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Ursodiol (Systemic)
INN: Ursodeoxycholic acid {07} BAN: Ursodeoxycholic acid {07}

JAN: Ursodesoxycholic acid {07} VA CLASSIFICATION Primary: GA900 Commonly used brand name(s): Actigall; Ursofalk. Another commonly used name is UDCA. Note: For a listing of dosage forms and brand names by country availability, see Dosage Forms section(s).

Category: Anticholelithic— Indications Note: Bracketed information in the Indications section refers to uses that are not included in U.S. product labeling. Accepted Gallstone disease (treatment)—Orally administered ursodiol is indicated for dissolution of cholesterol gallstones {32} in selected patients with uncomplicated radiolucent gallstone disease. However, alternative therapies should be considered since gallstone dissolution with ursodiol may require many months of treatment, complete dissolution does not occur in all patients, and recurrence of stones occurs within 5 years in about 50% of patients who have had stones dissolved by use of bile acid therapy {01} {02} {04} {05} {06} {13} {18} {19} {52}. —Ursodiol therapy is more likely to be effective if the stones are small (< 20 mm) and of the floatable type {01} {05} {06} {13}. —Body weight and dietary factors may influence gallstone formation and/or dissolution rate {17}. Gallstone formation (prophylaxis)1—Ursodiol is indicated for the prevention of gallstone formation in obese patients experiencing rapid weight loss {27} {28} {52} {53}. [Atresia, biliary (treatment)]1

[Cholangitis, sclerosing (treatment)]1 [Cirrhosis, alcoholic (treatment)]1 [Cirrhosis, biliary (treatment)]1{54} [Hepatic disease, cholestatic (treatment){54}] [Hepatic disease, cystic fibrosis–associated (treatment)]1 and [Hepatitis, chronic (treatment)]1—Ursodiol is used for the treatment of some chronic liver diseases, including primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, cystic fibrosis–associated liver disease, biliary atresia, chronic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis {20} {21} {22} {23}{24} {25} {26} {35} {36} {37} {38} {39} {40} {41} {42} {43} {44} {45} {46} {48} {52}. [Transplant rejection, liver (prophylaxis)]1—Ursodiol is used as adjuvant therapy following orthotopic liver transplantation to prevent early graft rejection {20} {44} {45} {52}. Unaccepted Ursodiol is not indicated when there are calcified cholesterol stones, radiopaque stones (calciumcontaining), or radiolucent bile pigment stones; when the gallbladder is not functioning {55}; or when surgery for gallstones is clearly indicated {01} {05} {53} {54} {55}.
1

Not included in Canadian product labeling.

Pharmacology/Pharmacokinetics Physicochemical characteristics: Molecular weight— 392.58 {01} {05} {07} Mechanism of action/Effect: Anticholelithic—Although the exact mechanism of ursodiol's anticholelithic action is not completely understood, it is known that when administered orally ursodiol is concentrated in bile and decreases biliary cholesterol saturation by suppressing hepatic synthesis and secretion of cholesterol, and by inhibiting its intestinal absorption. The reduced cholesterol saturation permits the gradual solubilization of cholesterol from gallstones, resulting in their eventual dissolution.{01} {02} {04} {05} {06} {13} {20} {48} {52}

Other actions/effects: Ursodiol increases bile flow {02}. In chronic cholestatic liver disease, ursodiol appears to reduce the detergent properties of the bile salts, thus reducing their cytotoxicity. Also, ursodiol may protect liver cells from the damaging activity of toxic bile acids (e.g., lithocholate, deoxycholate, and chenodeoxycholate), which increase in concentration in patients with chronic liver disease.{08} {16} {20} {30} {31} {48} {49} {50} {52} Absorption: Absorbed from the small bowel (about 90% of dose) {01} {04} {05} {20}. Protein binding:

High {02}. Biotransformation: Hepatic (first-pass hepatic clearance). Exogenous ursodiol is metabolized in the liver to its taurine and glycine conjugates. The resulting conjugates are secreted into bile. {01} {02} {04} {20} Time to peak concentration: 1 to 3 hours {20}. Elimination: Primarily fecal; very small amounts are excreted into urine. Small amount of unabsorbed ursodiol passes into the colon where it undergoes bacterial degradation (7-dehydroxylation); the resulting lithocholic acid is partly absorbed from the colon but is sulfated in the liver and rapidly eliminated in the feces {02} {05} as the sulfolithocholyl glycine or sulfolithocholyl taurine conjugate.{01} {04} {20} {52}

Precautions to Consider Cross-sensitivity and/or related problems Patients sensitive to other bile acid products may be sensitive to ursodiol also {01} {13}. Carcinogenicity/Tumorigenicity Studies in rats with intrarectal instillation of lithocholic acid and other metabolites of ursodiol and chenodiol did not show evidence of tumorigenicity, except when these substances were administered in conjunction with a carcinogenic agent. Epidemiologic studies suggest that bile acids might be involved in the pathogenesis of human colon cancer in patients who have undergone a cholecystectomy; however, conclusive evidence is lacking. {01} {05} Pregnancy/Reproduction Pregnancy— Adequate and well-controlled studies have not been done in humans {05}. Studies in rats at doses 20 to 100 times the human dose, and in rabbits at doses 5 times the human dose, have not shown that ursodiol causes adverse effects in the fetus. FDA Pregnancy Category B {05}. Breast-feeding It is not known whether ursodiol is distributed into breast milk {05} {13}. However, problems in humans have not been documented. Pediatrics Appropriate studies on the relationship of age to the effects of ursodiol when used as an anticholelithic have not been performed in the pediatric population. However, studies performed to date in children and infants with cholestatic liver disease and biliary atresia have not demonstrated pediatrics-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of ursodiol in children.{33} {34} {40}

Geriatrics

Appropriate studies on the relationship of age to the effects of ursodiol have not been performed in the geriatric population. However, geriatrics-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of this medication in the elderly are not expected. {13} Drug interactions and/or related problems The following drug interactions and/or related problems have been selected on the basis of their potential clinical significance (possible mechanism in parentheses where appropriate)—not necessarily inclusive (» = major clinical significance):

Note: Combinations containing any of the following medications, depending on the amount present, may also interact with this medication. Antacids, aluminum-containing or Cholestyramine or Colestipol (concurrent use may result in binding of ursodiol, thus decreasing its absorption {01}{02} {05} {13} {53}) Antihyperlipidemics, especially clofibrate {01} {02} {05} {13} {53} or Estrogens {01} {02} {05} {13} {53} or Neomycin {01} {02} {05} {13} or Progestins {01} {02} {05} {13} (concurrent use of these medications with ursodiol may decrease ursodiol's ability to dissolve cholesterol gallstones, since these medications tend to increase cholesterol saturation of bile {01} {02} {05} {13})

Laboratory value alterations The following have been selected on the basis of their potential clinical significance (possible effect in parentheses where appropriate)—not necessarily inclusive (» = major clinical significance): With physiology/laboratory test values Transaminase (mainly serum alanine aminotransferase [ALT (SGPT)]) (although this effect has not been clearly demonstrated, serum concentrations of liver enzymes may be increased due to the inability of some patients to form sulfate conjugates of lithocholic acid; however, these concentrations may be decreased in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, with other cholestatic conditions, and with chronic active hepatitis {01} {16} {47} {52})

Medical considerations/Contraindications The medical considerations/contraindications included have been selected on the basis of their potential clinical significance (reasons given in parentheses where appropriate)— not necessarily inclusive (» = major clinical significance). Risk-benefit should be considered when the following medical problems exist » Gallstone complications, such as:

Biliary gastrointestinal fistula {18} Biliary obstruction {18} Cholangitis {18} Cholecystitis {18} Pancreatitis {18} (medical treatment with ursodiol would be too lengthy; surgery may be indicated {01} {05} {13} {18}) Hepatic function impairment, chronic (bile acid metabolism may be further impaired {01}; however, in some studies ursodiol had a normalizing effect on previously abnormal liver test findings. Data suggest a possible therapeutic role for ursodiol in chronic cholestatic liver disease, in which cholestasis [impaired bile formation or flow] appears to play an important role {02} {03}{08} {10} {12} {14} {15} {16} {20} {47}) Sensitivity to ursodiol or to other bile acids {05} {13} Patient monitoring The following may be especially important in patient monitoring (other tests may be warranted in some patients, depending on condition; » = major clinical significance): Alanine aminotransferase (ALT [SGPT]) {54} and Alkaline phosphatase {54} and Aspartate aminotransferase (AST [SGOT]) {54} and Bilirubin {54} and Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) {54} (monitoring of serum values is recommended upon initiation of treatment, every 1 to 3 months for the first 3 months of treatment [depending on the indication for use], and then every 6 months during treatment; ursodiol must be discontinued if increased values persist {01} {05} {13} {18} {54}) Cholecystogram {54} (recommended prior to treatment for gallstones to determine whether the gallbladder is functional, and whether gallstones are translucent or radiopaque {54})

Ultrasonograms (recommended prior to treatment to confirm the presence of gallstones, and at 6month intervals during the first year of treatment to monitor stone dissolution; also recommended after gallstone dissolution to monitor for possible recurrence {01} {02} {04} {05} {06}{13} {53} {54})

Side/Adverse Effects Note: Hepatotoxicity has not been associated with ursodiol therapy. However, in some individuals with a congenital or acquired reduction in ability to sulfate hepatotoxic lithocholic acid, the theoretical risk of lithocholate-induced liver damage may be increased. {01} {05} {08} {11} {13} {16}{18} {19} {53} {56} The following side/adverse effects have been selected on the basis of their potential clinical significance (possible signs and symptoms in parentheses where appropriate)—not necessarily inclusive:

Those indicating need for medical attention only if they continue or are bothersome Incidence more frequent Back pain{53} diarrhea{01}{04}{05}{06}{09}{53} —may be dose-related{09} Incidence less frequent or rare Alopecia{53} (hair loss) constipation{53} dizziness{53} dyspepsia{53} (heartburn) nausea{53} psoriasis, exacerbation of pre-existing{09}{54} vomiting{53}

Overdose No cases of ursodiol overdose have been reported {53}. For information on the management of overdose or unintentional ingestion, contact a Poison Control Center (see Poison Control Center Listing ).

Patient Consultation As an aid to patient consultation, refer to Advice for the Patient, Ursodiol (Systemic). In providing consultation, consider emphasizing the following selected information (» = major clinical significance): Before using this medication » Conditions affecting use, especially: Sensitivity to ursodiol or to other bile acids Other medical problems, especially gallstone complications Proper use of this medication

Taking with meals for optimal therapeutic effect » Compliance with full course of therapy » Proper dosing Missed dose: Taking as soon as possible or doubling the next dose {19} {20} {52} » Proper storage Precautions while using this medication » Regular visits to physician to check progress; laboratory tests may be required during therapy Avoiding aluminum-containing antacids; may interfere with absorption of ursodiol » Notifying physician immediately if symptoms of acute cholecystitis develop

General Dosing Information Ursodiol should be taken with meals or a snack since it dissolves more rapidly when bile and pancreatic juice are present in the intestinal chyme. {02} {52} Gallstone dissolution may require 6 months to 2 years of continuous dosing depending on the size and composition of the stone(s). Response should be monitored by ultrasonograms performed at 6month intervals during the first year of therapy. {01} {02} After complete dissolution, it is recommended that ursodiol be continued for at least 3 months to promote dissolution of particles that are too small to image {02} {05}. Ursodiol therapy is unlikely to be effective if partial dissolution has not occurred after 6 {55} to 12 months of treatment {05} {13}. Gallbladder nonvisualization that develops during therapy is an indication that complete stone dissolution will not occur and therapy should be discontinued {01}.

Oral Dosage Forms Note: Bracketed uses in the Dosage Forms section refer to categories of use and/or indications that are not included in U.S. product labeling. URSODIOL CAPSULES USP Usual adult and adolescent dose Gallstone disease (treatment) Oral, 8 to 10 mg per kg of body weight a day, divided into two or three doses {01} {02} {04} {05}{13}, usually taken with meals {01} {04} {13}.

Gallstone formation (prophylaxis)1 Oral, 300 mg two times a day {53}. Alternatively, some clinicians continue the dissolution dose of 8 to 10 mg per kg of body weight a day {55}. Bedtime dosing has been reported to enhance dissolution {55}. [Hepatic disease, cholestatic (treatment)] Oral, 13 to 15 mg per kg of body weight a day, given in two divided doses (morning and bedtime) with food {54}.

Usual pediatric dose Anticholelithic Dosage has not been established.

Note: In children with cholestatic liver disease and extrahepatic biliary atresia, total daily doses have ranged from 10 to 18 mg per kg of body weight {19} {20}.

Usual geriatric dose See Usual adult and adolescent dose . Strength(s) usually available U.S.—

300 mg (Rx) [Actigall] Canada—

250 mg (Rx) [Ursofalk] Packaging and storage: Store below 40 °C (104 °F), preferably between 15 and 30 °C (59 and 86 °F), in a tight container, unless otherwise specified by manufacturer. Auxiliary labeling: • Continue medication for full time of treatment. • Take with food.

naproxen
(na prox' en)

naproxen
Apo-Naproxen (CAN), EC-Naprosyn, Naprelan, Naprosyn, Naxen (CAN), Novo-Naprox (CAN)

naproxen sodium
Aleve, Anaprox, Anaprox DS, Apo-Napro-Na (CAN), Synflex (CAN) Pregnancy Category B (first and second trimesters) Pregnancy Category D (third trimester)
Drug classes

NSAID Analgesic (nonopioid)
Therapeutic actions

Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activities largely related to inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis; exact mechanisms of action are not known.
Indications

 

Mild to moderate pain Treatment of primary dysmenorrhea, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, tendinitis, bursitis, acute gout  OTC use: Temporary relief of minor aches and pains associated with the common cold, headache, toothache, muscular aches, backache, minor pain of arthritis, pain of menstrual cramps, reduction of fever  Treatment of juvenile arthritis (Naproxen only)
Contraindications and cautions



Contraindicated with allergy to naproxen, salicylates, other NSAIDs; pregnancy; lactation.  Use cautiously with asthma, chronic urticaria, CV dysfunction; hypertension; GI bleeding; peptic ulcer; impaired hepatic or renal function.
Available forms

Tablets—250, 375, 500 mg; 220, 275, 500 mg (as naproxen sodium); DR tablets— 375, 500 mg; CR tablets—375, 500 mg; suspension—125 mg/5 mL
Dosages

Do not exceed 1,250 mg/day (1,375 mg/day naproxen sodium).

ADULTS



Rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis:

Delayed-release (EC-Naprosyn)

375–500 mg PO bid.
Controlled-release (Naprelan)

750–1,000 mg PO daily.
Naproxen sodium

275–550 mg bid PO. May increase to 1.65 g/day for a limited period.
Naproxen tablets

250–500 mg PO bid.
Naproxen suspension

250 mg (10 mL), 375 mg (15 mL), 500 mg (20 mL) PO bid.  Acute gout:
Controlled-release (Naprelan)

1,000–1,500 mg PO daily.
Naproxen sodium

825 mg PO followed by 275 mg q 8 hr until the attack subsides.
Naproxen

750 mg, followed by 250 mg q 8 hr until attack subsides.  Mild to moderate pain:
Controlled-release (Naprelan)

1,000 mg PO daily.
Naproxen sodium

550 mg PO followed by 275 mg q 6–8 hr.  Mild to moderate pain: 500 mg followed by 500 mg q 12 hr or 250 mg q 6–8 hr.
OTC

200 mg PO q 8–12 hr with a full glass of liquid while symptoms persist. Do not exceed 600 mg in 24 hr.
PEDIATRIC PATIENTS



Juvenile arthritis:

Naproxen

10 mg/kg/day given in two divided doses.
Naproxen sodium

Safety and efficacy not established.
OTC

Do not give to children < 12 yr unless under advice of physician.
GERIATRIC PATIENTS

Do not take > 200 mg q 12 hr PO.
Pharmacokinetics
Drug Naproxen Naproxen sodium Onset 1 hr 1 hr Peak 2–4 hr 1–2 hr Duration < 7 hr < 7 hr

Metabolism: Hepatic; T1/2: 12–15 hr Distribution: Crosses placenta; enters breast milk Excretion: Urine
Adverse effects

    

 

CNS: Headache, dizziness, somnolence, insomnia, fatigue, tiredness, dizziness, tinnitus, ophthalmic effects Dermatologic: Rash, pruritus, sweating, dry mucous membranes, stomatitis GI: Nausea, dyspepsia, GI pain, diarrhea, vomiting, constipation, flatulence GU: Dysuria, renal impairment, including renal failure, interstitial nephritis, hematuria Hematologic: Bleeding, platelet inhibition with higher doses, neutropenia, eosinophilia, leukopenia, pancytopenia, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, granulocytopenia, aplastic anemia, decreased Hgb or Hct, bone marrow depression, menorrhagia Respiratory: Dyspnea, hemoptysis, pharyngitis, bronchospasm, rhinitis Other: Peripheral edema, anaphylactoid reactions to anaphylactic shock

Interactions

Drug-drug  Increased serum lithium levels and risk of toxicity with naproxen Drug-lab test  Falsely increased values for urinary 17-ketogenic steroids; discontinue naproxen therapy for 72 hr before adrenal function tests  Inaccurate measurement of urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid
Nursing considerations Assessment



History: Allergy to naproxen, salicylates, other NSAIDs; asthma, chronic urticaria, CV dysfunction; hypertension; GI bleeding; peptic ulcer; impaired hepatic or renal function; pregnancy; lactation  Physical: Skin color and lesions; orientation, reflexes, ophthalmologic and audiometric evaluation, peripheral sensation; P, BP, edema; R, adventitious sounds; liver evaluation; CBC, clotting times, renal and liver function tests; serum electrolytes; stool guaiac
Interventions

  

Give with food or after meals if GI upset occurs. Arrange for periodic ophthalmologic examination during long-term therapy. WARNING: If overdose occurs, institute emergency procedures— gastric lavage, induction of emesis, supportive therapy.

Teaching points



Take drug with food or meals if GI upset occurs; take only the prescribed dosage.  Dizziness, drowsiness can occur (avoid driving or the use of dangerous machinery).  Report sore throat; fever; rash; itching; weight gain; swelling in ankles or fingers; changes in vision; black, tarry stools. Adverse effects in Italic are most common; those in Bold are life-threatening.

phenobarbital
Drug Name
Generic Name : phenobarbital ,phenobarbital sodium

Brand Name: Oral preparations: Bellatal, Solfoton Parenteral: Luminal Sodium Classification: Barbiturate (long acting), Sedative, Hypnotic, Antiepileptic Pregnancy Category D Controlled Substance C-IV

Dosage & Route

Available forms : Tablets—15, 16, 16.2, 30, 60, 90, 100 mg; capsules—16 mg; elixir—15 mg/5 mL, 20 mg/5 mL; injection— ADULTS Oral
  

Sedation: 30–120 mg/day in two to three divided doses. No more than 400 mg per 24 hr. Hypnotic: 100–200 mg at bedtime. Antiepileptic: 60–100 mg/day.

IM or IV

   

Sedation: 30–120 mg/day IM or IV in two to three divided doses. Preoperative sedation: 100–200 mg IM, 60–90 min before surgery. Hypnotic: 100–320 mg IM or IV. Acute seizures: 200–320 mg IM or IV repeated in 6 hr if needed.

PEDIATRIC PATIENTS Oral
  

Sedation: 2 mg/kg/dose PO tid. 8–32 mg/dose. Hypnotic: Determine dosage using age and weight charts. Antiepileptic: 3–6 mg/kg/day.

IM or IV
  

Preoperative sedation: 1–3 mg/kg IM or IV 60–90 min before surgery. Antiepileptic: 4–6 mg/kg/day for 7–10 days to a blood level of 10–15 mcg/mL or 10–15 mg/kg/day IV or IM. Status epilepticus: 15–20 mg/kg IV over 10–15 min.

GERIATRIC PATIENTS OR PATIENTS WITH DEBILITATING DISEASE OR RENAL OR HEPATIC IMPAIRMENT


Reduce dosage and monitor closely—may produce excitement, depression, confusion.

Therapeutic actions


Phenobarbitone is a short-acting barbiturate. It depresses the sensory cortex, reduces motor activity, changes cer Its anticonvulsant property is exhibited at high doses.

Indications
      

Oral or parenteral: Sedative Oral or parenteral: Hypnotic, treatment of insomnia for up to 2 wk Oral: Long-term treatment of generalized tonic-clonic and cortical focal seizures Oral: Emergency control of certain acute seizures (eg, those associated with status epilepticus, eclampsia, mening Parenteral: Preanesthetic Parenteral: Treatment of generalized tonic-clonic and cortical focal seizures Parenteral: Emergency control of acute seizures (tetanus, eclampsia, epilepticus)

Adverse effects





Bradycardia, hypotension, syncope; drowsiness, lethargy, CNS excitation or depression, impaired judgment, hang nervousness, headache, insomnia, nightmares, hallucinations, anxiety, dizziness; rash, exfoliative dermatitis; naus megaloblastic anaemia; pain at inj site, thrombophlebitis (IV); oliguria: laryngospasm, respiratory depression, apn Potentially Fatal: Stevens-Johnson syndrome.

Contraindications


Severe renal and hepatic disorders. Severe respiratory depression, dyspnea or airway obstruction; porphyria. Preg

Nursing considerations Assessment




History: Hypersensitivity to barbiturates, manifest or latent porphyria; marked liver impairment; nephritis; severe pregnancy; acute or chronic pain; seizure disorders; lactation, fever; hyperthyroidism; diabetes mellitus; severe a function; debilitation Physical: Weight; T; skin color, lesions; orientation, affect, reflexes; P, BP, orthostatic BP; R, adventitious sounds; tests, blood and urine glucose, BUN

Interventions
       

Monitor patient responses, blood levels (as appropriate) if any interacting drugs listed above are given with phen using hormonal contraceptives. WARNING: Do not give intra-arterially; may produce arteriospasm, thrombosis, gangrene. Administer IV doses slowly. Administer IM doses deep in a large muscle mass (gluteus maximus, vastus lateralis) or other areas where there is WARNING: Monitor injection sites carefully for irritation, extravasation (IV use). Solutions are alkaline and very irr Monitor P, BP, respiration carefully during IV administration. Arrange for periodic lab tests of hematopoietic, renal, and hepatic systems during long-term therapy. WARNING: Taper dosage gradually after repeated use, especially in patients with epilepsy. When changing from o discontinued while increasing the dosage of the replacement drug.

Teaching points
      

This drug will make you drowsy and less anxious; do not try to get up after you have received this drug (request a Take this drug exactly as prescribed; this drug is habit forming; its effectiveness in facilitating sleep disappears aft Do not take this drug longer than 2 weeks (for insomnia), and do not increase the dosage without consulting your Do not reduce the dosage or discontinue this drug (when used for epilepsy); abrupt discontinuation could result i Wear a medical alert tag so that emergency medical personnel will know you have epilepsy and are taking this me Avoid pregnancy while taking this drug; use a means of contraception other than hormonal contraceptives. You may experience these side effects: Drowsiness, dizziness, hangover, impaired thinking (may lessen after a few (take drug with food); dreams, nightmares, difficulty concentrating, fatigue, nervousness (reversible).



Report severe dizziness, weakness, drowsiness that persists, rash or skin lesions, fever, sore throat, mouth sores,

IGCO SKIM MILK POWDER WITH NATURAL COLOSTRUM

Content:

Per 15 g sachet: Immunoglobulin 150 mg, carbohydrate 7.5 g, ene magnesium 16.5 mg zinc 0.6 mg, niacin 0.145 mg, phosphorus 14 mg, vit B6 0.05 mg, vit B12 0.6 mcg, vit C 1 mg.

Product category: Needs a prescription :

Nutritional, Fluid, & Electrolyte Products/ Nutritional Products, Adu Child Enteral No

What is this product for(Indication):

Improvement of immune system for faster recovery and better res like reduced physical and mental efficiency, fatigue and depressiv management for cancer patients, viral infections, pre- and post-op

How to use it (Dosing): Available forms:

Reconstitution: Adults - 1-2 sachets to 100 ml water; Children abo Never use boiling/hot water. Sachet 15 g powder x 30's.

How does it work? Colostrum is collected from cows that have been vaccinated to produce antibodies that fight the bacteria that cause diarrheal disease. These antibodies appear in the colostrum that is collected as medicine. Though the hope is that these cow antibodies will help fight human disease, the cow antibodies do not seem to be very active in humans.

Possibly Effective for:



Infectious diarrhea. Taking bovine colostrum seems to reduce infectious diarrhea in children and patients with a weakened immune system, including patients with HIV/AIDS and bone marrow transplant recipients. Hyperimmune bovine colostrum has FDA orphan drug status for AIDS-related diarrhea. Most clinical trials have used hyperimmune bovine colostrum.

Insufficient Evidence for:

        

Athletic performance. Developing research suggests that bovine colostrum might increase athletic performance for many, but not all, athletic activities. Activities that seem to benefit are jumping and bicycle sprints, but not running on a treadmill. Inflammation of the colon (colitis). There is some evidence that a rectal enema using 10% bovine colostrum might be helpful for treating colitis. Stimulating the immune system. Healing injuries. Repairing nervous system damage. Burning fat. Building lean muscle. Increasing stamina and vitality. Elevating mood and sense of well-being.

  

Slowing and reversing aging. Bacterial and fungal infections. Other conditions.



Bovine colostrum taken by mouth or given rectally as an enema seems to be safe for most people. While most people don't experience any side effects from bovine colostrum, there have been rare reports of problems in HIV-positive patients such asnausea, vomiting, abnormal liver function tests, and decreased red blood cells. There is some concern about the possibility of catching "mad cow disease" (bovine spongiform encephalitis, BSE) or other diseases from products that come from animals. "Mad cow disease" does not appear to be transmitted through milk products, but it is probably wise to avoid animal products from countries where "mad cow disease" has been found. Special Precautions & Warnings:

 

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Not enough is known about the use of bovine colostrum during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use. Allergy to cow’s milk: If you are allergic to cow’s milk or milk products, you may also be allergic to bovine colostrum. In that case, it is best to avoid it.

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