information? 11. Ethical aspects of advertising o Advertising Controversial Products  Critics question the “targeting” of minorities.  Tobacco, alcohol, gambling and lotteries are product categories of greatest concern.  How does the concept of “primary demand” provide insights here?  What does the literature say about advertising’s impact on these product categories? 12. Economic aspects of advertising o Making Consumers Aware of Products and Services o Providing Consumers With Information to Use to Make Purchase Decisions o Encouraging Consumption and Fostering Economic Growth 13. Economic aspects of advertising o Effects on Consumer Choice o Differentiation o Brand Loyalty o Effects on Competition o Barriers to entry o Economies of scale o Effects on product costs and prices o Advertising as an expense that increases the cost of products o Increased differentiation


Different Types of Advertising Appeals Advertising appeals aim to influence the way consumers view themselves and how buying certain products can prove to be beneficial for them. The message conveyed through advertising appeals influences the purchasing decisions of consumers. Keep on reading to know the various different types of advertising appeals that can be seen in the media today. The most basic of human needs is the need for food, clothing and shelter. Special need for these necessities cannot be created with advertising. However there are certain other products that provide comfort in life and advertising aims to generate demand for these products. Advertising uses appeals as a way of persuading people to buy certain products. Advertising appeals are designed in a way so as to create a positive image of the individuals who use certain products. Advertising agencies and companies use different types of advertising appeals to influence the purchasing decisions of people.

The most important types of advertising appeals include emotional and rational appeals. Emotional appeals are often effective for the youth while rational appeals work well for products directed towards the older generation. Here are just some of the various different kinds of advertising appeals seen in the media today:

Emotional Appeal

An emotional appeal is related to an individual’s psychological and social needs for purchasing certain products and services. Many consumers are emotionally motivated or driven to make certain purchases. Advertisers aim to cash in on the emotional appeal and this works particularly well where there is not much difference between multiple product brands and its offerings. Emotional appeal includes personal and social aspects.

1. Personal Appeal

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Some personal emotions that can drive individuals to purchase products include safety, fear, love, humor, joy, happiness, sentiment, stimulation, pride, self esteem, pleasure, comfort, ambition, nostalgia etc.

2. Social Appeal

Social factors cause people to make purchases and include such aspects as recognition, respect, involvement, affiliation, rejection, acceptance, status and approval.

3. Fear Appeal

Fear is also an important factor that can have incredible influence on individuals. Fear is often used to good effect in advertising and marketing campaigns of beauty and health products including insurance. Advertising experts indicate that using moderate levels of fear in advertising can prove to be effective.

Humor Appeal

Humor is an element that is used in around 30% of the advertisements. Humor can be an excellent tool to catch the viewer’s attention and help in achieving instant recall which can work well for the sale of the product. Humor can be used effectively when it is related to some benefit that the customer can derive without which the joke might overpower the message.

Sex Appeal

Sex and nudity have always sold well. Sexuality, sexual suggestiveness, over sexuality or sensuality raises curiosity of the audience and can result in strong feelings about the advertisement. It can also result in the product appearing interesting. However use of sex in types of advertising appeals can have a boomerang effect if it is not used carefully. It can interfere with the actual message of the advertisement and purpose of the product and can also cause low brand recall. If this is used then it should be an integral part of the product and should not seem vulgar. The shift should be towards sensuality.

Music Appeal

Music can be used as types of advertising appeals as it has a certain intrinsic value and can help in increasing the persuasiveness of the advertisement. It can also help capture attention and increase customer recall.

Scarcity Appeal

Scarcity appeals are based on limited supplies or limited time period for purchase of products and are often used while employing promotional tools including sweepstakes, contests etc.

Rational Appeal

Rational appeals as the name suggests aims to focus on the individual’s functional, utilitarian or practical needs for particular products and services. Such appeals emphasize the characteristics and features of the product and the service and how it would be beneficial to own or use the particular brand. Print media is particularly well suited for rational appeals and is often

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used with good success. It is also suited for business to business advertisers and for products that are complex and that need high degree of attention and involvement.

Masculine Feminine Appeal

Used in cosmetic or beauty products and also clothing. This type of appeal aims at creating the impression of the perfect person. The message is that the product will infuse the perfection or the stated qualities in you.

Brand Appeal

This appeal is directed towards people who are brand conscious and wish to choose particular products to make a brand statement.

Snob Appeal

This appeal is directed towards creating feeling of desire or envy for products that are termed top of the line or that have considerable qualities of luxury, elegance associated with them.

Adventure Appeal

This appeal is directed towards giving the impression that purchasing a product will change the individual’s life radically and fill it with fun, adventure and action.

Less than Perfect Appeal

Advertisements often try to influence people to make certain purchases by pointing out their inadequacies or making them feel less perfect and more dissatisfied with their present condition. These types of advertising appeals are used in cosmetic and health industries.

Romance Appeal

These advertisements display the attraction between the sexes. The appeal is used to signify that buying certain products will have a positive impact on the opposite sex and improve your romantic or love life. Frangrances, automobiles and other products use these types of advertising appeals.

Emotional Words/Sensitivity Appeal

These advertisements are used to drive at and influence the sensitivities of consumers.

Youth Appeal

Advertisements that reflect youth giving aspects or ingredients of products use these types of appeals. Cosmetic products in particular make use of these appeals.

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Celebrities and well known personalities often endorse certain products and their pitching can help drive the sales.

Play on Words

Advertisements also make effective use of catch phrases to convey the message. Such appeals help in brand recognition and recall and can be quite popular with the youth in particular.


Advertisements also use statistics and figures to display aspects of the product and its popularity in particular.

Plain Appeal

These advertisements use every day aspects of life and appeal to ordinary people regarding the use of a product or service.

Bandwagon Appeal This type of advertising appeal is meant to signify that since everybody is doing something you should be a part of the crowd as well. It appeals towards the popularity aspect or coolness aspect of a person using a particular product or service.

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