Antique

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Hemant Kumar
The owner of arorajewels make fine costum jewellery in real stones since 1994 he have experience of this work near about 20 years. He makes Mughal jadau, antique jewellery , kundan meena jewellery and also design it. His skills and expertise in Jewellery , Jewellery design and luxury goods. Jaipur Area, India January 1994 – Present (19 years 3 months) jaipur (india) Hemant Kumar's Overview Current :Mughal jadau antique jewellery,kundan meena jewellery. at arorajewels Past: Owner at arorajewels Connections :278 connections

Groups and association:
Dziner jewellery , UK luxury jobs , Luxury talents community.

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Jewellery
Jewellery is a type of accessory that includes necklaces, rings, bracelets, watches, and earrings, etc. Jewellery is designed for men, women, and children and can be made from a variety of different categories. Jewelry started about 1,00,000 years ago,. Began with materials made from bone, teeth, wood and shell. The first known jewelry pieces were worn by the CroMagnons about 40,000 years ago. These pieces were made of bone and teeth and were worn as necklaces and earrings to show tribal membership. Later on incorporated beads, stone & gems. Egyptians were first to use gold and metals for creating jewelry. Jewellery were considered a symbol of power and wealth. Factors affecting the choice of materials include cultural differences and the availability of the materials. Jewellery differs from other items of personal adornment in that it has no other purpose than to look appealing. Items such as belts and handbags are consideretobe accessories rather than jewellery.

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Types of Indian Jewelry
In India, jewelry is designed to match with the attire. The theme of its design as well as the color of the jewelry is taken into consideration while adoring. To make jewelry more attractive, it is topped by diamonds and various types of gems. Traditionally, Indian jewelry has been made of heavy and voluminous gold pieces, but recently jewelry made of silver, platinum and other metals has become quite popular among people. The popularity of jewelry made of stone, encrusted on metal, has grown more recently. In the following lines, we will tell you about the different kinds of jewelry in India.

Antique Jewelry
The jewelry which is not in mainstream production and of which the mode of production is no longer popular is known by the name of 'Antique Jewelry.' This kind of jewelry has dull and rough look, combined with an old world-world charm, and this serves as the major USP of such jewelry. It takes you back to yore era, by its unfinished and dull looks. The jewelry pieces in antique jewelry usually belong to a particular period of history, when its popularity was at its peak. In India, you can find antique jewelry in numerous forms, like meenakari , kundan work, and so on. Those pieces of antique jewelry that are extremely rare are usually sold at auctions, in antique stores and curio shops. They include the jewelry that belongs to the early period of history. It is this rarity ofantique jewelry that makes it so appealing. However, at times, jewelry that is furnished in antique pattern is also given the name of antique jewelry.

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Bead Jewelry
Bead art in India is five thousand year old and dates back to the time of Indus Valley, ivory and even wood. The excavated carried out there came out with finished and unfinished beads from the site. After looking onto them, one gets amazed at the wonderful sense of bead work and jewelry at that time. The bead making part of making bead jewelry is extremely intricate and time consuming. As regards the procedure for the same, the material out of which beads are to be made is first chiseled to obtain a desired shape and size. Thereafter, a hole is drilled into the material.

Bridal Jewelry
Indian brides wear jewelry sets that are made in gold, be it necklaces, bangles, anklets and earrings. Many a time, the bridal jewelry is set with diamonds and other precious stones. The
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modern day bride prefers to have some modern wearable items of gold jewelry in her trousseau. Not many would like to be weighed down by heavy jewelry that cannot be worn often and will be more an invitation for thieves. Come the wedding season and you can see crowds thronging the jewelry stores. Indian bridal jewelry has always been considered her 'streedhan' - personal wealth that would stand in good stead in times of need.

Custom Jewelry
Custom jewelry is personalized jewelry, which a customer gets her made on her interest and fancy. This happens particularly in cases where ready made jewelry does not match the taste of person. Custom jewelry gives total freedom to customer about the specifics. She can ask for various personal touches and get everything made as per her ideas. In fact, it gives ample space for personal choice and taste to customer, which is not available in case of ready made jewellery.

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Fashion Jewelry
Fashion jewelry is also called costume jewelry, mainly for the reason that it is not made of precious metals and stones, rather lighter and cheaper material are used. For those who are open to experimentation with new and unusual designs, shapes and colours, costume jewelry offers plethora of choices. Rather than using precious ingredients, like gold, silver, platinum and white gold, fashion jewelry designers use cheap products, like jute, leather, peppier mache, bakelite plastic, wood, bone, stone, oxidized metal, horn, lac, terracotta, etc.

Filigree Jewelry
Filigree work is done on silver and involves lots of precision and technicality, added with great amount of patience and an eye for minute details. Historically, filigree work was quite popular in countries like Egypt, Italy, and Spain. Indian filigree work is unique in its genre and aesthetics. It is immensely inspired by Greek filigree work, the same style and old charm has been kept intact

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till now, by Indian artisans. Filigree jewelry is mainly popular in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh.

Gold Jewelry
Gold is a metal that lures many. It gives the security against any financial crisis, because of its easy liquidity, and is also used by women for adorning themselves. Traditionally, gold has been considered auspicious among Hindus and is regarded to be symbolic of Lakshmi, the Goddess of Wealth. Gold is symbol of perfection, immortality and prosperity; it is the substance that myths and legends are made of. It is a favorite for making jewelry, for the reason that it is anti-rust and has an everlasting shine.

Jadau Jewelry
Jadau Jewelry forms one of the major examples of high skilled craftsmanship that was brought into India by Mughals. Historically speaking, the tradition of Jadau work has been in practice in the states of Rajasthan and Gujarat since the Mughal era. Jadau jewellery is also called engraved jewelry and is unique and a kind in itself. Considered to be a traditional jewelry of India, it is used in many traditional and auspicious occasions.
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Kundan jewellery
During Mughal period, the art of kundan work reached Rajasthan from Delhi. Later on, craftsmen from the different part of the country migrated to the place and made Rajasthan a hub of Kundankari. Rulers and feudal lords gave patronage to the art and it developed into perfection. Kundankari is basically done on gold and silver jewelry. Traditional kundan jewellery has stones encrusted on one side and colorful and intricate meenakari on the reverse.

Meenakari jewelry
In Meenakari jewelry, precious stones are set and then enameled with gold. Historically speaking, the art was introduced to Rajasthan artisans by Raja Mansingh of Amer. He invited
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Lahore-based skilled artisans to his kingdom, and their intermingling with the locals craftsmen resulted in an amalgam, which came to be known as Meenakari. Meenakari is also a team work, where specialization of skill is of paramount importance. As it is generally done on the reverse side of kundan jewellery, meenakar has to work with goldsmith, engraver or ghaaria, designer or chitteria as well as jadiya.

Silver Jewelry
Silver Jewelry, along with gold jewelry, is quite popular amongst Indian women. Ornaments made of silver, such as rings, bracelets, chains, necklaces, nose rings, earrings, toe rings, heavy kadas, and armlets, form integral part of Indian jewelry. Whereas gold jewelry has been the most popular among Indian women since ages, silver jewelry is not far behind in popularity. Apart from cities, it finds solace in the rural areas and tribal areas of the country as well. In fact, silver made jewelry is forms an integral part of the adoration and dress of tribal people.

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Stone Jewelry
Jewelry studded with different gems is quite popular among Indians. For reasons ranging from spiritual to aesthetic to health, gemstone jewelry has become the part of life of Indian women and men both. These stone jewelries are worn according to the individual's astrological chart and ruling of planet. Navaratna i.e. the combination of nine gems together, to form a necklace forms important part in the life and fashion of Indian women. These stones are believed to have extraordinary healing power.

Antique Jewelry History
Georgian Jewelry The term Georgian refers to an era in English history during the reign of King George I-IV from 1714 - 1830. Like the term Victorian (used for jewelry during Queen Victoria's rule), it is accepted in use as a term that refers to certain styles of jewelry. While this time period saw a number of stylistic changes and, is in reality a broad, sweeping category, the label is oft used for jewelry with certain characteristics. Sometimes the term is applied to jewelry from other countries (France, Italy, and the United States for example) and although its use is not entirely appropriate, it is generally still accepted as a way to refer to a time period and to certain styles of antique jewelry.

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Eighteenth Century Jewelry For the privileged and elite, that century saw a great increase in evening pursuits as improvements in the manufacture of candles gave rise to longer burning and brighter candles. Balls and soirees of sumptuous proportions rose to exceptional heights. Thus the divide between day and evening jewelry marked a new chapter in jewelry history. Women often wore pearls, garnets, moss agate or colored gems or paste in daytime. The most formal evening events, courts, balls and receptions were the only appropriate times to wear diamond jewelry. Consequently, diamonds found new favor. Mines opened in Golconda, India and Brazil began to produce stones in the 1720's. Now diamonds were more readily available.

Closed backs were used on almost all gems and paste stones. Open backs were known, but most of the examples we see today are of the closed style. The true art of stone cutting (and allowing light through a gem to reveal its refractive properties) was not yet truly understood. In addition, then most stones were foiled. Foiling is the use of a metal coating, sometimes colored, painted on the back of a stone to enhance its brilliance. The cut of gems were either the rose cut or the old mine cut, although a few table cuts were still in use. Brilliant cuts also gained in popularity. Often for colored gems a flat cut was used - the top being flat with a few facets on the edges.

For metals silver or gold was in use; platinum was not as yet discovered and white gold was not used in jewelry. Rose gold, yellow gold, silver, and sometimes green or red gold were employed. Most diamond jewelry was almost always set in silver; the sentiments of the time were that the silver color of the metal enhanced the properties of diamonds, whereas a gold surrounding did not. The backs of jewelry and ear wires were often gold to prevent tarnish on skin and clothing. Colored gems were set in gold. Mounts or bezels for jewels were frequently set in a closed setting, a cut away setting or in a very early claw setting (usually seen for early large pastes). The first two mountings show a good bit of metal that comes up around the sides of the stone, thereby encasing the stone in metal.

Stylistically, the earlier part of the century saw a more ornate form of jewelry with complex and frilly designs. As the years progressed and the next century advanced, the forms turned to more
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of a neoclassical inspiration of simpler geometric and formal derivation. Also it was a great century for paste. Even Marie Antoinette had her own paste jewelers - it was not just for those who could not afford real gems. Some examples of the themes and motifs used in the earlier 18th century were bows, floral designs, giardinetti (garden) and feathers while later times saw classical themes such as arrows, quivers, lyres, intaglios, and geometric forms.

Types of jewelry worn were the stomacher (a large element worn similarly to a huge brooch at the center of the stomach just below the breasts and trailing down the front), aigrettes (elements for the hair), girandoles (three drop earrings), pendeloque earrings (a bow and drop form), necklaces (sometimes secured by ribbons, rings, slides), bracelets typically worn in pairs usually slipped onto a ribbon, chatelaines, and buckles and buttons - for men for shoes, breeches and other clothing. Nineteenth Century Through 1830 - Antique Jewelry Toward the end of the earlier century and into the next, wars tore through Europe and affected life and, consequently, jewelry. Often gold and precious gems were in short supply as these items were typically given toward the war effort. Jewelry used less metal, even of very thin proportion, and cannetille came into use. Cannetille uses tiny wires that are wrapped to make a much more ornate jewel utilizing little metal. A romantic era arose, again sentimental and mourning jewelry became popular by the end of the 18th century and into the 19th. Regard rings, symbolic gems, tokens of affection, and lockets of hair all found great favor. Gems were small and less significant. Queen Victoria's reign brought about many changes in temperament and the jewelry and fashion which followed suite ending a grand and elegant era in the production of jewelry. Deep in our most primal consciousness lies the urge to adorn ourselves with things of beauty and value. Since the earliest dawn of time we as human beings have had cherished items that we have wanted to wear close to our body and I believe the reasons for this have stayed the same over millenia: A token of our love for someone. An Amulet or Talisman.

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An Adornment. A functional item decorated and made beautiful. A lucky charm. A religious symbol or icon. A badge or identifier with a clan tribe religion or culture. A reflection of our place in society, wealth or status. A statement about who we are and what we value. A connection to our heritage and our ancestors. How many items of jewelry do you have that do not fall into at least one of the categories above? I know that all my most treasured items do. Archaeological finds of shells utilised as bead jewelry are now believed to date back around 100,000 years. Imagine prehistoric man as he wandered through the shrub hunting for nuts and berries, seeing something colourful and unusual that caught his eye, picking it up and and treasuring it. Imagine him proudly presenting it to his mate and her cherishing this special item and wanting to keep it close to her, perhaps threading it on a simple twine how precious and magical that item will have been to her. How far have we really changed since then? Value is an objective thing and this is reflected in the fashions for jewelry throughout the ages. We value things that are important to ourselves as a product of the time and environment we live in. Some things have an intrinsic value such as precious metals or gemstones, but how many people have something they value that is not 'worth' any monetary value but instead has a value that surpasses all proscribed value to make it priceless and irreplaceable.

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Interestingly Antique Jewelry as a genre reflects this, with many pieces of antique and collectible jewelry having incredible value that far surpasses their inherent gemstone or precious metal raw value, because of the wonderful, fascinating history and unique workmanship of the pieces. We have the lavish jewels of ancient cultures such as the Egyptians and Romans and the extravagances of more modern societies such as the Belle Epoque Edwardian Jewelry era with rich 18ct Gold and 15ct Gold and a rainbow of glittering gemstones such as Kashmir Sapphires, Ceylon Sapphires, Burmese Rubies and Emerald and the purity of white gold, cocktail rings & platinum diamond rings so popular in the Art Deco period, however some of the most wonderful rare and collectible jewelry is constructed of materials that have no value as precious metals or gemstones, although the irony is the rarity of these pieces can make them incredibly valuable! Consider the ladies of nobility in the early 1800's and Regency period donating their gold and jewels for the war fund and in exchange for gold they were given Iron work crosses, brooches, necklaces and bracelets some bearing the inscription "Gold gab ich fur eisen" (I gave gold for iron). This wonderful intricate jewelry with its spider web delicate designs made from simple iron which as a metal although it is strong is fragile prone to rust and decay. Berlin Ironwork jewelry is now incredibly rare and valuable as so little survived the passages of time and those pieces that have come with such a colourful and rich history for collectors like ourselves to cherish.

Antique silver penannular cloak pin
As regular readers here know I love going to auctions and thats where I buy much of my vintage jewellery. At a recent auction I acquired a parcel of jewellery which had this unusual antique penannular cloak pin in it and Id like to find out more about this piece.

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Pennanular Brooch What I know about this Cloak pin This cloak pin is huge compared with most you see from the Victorian era and I am thinking it is much older than that. This cloak pin is penannular in design with the fastening ring not being a complete circle having ends with do not quite join up but just touch. It measures about 16 cms long and is almost 7.5 cms wide maximum. This pin weighs about 44 grams. Due to this larger size it could have been worn on heavier fabrics or as a status symbol.

Wrigglework
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This penannular pin is made of silver ( Ive tested it there are no hallmarks). It has been handmade by a craftsman, clearly not a mass produced piece of jewellery. There is evidence that this pin has been worn for many years indicating that it is antique, pins like this are not unusually worn regularly these days. The design is interesting with a wriggle design on the penannular ring and a two birds in tree design on the triangular end.

Birds in tree

What I would like to find out Can anyone help me find out more? How old is this silver brooch and where would it have been made? The bird in tree decoration , I presume it is Celtic or Norse ? Does this decoration have any specific meaning ? Does the wriggle work on the ring help with dating this silver pin?

Antique Agate Jewellery Jewellery set with agate panels was particularly popular during the Victorian era. Queen Victorian had a passion for all things Scottish and set a fashion for jewellery from Scotland and set with Scottish Agate. I have recently acquired several pieces of Antique Jewellery set with agate. Agate is a semi precious hardstone and is prized for its colour and pattern.
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Agate Brooch Agate Jewellery normally comes in naturalistic colours, browns , creams and greens. Just for a change I have this amazing example is dusky pink and white colours.

Victorian Agate Brooch This brooch has wonderful detailing in the agate and is set into a gold tone frame. Other pieces of jewellery are set with agate, Here is a lovely bracelet:

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Agate Bracelet And a stick pin with a piece of eye agate in the center. Eye agate is so called due to its looking like an eye with the white band and the dark center.

Agate Stick Pin Agate is quite easy to care for – you should be able to just dust it clean or wipe with a damp cloth and polish with a dry one if necessary. Take care of the metal surround as that may need different treatment.

Pinchbeck – faux gold Have you heard the term “Pinchbeck” and wondered what it meant?
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Pinchbeck is named after its inventor Christopher Pinchbeck who was a London clock maker and is thought to have lived 1670 to 1732 and invented this gold like material in the 1720s. Pinchbeck is a metal alloy which consists of Copper, Zinc and Brass and may also have a light wash of real gold over the top. It has the advantage of retaining its bright gold colour and not fading like many of the other gold substitutes available at the time. Pinchbeck is a metal alloy which looks like and imitates but was much cheaper than the real thing. At the time Pinchbeck was first produced the only legally used standards of gold were 18 and 22 carat . Nine carat gold was not introduced as a legal standard until 1854. Also many of the worlds largest gold sources were not discovered until the Victorian era so a cheap and reliable gold substitute was very popular.

Pinchbeck brooch Pinchbeck could be made into very intricate and detailed shapes needed for imitating fine jewellery. It is also lighter in weight than gold an so large pieces of jewellery made from Pinchbeck can be light to wear. During the the Victorian era Pinchbeck faded from use being replaced by 9 carat gold, rolled gold, gold plated and gold filled alternatives. To the best of my knowledge no Pinchbeck jewellery has been made since the 1800s making every piece you find a genuine piece of antique jewellery. Identifying Pinchbeck Jewellery:
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Looking at a piece of old jewellery and wondering if its pinchbeck? .These facts will help you : All pinchbeck is Victorian or before Pinchbeck retains its bright gold colour even today, it does not go rusty. It is lightweight compared with gold It is often ( but not always) very intricate in design Care of Pinchbeck Jewellery Always clean your antique jewellery with regard to all the materials it is set with. For example if there is a shell cameo, pearls or other more delicate material set into the piece clean with regard to the most delicate material rather than the pinchbeck. I like to firstly dry clean with a very soft toothbrush or clean makeup brush to remove all dust and loose dirt. If your jewellery still needs a clean then you can lightly dampen the brush with a little clear liquid cleaner and finish with a brush dampened in clean water to rinse. Pat dry and leave in a warm place for the last of the moisture to evaporate. Do not use silver dip . I would personally avoid an ultra sonic machine for all pinchbeck jewellery as some of the joints and seams may not stand the treatment. Jewellery Rainbow Looking at some of my lovely old vintage and antique jewellery earlier today I was struck by the rainbow of colours in front of me. both fine and costume jewellery can be found in every colour imaginable . Traditionally a rainbow has seven colours; Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo and Violet. I always remember this by the first letters of the phrase” Richard Of York Gave Battle In Vain”. The Jewellery Rainbow Red: Rubies and Garnets Orange: Amber, Carnelian, Yellow: Citrines, Gold Green: Emeralds, Malachite,Jade, Aventurine, Chrysoprase Blue: Aquamarine, Sapphire, Turquoise
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Indigo: paler amethysts , some Lapis Lazuli Violet, Amethyst More Colours for jewellery Pink: Rose Quartz, Coral White: Silver, Platinum, Moonstone, Pearl Brown: Smokey Quartz, Tigers Eye Black: Jet, Hematite, Multi colour: Opal, Mother of Pearl Affordable Antique and Vintage Diamond Jewellery Strangely there is only one entry for AntiquesAvenue A-Z of Vintage and Antique Jewellery materials. It seems that D has been reserved for possible the most sought after material of all Diamonds. Being one of the most popular and expensive gemstones you can read all about diamonds all over the Internet but most are promoting large and very expensive diamonds from several hundred pounds up to a few million for the very largest diamonds. Look carefully and there is some super antique and vintage jewellery about set with smaller diamonds which can be found much more affordable prices. Changing from my normal format of discussing the material , Here is AntiquesAvenue’s guide to buying affordable Antique and Vintage diamond jewellery. A little bit of Diamond Jewellery History In ancient times all Diamonds came from India and this was the major source of diamonds until the 1720s when diamonds were found in Brazil followed by discoveries in South Africa in the 1860s. All sorts of mystical and magical properties have been attributed to diamonds at different times including plague prevention. Diamonds being the hardest gemstone were difficult to cut and polish and so older diamonds are not as heavily faceted as they are today. Simpler cuts were used and looking at the way a diamond is cut can help tell us the earliest date that it could have
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been mounted and faceted. The Georgians tried several techniques to make diamonds appear whiter and more brilliant for example setting them into silver and giving them a white foil backing. Of course as with much antique jewellery, diamonds can be re-worked at various stages in their lives so that an ancient diamond could have been re cut in the Victorian ear to bring the shape more up to date. For example the Rose cut diamond popular in the 18th and 19th centuries appear quite grey next to a similar diamond which has been given a more modern cut such as the brilliant. Affordable Antique diamond jewellery dating from before the late 1880s is not really available in any quantity as it is at that time when it when it became available to those with a little disposable income. Simple antique diamond jewellery set with small diamonds such as brooches, bangles and earrings started to be mass produced and it is these that we can now find affordable today. Look out for diamonds which are used as an accent to other stones as in this lapis ring. A sparkle of diamond can go a long was an smaller diamonds are relatively cheap in price. Looking to but a genuine piece of antique jewellery set with diamonds? I suggest that you consider and antique brooch. Antique gold brooches from the Victorian and Edwardian eras and set with small diamonds can be bought for under £100. You may also be able to find a 9 carat gold ring with other gemstones and diamond points for around this sort of price too. I’ve just checked the antiquesavenue.co.uk website and I even have one antique stick pin with a real diamond point ( a tiny diamond) for £25, now that has got to be a bargain. As the 20th century progressed diamond cutting was improved and new shapes were introduced. Just take a look at some expensive diamond jewellery from the art deco era to see the range of shapes and sizes available by that time. These include Baguettes and Marquise shapes. The other technical innovation of the 20th century which improved diamond jewellery was the ability use Platinum to set the diamonds into giving a real white colour to show them off to their best advantage. Looking for affordable vintage diamond jewellery? The best bargains to be had at the moment are in pieces of 9 carat jewellery from the second half of the last century. For example you can get rings set with smaller diamonds from about £50. I’ve just checked the antiquesavenue.co.uk website and see I have rings with diamonds in from £45 upwards.
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If you want the look of diamond but cant afford a single large gem then I suggest taking a look at jewellery with clusters of diamonds. The reason is that several small diamonds adding up to one carat in diamond size will be the fraction of the cost of a one carat diamond. Antique Brooches Love and Angel Wonderful antique brooches to show you , a sentimental Love brooch and Reynolds Angel. These are really good examples of genuine antique jewellery which can be found in excellent condition and at a reasonable price to collect or give as a gift which can be treasured for generations to come. Victorian Love Brooch A superb example of Victorian sentimental Jewellery. This brooch is pretty but looks quite like a standard Victorian silver brooch until you realised that the front can be opened and inside is the message “With Love”. To me this is a love token given as a symbol of a hidden or forbidden love. Perhaps the lady was quite young and her parents did not approve of her chosen suitor. Alternatively this could have been given to a servant girl as many servants were forbidden from having “gentleman callers”. Whatever the history of this antique silver brooch it has clearly been treasured and kept safe. The hallmarks date it to 1895 but looking at the condition you could almost believe it was new A rare and beautiful antique brooch depicting one of Joshua Reynolds angel drawings. Reynolds originally painted his angel pictures ( actually a portrait of a little girl to which he added wings) during the 1700s. This was a popular image used in silver during the Victorian and Edwardian eras. Antique cut steel Jewellery Have you seen cut steel Jewellery. Its not made now but was very popular in Georgian times and Victorian times as it sparkles like diamonds in candle light. Today you might think that cut steel was a cheap for of costume jewellery but it was so highly thought of that Napoleon gave Marie Louise a cut steel parure and is one form of antique jewellery which is most collectable today. The cut steel jewellery was made by faceting tiny pieces of steel just like gemstones and then attaching the pieces to a back plate. Take a look at these two pictures. In the
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first you can see the front of the cut steel buckle where is is a grey silver colour. In the second picture you can see how all the pieces of cut steel have been joined individually to the backing plate. Later pieces were not made from individually cut rivets but rather stamped from a sheet , when you see pieces which are stamped out you can assume a mid to later Victorian age rather than Georgian. So back to the question of cleaning Cut Steel Jewellery, an interesting one. Clearly we need to avoid getting cut steel wet as it will rust with the slightest drop of moisture. I think two different approaches are necessary depending upon the condition of the item with or without rust. To clean cut steel jewellery in good condition I would use a dry brush such as a tooth brush. You should be able to get old dust and grime out with a little gentle rubbing. If the cut steel is already rusty we are looking more at restoration than simple cleaning, you are unlikely to ever get the piece back to bright and shiny but I think a little light clean with dry 00 grade steel wool should help. 00 grade steel wool is very fine and is sold for furniture restoration purposes. This is not household steel wool which I would definitely not advise.

Antique Lavalier Pendants

A Lavaliere is a type of pendant necklace. The term refers to a jewelled pendant on chain and was widely used in the first part of the last century. The necklace can be made of fine jewels or costume jewellery – the material is not what counts here it is the shape and form.

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Apparently the term comes from the mistress of King Louis XiV of France : Madame Louise de La Valliere who lived between 1664 and 1710. Perhaps she was partial to a wearing this type of necklace or was given particularly fine examples by the king? Most Antique Lavalieres we see today are from the early 1900s and are art nouveau in style. Some date nearer to 1920 and show art deco influences starting to creep in to their shapes. Here are a few pretty Lavaliers to look at and please do visit antiquesavenue’s Antique Jewellery section to see more. Note Lavalier can also be spelt Lavaliere or Lavalliere all seem to be correct. Vintage Jewelry Facts

This section was started to fill the need to know about the history and language used to describe vintage and antique jewelry. While there are many experts in the field of antique jewelry and vintage costume jewelry, this section is meant to serve as a guide to answer your most frequently asked questions about the materials and styles used by the creators of period jewelry. We are happy to recommend all sites with great content on the origins, dates and history of vintage and antique jewelry.

JEWELRY STYLES --

While jewelry has been made in an enormous variety of styles and styles repeat throughout the ages, this list is meant to describe the general style popular in each time period.

Victorian Jewelry (1837-1901) – This style spans a period of about 60 years, the amount of time that Queen Victoria spent as the ruler of England. It is typically broken down into

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three periods, Early, Mid-Victorian and Late Victorian, and coincide with the life of the Queen. Early Victorian. During the early part of her reign, Victoria was a newlywed, deeply in love with her husband Prince Albert. Popular jewelry was sentimental and included lockets and objects made of human hair. Stones were set to spell out words such as “Dearest” and “Regards” by using the initials of the stones, for ex ample - DiamondsEmeralds-Amethyst-Ruby-Emerald-Saphire-Topaz spell out the word “Dearest”. Victoria and Albert spent time visiting Balmoral castle, their home in Scotland, where Victoria became enchanted with Scottish jewelry depicting the thistle and using stones in the form of crosses. Snake rings and snake bracelets were also popular as a theme representing fidelity in love. Engagement rings of this period were not made of diamonds, but rather of a colored gemstone, sometimes representing the birthstone of the bride. The Mid Victorian Period occurred after Albert’s sudden death, when Victoria went into a deep mourning that lasted 40 years. Black jewelry made of jet, bog oak and similar dark materials were used to form necklaces and cameos, bracelets and brooches. The Late Victorian Period shows a bit more variety as gold and colored stones make a comeback. Sets of engraved bangle bracelets are worn and jewelry becomes a bit lighter in weight.

Edwardian Jewelry (1901-1919) – Lighter in weight than Victorian styled jewelry, Edwardian jewelry was very ornate and followed the styles made popular by Princess Alexandria, the wife of Prince Edward. Dog collar choker necklaces made of pearls and other gems were popular, as well as lavaliere necklaces. Jewelry was very ornate and made in both precious metals and gems as well as plated metals and costume jewelry stones. Bangle bracelets were still popular and include figures of lions with stones in their mouths and eyes.

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Art Nouveau Jewelry – This style overlapped the Edwardian period of jewelry. The style, originating in France, is most often characterized by beautiful young women with flowing hair that graced lockets, brooches and rings, sash pins and buckles. Nouveau jewelry has fluid lines made of stylized vines, flowers and foliage.

Arts and Crafts – This movement overlapped with the Art Nouveau style but it’s fans produced a much simpler form of jewelry using plain and hammered silver and beads of wood and earthy stone. Although the forms of nature were also imitated by the Arts and Crafts, the style was that of hand-made or hand hammered jewelry centered around simplicity of form.

Art Deco Jewelry (1920-1939) – While many styles resulted from an explosion of costume jewelry, the most typical style of Art Deco jewelry is that of clear rhinestones set in a geometric pattern. These patterns, while geometric in their overall shape, could also be very flowing. Costume jewelry was primarily made of pot metal with pave set rhinestones. White or clear rhinestones were used most frequently in the 1920s giving way to multi colored rhinestones in the 1930s. Women’s right to vote ushered in a period of empowerment felt by women who cast off their long dresses and indulged in flamboyant styles decorating themselves in long lariat strands of beads, tiaras and layers of bangles going up their arms. Plastic jewelry made of Bakelite and other plastics became popular and figural jewelry saw a boom in popularity.

Retro Jewelry (1940s) – This style was born of necessity when World War II made the use of many metals illegal since the government needed them to make weapons. Jewelry makers returned to using precious metals and, since gold was coming back into style, costume jewelry sported large flourishes of gold vermeil in the form of bows with a simple large stone. Rhinestones were not easily attainable from Europe and our factories were

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involved in the war effort necessitating a reduction in Americas taste for glitter.

1950s Jewelry – After the war was over, Americans returned to making large quantities of costume jewelry. Rhinestone jewelry returned with a vengeance giving rise to many makers of rhinestone studded necklaces, bracelets, rings and brooches. Pearls were also popular for business and younger women. American efforts to help our former enemies to recover gave rise to much jewelry made in Japan, mostly of pearls and beads. And also jewelry from Western Germany was imported, typically glass beads. Copper jewelry became popular giving rise to a number of companies based in California, as well as some individual designers such as Gret Barkin on the East Coast. Charm bracelets of silver, expansion rhinestone bracelets, gold-filled lockets were popular, as well as accessories such as rhinestone studded ladies compacts.

1960s Jewelry – The 1960s ushered in a period of a more conservative flavor. While rhinestone jewelry was still popular for evening wear, pearl jewelry and gold tone jewelry became staples of every woman’s jewelry box. Many beautiful sets of matching necklaces, bracelets and earrings were made by large jewelry manufacturers such as Monet and Trifari, providing daytime wear for millions of American women. The late 1960s were also a time of the Hippie Revolution, when long rope lengths of beads were popular as well as silver, much like the Arts and Crafts style of the early part of the 20th Century.

1970s-1980s Jewelry – Gold tone proved to still be a favorite staple of jewelry from this time period. The 1970s explored a renewed interest in Native American Indian jewelry as well as craftsman styled pieces of original jewelry. As the 1980s progressed, jewelry becomes bolder as Americans watched bejeweled actresses in such t.v. shows as Dallas ladened with rhinestone jewelry as everyday wear.

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JEWELRY TERMS --

Birthstones – Stones representing the month of the year the wearer was born. For a list, see "birthstone gems" at the bottom of this page.

Cabochon - A stone cutting resulting in a shape that is rounded on the top and flat on the bottom. Crescent Pin – A pin popular in the late Victorian period worn at the top a high collared blouse, typically with the tips of the crescent moon pointing downward.

Dress Clips - Clips worn at the collar of a dress, usually in pairs, with a clip closure instead of a pin closure. Dress clips were popular in the 1930s and 40s but are seldom seen today outside of vintage jewelry. Figural Jewelry – A piece of jewelry that depicts the human figure. This term is also sometimes applied to characters such as cartoon and fictional characters as well as animals and other living creatures.

Filigree - A word used to describe fine threads of metal such as silver used in making jewelry.

Flip Ring - A ring that has a stone or face that flips over to reveal a different looking stone or design on the opposite side. French Jet – Black glass beads used for necklaces and bracelets, this material was used as a substitute for real jet which is derived from coal.

Fur Clip - A clip worn on a fur coat as you would wear a brooch on a coat.

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Guilloché - A technique of etching when a machine is used to create a pattern on metal that is usually then covered by a transparent layer of enamel, allowing the pattern to show through. In jewelry, this process was used often in making turn-of-the-century cufflinks Honeymoon Pin – A crescent pin worn in the Late Victorian Period that added an enameled flower or flowers to the crescent moon.

Lavalier – A style of pendant necklace that has the pendant supported at two points rather than hanging from a single bail. This style was very popular in the Edwardian Period.

Lorgnette - A pair of eyeglasses that are held up to the eyes via a handle. Invented in the 1700s, they have been popular with ladies to use for occasional aid in lieu of wearing eyeglasses. They are often highly decorated and encased in jewels and precious metals

Mantilla Comb - A comb originally used by Spanish women with a lace scarf. The lace scarf, or mantilla was draped over the high mantilla comb which kept the scarf higher and off the face. In more recent times, the comb has been used alone, without the mantilla or scarf, but the name of this style of hair comb remained. Milk Glass – White opaque glass used in making jewelry beads and stones for brooches. This material is also popular in vases and china since the 16th Century, was very popular material used in jewelry in the mid 20th century.

Pavé Set - Stones set in a pavé setting are set next to one another completely covering the metal. Think "streets paved with gold" and you have the idea. Rondell - A bead in the shape of a ring, usually set with stones. In vintage jewelry, rhinestone rondells are found.

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Sash Pin – A pin worn by a woman as a clasp to the sash at the waist of her dress. Women of the 19th and Early 20th Century did not wear belts, but sashes made of fabric to match or compliment their dress. Many sash pins take on the shape of a buckle. Steel Cut Jewelry – Jewelry made of “stones” that are formed from steel. Originally riveted to a backing material, steel was used to make military uniform ornamentation and was later used as a material for shoe and belt buckles and jewelry of all kinds. Its origins go back to the 16thCentury.

Torsade – Multiple strands of beads that are worn twisted together. Adds interest and compliments a variety of beads of differing colors and shapes. For an example, click torsade. More examples can be found in the "Beads" section of Foxfire's Jewelry Shop.

Trifanium - A plating on a metal alloy that was patented by the Trifari company and used in making costume jewelry in the 1940s. Trifanium has a very rich looking glow that strongly resembles gold or gold vermeil over sterling silver although trifanium is neither gold nor silver. For an example see trifanium. Venetian Glass – Hand made glass beads originating in Venice that are made by an artist using a torch to combine different materials and metals to create a multitude of differing colors to create unique and colorful beads. Click Venetian Glass to see an example. Vermeil – Most often seen as “gold vermeil”, it is a coating of gold over sterling silver or gold filled over silver as opposed to gold over another commonly used metal such as brass. For an example see vermeil.

NECKLACE LENGTHS --

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Collar – 12” to 13”. Multiple strands, usually three or more, that hug the neck. Collars were made popular by Princess Alexandria, wife of Prince Edward and daughter-in-law of England’s Queen Victoria.

Choker – 14” to 16”. Flattering to the neck, it can be worn with nearly all kinds of clothing.

Princess – 17” to 19”. This style is perfect for a pendant to compliment the current trend toward lower necklines.

Matinee – 20” to 24”. A good compliment to a plain sweater or business suit.

Rope or Lariat – 45+”. Can be worn as a single strand or doubled up making a two strand necklace. A lariat has ends that are not attached, but tied into a knot with the ends left dangling. This style was used by the flappers of the 1920s. BIRTHSTONE GEMS --

January - Garnet February - Amethyst March - Aquamarine April – Diamond May - Emerald

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June – Pearl and Alexandrite July - Ruby August - Peridot September- Sapphire October - Opal and Tourmaline November – Topaz and Citrine December – Tanzanite, Zircon and Turquoise

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