Advise of the masters

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Walter Scheidel Office hours: TuTh 1.30-2.30 or by appointment
Office: 20-22L Office phone: (650) 723-0478
Mailbox: Classics Department e-mail: [email protected]
(Main Quad, Building 20)



Spring Quarter 2005
TuTh 3.15-4.45

Required texts (available at the Stanford Bookstore, and on reserve in Green)

• O. Patterson, Slavery and social death (1982) [=Patterson]
• P. Garnsey, Ideas of slavery from Aristotle to Augustine (1996) [=Garnsey]
• T. Wiedemann, Greek and Roman slavery (1981) [=Wiedemann]

Texts on reserve in Green
• M. I. Finley, Ancient slavery and modern ideology (1980)
• T. Wiedemann, Greek and Roman slavery (1981)
• Y. Garlan, Slavery in ancient Greece (1988)
• K. Bradley, Slavery and society at Rome (1994)
• P. Garnsey, Ideas of slavery from Aristotle to Augustine (1996)
• O. Patterson, Freedom, 1: freedom in the making of western culture (1991)
• P. Kolchin, American slavery, 1619-1877 (1993)


Tue, Mar 29 Introduction

Thu, Mar 31 Historical context

Tue, Apr 5 What is slavery?
Patterson 1-34; Wiedemann # 1, 4-5, 8; handouts

Thu, Apr 7 Workshop (J oyce Moser)

Tue, Apr 12 Origins and alternatives
Patterson 35-76; Wiedemann # 12-13, 15-17, 80 (263b-265c, 271b-272a);

Thu, Apr 14 The economy of slavery: what?
Wiedemann # 80 (272b-273c), 82, 86-87, 91, 92, 126-7; handouts

Tue, Apr 19 The economy of slavery: why?
Wiedemann # 80 (265b-c), 88, 133, 158, 160, 163, 167, 191-2; handouts

Thu, Apr 21 The economy of slavery: how?
Patterson 105-171; Wiedemann # 100, 103, 105, 106, 108, 122-3, 141;

Tue, Apr 26 Accommodation and social control
Patterson 172-208; Wiedemann # 77-78, 80 (264e-265b), 134, 140, 148-151,
178, 187, 190, 198, 193, 201, 205-6; handouts

Thu, Apr 28 Accommodation and social control
Patterson 77-101; handouts

Tue, May 3 Manumission and resocialization
Patterson 209-239, 262-296; Wiedemann # 28, 29, 30, 65, 71; handouts

Thu, May 5 Manumission and resocialization
Patterson 240-261; Wiedemann # 23-27, 34-37, 40; handouts

Tue, May 10 Resistance
Wiedemann # 54, 180, 209, 212, 215-6, 219-226; handouts

Thu, May 12 Rebellion
Wiedemann # 80 (265d-266f), 211, 229-232; handouts

Tue, May 17 Ideology: freedom
Garnsey 128-152; handouts

Thu, May 19 Ideology: natural slavery
Wiedemann # 2; Garnsey 23-52, 75-78, 107-127; handouts

Tue, May 24 Ideology: race

Thu, May 26 Ideology: religion
Garnsey 78-86, 157-235

Tue, May 31 Endings

Thu, J une 2 Endings

Course requirements




1. Greek and Roman slavery: general surveys
1.1. General
M. I. Finley, Ancient slavery and modern ideology (1980; expanded edition edited by B. D. Shaw, 1998)
T. Wiedemann, Slavery (Greece & Rome New Surveys in the Classics, no. 19, 1987; 3
ed. 1997)
W. L. Westermann, The slave systems of Greek and Roman antiquity (1955)
M. I. Finley, The ancient economy (1973; 2
ed. 1985; updated with a new foreword by I. Morris, 1999), ch. 3
M. I. Finley (ed.), Slavery in classical antiquity: views and controversies (1960; repr. 1968)
M. I. Finley (ed.), Classical slavery (1987; repr. with a foreword by W. Scheidel, 1999)
G. E. M. de Ste. Croix, The class struggle in the ancient Greek world from the Archaic Age to the Arab
conquests (1981, pbk. 1983)

1.2. Sourcebooks
T. Wiedemann, Greek and Roman slavery (1981)
W. Eck & J . Heinrichs, Sklaven und Freigelassene in der Gesellschaft der römischen Kaiserzeit (1993)
B. D. Shaw, Spartacus and the slave wars: a brief history with documents (2001)

1.3. Greek slavery
Y. Garlan, Slavery in ancient Greece (1988)
N. Fisher, Slavery in ancient Greece (1993)
P. Cartledge, The Greeks (2
ed. 1997), ch. 6
M. I. Finley, Economy and society in ancient Greece (edited with an introduction by B. D. Shaw & R. P. Saller,
1981), ch. 6-11
E. M. Wood, Peasant-citizen and slave: the foundations of Athenian democracy (1988)
H. Klees, Sklavenleben im klassischen Griechenland (1999)

1.4. Roman slavery
K. Bradley, Slavery and society at Rome (1994)
K. Hopkins, Conquerors and slaves (1978), ch. 1-3
Z. Yavetz, Slaves and slavery in Rome (1988)
J . C. Dumont, Servus: Rome et l’esclavage sous la République (1987)
I. Biezunska-Malowist, L’esclavage dans l’Egypte gréco-romaine, 2 vols. (1974/77)

1.5. History of scholarship
M. I. Finley, Ancient slavery and modern ideology (expanded edition edited by B. D. Shaw, 1998), 79-134 &
B. D. Shaw, ‘‘A wolf by the ears’: M. I. Finley’s Ancient slavery and modern ideology’’, in M. I. Finley, Ancient
slavery and modern ideology (expanded edition edited by B. D. Shaw, 1998), 3-74
W. Scheidel, ‘Foreword’, in M. I. Finley (ed.), Classical slavery (reprint 1999), VII-XIII

2. The slave supply
P. Ducrey, Le traitement des prisonniers de guerre dans la Grèce antique des origines à la conquête romaine
Y. Garlan, ‘War, piracy and slavery in the Greek world’, in Finley, Classical slavery [see above], 7-20 (9-27 in
reprint of 1999)
W. V. Harris, ‘Towards a study of the Roman slave trade’, in J . H. D’Arms & E. C. Kopff (eds.), The seaborne
commerce of ancient Rome (1980), 117-140

K. Bradley, ‘On the Roman slave supply and slavebreeding’, in Finley, Classical slavery [see above], 42-64 (53-
81 in reprint of 1999)
W. Scheidel, ‘Quantifying the sources of slavery in the early Roman empire’, Journal of Roman Studies 87
(1997), 156-169
W. V. Harris, ‘Demography, geography and the sources of Roman slaves’, Journal of Roman Studies 89 (1999),
H. Volkmann, Die Massenversklavungen der Einwohner eroberter Städte in der hellenistisch-römischen Zeit
ed. 1990)
E. Herrmann-Otto, Ex ancilla natus: Untersuchungen zu den “hausgeborenen” Sklaven und Sklavinnen im
Westen des römischen Kaiserreiches (1994)

3. The slave economy
3.1. Slave labor
M. H. J ameson, ‘Agriculture and slavery in classical Athens’, Classical Journal 73 (1977/78), 122-145
E. M. Wood, ‘Agricultural slavery in classical Athens’, American Journal of Ancient History 8 (1983), 1-47
R. Osborne, ‘The economics and politics of slavery at Athens’, in A. Powell (ed.), The Greek world (1995), 27-
A. Giardina & A. Schiavone (eds.), Società romana e produzione schiavistica, 1-3 (1981)
C. R. Whittaker, ‘Circe’s pigs: from slavery to serfdom in the later Roman empire’, in Finley, Classical slavery
[see above], 88-122 (111-154 in the reprint of 1999) (=Whittaker, Land, city and trade in the Roman empire
[1993], ch. 5)

3.2 . Slavery and agency
J .-J . Aubert, Business managers in ancient Rome: a social and economic study of institores 200 BC – AD 250
J . Carlsen, Vilici and Roman estate managers until AD 284 (1995)
A. Kirschenbaum, Sons, slaves and freedmen in Roman commerce (1987)
P. R. C. Weaver, Familia Caesaris: a social study of the emperor’s freedmen and slaves (1972)

3.3. Slaves and military service
P. Hunt, Slaves, warfare, and ideology in the Greek historians (1998)
K. W. Welwei, Unfreie im antiken Kriegsdienst, 3 vols. (1974/88)

4. Control, resistance and rebellion
P. A. Cartledge, ‘Rebels & Sambos in classical Greece: a comparative view’, in Cartledge & F. D. Harvey (eds.),
Crux: essays presented to G. E. M. de Ste. Croix (1985), 16-46
K. Bradley, Slaves and masters in the Roman empire: a study in social control (1984, 2
ed. 1987)
K. Bradley, Slavery and rebellion in the Roman world, 140 B.C. – 70 B.C. (1989)
Shaw (see above, 1.2)
W. Z. Rubinsohn, Spartacus’ uprising and Soviet historical writing (1987)

5. Sex and slavery
M. Golden, ‘Slavery and homosexuality in Athens’, Phoenix 38 (1984), 308-324
R. J ust, Women in Athenian law and life (1989), 167-193
T. McGinn, Prostitution, sexuality, and the law in ancient Rome (1998)
R. Flemming, ‘Quae corpore quaestum facit: the sexual economy of female prostitution in the Roman empire’,
Journal of Roman Studies 89 (1999), 38-61

6. Slave law
D. M. MacDowell, The law in classical Athens (1978, pb. 1986)
M. Gagarin, ‘The torture of slaves in Athenian law’, Classical Philology 91 (1996), 1-18
A. Watson, Roman slave law (1987)
W. W. Buckland, The Roman law of slavery (1908)
A. Watson, ‘Roman slave law and Romanist ideology’, Phoenix 37 (1983), 53-65

7. Mentality – theory – ideology
P. Garnsey, Ideas of slavery from Aristotle to Augustine (1996)
R. Schlaifer, ‘Greek theories of slavery from Homer to Aristotle’, in Finley, Slavery in classical antiquity [see
above], 93-132
G. Vlastos, Platonic studies (1973), 140-163
N. D. Smith, ‘Aristotle’s theory of natural slavery’, Phoenix 37 (1983), 109-122
P. A. Brunt, ‘Aristotle and slavery’, in: id., Studies in Greek history and thought (1993), 343-388
G. Cambiano, ‘Aristotle and the anonymous opponents of slavery’, in Finley, Classical slavery [see above], 21-
41 (28-52 in the reprint of 1999)
P. A. Cartledge, ‘Like a worm i’ the bud? A heterology of classical Greek slavery’, Greece and Rome 40 (1993),
K. Hopkins, ‘Novel evidence for Roman slavery’, Past & Present 138 (1993), 3-27
G. E. M. de Ste. Croix, ‘Early Christian attitudes to property and slavery’, Studies in Church History 12 (1975),
D. A. Martin, Slavery as salvation: the metaphor of slavery in Pauline Christianity (1990)
F. Bömer, Untersuchungen über die Religion der Sklaven in Griechenland und Rom, 4 vols. (1958/63)
F. Kudlien, Sklaven-Mentalität im Spiegel antiker Wahrsagerei (1991) (with Scheidel, Ancient History Bulletin 7
(1993), 107-114)
J . A. Glancy, Slavery in early Christianity (2002)

8. Manumission and freed/wo/men
J . Trevett, Apollodoros the son of Pasion (1992)
K. Hopkins, Conquerors and Slaves (1978), ch. 2-3
T. E. J . Wiedemann, ‘The regularity of manumission at Rome’, Classical Quarterly 35 (1985), 162-175
S. M. Treggiari, Roman freedmen during the late Republic (1969)
P. Garnsey, Cities, peasants and food in classical antiquity: essays in social and economic history. Edited with
addenda by W. Scheidel (1998), ch. 2
G. Fabre, Libertus: recherches sur les rapports patron-affranchi à la fin de la république romaine (1981)
G. Alföldy, ‘Die Freilassung von Sklaven und die Struktur der römischen Sklaverei in der römischen Kaiserzeit’
(1972), in id., Die römische Gesellschaft: ausgewählte Beiträge (1986), 286-331
W. Waldstein, Operae libertorum: Untersuchungen zur Dienstpflicht freigelassener Sklaven (1986)
I. Weiler, Die Beendigung des Sklavenstatus im Altertum (2003)

9. Between slavery and freedom
M. I. Finley, Economy and society in ancient Greece (edited with an introduction by B. D. Shaw & R. P. Saller
1981), ch. 7-9
P. A. Cartledge, ‘Serfdom in classical Greece’, in Archer [see below], 33-41
J . Ducat, Les Hilotes (1990)
B. Sirks, ‘Reconsidering the Roman Colonate’, Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte,
Romanistische Abteilung 110 (1993), 331-362
M. Mircovic, The Later Roman colonate and freedom (1997)

10. Comparative perspectives
10.1 Slavery in world history
10.1.1. Encyclopedias
P. Finkelman & J . C. Miller (eds.), Macmillan encyclopedia of world slavery, 2 vols. (1998)
J . P. Rodriguez (ed.), The historical encyclopedia of world slavery, 2 vols. (1997)
S. Drescher & S. L. Engerman (eds.), A historical guide to world slavery (1998)

10.1.2. General
O. Patterson, Slavery and social death: a comparative study (1982)
D. Turley, Slavery (2000)
D. B. Davis, The problem of slavery in western culture (1966; repr. 1988)
D. B. Davis, Slavery and human progress (1984)
M. I. Finley, ‘Slavery’, International encyclopedia of the social sciences, vol. 14 (1968), 307-313
I. Kopytoff, ‘Slavery’, Annual Review of Anthropology 11 (1982), 207-230
L. Archer (ed.), Slavery and other forms of unfree labour (1988)
M. Meltzer, Slavery: a world history (1993)

10.1.3. Non-classical, non-American slavery
I. Mendelsohn, Slavery in the ancient Near East (1949)
P. Flesher, Oxen, women, or citizens? Slaves in the system of the Mishnah (1988)
C. Verlinden, L’esclavage dans l’Europe médiévale, 2 vols. (1955/77)
R. M. Karras, Slavery and society in medieval Scandinavia (1988)
R. Hellie, Slavery in Russia 1450-1725 (1982)
B. Lewis, Slavery in the Middle East: an historical enquiry (1990)
M. Gordon, Slavery in the Arab world (1989)
C. M. Wilbur, Slavery in China during the Former Han Dynasty (1943)
E. G. Pulleyblank, ‘The origins and nature of chattel slavery in China’, Journal of the Social and Economic
History of the Orient 1 (1958), 185-220
B. Lasker, Human bondage in southeast Asia (1950)
J . Watson (ed.), Asian and African systems of slavery (1980)
C. Meillassoux, The anthropology of slavery: the womb of iron and gold (1991)
F. Cooper, Plantation slavery on the east coast of Africa (1977)
P. Manning, Slavery and African life (1990)
P. E. Lovejoy, Transformations in slavery: a history of slavery in Africa (2
ed. 2000)
M. Klein, Slavery and colonial rule in French West Africa (1998)
N. A. Worden, Slavery in Dutch South Africa (1985)
R. Shell, Children of bondage: a social history of the slave society at the Cape of Good Hope, 1652-1838 (1994)

10.1.4. Slavery in the Americas
I. P. Averkieva, Slavery among the Indians of North America (1966)
R. Blackburn, The making of New World slavery: from the Baroque to the Modern, 1492-1800 (1997)
H. Thomas, The slave trade: the history of the Atlantic slave trade 1440-1870 (1997; pb. 1998)
H. S. Klein, The Atlantic slave trade (1999)
D. Eltis, The rise of slavery in the Americas (2000)
I. Berlin, Many thousands gone: the first two centuries of slavery in North America (1998)
J . Walvin, Black ivory: a history of British slavery (1992; pb. 1993)
M. M. Smith, Debating slavery: economy and society in the antebellum American South (1998)
P. Kolchin, American slavery 1619-1877 (1993; pb. 1995)
P. J . Parish, Slavery: history and historians (1989)
R. W. Fogel, The slavery debates, 1952-1990 (2003)

R. M. Miller & J . D. Smith (eds.), Dictionary of Afro-American slavery (2
ed. 1997)
Parent, A. S. Foul means: the formation of a slave society in Virginia, 1660-1740 (2003)
R. W. Fogel, Without consent or contract: the rise and fall of American slavery (1989)
E. D. Genovese, Roll, Jordan, roll: the world the slaves made (1972; pb. 1974)
R. W. Fogel & S. L. Engerman, Time on the cross: the economics of American Negro slavery, 2 vols. (1974)
J . W. Blassingame, The slave community: plantation life in the Antebellum South (2
ed. 1979)
K. M. Stampp, The peculiar institution: slavery in the ante-bellum South (1956)
F. Douglass, My bondage and my freedom (1855, numerous reprints)
J . W. Blassingame (ed.), Slave testimony: two centuries of letters, interviews, and autobiographies (1977)
G. P. Rawick (ed.), The American slave: a composite autobiography, 19 vols. (1972)
E. D. Genovese, From rebellion to revolution: Afro-American slave revolts in the making of the modern world
H. Aptheker, American negro slave revolts (2
ed. 1987)
J . O. Breeden (ed.), Advice among masters: the ideal of slave management in the Old South (1980)
D. G. Faust (Hg.), The ideology of slavery: proslavery thought in the antebellum South, 1830-1860 (1981)
H. S. Klein, African Slavery in Latin America and the Caribbean (1986)
O. Patterson, The sociology of slavery: an analysis of the origins, development and structure of Negro slave
society in Jamaica (1967)
F. W. Knight, Slave society in Cuba during the nineteenth century (1970)
B. Bush, Slave women in Caribbean society 1650-1838 (1990)
K. M. de Queiros Mattoso, To be a slave in Brazil 1550-1888 (1986)
M. C. Karasch, Slave life in Rio de Janeiro 1808-1850 (1987)
R. Price (ed.), Maroon societies: rebel slave communities in the Americas ( 2
ed. 1979)

10.1.5. Other
R. Sawyer, Slavery in the twentieth century (1986)
M. Spiegel, The dreaded comparison: human and animal slavery (1988)

10.2. Comparative studies
10.2.1 General
Patterson, Slavery and social death: a comparative study (1982)
O. Patterson, Freedom, 1: freedom in the making of western culture (1991)
D. A. Miller, ‘Some psycho-social perceptions of slavery’, Journal of Social History 18 (1985), 587-605
L. Foner & E. D. Genovese (eds.), Slavery in the New World: a reader in comparative history (1969) (esp.
Genovese, ‘The treatment of slaves in different countries’, 202-210 =id., In red and black [1984], 158-172)
S. M. Elkins, Slavery: a problem in American institutional and intellectual life (2
ed. 1976)
C. N. Degler, Neither black nor white: slavery and race relations in Brazil and the United States (1971)
H. S. Klein, Slavery in the Americas: a comparative study of Virginia and Cuba (1967)
G. M. Hall, Social control in slave plantation societies: a comparison of St. Domingue and Cuba (1971)
P. Kolchin, Unfree labor: American slavery and Russian serfdom (1987)
M. Craton, ‘The historical roots of the plantation model’, Slavery & Abolition 5 (1984), 189-221

10.2.2. Ancient and modern slavery
A. Loria, ‘Die Sclavenwirtschaft im modernen Amerika und im europäischen Alterthume’, Zeitschrift für Social-
und Wirtschaftsgeschichte 4 (1896), 67-118
L. Oppenheim, ‘The law of slaves: a comparative study of the Roman and Louisiana systems’, Tulane Law
Review 14 (1940), 384-406
C. A. Yeo, ‘The development of Roman and American slavery’, Finanzarchiv 13 (1951/52), 445-485
C. A. Yeo, ‘The rise of plantations in ancient Italy and modern America’, Classical Journal 51 (1955), 391-395
R. Martin, ‘Du Nouveau Monde au monde antique: quelques problèmes d’esclavage rural’, Ktèma 5 (1980), 161-

J . Annequin, ‘Comparatisme/comparaisons: ressemblances et hétérogénéité des formes d’exploitation
esclavagistes’, Dialogues d’Histoire Ancienne 11 (1985), 639-672
P. A. Cartledge, ‘Rebels and sambos…’ [see above]
B. A. Crouch, ‘”Booty capitalism” and capitalism’s booty: slaves and slavery in ancient Rome and the American
South’, Slavery and Abolition 6 (1985), 3-24
R. A. Austen, ‘How unique is the New World plantation?’, in S. Daget (ed.), De la traité à l’esclavage (1988),
vol. 1, 55-71
I. Biezunska-Malowist & M. Malowist, ‘L’esclavage antique et moderne: les possibilités de recherches
comparées’, in M.-M. Mactoux & E. Geny (eds.), Mélanges Lévèque 2: anthropologie et société (1989), 17-
K. Bradley, ‘”The regular, daily traffic in slaves”: Roman history and contemporary history’, Classical J ournal
87 (1992), 125-138
J . R. LeBlanc, ‘The context of manumission: imperial Rome and antebellum Alabama’, Alabama Review 46
(1993), 266-287
V. J . Rosivach, ‘Agricultural slavery in the northern colonies and in classical Athens: some comparisons’,
Comparative Studies in Society and History 35 (1993), 551-567
W. Scheidel, ‘Reflections on the differential valuation of slaves in Diocletian’s Price Edict and in the United
States’, Münstersche Beiträge zur Antiken Handelsgeschichte 15, 1 (1996), 67-79
L. Schumacher, ‘Antike und moderne Sklaverei: Strukturelle Überlegungen zum Phänomen der Unfreiheit’, in
id. (ed.), Ehrenpromotion Emilio Gabba am 19. Mai 1998 durch den Fachbereich Geschichtswissenschaft
der Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz: Reden zur akademischen Feier (1998), 15-26.

11. Bibliographies
J . C. Miller, Slavery and slaving in world history: a bibliography, 1900-1991 (1993) [10,344 titles]
J . C. Miller, Slavery and slaving in world history: a bibliography. Volume II, 1992-1996 (1999) [3,897 titles)
E. Herrmann, Bibliographie zur antiken Sklaverei, 2 vols. (1983) [5,162 titles]
H. Bellen & H. Heinen, Bibliographie zur antiken Sklaverei, 2 vols. (2003) [10,415 titles]
‘Slavery: annual bibliographical supplement’, Slavery & Abolition 1 (1980) ff.

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