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Advertising or advertizing[1][2][3] in business is a form of marketing
communication used to encourage, persuade, or manipulate an audience
(viewers, readers or listeners; sometimes a specific group to take or continue to
take some action! "ost commonl#, t$e desired result is to drive consumer
be$avior wit$ respect to a commercial offering, alt$oug$ political and ideological
advertising is also common! %$is t#pe of work belongs to a categor# called
affective labor![citation needed]
&n 'atin, ad vertere means (to turn toward!([)] %$e purpose of advertising ma#
also be to reassure emplo#ees or s$are$olders t$at a compan# is viable or
successful! Advertising messages are usuall# paid for b# sponsors and viewed
via various traditional media; including mass media suc$ as newspaper,
magazines, television commercial, radio advertisement, outdoor advertising or
direct mail; or new media suc$ as blogs, websites or te*t messages!
+ommercial advertisers often seek to generate increased consumption of t$eir
products or services t$roug$ (branding,( w$ic$ involves associating a product
name or image wit$ certain ,ualities in t$e minds of consumers! -on.commercial
advertisers w$o spend mone# to advertise items ot$er t$an a consumer product
or service include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and
governmental agencies! -onprofit organizations ma# rel# on free modes of
persuasion, suc$ as a public service announcement (/0A!
"odern advertising was created wit$ t$e innovative tec$ni,ues introduced wit$
tobacco advertising in t$e 1122s, most significantl# wit$ t$e campaigns of
3dward 4erna#s, w$ic$ is often considered t$e founder of modern, "adison
Avenue advertising![5][6][7]
&n 2212, spending on advertising was estimated at 81)2!5 billion in t$e 9nited
0tates and 8)67 billion worldwide [:]
&nternationall#, t$e largest ((big four( advertising conglomerates are &nterpublic,
;mnicom, /ublicis, and <//![1]
+ontents [$ide]
1 =istor#
1!1 11t$ centur#
1!2 22t$ centur#
1!2!1 ;n t$e radio from t$e 1122s
1!2!2 /ublic service advertising in <<2
1!2!3 +ommercial television in t$e 1152s
1!2!) "edia diversification in t$e 1162s
1!2!5 +able television from t$e 11:2s
1!2!6 ;n t$e &nternet from t$e 1112s
2 Advertising t$eor#
2!1 =ierarc$#.of.effects models
2!2 "arketing mi*
3 %#pes of advertising
) /urpose of Advertising
5 0ales promotions
6 "edia and advertising approac$es
6!1 >ise in new media
6!2 -ic$e marketing
6!3 +rowdsourcing
6!) ?lobal advertising
6!5 @oreign public messaging
6!6 Aiversification
6!7 -ew tec$nolog#
6!: Advertising education
7 +riticisms
: >egulation
1 Advertising researc$
12 0emiotics
11 ?ender effects in t$e processing of advertising
12 0ee also
13 >eferences
1) 3*ternal links
3do period advertising fl#er from 1:26 for a traditional medicine called Binseitan
3g#ptians used pap#rus to make sales messages and wall posters! +ommercial
messages and political campaign displa#s $ave been found in t$e ruins of
/ompeii and ancient Arabia! 'ost and found advertising on pap#rus was common
in Ancient ?reece and Ancient >ome! <all or rock painting for commercial
advertising is anot$er manifestation of an ancient advertising form, w$ic$ is
present to t$is da# in man# parts of Asia, Africa, and 0out$ America! %$e tradition
of wall painting can be traced back to &ndian rock art paintings t$at date back to
)222 4+3![12] ;ut.of.$ome advertising and billboards are t$e oldest forms of
advertising![citation needed]
As t$e towns and cities of t$e "iddle Ages began to grow, and t$e general
populace was unable to read, instead of signs t$at read (cobbler(, (miller(,
(tailor(, or (blacksmit$( would use an image associated wit$ t$eir trade suc$ as a
boot, a suit, a $at, a clock, a diamond, a $orse s$oe, a candle or even a bag of
flour! @ruits and vegetables were sold in t$e cit# s,uare from t$e backs of carts
and wagons and t$eir proprietors used street callers (town criers to announce
t$eir w$ereabouts for t$e convenience of t$e customers!
As education became an apparent need and reading, as well as printing,
developed advertising e*panded to include $andbills![citation needed] &n t$e 1:t$
centur#[w$enC] advertisements started to appear in weekl# newspapers in
3ngland! %$ese earl# print advertisements were used mainl# to promote books
and newspapers, w$ic$ became increasingl# affordable wit$ advances in t$e
printing press; and medicines, w$ic$ were increasingl# soug$t after as disease
ravaged 3urope! =owever, false advertising and so.called (,uack(
advertisements became a problem, w$ic$ us$ered in t$e regulation of advertising
11t$ centur#[edit]
A 1122 advertisement for /ears soap!
%$omas D! 4arratt from 'ondon $as been called (t$e fat$er of modern
advertising(![11][12][13] <orking for t$e /ears 0oap compan#, 4arratt created an
effective advertising campaign for t$e compan# products, w$ic$ involved t$e use
of targeted slogans, images and p$rases! ;ne of $is slogans, ((?ood morning!
=ave #ou used /earsE soapC( was famous in its da#[w$enC] and well into t$e
22t$ centur#![1)][15] 9nder 4arrattEs guidance, /ears 0oap became t$e worldEs
first legall# registered brand[w$enC] and is t$erefore t$e worldEs oldest
continuousl# e*isting brand![citation needed]
An advertising tactic t$at $e used was to associate t$e /ears brand wit$ $ig$
culture and ,ualit#! "ost famousl#, $e used t$e painting 4ubbles b# Do$n 3verett
"illais as an advertisement b# adding a bar of /ears soap into t$e foreground!
("illais protested at t$is alteration of $is work, but in vain as 4arrat $ad boug$t
t$e cop#rig$t![16] 4arratt continued t$is t$eme wit$ a series of adverts of well
groomed middle.class c$ildren, associating /ears wit$ domestic comfort and
aspirations of $ig$ societ#!
4arrat establis$ed /ears Annual in 1:11 as a magazine w$ic$ promoted
contemporar# illustration and colour printing and in 1:17 added t$e /ears
+#clopedia a one.volume enc#clopedia![17] @rom t$e earl# 22t$ centur# /ears
was famous for t$e annual ("iss /ears( competition in w$ic$ parents entered
t$eir c$ildren into t$e $ig$.profile $unt for a #oung brand ambassador to be used
on packaging and in consumer promotions! =e recruited scientists and t$e
celebrities of t$e da# to publicl# endorse t$e product! 'illie 'angtr#, a 4ritis$
music $all singer and stage actress wit$ a famous ivor# comple*ion, received
income as t$e first woman to endorse a commercial product, advertising /ears
4arratt introduced man# of t$e crucial ideas t$at lie be$ind successful advertising
and t$ese were widel# circulated in $is da#! =e constantl# stressed t$e
importance of a strong and e*clusive brand image for /ears and of emp$asizing
t$e productEs availabilit# t$roug$ saturation campaigns! =e also understood t$e
importance of constantl# reevaluating t$e market for c$anging tastes and mores,
stating in 1127 t$at (tastes c$ange, fas$ions c$ange, and t$e advertiser $as to
c$ange wit$ t$em! An idea t$at was effective a generation ago would fall flat,
stale, and unprofitable if presented to t$e public toda#! -ot t$at t$e idea of toda#
is alwa#s better t$an t$e older idea, but it is different . it $its t$e present
As t$e econom# e*panded across t$e world during t$e 11t$ centur#, advertising
grew alongside! &n t$e 9nited 0tates, t$e success of t$is advertising format
eventuall# led to t$e growt$ of mail.order advertising!
&n Dune 1:36, @renc$ newspaper 'a /resse was t$e first to include paid
advertising in its pages, allowing it to lower its price, e*tend its readers$ip and
increase its profitabilit# and t$e formula was soon copied b# all titles! Around
1:)2, Folne# 4! /almer establis$ed t$e roots of t$e modern da# advertising
agenc# in /$iladelp$ia! &n 1:)2 /almer boug$t large amounts of space in various
newspapers at a discounted rate t$en resold t$e space at $ig$er rates to
advertisers! %$e actual ad G t$e cop#, la#out, and artwork G was still prepared b#
t$e compan# wis$ing to advertise; in effect, /almer was a space broker! %$e
situation c$anged in t$e late 11t$ centur# w$en t$e advertising agenc# of -!<!
A#er H 0on was founded! A#er and 0on offered to plan, create, and e*ecute
complete advertising campaigns for its customers! 4# 1122 t$e advertising
agenc# $ad become t$e focal point of creative planning, and advertising was
firml# establis$ed as a profession! [1:] Around t$e same time, in @rance,
+$arles.'ouis =avas e*tended t$e services of $is news agenc#, =avas to include
advertisement brokerage, making it t$e first @renc$ group to organize! At first,
agencies were brokers for advertisement space in newspapers! -! <! A#er H
0on was t$e first full.service agenc# to assume responsibilit# for advertising
content! -!<! A#er opened in 1:61, and was located in /$iladelp$ia![1:]
22t$ centur#[edit]
A print advertisement for t$e 1113 issue of t$e 3nc#clopIdia 4ritannica
Advertising increased dramaticall# in t$e 9nited 0tates as industrialization
e*panded t$e suppl# of manufactured products! &n order to profit from t$is $ig$er
rate of production, industr# needed to recruit workers as consumers of factor#
products! &t did so t$roug$ t$e invention of mass marketing designed to influence
t$e populationEs economic be$avior on a larger scale![11] &n t$e 1112s and
1122s, advertisers in t$e 9!0! adopted t$e doctrine t$at $uman instincts could be
targeted and $arnessed G (sublimated( into t$e desire to purc$ase commodities!
[22] 3dward 4erna#s, a nep$ew of 0igmund @reud, became associated wit$ t$e
met$od and is now often considered t$e founder of modern advertising![5][6][7]
%$e tobacco industr# was one of t$e firsts to make use of mass production, wit$
t$e introduction of t$e 4onsack mac$ine to roll cigarettes! %$e 4onsack mac$ine
allowed t$e production of cigarettes for a mass markets, and t$e tobacco industr#
needed to matc$ suc$ an increase in suppl# wit$ t$e creation of a demand from
t$e masses t$roug$ advertising![21] %$e tobacco companies pioneered t$e new
advertising tec$ni,ues w$en t$e# $ired 4erna#s to create positive associations
wit$ tobacco smoking![5][6][7]
Advertising was also used as a ve$icle for cultural assimilation, encouraging
workers to e*c$ange t$eir traditional $abits and communit# structure in favor of a
s$ared (modern( lifest#le![22] An important tool for influencing immigrant workers
was t$e American Association of @oreign 'anguage -ewspapers (AA@'-! %$e
AA@'- was primaril# an advertising agenc# but also gained $eavil# centralized
control over muc$ of t$e immigrant press![23][2)]
At t$e turn of t$e 22t$ centur#, t$ere were few career c$oices for women in
business; $owever, advertising was one of t$e few! 0ince women were
responsible for most of t$e purc$asing done in t$eir $ouse$old, advertisers and
agencies recognized t$e value of womenEs insig$t during t$e creative process! &n
fact, t$e first American advertising to use a se*ual sell was created b# a woman G
for a soap product! Alt$oug$ tame b# toda#Es standards, t$e advertisement
featured a couple wit$ t$e message (%$e skin #ou love to touc$(![25][non.primar#
source needed]
;n t$e radio from t$e 1122s[edit]
Advertisement for a live radio broadcast, sponsored b# a milk compan# and
publis$ed in t$e 'os Angeles %imes on "a# 6, 1132
&n t$e earl# 1122s, t$e first radio stations were establis$ed b# radio e,uipment
manufacturers and retailers w$o offered programs in order to sell more radios to
consumers! As time passed, man# non.profit organizations followed suit in
setting up t$eir own radio stations, and includedJ sc$ools, clubs and civic groups!
Advertisements of $otels in /ic$ilemu, +$ile from 1135!
<$en t$e practice of sponsoring programs was popularized, eac$ individual
radio program was usuall# sponsored b# a single business in e*c$ange for a
brief mention of t$e businessE name at t$e beginning and end of t$e sponsored
s$ows! =owever, radio station owners soon realized t$e# could earn more mone#
b# selling sponsors$ip rig$ts in small time allocations to multiple businesses
t$roug$out t$eir radio stationEs broadcasts, rat$er t$an selling t$e sponsors$ip
rig$ts to single businesses per s$ow!
[citation needed]
/ublic service advertising in <<2[edit]
%$e advertising tec$ni,ues used to promote commercial goods and services can
be used to inform, educate and motivate t$e public about non.commercial issues,
suc$ as =&FKA&A0,[citation needed] political ideolog#, energ# conservation and
Advertising, in its non.commercial guise, is a powerful educational tool capable of
reac$ing and motivating large audiences! (Advertising Lustifies its e*istence w$en
used in t$e public interest G it is muc$ too powerful a tool to use solel# for
commercial purposes!( Attributed to =oward ?ossage b# Aavid ;gilv#!
/ublic service advertising, non.commercial advertising, public interest
advertising, cause marketing, and social marketing are different terms for (or
aspects of t$e use of sop$isticated advertising and marketing communications
tec$ni,ues (generall# associated wit$ commercial enterprise on be$alf of non.
commercial, public interest issues and initiatives!
&n t$e 9nited 0tates, t$e granting of television and radio licenses b# t$e @++ is
contingent upon t$e station broadcasting a certain amount of public service
advertising! %o meet t$ese re,uirements, man# broadcast stations in America air
t$e bulk of t$eir re,uired public service announcements during t$e late nig$t or
earl# morning w$en t$e smallest percentage of viewers are watc$ing, leaving
more da# and prime time commercial slots available for $ig$.pa#ing advertisers!
/ublic service advertising reac$ed its $eig$t during <orld <ars & and && under t$e
direction of more t$an one government! Auring <<&& /resident >oosevelt
commissioned t$e creation of %$e <ar Advertising +ouncil (now known as t$e Ad
+ouncil w$ic$ is t$e nationEs largest developer of /0A campaigns on be$alf of
government agencies and non.profit organizations, including t$e longest.running
/0A campaign, 0moke# 4ear![citation needed]
+ommercial television in t$e 1152s[edit]
%$is practice was carried over to commercial television in t$e late 11)2s and
earl# 1152s! A fierce battle was foug$t between t$ose seeking to commercialise
t$e radio and people w$o argued t$at t$e radio spectrum s$ould be considered a
part of t$e commons G to be used onl# non.commerciall# and for t$e public good!
%$e 9nited Bingdom pursued a public funding model for t$e 44+, originall# a
private compan#, t$e 4ritis$ 4roadcasting +ompan#, but incorporated as a public
bod# b# >o#al +$arter in 1127! &n +anada, advocates like ?ra$am 0pr# were
likewise able to persuade t$e federal government to adopt a public funding
model, creating t$e +anadian 4roadcasting +orporation! =owever, in t$e 9nited
0tates, t$e capitalist model prevailed wit$ t$e passage of t$e +ommunications
Act of 113) w$ic$ created t$e @ederal +ommunications +ommission (@++![26]
=owever, t$e 9!0! +ongress did re,uire commercial broadcasting companies to
operate in t$e (public interest, convenience, and necessit#(![27] /ublic
broadcasting now e*ists in t$e 9nited 0tates due to t$e 1167 /ublic
4roadcasting Act w$ic$ led to t$e /ublic 4roadcasting 0ervice (/40 and
-ational /ublic >adio (-/>!
&n t$e earl# 1152s, t$e Au"ont %elevision -etwork began t$e modern practice of
selling advertisement time to multiple sponsors! /reviousl#, Au"ont $ad trouble
finding sponsors for man# of t$eir programs and compensated b# selling smaller
blocks of advertising time to several businesses! %$is eventuall# became t$e
standard for t$e commercial television industr# in t$e 9nited 0tates! =owever, it
was still a common practice to $ave single sponsor s$ows, suc$ as %$e 9nited
0tates 0teel =our! &n some instances t$e sponsors e*ercised great control over
t$e content of t$e s$ow G up to and including $aving oneEs advertising agenc#
actuall# writing t$e s$ow! %$e single sponsor model is muc$ less prevalent now,
a notable e*ception being t$e =allmark =all of @ame!
"edia diversification in t$e 1162s[edit]
&n t$e 1162s, campaigns featuring $eav# spending in different mass media
c$annels became more prominent! @or e*ample, t$e 3sso gasoline compan#
spent $undreds of millions of dollars on a brand awareness campaign built
around t$e simple and alliterative[2:] t$eme /ut a %iger in Mour %ank![21]
/s#c$ologist 3rnest Aic$ter[32] and AA4 <orldwide cop#writer 0and# 0ulcer[31]
learned t$at motorists desired bot$ power and pla# w$ile driving, and c$ose t$e
tiger as an s#mbol to communicate t$ose feelings! %$e -ort$
American and later 3uropean campaign featured e*tensive television and radio
and magazine ads, including p$otos wit$ tiger tails supposedl# emerging from
car gas tanks, promotional events featuring real tigers, billboards, and in 3urope
station pump $oses (wrapped in tiger stripes( as well as pop music songs![21]
%iger imager# can still be seen on t$e pumps of successor firm 3**on"obil!
+able television from t$e 11:2s[edit]
%$e late 11:2s and earl# 1112s saw t$e introduction of cable television and
particularl# "%F! /ioneering t$e concept of t$e music video, "%F us$ered in a
new t#pe of advertisingJ t$e consumer tunes in for t$e advertising message,
rat$er t$an it being a b#.product or aftert$oug$t! As cable and satellite television
became increasingl# prevalent, specialt# c$annels emerged, including c$annels
entirel# devoted to advertising, suc$ as NF+, =ome 0$opping -etwork, and
0$op%F +anada!
;n t$e &nternet from t$e 1112s[edit]
"ain articleJ &nternet marketing
<it$ t$e advent of t$e ad server, marketing t$roug$ t$e &nternet opened new
frontiers for advertisers and contributed to t$e ( boom of t$e 1112s!
3ntire corporations operated solel# on advertising revenue, offering ever#t$ing
from coupons to free &nternet access! At t$e turn of t$e 22t$ to 21st centur#, a
number of websites, including t$e searc$ engine ?oogle, started a c$ange in
online advertising b# emp$asizing conte*tuall# relevant, unobtrusive ads
intended to $elp, rat$er t$an inundate, users! %$is $as led to a plet$ora of similar
efforts and an increasing trend of interactive advertising![citation needed]
%$e s$are of advertising spending relative to ?A/ $as c$anged little across large
c$anges in media! @or e*ample, in t$e 90 in 1125, t$e main advertising media
were newspapers, magazines, signs on streetcars, and outdoor posters!
Advertising spending as a s$are of ?A/ was about 2!1 percent! 4# 111:,
television and radio $ad become maLor advertising media! -onet$eless,
advertising spending as a s$are of ?A/ was slig$tl# lower G about 2!) percent!
A recent advertising innovation is (guerrilla marketing(, w$ic$ involves unusual
approac$es suc$ as staged encounters in public places, giveawa#s of products
suc$ as cars t$at are covered wit$ brand messages, and interactive advertising
w$ere t$e viewer can respond to become part of t$e advertising message!
?uerrilla advertising is becoming increasingl# more popular wit$ a lot of
companies! %$is t#pe of advertising is unpredictable and innovative, w$ic$
causes consumers to bu# t$e product or idea! %$is reflects an increasing trend of
interactive and (embedded( ads, suc$ as via product placement, $aving
consumers vote t$roug$ te*t messages, and various innovations utilizing social
network services suc$ as @acebook or %witter![citation needed]
%$e advertising business model $as also been adapted in recent #ears! A new
development is media for e,uit#! =ere, advertising is not sold, but provided to
start.up companies in return for e,uit#! &f t$e compan# grows and is sold, media
companies receive cas$ for t$eir s$ares![citation needed]
Aomain owners (usuall# t$ose w$o bu# domains as an investment sometimes
(park( t$eir domains and allow advertising companies to place ads on t$eir sites
in return for a pa#ment!
Advertising t$eor#[edit]
=ierarc$#.of.effects models[edit]
%$is section contains information of unclear or ,uestionable importance or
relevance to t$e articleEs subLect matter! /lease $elp improve t$is article b#
clarif#ing or removing superfluous information! (August 2212
Farious competing models of $ierarc$ies of effects attempt to provide a
t$eoretical underpinning to advertising practice![33]
%$e model of +low and 4aack[3)] clarifies t$e obLectives of an advertising
campaign and for eac$ individual advertisement! %$e model postulates si* steps
a consumer or bu#er moves t$roug$ w$en making a purc$aseJ
"eans.3nd %$eor# suggests t$at an advertisement s$ould contain a message or
means t$at leads t$e consumer to a desired end.state!
'everage /oints aim to move t$e consumer from understanding a productEs
benefits to linking t$ose benefits wit$ personal values!
"arketing mi*[edit]
%$is section contains information of unclear or ,uestionable importance or
relevance to t$e articleEs subLect matter! /lease $elp improve t$is article b#
clarif#ing or removing superfluous information! (August 2212
"ain articleJ "arketing mi*
%$e marketing mi* $as been t$e ke# concept to advertising! %$e marketing mi*
was suggested b# professor 3! Derome "c+art$# in t$e 1162s! %$e marketing
mi* consists of four basic elements called t$e four /Os! /roduct is t$e first /
representing t$e actual product! /rice represents t$e process of determining t$e
value of a product! /lace represents t$e variables of getting t$e product to t$e
consumer like distribution c$annels, market coverage and movement
organization! %$e last / stands for /romotion w$ic$ is t$e process of reac$ing
t$e target market and convincing t$em to go out and bu# t$e product![citation
%#pes of advertising[edit]
@ileJ%$e &mpact ;f <ikipedia!webm
An advertisement for t$e <ikimedia @oundation
An advertisement for a diner! 0uc$ signs are common on storefronts!
/a#ing people to $old signs is one of t$e oldest forms of advertising, as wit$ t$is
$uman billboard pictured above
A bus wit$ an advertisement for ?A/ in 0ingapore! 4uses and ot$er ve$icles are
popular media for advertisers!
"obile 4illboard in 3ast +oast /ark, 0ingapore
A A4A? +lass 121 wit$ 9-&+3@ ads at &ngolstadt main railwa# station
Firtuall# an# medium can be used for advertising! +ommercial advertising media
can include wall paintings, billboards, street furniture components, printed fl#ers
and rack cards, radio, cinema and television adverts, web banners, mobile
telep$one screens, s$opping carts, web popups, sk#writing, bus stop benc$es,
$uman billboards and fore$ead advertising, magazines, newspapers, town criers,
sides of buses, banners attac$ed to or sides of airplanes ((logoLets(, in.flig$t
advertisements on seatback tra# tables or over$ead storage bins, ta*icab doors,
roof mounts and passenger screens, musical stage s$ows, subwa# platforms
and trains, elastic bands on disposable diapers, doors of bat$room stalls, stickers
on apples in supermarkets, s$opping cart $andles (grabertising, t$e opening
section of streaming audio and video, posters, and t$e backs of event tickets and
supermarket receipts! An# place an (identified( sponsor pa#s to deliver t$eir
message t$roug$ a medium is advertising!
%elevision advertising K "usic in advertising
%$e %F commercial is generall# considered t$e most effective
advertising format, as is reflected b# t$e $ig$ prices %F networks c$arge for
commercial airtime during popular %F events! %$e annual 0uper 4owl football
game in t$e 9nited 0tates is known as t$e most prominent advertising event on
television! %$e average cost of a single t$irt#.second %F spot during t$is game
$as reac$ed 9083!5 million (as of 2212! 0ome television commercials feature a
song or Lingle t$at listeners soon relate to t$e product! Firtual advertisements
ma# be inserted into regular television programming t$roug$ computer grap$ics!
&t is t#picall# inserted into ot$erwise blank backdrops[35] or used to replace local
billboards t$at are not relevant to t$e remote broadcast audience![36] "ore
controversiall#, virtual billboards ma# be inserted into t$e background[37] w$ere
none e*ist in! %$is tec$ni,ue is especiall# used in televised sporting
events![3:][31] Firtual product placement is also possible![)2][)1]
An infomercial is a long.format television commercial, t#picall# five minutes or
longer! %$e word (infomercial( is a portmanteau of t$e words (information( H
(commercial(! %$e main obLective in an infomercial is to create an impulse
purc$ase, so t$at t$e consumer sees t$e presentation and t$en immediatel#
bu#s t$e product t$roug$ t$e advertised telep$one number or website!
&nfomercials describe, displa#, and often demonstrate products and t$eir
features, and commonl# $ave testimonials from consumers and industr#
>adio advertising
>adio advertising is a form of advertising via t$e medium of radio! >adio
advertisements are broadcast as radio waves to t$e air from a transmitter to an
antenna and a t$us to a receiving device! Airtime is purc$ased from a station or
network in e*c$ange for airing t$e commercials! <$ile radio $as t$e limitation of
being restricted to sound, proponents of radio advertising often cite t$is as an
advantage! >adio is an e*panding medium t$at can be found not onl# on air, but
also online! According to Arbitron, radio $as appro*imatel# 2)1!6 million weekl#
listeners, or more t$an 13 percent of t$e 9!0! population!
;nline advertising
;nline advertising is a form of promotion t$at uses t$e &nternet and <orld <ide
<eb for t$e e*pressed purpose of delivering marketing messages to attract
customers! ;nline ads are delivered b# an ad server! 3*amples of online
advertising include conte*tual ads t$at appear on searc$ engine results pages,
banner ads, in te*t ads, >ic$ "edia Ads, 0ocial network advertising, online
classified advertising, advertising networks and e.mail marketing, including e.
mail spam!
-ew media
%ec$nological development and economic globalization favors t$e emergence of
new and new communication c$annels and new tec$ni,ues of commercial
/roduct placements
+overt advertising, is w$en a product or brand is embedded in entertainment and
media! @or e*ample, in a film, t$e main c$aracter can use an item or ot$er of a
definite brand, as in t$e movie "inorit# >eport, w$ere %om +ruiseEs c$aracter
Do$n Anderton owns a p$one wit$ t$e -okia logo clearl# written in t$e top corner,
or $is watc$ engraved wit$ t$e 4ulgari logo! Anot$er e*ample of advertising in
film is in &, >obot, w$ere main c$aracter pla#ed b# <ill 0mit$ mentions $is
+onverse s$oes several times, calling t$em (classics,( because t$e film is set far
in t$e future! &, >obot and 0paceballs also s$owcase futuristic cars wit$ t$e Audi
and "ercedes.4enz logos clearl# displa#ed on t$e front of t$e ve$icles! +adillac
c$ose to advertise in t$e movie %$e "atri* >eloaded, w$ic$ as a result contained
man# scenes in w$ic$ +adillac cars were used! 0imilarl#, product placement for
;mega <atc$es, @ord, FA&;, 4"< and Aston "artin cars are featured in recent
Dames 4ond films, most notabl# +asino >o#ale! &n (@antastic @ourJ >ise of t$e
0ilver 0urfer(, t$e main transport ve$icle s$ows a large Aodge logo on t$e front!
4lade >unner includes some of t$e most obvious product placement; t$e w$ole
film stops to s$ow a +oca.+ola billboard!
/ress advertising
/ress advertising describes advertising in a printed medium suc$ as a
newspaper, magazine, or trade Lournal! %$is encompasses ever#t$ing from
media wit$ a ver# broad readers$ip base, suc$ as a maLor national newspaper or
magazine, to more narrowl# targeted media suc$ as local newspapers and trade
Lournals on ver# specialized topics! A form of press advertising is classified
advertising, w$ic$ allows private individuals or companies to purc$ase a small,
narrowl# targeted ad for a low fee advertising a product or service! Anot$er form
of press advertising is t$e Aispla# Ad, w$ic$ is a larger ad (can include art t$at
t#picall# run in an article section of a newspaper!
4illboard advertising
4illboards are large structures located in public places w$ic$ displa#
advertisements to passing pedestrians and motorists! "ost often, t$e# are
located on main roads wit$ a large amount of passing motor and pedestrian
traffic; $owever, t$e# can be placed in an# location wit$ large amounts of
viewers, suc$ as on mass transit ve$icles and in stations, in s$opping malls or
office buildings, and in stadiums!
%$e >ed3#e newspaper advertised to its target market at -ort$ Avenue 4eac$
wit$ a sailboat billboard on 'ake "ic$igan!
"obile billboard advertising
"obile billboards are generall# ve$icle mounted billboards or digital screens!
%$ese can be on dedicated ve$icles built solel# for carr#ing advertisements along
routes preselected b# clients, t$e# can also be speciall# e,uipped cargo trucks
or, in some cases, large banners strewn from planes! %$e billboards are often
lig$ted; some being backlit, and ot$ers emplo#ing spotlig$ts! 0ome billboard
displa#s are static, w$ile ot$ers c$ange; for e*ample, continuousl# or periodicall#
rotating among a set of advertisements! "obile displa#s are used for various
situations in metropolitan areas t$roug$out t$e world, includingJ %arget
advertising, ;ne.da#, and long.term campaigns, +onventions, 0porting events,
0tore openings and similar promotional events, and 4ig advertisements from
smaller companies!
& advertising
& advertising is an# advertisement placed in a retail store! &t includes
placement of a product in visible locations in a store, suc$ as at e#e level, at t$e
ends of aisles and near c$eckout counters (aka /;/ G /oint of /urc$ase
displa#, e#e.catc$ing displa#s promoting a specific product, and advertisements
in suc$ places as s$opping carts and video displa#s!
+offee cup advertising
+offee cup advertising is an# advertisement placed upon a coffee cup t$at is
distributed out of an office, cafP, or drive.t$roug$ coffee s$op! %$is form of
advertising was first popularized in Australia, and $as begun growing in
popularit# in t$e 9nited 0tates, &ndia, and parts of t$e "iddle 3ast![citation
0treet advertising
%$is t#pe of advertising first came to prominence in t$e 9B b# 0treet Advertising
0ervices to create outdoor advertising on street furniture and pavements!
<orking wit$ products suc$ as >everse ?raffiti, air dancers and 3A pavement
advertising, t$e media became an affordable and effective tool for getting brand
messages out into public spaces![citation needed]
0$eltered ;utdoor Advertising
%$is t#pe of advertising opens t$e possibilit# of combining outdoor wit$ indoor
advertisement b# placing large mobile, structures (tents in public places on
temporar# bases! %$e large outer advertising space e*erts a strong pull on t$e
observer, t$e product is promoted indoor, w$ere t$e creative decor can intensif#
t$e impression!
+elebrit# branding
%$is t#pe of advertising focuses upon using celebrit# power, fame, mone#,
popularit# to gain recognition for t$eir products and promote specific stores or
products! Advertisers often advertise t$eir products, for e*ample, w$en
celebrities s$are t$eir favorite products or wear clot$es b# specific brands or
designers! +elebrities are often involved in advertising campaigns suc$ as
television or print adverts to advertise specific or general products! %$e use of
celebrities to endorse a brand can $ave its downsides, $owever! ;ne mistake b#
a celebrit# can be detrimental to t$e public relations of a brand! @or e*ample,
following $is performance of eig$t gold medals at t$e 222: ;l#mpic ?ames in
4eiLing, +$ina, swimmer "ic$ael /$elpsE contract wit$ BelloggEs was terminated,
as BelloggEs did not want to associate wit$ $im after $e was p$otograp$ed
smoking mariLuana! +elebrities suc$ as 4ritne# 0pears $ave advertised for
multiple products including /epsi, +andies from Bo$lEs, %wister, -A0+A>, %o#ota
and man# more!
+onsumer.generated advertising
%$is involves getting consumers to generate advertising t$roug$ blogs, websites,
wikis and forums, for some kind of pa#ment!
Aerial advertising
9sing aircraft, balloons or airs$ips to create or displa# advertising media!
0k#writing is a notable e*ample!
/urpose of Advertising[edit]
Advertising is at t$e front of delivering t$e proper message to customers and
prospective customers! %$e purpose of advertising is to convince customers t$at
a compan#Es services or products are t$e best, en$ance t$e image of t$e
compan#, point out and create a need for products or services, demonstrate new
uses for establis$ed products, announce new products and programs, reinforce
t$e salespeopleEs individual messages, draw customers to t$e business, and to
$old e*isting customers![)2]
0ales promotions[edit]
0ales promotions are anot$er wa# to advertise! 0ales promotions are double
purposed because t$e# are used to gat$er information about w$at t#pe of
customers #ou draw in and w$ere t$e# are, and to Lumpstart sales! 0ales
promotions include t$ings like contests and games, sweepstakes, product
giveawa#s, samples coupons, lo#alt# programs, and discounts! %$e ultimate goal
of sales promotions is to stimulate potential customers to action![)3]
"edia and advertising approac$es[edit]
%$is section possibl# contains original researc$! /lease improve it b# verif#ing
t$e claims made and adding inline citations! 0tatements consisting onl# of
original researc$ ma# be removed! (April 2212
%$is section needs additional citations for verification! /lease $elp improve t$is
article b# adding citations to reliable sources! 9nsourced material ma# be
c$allenged and removed! (April 2212
&ncreasingl#, ot$er media are overtaking man# of t$e (traditional( media suc$ as
television, radio and newspaper because of a s$ift toward consumerEs usage of
t$e &nternet for news and music as well as devices like digital video recorders
(AF>s suc$ as %iFo![))]
Aigital signage is poised to become a maLor mass media because of its abilit# to
reac$ larger audiences for less mone#! Aigital signage also offers t$e uni,ue
abilit# to see t$e target audience w$ere t$e# are reac$ed b# t$e medium!
%ec$nological advances $ave also made it possible to control t$e message on
digital signage wit$ muc$ precision, enabling t$e messages to be relevant to t$e
target audience at an# given time and location w$ic$ in turn, gets more response
from t$e advertising! Aigital signage is being successfull# emplo#ed in
supermarkets![)5] Anot$er successful use of digital signage is in $ospitalit#
locations suc$ as restaurants![)6] and malls![)7]
Advertising on t$e <orld <ide <eb is a recent p$enomenon! /rices of <eb.
based advertising space are dependent on t$e (relevance( of t$e surrounding
web content and t$e traffic t$at t$e website receives!
>easons for online displa# advertisingJ Aispla# ads generate awareness ,uickl#!
9nlike searc$, w$ic$ re,uires someone to be aware of a need, displa#
advertising can drive awareness of somet$ing new and wit$out previous
knowledge! Aispla# works well for direct response! Aispla# is not onl# used for
generating awareness, itOs used for direct response campaigns t$at link to a
landing page wit$ a clear Qcall to actionO!
3.mail advertising is anot$er recent p$enomenon! 9nsolicited bulk 3.mail
advertising is known as (e.mail spam(! 0pam $as been a problem for e.mail
users for man# #ears!
A new form of advertising t$at is growing rapidl# is social network advertising! &t
is online advertising wit$ a focus on social networking sites! %$is is a relativel#
immature market, but it $as s$own a lot of promise as advertisers are able to
take advantage of t$e demograp$ic information t$e user $as provided to t$e
social networking site! @riendertising is a more precise advertising term in w$ic$
people are able to direct advertisements toward ot$ers directl# using social
network services![citation needed]
As t$e mobile p$one became a new mass media in 111: w$en t$e first paid
downloadable content appeared on mobile p$ones in @inland, it was onl# a
matter of time until mobile advertising followed, also first launc$ed in @inland in
2222! 4# 2227 t$e value of mobile advertising $ad reac$ed 82!2 billion and
providers suc$ as Admob delivered billions of mobile ads![citation needed]
"ore advanced mobile ads include banner ads, coupons, "ultimedia "essaging
0ervice picture and video messages, advergames and various engagement
marketing campaigns! A particular feature driving mobile ads is t$e 2A 4arcode,
w$ic$ replaces t$e need to do an# t#ping of web addresses, and uses t$e
camera feature of modern p$ones to gain immediate access to web content! :3
percent of Dapanese mobile p$one users alread# are active users of 2A
barcodes![citation needed]
0ome companies $ave proposed placing messages or corporate logos on t$e
side of booster rockets and t$e &nternational 0pace 0tation![citation needed]
9npaid advertising (also called (publicit# advertising(, can provide good
e*posure at minimal cost! /ersonal recommendations ((bring a friend(, (sell it(,
spreading buzz, or ac$ieving t$e feat of e,uating a brand wit$ a common noun
(in t$e 9nited 0tates, (Rero*( S (p$otocopier(, (Bleene*( S tissue, (Faseline( S
petroleum Lell#, (=oover( S vacuum cleaner, and (4and.Aid( S ad$esive bandage
G t$ese can be seen as t$e pinnacle of an# advertising campaign! =owever,
some companies oppose t$e use of t$eir brand name to label an obLect! 3,uating
a brand wit$ a common noun also risks turning t$at brand into a genericized
trademark G turning it into a generic term w$ic$ means t$at its legal protection as
a trademark is lost!
@rom time to time, %$e +< %elevision -etwork airs s$ort programming breaks
called (+ontent <raps,( to advertise one compan#Es product during an entire
commercial break! %$e +< pioneered (content wraps( and some products
featured were =erbal 3ssences, +rest, ?uitar =ero &&, +over?irl, and recentl#
>ecentl#, t$ere appeared a new promotion concept, (A>vertising(, advertising on
Augmented >ealit# tec$nolog#![citation needed]
+ontrovers# e*ists on t$e effectiveness of subliminal advertising (see mind
control, and t$e pervasiveness of mass messages (see propaganda![citation
>ise in new media[edit]
90 -ewspaper Advertising >evenue
-ewspaper Association of America publis$ed data [):]
<it$ t$e &nternet came man# new advertising opportunities! /opup, @las$,
banner, /opunder, advergaming, and email advertisements (all of w$ic$ are often
unwanted or spam in t$e case of email are now commonplace! /articularl# since
t$e rise of (entertaining( advertising, some people ma# like an advertisement
enoug$ to wis$ to watc$ it later or s$ow a friend! &n general, t$e advertising
communit# $as not #et made t$is eas#, alt$oug$ some $ave used t$e &nternet to
widel# distribute t$eir ads to an#one willing to see or $ear t$em! &n t$e last t$ree.
,uarters of 2221 mobile and internet advertising grew b# 1:!1T and 1!2T
respectivel#! ;lder media advertising saw declinesJ U12!1T (%F, U11!7T (radio,
U1)!:T (magazines and U1:!7T (newspapers ![citation needed]
-ic$e marketing[edit]
Anot$er significant trend regarding future of advertising is t$e growing
importance of t$e nic$e market using nic$e or targeted ads! Also broug$t about
b# t$e &nternet and t$e t$eor# of %$e 'ong %ail, advertisers will $ave an
increasing abilit# to reac$ specific audiences! &n t$e past, t$e most efficient wa#
to deliver a message was to blanket t$e largest mass market audience possible!
=owever, usage tracking, customer profiles and t$e growing popularit# of nic$e
content broug$t about b# ever#t$ing from blogs to social networking sites,
provide advertisers wit$ audiences t$at are smaller but muc$ better defined,
leading to ads t$at are more relevant to viewers and more effective for
companiesE marketing products! Among ot$ers, +omcast 0potlig$t is one suc$
advertiser emplo#ing t$is met$od in t$eir video on demand menus! %$ese
advertisements are targeted to a specific group and can be viewed b# an#one
wis$ing to find out more about a particular business or practice at an# time, rig$t
from t$eir $ome! %$is causes t$e viewer to become proactive and actuall#
c$oose w$at advertisements t$e# want to view![)1]
?oogle Ad0ense is a perfect e*ample of -ic$e marketing! ?oogle +alculates t$e
primar# purpose of t$e website and adLusts ads accordingl#! %$e# use ke# words
on t$e page (or even in emails to find t$e general ideas of topics disused and
places ads t$at will most likel# be clicked on b# viewers of t$e email account or
website visitors! ?oogle $as pioneered an ingenious met$od of putting ads rig$t
w$ere t$e# need to be![citation needed]
"ain articleJ +rowdsourcing
%$e concept of crowdsourcing $as given wa# to t$e trend of user.generated
advertisements! 9ser.generated ads are created b# consumers as opposed to an
advertising agenc# or t$e compan# t$emselves, most often t$e# are a result of
brand sponsored advertising competitions! @or t$e 2227 0uper 4owl, t$e @rito.
'a#s division of /epsi+o $eld t$e +ras$ t$e 0uper 4owl contest, allowing
consumers to create t$eir own Aoritos commercial![52] +$evrolet $eld a similar
competition for t$eir %a$oe line of 09Fs![52] Aue to t$e success of t$e Aoritos
user.generated ads in t$e 2227 0uper 4owl, @rito.'a#s relaunc$ed t$e
competition for t$e 2221 and 2212 0uper 4owl! %$e resulting ads were among
t$e most.watc$ed and most.liked 0uper 4owl ads! &n fact, t$e winning ad t$at
aired in t$e 2221 0uper 4owl was ranked b# t$e 90A %oda# 0uper 4owl Ad
"eter as t$e top ad for t$e #ear w$ile t$e winning ads t$at aired in t$e 2212
0uper 4owl were found b# -ielsenEs 4uzz"etrics to be t$e (most buzzed.about(!
%$is trend $as given rise to several online platforms t$at $ost user.generated
advertising competitions on be$alf of a compan#! @ounded in 2227, Vooppa $as
launc$ed ad competitions for brands suc$ as ?oogle, -ike, =ers$e#Es, ?eneral
"ills, "icrosoft, -4+ 9niversal, Vinio, and "ini +ooper! +rowdsourced
advertisements $ave gained popularit# in part to its cost effective nature, $ig$
consumer engagement, and abilit# to generate word.of.mout$! =owever, it
remains controversial, as t$e long.term impact on t$e advertising industr# is still
?lobal advertising[edit]
Advertising $as gone t$roug$ five maLor stages of developmentJ domestic,
e*port, international, multi.national, and global! @or global advertisers, t$ere are
four, potentiall# competing, business obLectives t$at must be balanced w$en
developing worldwide advertisingJ building a brand w$ile speaking wit$ one
voice, developing economies of scale in t$e creative process, ma*imising local
effectiveness of ads, and increasing t$e compan#Os speed of implementation!
4orn from t$e evolutionar# stages of global marketing are t$e t$ree primar# and
fundamentall# different approac$es to t$e development of global advertising
e*ecutionsJ e*porting e*ecutions, producing local e*ecutions, and importing
ideas t$at travel![5)]
Advertising researc$ is ke# to determining t$e success of an ad in an# countr# or
region! %$e abilit# to identif# w$ic$ elements andKor moments of an ad contribute
to its success is $ow economies of scale are ma*imised! ;nce one knows w$at
works in an ad, t$at idea or ideas can be imported b# an# ot$er market! "arket
researc$ measures, suc$ as @low of Attention, @low of 3motion and branding
moments provide insig$t into w$at is working in an ad in an# countr# or region
because t$e measures are based on t$e visual, not verbal, elements of t$e ad!
@oreign public messaging[edit]
0ee alsoJ 0oft /ower and &nternational %ourism Advertising
@oreign governments, particularl# t$ose t$at own marketable commercial
products or services, often promote t$eir interests and positions t$roug$ t$e
advertising of t$ose goods because t$e target audience is not onl# largel#
unaware of t$e forum as a ve$icle for foreign messaging but also willing to
receive t$e message w$ile in a mental state of absorbing information from
advertisements during television commercial breaks, w$ile reading a periodical,
or w$ile passing b# billboards in public spaces! A prime e*ample of t$is
messaging tec$ni,ue is advertising campaigns to promote international travel!
<$ile advertising foreign destinations and services ma# stem from t$e t#pical
goal of increasing revenue b# drawing more tourism, some travel campaigns
carr# t$e additional or alternative intended purpose of promoting good sentiments
or improving e*isting ones among t$e target audience towards a given nation or
region! &t is common for advertising promoting foreign countries to be produced
and distributed b# t$e tourism ministries of t$ose countries, so t$ese ads often
carr# political statements andKor depictions of t$e foreign governmentEs desired
international public perception! Additionall#, a wide range of foreign airlines and
travel.related services w$ic$ advertise separatel# from t$e destinations,
t$emselves, are owned b# t$eir respective governments; e*amples include,
t$oug$ are not limited to, t$e 3mirates airline (Aubai, 0ingapore Airlines
(0ingapore, Natar Airwa#s (Natar, +$ina Airlines (%aiwanK>epublic of +$ina,
and Air +$ina (/eopleEs >epublic of +$ina! 4# depicting t$eir destinations,
airlines, and ot$er services in a favorable and pleasant lig$t, countries market
t$emselves to populations abroad in a manner t$at could mitigate prior public
impressions![citation needed]
&n t$e realm of advertising agencies, continued industr# diversification $as seen
observers note t$at Wbig global clients donEt need big global agencies an# moreX!
[56] %$is is reflected b# t$e growt$ of non.traditional agencies in various global
markets, suc$ as +anadian business %AR& and 0"A>% in Australia and $as been
referred to as (a revolution in t$e ad world(![57]
-ew tec$nolog#[edit]
%$e abilit# to record s$ows on digital video recorders (suc$ as %iFo allow users
to record t$e programs for later viewing, enabling t$em to fast forward t$roug$
commercials! Additionall#, as more seasons of pre.recorded bo* sets are offered
for sale of television programs; fewer people watc$ t$e s$ows on %F! =owever,
t$e fact t$at t$ese sets are sold, means t$e compan# will receive additional
profits from t$e sales of t$ese sets!
%o counter t$is effect, a variet# of strategies $ave been emplo#ed! "an#
advertisers $ave opted for product placement on %F s$ows like 0urvivor! ;t$er
strategies include integrating advertising wit$ internet.connected 3/?s,
advertising on companion devices (like smartp$ones and tablets during t$e
s$ow, and creating %F apps! Additionall#, some like brands $ave opted for social
television sponsors$ip![citation needed]
Advertising education[edit]
Advertising education $as become widel# popular wit$ bac$elor, master and
doctorate degrees becoming available in t$e emp$asis![citation needed] A surge
in advertising interest is t#picall# attributed to t$e strong relations$ip advertising
pla#s in cultural and tec$nological c$anges, suc$ as t$e advance of online social
networking! A uni,ue model for teac$ing advertising is t$e advertising
agenc#, w$ere advertising students create campaigns for real companies![5:]
;rganizations suc$ as American Advertising @ederation and Ad9 -etwork
partner establis$ed companies wit$ students to create t$ese campaigns!
"ain articleJ +riticism of advertising
<$ile advertising can be seen as necessar# for economic growt$, it is not wit$out
social costs! 9nsolicited commercial e.mail and ot$er forms of spam $ave
become so prevalent as to $ave become a maLor nuisance to users of t$ese
services, as well as being a financial burden on internet service providers![51]
Advertising is increasingl# invading public spaces, suc$ as sc$ools, w$ic$ some
critics argue is a form of c$ild e*ploitation![62][61] &n addition, advertising
fre,uentl# uses ps#c$ological pressure (for e*ample, appealing to feelings of
inade,uac# on t$e intended consumer, w$ic$ ma# be $armful! "an# even feel
t$at often, advertisements e*ploit t$e desires of a consumer, b# making a
particular product more appealing, b# manipulating t$e consumers needs and
"ain articleJ Advertising regulation
%$ere $ave been increasing efforts to protect t$e public interest b# regulating t$e
content and t$e influence of advertising! 0ome e*amples areJ t$e ban on
television tobacco advertising imposed in man# countries, and t$e total ban of
advertising to c$ildren under 12 imposed b# t$e 0wedis$ government in 1111!
%$oug$ t$at regulation continues in effect for broadcasts originating wit$in t$e
countr#, it $as been weakened b# t$e 3uropean +ourt of Dustice, w$ic$ $ad
found t$at 0weden was obliged to accept foreign programming, including t$ose
from neig$boring countries or via satellite! ?reeceOs regulations are of a similar
nature, Wbanning advertisements for c$ildrenEs to#s between 7 am and 12 pm and
a total ban on advertisement for war to#s(![62]
&n 3urope and elsew$ere, t$ere is a vigorous debate on w$et$er (or $ow muc$
advertising to c$ildren s$ould be regulated! %$is debate was e*acerbated b# a
report released b# t$e Baiser @amil# @oundation in @ebruar# 222) w$ic$
suggested fast food advertising t$at targets c$ildren was an important factor in
t$e epidemic of c$ild$ood obesit# in t$e 9nited 0tates!
&n -ew Vealand, 0out$ Africa, /akistan, Afg$anistan, +anada, and man#
3uropean countries, t$e advertising industr# operates a s#stem of self.regulation!
Advertisers, advertising agencies and t$e media agree on a code of advertising
standards t$at t$e# attempt to up$old! %$e general aim of suc$ codes is to
ensure t$at an# advertising is Elegal, decent, $onest and trut$fulE! 0ome self.
regulator# organizations are funded b# t$e industr#, but remain independent, wit$
t$e intent of up$olding t$e standards or codes like t$e Advertising 0tandards
Aut$orit# in t$e 9B!
&n t$e 9B, most forms of outdoor advertising suc$ as t$e displa# of billboards is
regulated b# t$e 9B %own and +ount# /lanning s#stem! +urrentl# t$e displa# of
an advertisement wit$out consent from t$e /lanning Aut$orit# is a criminal
offense liable to a fine of Y2,522 per offence! All of t$e maLor outdoor billboard
companies in t$e 9B $ave convictions of t$is nature!
&n t$e 90, man# communities believe t$at man# forms of outdoor advertising
blig$t t$e public realm![63] As long ago as t$e 1162s in t$e 90 t$ere were
attempts to ban billboard advertising in t$e open countr#side![6)] +ities suc$ as
0Zo /aulo $ave introduced an outrig$t ban[65] wit$ 'ondon also $aving specific
legislation to control unlawful displa#s!
"an# advertisers emplo# a wide.variet# of linguistic devices to b#pass regulator#
laws (e!g! &n @rance, printing 3nglis$ words in bold and @renc$ translations in
fine print to deal wit$ t$e Article 122 of t$e 111) %oubon 'aw limiting t$e use of
3nglis$![66] %$e advertisement of controversial products suc$ as cigarettes and
condoms are subLect to government regulation in man# countries! @or instance,
t$e tobacco industr# is re,uired b# law in most countries to displa# warnings
cautioning consumers about t$e $ealt$ $azards of t$eir products! 'inguistic
variation is often used b# advertisers as a creative device to reduce t$e impact of
suc$ re,uirements!
Advertising researc$[edit]
"ain articleJ Advertising researc$
Advertising researc$ is a specialized form of researc$ t$at works to improve t$e
effectiveness and efficienc# of advertising! &t entails numerous forms of researc$
w$ic$ emplo# different met$odologies! Advertising researc$ includes pre.testing
(also known as cop# testing and post.testing of ads andKor campaigns G pre.
testing is done before an ad airs to gauge $ow well it will perform and post.
testing is done after an ad airs to determine t$e impact of t$e ad or
campaign on t$e consumer! +ontinuous ad tracking and t$e +ommunicus
0#stem are competing e*amples of post.testing advertising researc$ t#pes!
[citation needed]
"ain articleJ Advertising researc$
%oda#Os culture is made up of meanings between consumers and marketers!
%$ese meanings depict signs and s#mbols t$at are encoded in ever#da# obLects!
[67] 0emiotics is t$e stud# of signs and $ow t$e# are interpreted! Advertising $as
man# $idden signs and meanings wit$in brand names, logos, package designs,
print advertisements, and television advertisements! %$e purpose of semiotics is
to stud# and interpret t$e message being conve#ed in advertisements! 'ogos
and advertisements can be interpreted at two levels known as t$e surface level
and t$e underl#ing level! %$e surface level uses signs creativel# to create an
image or personalit# for t$eir product! %$ese signs can be images, words, fonts,
colors, or slogan! %$e underl#ing level is made up of $idden meanings! %$e
combination of images, words, colors, and slogan must be interpreted b# t$e
audience or consumer![6:] %$e Wke# to advertising anal#sisX is t$e signifier and
t$e signified! %$e signifier is t$e obLect and t$e signified is t$e mental concept!
[61] A product $as a signifier and a signified! %$e signifier is t$e color, brand
name, logo design, and tec$nolog#! %$e signified $as two meanings known as
denotative and connotative! %$e denotative meaning is t$e meaning of t$e
product! A televisionOs denotative meaning would be t$at it is $ig$ definition! %$e
connotative meaning is t$e productOs deep and $idden meaning! A connotative
meaning of a television would be t$at it is top of t$e line![72]
Apple is an e*cellent e*ample of using semiotics in t$eir advertising campaign!
AppleOs commercials used a black sil$ouette of a person t$at was t$e age of
AppleEs target market! %$e# placed t$e sil$ouette in front of a blue screen so t$at
t$e picture be$ind t$e sil$ouette could be constantl# c$anging! =owever, t$e one
t$ing t$at sta#s t$e same in t$ese ads is t$at t$ere is music in t$e background
and t$e sil$ouette is listening to t$at music on a w$ite i/od t$roug$ w$ite
$eadp$ones! %$roug$ advertising, t$e w$ite color on a set of earp$ones now
signifies t$at t$e music device is an i/od! %$e w$ite color signifies almost all of
AppleOs products![71]
%$e semiotics of gender pla#s a ke# influence on t$e wa# in w$ic$ signs are
interpreted! <$en considering gender roles in advertising, individuals are
influenced b# t$ree categories! +ertain c$aracteristics of stumuli ma# en$ance or
decrease t$e elaboration of t$e message (if t$e product is perceived as feminine
or masculine! 0econd, t$e c$aracteristics of individuals can affect attention and
elaboration of t$e message (traditional or non.traditional gender role orientation!
'astl#, situational factors ma# be important to influence t$e elaboration of t$e
%$ere are two t#pes of marketing communication claims.obLective and subLective!
[73] ;bLective claims stem from t$e e*tent to w$ic$ t$e claim associates t$e
brand wit$ a tangible product or service feature! @or instance, t$e camera $as
auto focus features! 0ubLective claims conve# emotional, subLective, impressions
of intangible aspects of a product or service! %$e# are non.p$#sical features of a
product or service t$at cannot be directl# perceived, as t$e# $ave no p$#sical
realit#! @or instance t$e broc$ure $as a beautiful design![7)] "ales tend to
respond better to obLective marketing communications claims w$ile females tend
to respond better to subLective marketing communications claims![75]
&n advertisements, men are represented as independent! %$e# are s$own in
more occupations t$an women! <omen are represented mainl# as $ousewives
and mot$ers! "en are more likel# to be s$own advertising cars or business
products, w$ile women advertise domestic products! "en are more likel# to be
s$own outdoors or in business settings! <omen are depicted in domestic
settings! "en are more often portra#ed as aut$orities! As far as ads go, wit$ age
men seem to gain wisdom and aut$orit#! ;n t$e ot$er $and women seem to
disappear wit$ age! Foiceovers are commonl# used in advertising! "ost
voiceovers are men (figures of up to 1)T $ave been reported! %$ere $ave been
more female voiceovers in recent #ears but mainl# for food, $ouse$old products,
and feminine care products![76]
?ender effects in t$e processing of advertising[edit]
According to a 1177 stud# b# Aavid 0tatt, females process information
compre$ensivel#, w$ile males process information t$roug$ $euristic devices suc$
as procedures, met$ods or strategies for solving problems, w$ic$ could $ave an
effect on $ow t$e# interpret advertising![77] According to t$is stud#, men prefer to
$ave available and apparent cues to interpret t$e message w$ere females
engage in more creative, associative, imager#.laced interpretation!
"ore recentl#, researc$ b# "artin (2223 reveals t$at males and females differ in
$ow t$e# react to advertising depending on t$eir mood at t$e time of e*posure to
t$e ads, and t$e affective tone of t$e advertising! <$en feeling sad, males prefer
$app# ads to boost t$eir mood! &n contrast, females prefer $app# ads w$en t$e#
are feeling $app#! %$e television programs in w$ic$ t$e ads are embedded are
s$own to influence a consumerEs mood state![7:]

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