Antibiotic resistance is a global problem. We continue to read news stories about superbugs,
bacteria that are increasingly resistant to common antibiotics. This resistance is causing new
infections and making it difficult to treat others. The misuse of Antibiotic is more related to the
social issues like poverty, non-availability of protected water recurrent infections, lack of awareness
on hygiene and Individual precautions HAND WASHING to prevent many infections, and missing
the Doses of Vaccination, which lead to consequences of misuse of Antibiotics. Resistance occurs
when an antibiotic is no longer effective at killing or limiting the growth of bacteria. It can occur
naturally (innate ability or genetic mutation), or can be acquired through previous exposure to an
antibiotic or through contact with another organism that is resistant (transfer of resistance).
However India woke up to the issue of misuse of Antibiotics in big way with Indian Medical
Association promoting the issue of Misuse of Antibiotics. One of the major survey suggests that
patients represent a significant source of antibiotic misuse in the community. Most respiratory tract
infections were perceived as potentially severe, especially in people living in crowded conditions and
hence the prescription of an efficient therapy was expected. Some patients and many parents over
anxious about their children health exaggerate symptoms to get the prescription. However majority
of patients were willing to take antibiotics for conditions likely to have a viral origin, such as flu, sore
throat, cough, or earache. Data suggest that patients can exert pressures on doctors for antibiotic
prescriptions for common respiratory tract infections, which continues to be a major cause and that
we have to work to reduce consumption of antibiotics, The topic of Antibiotic Education should a
compulsory topic to all our Medical Students and many resident Doctors which incorporates the
idea of Catch them young. Doctors often prescribe a broad spectrum of antibiotics to patients as
they have to act quickly on insufficient information. These methods put selective pressure on
microbes to evolve a resistance to the medication. In the recent past, data has revealed a six-fold
increase in the number of antibiotics being popped by Indians. Many pharmaceutical companies
contributed their best in Antibiotic misuse promoting the Costly and broad spectrum antibiotics
luring the Doctors with many undeserved gifts and sponsoring trips abroad. Today many health
issues are guided by CDC Atlanta, advises We have to protect patients by protecting antibiotics," CDC
Director Dr. Tom Frieden says "The drugs we have today are in danger, and any new drugs we get
could be lost just as quickly if we don't improve the way we prescribe and use them. “CDC
researchers reviewed antibiotic prescriptions at more than 300 hospitals in 2010 and found more
than half of hospital patients got an antibiotic during their stay. Most prescriptions for antibiotics are
written for urinary tract infections, lung infections and infections caused by drug-resistant
Staphylococcus bacteria, such as MRSA.
To curb misuse and abuse of antibiotics in hospitals, the CDC recommends:
Appointing a doctor to lead a program on responsible antibiotic use.
Appointing a pharmacist to improve antibiotic prescribing.
Starting with at least one step, such as requiring prescriptions be reassessed within 48 hours.
Monitoring patterns of prescribing and antibiotic resistance.
Reporting data on prescribing and antibiotic resistance to doctors.
Educating doctors about the danger of antibiotic resistance.
The microbiologists are best resource persons in the Hospitals to predict the trends going in the
hospital about the growing pattern of resistance. A year back in the Hospital I work there was much
less resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins, and Klebsiella spp are really emerging in more
numbers in resistant from, frequently in the patients on life support systems. Whatever is said and
done to control the Antibiotic resistance in major hospital and reference hospitals it is much more
difficult the aim of treating Physician remain with idea of saving a life whatever the means and least
scientific approaches are followed. We all need to be responsible about the antibiotics we take and
prescribe to our patients – using antibiotics to treat viral infections like a cold or flu, using antibiotics
too often, and not using antibiotics as prescribed, are all contributing to the problem. Use
antibiotics wisely to help protect your health and the health of your family and community. India’s
problem is due to no effective rule to curb the Chemists dispensing the medicines, and I think mass
education in India and many developing countries to impress all the public through the Multimedia
and Newspapers - Never take antibiotics without a prescription: As In many countries, it is
possible to get any antibiotics without a prescription. Using antibiotics when you don’t need them is
a significant contributor to antibiotic resistance and will not make you feel better. The problem of
putting restriction on antibiotic prescription will be herculean task, only ANTIBIOITC EUCATION
should evolve a major topic in Medical Education, can have some solutions to future, for
restricting on misuse of MUCH NEEDED ANTIBIOTICS IN TIME OF CRISIS. Think once before
prescribing an Antibiotic and patients should think twice on self-Medication with Antibiotics, can
have many solutions in future. In spite of many matters discussed yet there is no solution like HAND
WASHING WHICH ALONG CAN SAVE MILLIONS OF PEOPLE FROM INFECTIONS.
Ref CDC information on Misuse of Antibiotics
Dr.T.V.Rao MD Professor of Microbiology Freelance writer