Artificial Intelligence

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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Abstract: This paper aims at presenting the concept of "Artificial Intelligence." It is the branch of Computer Science concerned with making computers behave like humans. It is the Science and Engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs. It is the hot topic on many boards and software houses. The term was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. This paper briefly describes how Artificial Intelligence works and the various techniques used in AI. It further describes, the greatest advances that have occurred in the field of Medicine, Military, Expert Systems, Robotics and Natural Language Processing. This paper deals with latest advances that have occurred in the field of games playing. The best computer chess programs are now capable of beating humans. In May 1997, an IBM super-computer called Deep Blue defeated world chess champion Gary Kasparov in a chess match. Today, the hottest area of Artificial Intelligence is neural networks, which are proving successful in a number of disciplines such as voice recognition and natural language processing. Robotics incorporating artificial intelligence interaction with laser, ultrasound, MRI scanning, are performing delicate brain surgery more accurately than by traditional surgical approaches. A.I. was used in the investigation of Mars in July 1997. This paper reflects the potential impact of AI on our lives. Artificial Intelligence is likely to continue to creep into our lives without us really noticing. Abstract The use of Artificial Intelligence methods is becoming increasingly common in the modeling and forecasting of hydrological and water resource processes. In this study, applicability of Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) methods, Generalized Regression Neural Networks (GRNN) and Feed Forward Neural Networks (FFNN), for forecasting of daily river flow is investigated and the Seyhan catchment, located in the south of Turkey, is chosen as a case study. Totally, 5114 daily river flow data are obtained from river flow gauges station of Üçtepe (1818) on Seyhan River between the years 1986 and 2000. The data set are divided into three subgroups, training, testing and verification. The training and testing data set include totally 5114 daily river flow data and the number of verification data points is 731. The river flow forecasting models having various input structures are trained and tested to investigate the applicability of ANFIS and ANN methods. The results of ANFIS, GRNN and FFNN models for both training and testing are evaluated and the best fit forecasting model structure and method is determined according to criteria of performance evaluation. The best fit model is also trained and tested by traditional statistical methods and the performances of all models are compared in order to get more effective evaluation. Moreover ANFIS, GRNN and FFNN models are also verified by verification data set including 731 daily river flow data at the time period 1998–2000 and the results of models are compared. The results demonstrate that ANFIS model is superior to the GRNN and FFNN forecasting models, and ANFIS can be successfully applied and provide high accuracy and reliability for daily River flow forecasting. · Labels: Artificial Intelligence, cse, Ece, papers Paper Presentation on Artificial Intelligence ABSTRACT: Artificial Intelligence is a branch of Science which deals with helping machines finds solutions to complex problems in a more human-like fashion. This generally involves borrowing characteristics from human intelligence, and applying them as algorithms in a computer friendly way. A more or less flexible or efficient approach can be taken depending on the requirements established, which influences how artificial the intelligent behavior appears. Humans throughout history have always sought to mimic the appearance, mobility, functionality, intelligent operation, and thinking process of biological creatures. This field of biologically inspired technology, having the moniker biometrics, has evolved from making static copies of human and animals in the form of statues to the emergence of robots that operate with realistic appearance and behavior. This paper covers the current state-of-the-art and challenges to making biomimetic robots using artificial muscles. Topic : Artificial Intelligence Description : Artificial Intelligence is a branch of Science which deals with helping machines finds solutions to complex problems in a more human-like fashion. This generally involves borrowing characteristics from human intelligence, and applying them as algorithms in a computer friendly way. A more or less flexible or efficient approach can be taken depending on the requirements established, which influences how artificial the intelligent behavior appears. Humans throughout history have always sought to mimic the appearance, mobility, functionality, intelligent operation, and thinking process of biological creatures. This field of biologically inspired technology, having the moniker biometrics, has evolved from making static copies of human and animals in the form of statues to the emergence of robots that operate with realistic appearance and behavior. This paper covers the current state-of-the-art and challenges to making biomimetic robots using artificial muscles.

Robotics Abstract : (Seminar) The present paper attempts to deal with Robotics in the present context of activities handled by various departments in the globe Robotics is design and manufacture of intelligent machines that are programmed to perform certain tasks. Robots are used in industries to increase productivity and handle jobs that are too dangerous for humans.Robots are built in a complex way. They are made of a controller which acts as the brain of a computer , an arm which resembles the human arm is designed according to the application, the drive which drives the robot to do a certain task, an end-effector which attaches the hand to the arm and a sensor which provides a limited feedback to the robot.Robotic architecture is mainly based on the microcontrollers.Use of integrated microcontrollers is gained a lot of importance because of its reliability at a low cost. The microcontroller forms the heart of the embedded system that forms the brain of the majority of robots. Robotics is used for industrial automation to the extent that the terms ‘robotics and industrial automation’ have become synonyms in the industrial world.Use of highly integrated Microcontrollers allows development of distributed intelligence systems. Motion control on a robot is accomplished by components, software enabled components and integrated solutions.Androids are the anthropomorphic robots (i.e robots that look more like humans) need a special mention because of the wide range of their utilities, and their ability to replace humans & thus help in automation. In real world, robots are redefining manufacturing, medicine, exploration and consumer electronics. Robotics has the potential to change our economy, health, standard of living, knowledge and above all the world we live in.

Abstract

Pharmacies face new challenges to survival. Surrounded (literally in many cases) by national chain pharmacies, smaller community pharmacies must deliver a higher level of customer service and patient care, essentially positioning themselves as a valued healthcare resource to their customers. Chain pharmacies face high employee turnover and hospital outpatient clinics increasingly compete with chain pharmacies for in-demand pharmacy professionals. One solution gaining acceptance to respond to all of these pressures is automation. Robotic dispensing is demonstrating potential to offload more than half of pharmacies’ prescription volume, at higher speeds and with greater accuracy than manual filling, refocusing staff resources on patient care. o Why automate? o When should you automate? o And what should you know to maximize the potential of your investment? These are among the questions that this White Paper seeks to answer.

Robotics
ABSTRACT : Robotics is the scientific discipline and applied science of automata, their aim, construct, application program. Robotics calls for a acting cognition of electronics, mechanism, and software system. A human acting in the area is a roboticist. The word robotics comprised 1st applied in print by Issac Isaac Asimov, in his science fiction short story "Runaround" (1941). The structure of a robot is generally mostly mechanistic and can comprise addressed a kinematic chain (its functionality being akin to the skeleton of the human body). The chains comprises defined of connections (its bones up), actuators (its muscles) and joints which can allow for one or a lot of degrees of exemption. Autism is a permeant developmental disorder that is qualified by social and communicatory constipations. Social robots acknowledge and answer to human being social cues with appropriate behaviours. Social robots, and the engineering employed in their building, can comprise unique creatures in the examine of autism. based on 3 years of consolidation absorption with a objective research grouping which performs more than one hundred thirty symptomatic of valuations of children for autism per year, this composition discusses how sociable automata will arrive at an encroachment on the directions in which we diagnose, treat, and understand autism. for past three years, robotics grouping has been immersed in one of the premier non subjective research groups analysing autism, conduced by Ami Klin and Fred Volkmar at the Yale child center field. This report abstracts the conclusions, to employ engineering science from sociable automata to the unique nonsubjective jobs of autism, an first appearance to autism which foregrounds a few of difficultnesses with current symptomatic measures and achieve formulas, assays to employ robots as therapeutic aids discusses unrealized promise of these techniques, how diagnosis can be amended through the apply of some inactive social cue measurement and fundamental interaction with a social robot to allow quantitative, aim measures of social answer and it also speculates on how apply of societal in autism search could conduce to a bigger reading of the distract.

Cloud computing

Overview

In essence, cloud computing means running software and accessing data that reside somewhere else. ZDNet explains (Hinchcliffe, 2008) cloud computing in business-trend terms: "Software platforms are moving from their traditional centricity around individually owned and managed computing resources and up into the 'cloud' of the Internet."

Google explores the cloud computing trend at length in another whitepaper, "Cloud Computing - Latest Buzzword, or a Glimpse of the Future?" This paper picks up where the other paper ended: Examining whether cloud computing makes good business sense for your company. Let's start with some predictions:
• •



In the next 12 months, someone in your company will push for at least one on-demand application. Your company's first encounter with cloud computing will be driven by needs to save money - but within a few months of the first deployment, your horizons will expand. You'll see opportunities where you once saw problems. You'll see corporate silos tumble as people from different departments and locations collaborate on projects. Ultimately, you may find that moving your data to the cloud actually improves security, scalability, access, and disaster recovery.

Overly optimistic? Perhaps. But as many companies are discovering, cloud computing offers rapid and significant results.

Unquestionably, the primary reason why most companies are giving cloud computing a trial run are to save money by avoiding inherent IT and support costs, and to address the business demand for speed. A recent article (The Economist, 2008) in The Economist contends that Amazon and Google are proving that cloud computing "is a far more efficient way of running IT systems. ... The current economic malaise will increase the pressure on companies to become more efficient. More has to be done with less, which is cloud computing's main promise."

Cloud Computing Tutorial Professor Mark Baker, University of Reading, UK. This tutorial will examine various aspects of Cloud Computing, including virtualization, the Cloud Framework, commercial and open sources system, security, scheduling, SLAs, and the user interface for developing applications that execute of cloud-based systems. Abstract: Cloud infrastructure and services are expected to grow significantly in the coming years, therefore making it critical for systems to effectively implement and maintain cloud technologies. Cloud computing is a paradigm where tasks are assigned to a combination of connections, software and services accessed over a network. Clouds provide processing power, which is made possible though distributed, large-scale computing systems,

which use virtualization software, e.g. Xen, VMWare, Citrix and KVM. Cloud computing can be seen as a traditional desktop computing model, where the resources of a single desktop, computer are used to complete tasks, and an expansion of the client/server model. The advances in processors, virtualization technology, disk storage, broadband Internet access and fast, servers have all combined to make cloud computing a compelling paradigm. Customers can use open source Cloud Computing or commercial systems. Customers are billed, based upon server utlilisation, processing power and the bandwidth consumed. As a result, cloud computing has the potential to change the software industry entirely, as applications are purchased, licensed and run over the network instead of a user’s desktop. This change will put data centres and their administrators at the centre of the distributed network, as processing power, electricity, bandwidth and storage are all managed remotely. Cloud computing relies on a cloud platform that lets applications run and use services provided. Cloud foundations provide the basic local functions an application needs. These can include an underlying operating system and local support. Yet cloud platforms provide these functions that differs from what were used on Operating Systems. From a platform point of view, an operating system provides a set of basic interfaces for applications to use. One of the most well known examples, of an operating system in the cloud today is Amazon’s Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2). EC2 provides customer-specific Linux instances running in virtual machines (VMs). From a technical perspective, it might be more accurate to think of EC2 as a platform for VMs rather than operating systems. A cloud local support systems, which includes its own storage, and it hides whatever the underlying operating system might be. A developer chooses to build a particular local support option that must accept the limitations it imposes. There are good reasons for these limitations, of course. It makes cloud computing attractive, as it provides scalability, makes an application built on a cloud framework, it also handle Internet-size loads. By making the local support functions more specialised, a cloud platform provider has more freedom to optimise the application environment. Accordingly, each set of local support functions in cloud foundations today focuses on supporting a particular kind of application. The Benefits of Cloud Computing include:
• • • • • • • •

The use IT resources are provided as a service, Compute, storage, databases, queues, Clouds leverage economies of scale of commodity hardware, Cheap storage, high bandwidth networks and multi-core processors, Geographically distributed data centres, Cost and management, Economies of scale, “out-sourced” resource management, On demand provisioning, co-located data and compute,

Cloud Computing Tutorial Professor Mark Baker, University of Reading, UK. This tutorial will examine various aspects of Cloud Computing, including virtualization, the Cloud Framework, commercial and open sources system, security, scheduling, SLAs, and the user interface for developing applications that execute of cloud-based systems. Abstract: Cloud infrastructure and services are expected to grow significantly in the coming years, therefore making it critical for systems to effectively implement and maintain cloud technologies. Cloud computing is a paradigm where tasks are assigned to a combination of connections, software and services accessed over a network. Clouds provide processing power, which is made possible though distributed, large-scale computing systems, which use virtualization software, e.g. Xen, VMWare, Citrix and KVM. Cloud computing can be seen as a traditional desktop computing model, where the resources of a single desktop, computer are used to complete tasks, and an expansion of the client/server model. The advances in processors, virtualization technology, disk

storage, broadband Internet access and fast, servers have all combined to make cloud computing a compelling paradigm. Customers can use open source Cloud Computing or commercial systems. Customers are billed, based upon server utlilisation, processing power and the bandwidth consumed. As a result, cloud computing has the potential to change the software industry entirely, as applications are purchased, licensed and run over the network instead of a user’s desktop. This change will put data centres and their administrators at the centre of the distributed network, as processing power, electricity, bandwidth and storage are all managed remotely. Cloud computing relies on a cloud platform that lets applications run and use services provided. Cloud foundations provide the basic local functions an application needs. These can include an underlying operating system and local support. Yet cloud platforms provide these functions that differs from what were used on Operating Systems. From a platform point of view, an operating system provides a set of basic interfaces for applications to use. One of the most well known examples, of an operating system in the cloud today is Amazon’s Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2). EC2 provides customer-specific Linux instances running in virtual machines (VMs). From a technical perspective, it might be more accurate to think of EC2 as a platform for VMs rather than operating systems. A cloud local support systems, which includes its own storage, and it hides whatever the underlying operating system might be. A developer chooses to build a particular local support option that must accept the limitations it imposes. There are good reasons for these limitations, of course. It makes cloud computing attractive, as it provides scalability, makes an application built on a cloud framework, it also handle Internet-size loads. By making the local support functions more specialised, a cloud platform provider has more freedom to optimise the application environment. Accordingly, each set of local support functions in cloud foundations today focuses on supporting a particular kind of application. The Benefits of Cloud Computing include:
• • • • • • • •

The use IT resources are provided as a service, Compute, storage, databases, queues, Clouds leverage economies of scale of commodity hardware, Cheap storage, high bandwidth networks and multi-core processors, Geographically distributed data centres, Cost and management, Economies of scale, “out-sourced” resource management, On demand provisioning, co-located data and compute,

Nanotechnology
Abstract : Seminar Nanotechnology, or, as it is sometimes called, molecular manufacturing , is a branch of engineering that deals with the design and manufacture of extremely diminutive electronic circuits and machinelike devices built at the molecular take of matter. The Institute of Nanotechnology in the U.K. expresses it as \"science and technology where dimensions and tolerances in the range of 0.1 nanometer (nm) to 100 nm play a critical role.\" Nanotechnology is ofttimes discussed together with micro-electromechanical systems ( MEMS ), a subject that usually includes nanotechnology but may also include technologies higher than the molecular level.There is a limit to the number of components that can be fabricated onto a conductor wafer or \"chip.\". Traditionally, circuits hit been etched onto chips by removing material in diminutive regions. However, it is also doable in theory to build chips up, one atom at a time, to obtain devices much smaller than those that can be manufactured by etching. With this approach, there would be no superfluous atoms; every particle would hit a purpose. Electrical conductors, titled nanowire s, would be exclusive one atom thick. A logic gate would require exclusive a few atoms. A accumulation bit could be represented by the presence or epilepsy of a single lepton .Nanotechnology holds promise in the hunt for ever-more-powerful computers and subject devices. But the most fascinating (and potentially dangerous) applications are in medical science. So-called nanorobot s might serve as programmable antibodies. As disease-causing bacteria and viruses mutate in their long attempts to intend around medical treatments, nanorobots could be reprogrammed to selectively essay discover and destroy them. Other nanorobots might be programmed to single discover and kill cancer cells.Two concepts related with nanotechnology are positional gathering and self-replication . Positional gathering deals with the mechanics of agitated molecular pieces into their proper relational places and ownership them there. Molecular robots are devices that do the positional assembly. Self-

replication deals with the problem of multiplying the positional arrangements in some automatic way, both in antiquity the manufacturing device and in antiquity the manufactured product.

Nanotechnology White Papers
Last Updated: Saturday, 27-Jun-2009 22:35:48 PDT

A White Paper is generally intended to clarify the broad outlines of an issue to: laymen, general business persons, and non-specialists. In the case of Nanotechnology, they can also summarize: the implications of the frequent and rapid technological advances, a new research path, or another business opportunity. Further, they can serve as an introduction to new technology, or describe the basics of a technical or business issue, or educate the general reader. A White Paper is also a way of offering an overview of a new technology, product, issue, standard, policy, or solution, and its subsequent importance, use and implementation, and business benefits. Given the still rapid growth and nearly ubiquitous nature of the Internet, and in this case the double exponential growth of research and applications affecting the development of Nanotechnology, white papers are a fast and easily understood method of distributing information to persons in technical and business environments, as well as government and private fields. In fact, they have virtually become the defacto method of promulgating information of a technical nature, and are especially effective when talking about diverse fields such as Nanotechnology, MEMS (microelectromechanical systems), Molecular Scale Manufacturing, Nanobiotechnology, Nanoelectronics, Nanofabrication, Molecular Nanoscience, Molecular Nanotechnology, Nanomedicines, Computational Nanotechnology, Biomedical Nanotechnology, Artificial Intelligence, Extropy, Transhumanism, and Singularity.

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