Artificial intelligence

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1. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ beam spectro photometer measures the ratio of light intensity on two different light paths. :->double 2. The most common spectro photometers are used in the _ _ _ _ _ and _ _ _ _ _ regions of the spectrum :-> uv and visible 3. The most common application of spectro photometers is the measurement of _ _ _ _ _ _ :->light absorption 4. Single beam spectro photometer measure the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :->absolute light intensity 5. Spectrophotometry is the Quantitative study of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ spectra. :->electro magnetic 6. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ deals with visible light, near - ultra violet, and near infrared. :->spectrophotometry 7. Spectrophotometer is a photometer which measures _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :->light intensity 8. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ meter gives the intensity as a function of colour and the wave length of light :->photo 9. The two major classes of spectro photometers are _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ and _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :->single beam, double beam 10. _ _ _ _ _ _ beam instruments have advantages,likedynamic range, can be more compact. :->single 11. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ measures the intensity of light passing through a sample and compares it to the intensity of light before it passes through the sample. :->uv/vis spectro photometer 12. Organic compounds, espesially those with a high degree of conjugation, also absorb light in the uv (or) visible regions of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ spectrum. :->electro magnetic 13. The UV/VIS spectroscopy can be used to determine the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ of a solution :->concentration 14. Photo diodes are used with _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _, which filter the light so that onlylight of a single wave length reaches the detertors. :->monochromators 15. Ultra violet – visible spectro photometry involves the spectroscopy of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ and spectrophotometry. :- >photons 16. UV - VIS spectrophotometers uses in visible, ultraviolet and _ _ _ _ _ ranges :->infrated rays 17.In infrared region of energy space molecules undergo electronic _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :->transitions 18. UV VIS spectroscopy is routinely used in the quantitative determination of solutions of transition metal ions and _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :->organic 19. A UV/VIS spectro photometer may be used as _ _ _ _ _ _ _ in high performance liquid chromatography. :->detector 20. The detector used in spectrophotometry is normally a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :->photo diode 21. Recent advances in electronics and the stability of _ _ _ _ _ _ lamp have made reliable single beam instruments possible. :->tungsten halogen lamp 22.The splitting of the beam is normally accompolished by _ _ _ _ _ :->partially transmtting mirror 23. Optronik color flash is an example of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ instrument. :->double beam 24. In _ _ _ _ _ configuration, there is a single beam from the light source, and the reference standard is measured to standadize the instument and then removed. :->single beam 25. Spectrophotometers are instuments which measure the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ distribution of light. :->wave length 26. In _ _ _ _ _ _ _ configuration, the beam from the light source is split in to two. :->double beam 27. In double beam configuration, one beam illuminates the reference standard and the other illuminates the _ _ _ _ _ _ _:->sample 28. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ instruments become quite popular in the early days of spectrophotometry due to instability of light sources, detectors and the associated electronics. :->double beam 29. For a single beam configuration to perform well the light source, detector and electronics must be reasonably _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ over time. :->stable 30. The main advantage of single beam configuration is that there are fewer _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :->moving parts 31. Color quert sphere is an example of _ _ _ _ _ instruments. :->single beam 32. 98.7 % of the ultraviolet radiation that reaches the earth Surface is _ _ _ _ _ :->UVA 33. The chemical used in suntan lotion for UVA protection is _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :->avobenzone 34. The wave length range of ultraviolet light is _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :->200 - 400 nm 35. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is normally used for partly blocking uv and it is widely available in market :->suntan lotion 36. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ lamps produce UV radiation by ionising low pressure mercurry vapour :->flourescent 37. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ light is electromagnetic radiation with a wave length shorter than that of visible light, but longer than soft x-rays. :->ultraviolet 38. Ultraviolet light is so named because the spectrum consists of _ _ _ _ _ waves. :->electromagnetic 39. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ light has a shorter wavelength than that of violet light :->UV 40. In humans, prolonged exposure to solar UV radiation may result in acute and chronic health effect on _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :->skin 41. Sensitive documents like credit cards, drivers licenses, passports will have water mark which can only be seen when viewed under _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :->uv light 42. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ detectors are normally used in uv/visible spectro photo meters. :->photo diode 43. Infrared light emits about _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ wavelength in the form of thermal rdiation. :->5 µm 44. The importaant feature of spectrophotometers include _ _ _ _ _ _ _ and _ _ _ _ _ _ :->spectral band width, linear range 45. Spectrophoto meters are used for measurement of light absorption but can also be designed to measure _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :->specular reflectance MID

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46. Samples for IR spectrophotometry may be smeared between two discs of _ _ _ _ _ _ :->potassium bromide 47. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is the quantitative study of electromagnetic spectra. :->spectrophoto metry 48. Infrared spectrophotometers use _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ technique to acquire the spectral information. :-> fourier transform infrared 49. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ materials absorb infrared light :->glass 50. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is used to construct the cell for IR spectrophotometry. :->silver chloride 51._ _ _ _ _ _ _ Spectrophotometry may be used for smearing between two discs of potassium bromide.

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:->IR 52. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ material is used to absorb infrared light. :->plastic 53. The FT IR is based oninterferometer, that consists of at least a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ and two mirrors. :->beam splitter 54. The spectrum can be obtained by performing _ _ _ _ _ transform. :->fourier 55. Useful interference in FT IR occurs between light waves of the _ _ _ _ _ frequency and _ _ _ _ _ _ phase relation. :- >same,constant 56. FT IR stands for _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :->Fourier transform infrared 57. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is a method of obtaining infrared spectra by first collecting an interferogram of a sample signal Using an interferometer. :->FT IR 58. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is a special instrument that collects and digities the interferogram, performs the FT function and displays the spectrum. :->FT IR 59. The FT IR is based on _ _ _ _ _ _ _ , that consists of at least a beam splitter and two mirrors. :->interferometer 60.Interferometer produces _ _ _ _ _ _ _ between two beams of light waves propogated through two seperate optical path lengths. :->interference 61. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ can be obtained by performing fourier trans form in FT IR interferogram. :->spectrum 62. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ produces interference between two beams of light waves propogated through two separate optical path lengths. :->interferometer 63. In _ _ _ _ _ _ Stage, electrons in the excited state are Very unstatble and move back down to the ground state quite quickly. :->emmission of radiation 64. Copper placed into the flame will create a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Flame. :->green 65. _ _ _ _ _ _ number of stages occur during the flame emission spectroscopy. :->4 66. In _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ stage, the electrons in the ground state metal atoms are able to absorb energy from the heat of the flame. :->excitation 67. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ method is used to heat the sample to a high temperature ofter which the excitations are produced by collisions between the sample atoms :->flame emission spectroscopy 68. Flame emission spectro scopy can be observed using tust a Bunsen Burner and _ _ _ _ _ _ :->samples of metals 69. Sodium metal placed in the flame will glow _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :->yellow 70. Calcium metal particles will glow _ _ _ _ _ _ _ colour in the falme. :->red 71. In _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ stage the sample containing metal particles is dehydrated by the heat of the flame and the solvent is evapourated. :->Evaporation 72. In atomisation stage the metal ions that were in the solvent are reduced to _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :->metal atoms 73. When a high voltage is applied across the anode and cathode of a lamp, the metal atoms in the cathode are excited in to producing light with a _ _ _ _ _ _ :->emission spectrum 74. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ number of steps are involved in turning a liquid sample in to an atomic gas. :->3 75. In _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ step, the liquid solvent is evapourated, and the dry sample remains. :->Desolvation 76. A beam of light that is focused in to the flame is produced by a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ lamp in atomic absorption Spectro photo meter. :->hallow cathode 77. The flame is arranged such that it is _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ and not deep in flame obsorption spectroscopy. :->laterally long 78. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ spectroscopy is a technique for determining the concentration of a particular metal element in a sample. :->atomic absorption 79. Atomic absorption spectroscopy can be used to analyze the _ _ _ _ _ _ of over 62 different metals in a solution. :- >concentration 80. In _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ step, the solid sample vaporises to a gas :->vaporisation 81. In _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ step, the compounds making up the sample are broken intofree atoms. :->voltatization 82. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ technique uses flame to atomize the sample. :->absorption spectroscopy 83. The study of atomic emission spectra is used to illustrate _ _ _ _ _ _ _ principles. :->Quantum mechanical 84. _ _ _ _ _ _ is a spectroscopic tecnique which examines the wave length of photons emitted by atoms (or) molecules. :- >Emission spectroscopy 85. _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ Exist at extremely highly temperatures which are used in atomic emission-spectrometry :->inductive couple plasma's 86. In spectroscopic tecnhique the photons emitted by atoms or molecules during their transition from an _ _ _ _ _ state to a lower energy state. :->excited 87. Each element emits a characteristic set of discrete wave lengths according to its _ _ _ _ :->Electronic structure 88. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is the determination of elemental composition by its electromagnetic or mass spectrum. :->atomic spectroscopy 89. In atomic emission spectrophotometry the purpose of heating the sample is not only to free atoms, but to provide enough energy to pump electrons in to _ _ _ _ _ _ _ energy levels. :->excited 90.Instrumentation to carry out atomic emission would need a _ _ _ _ _ _ :->lamp

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91. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _spectrophotometer operates in both atomic absorption and emission modes. :->Atomic 92. _ _ _ _ _ _is the element choice by far used in atomic spectro scopy. :->hydrogen 93. English standard candle is made up of spermacetic wax obtained from _ _ _ _ _ oil :->whale 94. The sperm whale oil, consumed at a rate of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ gms per hour for a flame height of 4.5cm. :->7.776 95. The standard source used in photo meter is _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :->English standard candle 96. Normal diameter of the English standard candle will be of _ _ _ _ _ _ :->2.22 cm 97. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ are used to measure the intensity of light :->photometer 98. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ are used to measure the intensity of light produced by on unknown source in terms of standard source. :->photo meters 99. The distances of the two sources are adjusted until the eye saw _ _ _ _ _ _ in each path. :->equal brightness 100. If we assume that the sources are small compared to the distance from them to the illuminated surfaces, _ _ _ _ _ law may be used :->inverse square 101. Photo meters are used to measure the _ _ _ _ _ _ of the light. :->intensity 102. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ law states that if the intensity of the unknown at a distance x from the surfaces is related to the intensity I(o) of the standard source a distance s from the surfaces by I = I(o):->inverse square 103. The _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ momentum associated with nuclear spin is Quantized. :->angular 104. NMR studies magnetic nuclei by alligning then with an applied constant magnetic field and perturbing this allignment using an _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :->alternating electric field 105. The Perturbing magnetic field phenomenon is used in _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :-> MR spectroscopy 106. The development of nuclear magnetic resonance as a technique of analytical chemistry and bio-chemistry parallels the development of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :->electromagnetic 107. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is a relatedtechnique which exploits the spin of electrons instead of nuclei. :->electron spin resonance 108. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is a physical phenomenon based up on the quantum mechanical magnetic properties of an atom's nucleus. :-> uclear magnetic resonance 109. Nuclear magnetic resonance alsocommonly refers to a family of scientific methods that exploit the study of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :->molecules 110. All nuclei that contain odd number of protons (or) neutrons have an intrisic magnetic moment and _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ momentum. :->angular 111. NMR frequencies for a particular substance are directly proportional to the strength of the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :->applied magnetic field 112. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ phenomenon is utilised in lowfield NMR and earth's field NMR spectrometers. :-> uclear magnetic resonance 113. The magnetic Nuclei, could absorb RF energy when placed in a magnetric field and this process of absorption is called as _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :->resonance 114. The overall spin of the nucleus is determined bythe _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :->spin quantum number 115. The most important applications for the organic chemist are _ _ _ _ _ and _ _ _ _ _ _ _ spectroscopy. :->proton MR, carbon - 13 MR 116. When placed in a magneticfeild, NMR active nuclei absorb at a frequency characteristic of the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :- >isotope 117. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is a thin glass walled tube used to contain samples in NMR spectroscopy. :-> MR tube 118. The most useful information for structure determination in a one dimensional NMR spectrum comes from _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ coupling. :->scalar 119. NMR spectroscopy depends on _ _ _ _ _ _ phenomenon. :->nuclear magnetic resonance 120. In principle, Nuclear magnetic resonance is applicable to any nucleus possessing _ __ _ _ _ :->spin 121. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ spectrum provides information on the number and type of chemical entities in a molecule. :-> MR 122. Depending on the local chemical environment, different protons in a molecule resonate at slightly _ _ _ _ _ _ frequencies :->different 123. The scalar coupling provides detailed insight in to the connectivity of atoms in a _ _ _ _ _ :->molecule 124. In priciple _ _ _ _ _ _ is applicable to any nucleus possessing spin :-> MR 125. Atomic mass range detected by spectrometers can also be measured in :->daltons 126. Mass spectrometry can be used in the analysis of many types of samples, like elementrial to large proteins and _ _ _ _ _ _ :->polymers 127. _ _ _ __ _ _ _ important parameters are considered in mass spectrometers :->resolution and mass accuracy 128. The mass spectrum is a graphical representation of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ values versus measured ion abundance information. :- >mass to charge 129. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ are used in both Quantitative and Qualitative analysis,including high resolution accurate mass measurements for the determination of elemental compositions. :->mass spectrometers 130. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ spectrometry is an analytical spectroscopic tool primarilyconcerned with the separation of molecular species according to their mass. :->mass

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131. Mass range is a measure of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ range detected by spectrometers in atomic mass units :->atomic mass 132. In mass spectrometers, _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is the ratio of the mass divided by the change in mass over the area of two peaks. :->resolution 133. The _ _ _ _ _ _ _ spectrum is a spectrum obtained when ions (usually in abeam) are separated according to the mass to charge ratio's of the ionic species present. :->mass 134.Mass spectrometers are used in bothQuantitative and Qualitative analysis, including high resolution accurate mass measurements for the determination of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ compositions. :->elemental 135. The phenomenon of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ resonance is based on the fact that an electron is charged particle which spins around its axis and this causes it to act like a tiny bar magnet. :->electron spin 136. The basic physical concepts of Electron paramagnetic resonance are analogous to _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ resonance. :- >nuclear magnetic 137. EPR spectroscopy fields are commonly measured in _ _ _ _ _ _ units :->Gauss 138. I gauss is equal to _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ times tesla. :->10-4 139. Electron spin resonance is also called as _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :->electron paramagnetic resonance 140. _ _ _ _ is a technique of studying chemical species that have one or more unpaired electrons :-> electron spin resonance 141. The difference between EPR and NMR is that _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ spins are excited in EMR and _ _ _ _ _ _ _ spins are excited in NMR. :->electron, atomic nucler 142. Magnetic field strength is measured in _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :->Tesla 143. In EPR, the interaction of an external magnetic field with an electron spin depends up on the _ _ _ _ _ _ associated with the spin. :->magnetic moment 144. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is been applied extensively to biological systems. :->ESR 145. Bio chemical information can also be obtained from living tissue (example is human brain tumours) with the technique known as _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ magnetic resonance spectroscopy. :->vivo 146. NMR is also used in real - time process control in _ _ _ _ _ _ _ plants. :->petro chemical 147. NMR spectroscopy is widely used in chemical studies such as _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :->carbon - 13 MR 148. Nuclear magnetic resonance is used as _ _ _ _ _ in the petroleum industry for petroleum and natural gas exploration and recovery. :->data acouisition 149. Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis in bore holes is used to measure _ _ _ _ :->rock porosity 150. Radiation damage over long periods of time creates free radicals in tooth enamel, which can be examined by _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :- >EMR 151. The use of Nuclear magnetic resonance best known to the general public is in magnetic rsonance imaging for _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :- >medical diagnosis 152. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is exterenely useful for analyzing samples non - destructively :-> MR 153. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is a good choice for analyzing dangerous samples. :-> MR 154. Magnet meters use _ _ _ _ _ _ effects to measure magnetic fields :-> MR 155. _ _ _ _ _ _ is a sensitive method for studying both radicals formed in chemical reactions and the reactions them selves. :- >ESR 156. Electron spin resonance (ESR) is also been used by archaeologists for the dating of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :->teeth 157. The current that uriginates is called a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ , and prevents the device from reaching a point where no more ions can be collected. :->bias current 158.The rapid accelecration of the resulting electron by the electrostatic potential with in the tube may result in a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :- >Town send avalanche 159. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is a gas filled enclosure which consists of two conducting electrodes to measure the number of ions. :->ionization chamber 160. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is an instrument constructed to measure the number of ions with in a medium. :->Ionization chamber 161. An _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is a device used for two major purposes – detecting particles in air and for detection or measurement of ionizing radiation. :->ionization chamber 162. An ionization chamber is an instrument constructed to measure the number of _ _ _ _ _ _ with in a medium. :->ions 163. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ measures the ionization current in the ionization chamber. :->electrometer 164. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is a device used as a smoke detector. :->ionization chamber 165._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ are widelyused in the nuclear industry since they provide on outputthat is proportional to does and have a greater operating life time that standard geiger tubes. :->ionization chamber 166.Out of following _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is another type of ionization chamber. :->geiger counter 167.Electrometer measures _ _ _ _ _ in the ionization chamber :->ionization current 168. Ionizationchamber is a device used as a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :->smoke detector 169. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is a type of particle detector that measures ionizing radiation. :->GM counter 170. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is a type of particle detector that measures ionizing radiation. :->GM counter 171. Some Geiger counters are also used to detect _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ radiation. :->gamma 172. The Geiger Muller tube is one form of a class of radiation detectors called _ _ _ _ _ _ _ detectors. :->gas 173. In GM counter the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ electrode is a narrow wire running down the center. :->positive 174. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ electrode is a hallow metal cyclinder placed just inside the glass in GM counter. :->negative 175. A Geiger (or) Geiger - Muller counter is a type of paticle detector that measures _ _ _ _ :->ionizing radiation 176.Geiger counters are used to detect _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :->radiation 177. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ amplifies the conduction by a cascade effect and outputs a current pulse. :->geiger tube

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178. Although useful, cheap and robust, a counter using a GM tube can only defect the presence and intensity of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :- >radiation 179. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ counter has applications in the fields ofnuclear physics, geophysics (mining) and medical therapy with isotopes and x-rays. :->Geiger - Muller 180. The current version of Geiger counter is called the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ counter :->Halogen 181.Civil defense Geiger counters are the devices capable of mesuring _ _ _ _ _ _ levels of radiation. :->high 182. By measuring the total charge between the electrodes in the proportional counter, we can find the particles _ _ _ _ _ _ :->kinetic energy 183. A proportional is a type of _ _ _ _ _ detector.:->Gaseous ionization 184. The manner in which the cascade of ion pairs is created is known as _ _ _ _ _ :->Townsends avalanche 185. The process of charge amplification can improve the _ _ _ _ _ ratio of the detector. :->signal to nose 186. Proportional counters are useful for detection of high energy photons such as _ _ _ _ , provided these can penetrate the entrancewindow. :->x - rays 187.A _ _ _ _ _ _ _ counter is a type of Gaseous ionization detector. :->proportional 188. A _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is a type of Gaseous device to count particles of ionizing radiation and measure their energy. :->proportional counter 189. A proportional counter works on the same principle as the _ _ _ _ _ _ counter. :->GM 190. Compared to GM counter the proportional counter works on a _ _ _ _ _ _ voltage :->lower operating 191. In proportional counter, as long as the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ over which the electrons drift is choosen carefully, the proportionality is preserved. :->potential difference 192. Proportional counters are very useful for _ _ _ _ _ spectroscopy :->charged particle 193. Compared to _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ counter the proportional counter works on a lower operating voltage. :->GM 194. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ semi conductor detectors are widely used :->cadmium telluride 195. High energy resolutions, can be achieved with _ _ _ _ _ detectors. :->germanium 196. Semiconductor materials have gained acceptance due to ability to operate at _ _ _ _ _ _ _ efficiency. :->high 197. solid state detector are also called as _ _ _ _ _ detector. :->semiconductor radiation 198. Solid state detectors are those which use advance materials such as _ _ _ _ :->semiconductors 199. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ materials are used in solid state detectors. :->Germainum 200. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ detectors give better energy resolution, less noise and better spatial resolution. :->solid state 201. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ materials require more care than scintillators, such as cooling them to low operating temperatures. :->germanium 202. Solid state detectors convert the incident photons directly in to _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :->electric pulses 203. Semiconductor materials have gained acceptance due to their ability to operate at _ _ _ _ temperature. :->room 204. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ detectors have the best resolution, but repuire liquid nitrogen cooling which makes them impractical for portable applications. :->germanium 205. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ detectors needs no cooling, but is ineffecient in detecting photons with energies greater than a few tens of kilo electron volts. :->silicon 206. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is the oldest form of ionization chamber, instruments of this type ar widely used as monitors of radiations by workers in the nuclear or radiomedical professions. :->gold leaf electroscope 207. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ measures ionization current in the ionization chamber. :->electrometer 208. The process of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ can improve the signal to noise ratio of the detector. :->charge amplification 209. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ counters are very useful for charge particle spectroscopy. :->proportional 210. Solid state detectors give better energy resolution, less noise and better _ _ _ _ resolution. :->spatial 211. __ _ _ _ detectors are those which use advance materials such as germanium, silicon etc. :->solid state 212. The GM counter has many applications in _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :->nuclear physics 213. The _ _ _ _ _ counter has applications in the field of medical therapy with iostopes and x - rays. :->GM 214. Ionization chamber is a device used as a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :->smoke detector 215. Ionization chamber is an instrument constructed to measure the number of _ _ _ _ _ _ with in a medium. :->Ions 216. _ _ _ _ _ _ countors are very useful for detection of high energy photrons such as x-rays, provided these can penetrate the entrance window. :->proortional 217. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ materials have gained acceptance due to their ability to operate at room tempetature. :->semiconductor

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