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As responsible global citizens, our increasing awareness to live a more
sustainable lifestyle has created demand to find new ways to increase the
efficiency and life span of every part of a building. As an integral part of
efficient buildings, Building Automation System (BAS) should be no
In the past we thought of life cycle cost of a Building Automation System
with the acceptance that the BAS had a fixed life span of 10 years or less,
due to a number of factors including: advancing technology coupled with the
desire for the newest offering, short life of availability of key components
(such as electronic chips), proprietary software and hardware components
that limited expandability and limited available knowledge to continue to
service the aged equipment. As the BAS system would continue to age and
the factors take hold, a Building Owner would have typically been left to
resort to a complete building automation system retrofit.
While this is a reflection of what has been the history of the industry, it
certainly does not have to be a limitation of BAS. With increasing demands to
reduce, recycle and reuse, such limitations will and can no longer be
Fortunately, reasonable sustainability can be achieved in the BAS
providing substantial value to the owner and reducing the impact on the
environment. A sustainable BAS can be achieved without increasing initial
procurement and installation cost, and can deliver substantial reduction in
life cycle cost, while improving serviceability, reducing energy consumption
and improving user satisfaction. Although this is a tall order, it is very
capable of being delivered with current technologies.
Requirements of a Sustainable BAS.
Let’s first establish the requirements for a sustainable BAS
- Continuous availability of the majority of system components
(hardware and software) compatible with the original system. These
components are not necessarily from the same original manufacturer; ideally
they are from multiple manufacturers. This would allow the building owner to
have brand “A” VAV replaced with brand “B” VAV on the same network,
communicating with the other controllers seamlessly. This needs to be no
more complicated that replacing one brand of tire on your car with another.
And if those components cannot be seamlessly replaced, they must have
replacement solutions whose cost is minor in relation to the alternative cost
of replacing the entire system. An example would be the graphical user
interface whose operating system has become obsolete. The personal
computer (PC) has failed and the new PC operating system is not compatible

with the original graphical user interface. A new graphical user interface
(software and associated hardware) is installed with recreated graphics
communicating to the existing controllers.
- Availability of information. In order for the BAS to be sustainable, there
must be availability of trained Controls technicians available to maintain the
system. As such, training and supporting documentation needs to be
available to all qualified parties. It is not just the manufacturer providing
training on its legacy components, but more importantly, the standardization
of communication languages and network management tools. This
standardization helps insure that there are many sources of training and
knowledge to maintain and expand the system.
- Expansion of the BAS. The newer BAS components need to be
compatible with the older system components, so that the system can be
seamlessly expanded and or maintained. While this can be accomplished
with gateways, they are not always a “best practices” solution, as they
require specialized knowledge, involve proprietary software tools and
generally offer limited support. The desired solution is a seamless integration
of like components that allows the owner to expand the BAS as they add
additional facilities.
- BAS enhancements. The BAS needs to allow for enhancement that
capitalizes on the latest technology improvements. A good example of this is
the replacement of the PC based graphics with a Web browser based
graphical user interface.
A Solution: Open Systems
One viable solution to sustainable design of BAS is “Open Systems”. Not the
open system hype that has worn out our ears (and wallets) over the years,
but true Open Systems. Let’s look at some examples that address the above
requirements of a sustainable BAS.
- Continuous availability of the majority of system
components – Since one cannot reasonably expect to depend on any one
manufacturer to continue to develop a product indefinitely, the next best
solution is to have compatible products provided by multiple manufacturers.
The only way to accomplish this is to have standards in communications,
applications and software management tools along with an industry based
association to support the creation and verification of compliance of the
standards. This way there is a reasonable level of assurance that the
resulting products produced will interoperate with each other. This is
currently accomplished at the controller level through the LonTalk® protocol
and certified by the LONMARK® International Association and by ASHRAE’s
BACnet® protocol that is more recently certified by the BACnet Testing
Laboratories. At the network level, there are three de-facto standards

helping to insure a continuous availability of network management tools,
user interfaces and components. These are the LON® Network Services
(LNS®) supported by Echelon, BACnet supported by ASHRAE and the Niagara
Framework® supported by Tridium.
- Availability of information – All related information and associated
training for the standards created for the BAS – protocols, network
management tools, controller programming tools, documentation, etc. need
to be available to all. This is currently available in varying degrees,
depending on the manufacturer and standard. For the network management
and graphical user interface tools based on LNS, BACnet and the Niagara
Framework, training is available from many sources. Students are given a
standard training course and are tested to receive certification and ensure
consistency of implementation. For controller programming tools, more and
more manufacturers are making their tools available as freeware on the
public side of their website along with related audio visual tutorials for
training and related supporting documentation.
- Expansion of the BAS – If the aforementioned practices are met, then
expansion of the BAS becomes much easier for the Building Owner. If the
BAS is designed around open standards, then expansion is straight forward.
In such a scenario, the original network management and user interface are
used to manage and communicate to the new components. This can be
accomplished with either the LNS, BACnet or Niagara Framework based
- BAS enhancements – The BAS industry is rapidly implementing new
features that enhance the user experience and improve the operation and
efficiency of the building. At the field level controller, these enhancements
can easily be incorporated on the existing network by using LONWORKS®
and BACnet based devices. At the user interface level, enhancements to
graphics can be easily achieved through LNS, BACnet and Niagara
Framework based systems.
Taking into consideration all of these factors in the selection and design
of a BAS can provide significant increases in the sustainability of the system.
This increase in sustainability of the BAS, while not indefinite, can reasonably
be expected to match the life of the mechanical systems that they control.
Some recent examples substantiate that improved sustainability is a reality.
As an example, some of the earliest Circon Systems (whose assets were
acquired by Distech Controls) installations of LONWORKS technology, that
are over 12 years old, are being expanded using LNS or Niagara Framework
based network management tools and graphical user interfaces and new
LONWORKS controllers, thereby extending the life of the original building
automation system.

In conclusion, a sustainable BAS is achievable with proper
initial design considerations that include the use of open protocols,
standardized network management tools and open access to
product and training.These properly implemented sustainable design
practices will allow for the implementation of technology enhancements,
expansion and maintenance of the existing system without the need for a
complete retrofit.
Building automation is the automatic centralized control of a
building's heating, ventilation and air conditioning, lighting and other
systems through a Building Management System or Building Automation
System (BAS). The objectives of building automation are improved occupant
comfort, efficient operation of building systems, and reduction in energy
consumption and operating costs.
Building automation is an example of a distributed control system the computer networking of electronic devices designed to monitor and
control the mechanical, security, fire and flood safety, lighting (especially
emergency lighting), HVAC and humidity control and ventilation systems in a
BAS core functionality keeps building climate within a specified range,
provides light to rooms based on an occupancy schedule (in the absence of
overt switches to the contrary), monitors performance and device failures in
all systems, and provides malfunction alarms to building maintenance staff.
A BAS should reduce building energy and maintenance costs compared to a
non-controlled building. Most commercial, institutional, and industrial
buildings built after 2000 include a BAS. Many older buildings have been
retrofitted with a new BAS, typically financed through energy and insurance
savings, and other savings associated with pre-emptive maintenance and
fault detection.
A building controlled by a BAS is often referred to as an intelligent building,
"smart building", or (if a residence) a "smart home". Commercial and
industrial buildings have historically relied on robust proven protocols
(like BACnet) while proprietary and poorly integrated purpose-specific
protocols (like X-10 or those from Honeywell, Siemens or other major
manufacturers of smart thermostats, etc.) were used in homes.
Recent IEEE standards (notably IEEE 802.15.4, IEEE 1901 and IEEE
1905.1, IEEE 802.21, IEEE 802.11ac,IEEE 802.3at) and consortia efforts
like nVoy (which verifies IEEE 1905.1 compliance) or QIVICON have provided
a standards-based foundation for heterogeneous networking of many devices
on many physical networks for diverse purposes, and quality of
service and failover guarantees appropriate to support human health and

safety. Accordingly commercial, industrial, military and other institutional
users now use systems that differ from home systems mostly in
scale. See home automation for more on entry level systems, nVoy, 1905.1,
and the major proprietary vendors who implement or resist this trend to
standards integration.
Almost all multi-story green buildings are designed to accommodate a BAS
for the energy, air and water conservation characteristics. Electrical
device demand response is a typical function of a BAS, as is the more
sophisticated ventilation and humidity monitoring required of "tight"
insulated buildings. Most green buildings also use as many low-power DC
devices as possible, typically integrated with power over Ethernet wiring, so
by definition always accessible to a BAS through the Ethernet connectivity.
Even a passivhausdesign intended to consume no net energy whatsoever will
typically require a BAS to manage heat capture, shading and venting, and
scheduling device use.

Automation system
The term "Building Automation System", loosely used, refers to any electrical
control system that is used to controls a buildings heating, ventilation and air
conditioning (HVAC) system. Modern BAS can also control indoor and outdoor
lighting as well as security, fire alarms, and basically everything else that is
electrical in the building. Old HVAC control systems, such as 24VDC wired

thermostats or pneumatic controls, are a form of automation but lack the
modern systems flexibility and integration.
Buses and protocols
Most building automation networks consist of
a primary and secondary bus which connect high-level controllers (generally
specialized for building automation, but may be genericprogrammable logic
controllers) with lower-level controllers, input/output devices and a user
interface (also known as a human interface device). ASHRAE's open
protocol BACnetor the open protocol LonTalk specify how most such devices
interoperate. Modern systems use SNMP to track events, building on decades
of history with SNMP-based protocols in the computer networking world.
Physical connectivity between devices was historically provided by
dedicated optical fiber, ethernet, ARCNET, RS-232, RS-485 or a lowbandwidth special purpose wireless network. Modern systems rely on
standards-based multi-protocol heterogeneous networking such as that
specified in the IEEE 1905.1 standard and verified by the nVoy auditing mark.
These accommodate typically only IP-based networking but can make use of
any existing wiring, and also integrate powerline networking over AC
circuits, power over Ethernet low power DC circuits, high-bandwidth wireless
networks such as LTE and IEEE 802.11n and IEEE 802.11ac and often
integrate these using the building-specific wireless mesh open
standard ZigBee).
Proprietary hardware dominates the controller market. Each company has
controllers for specific applications. Some are designed with limited controls
and no interoperability, such as simple packaged roof top units for HVAC.
Software will typically not integrate well with packages from other vendors.
Cooperation is at the Zigbee/BACnet/LonTalk level only.
Current systems provide interoperability at the application level, allowing
users to mix-and-match devices from different manufacturers, and to provide
integration with other compatible building control systems. These typically
rely on SNMP, long used for this same purpose to integrate diverse computer
networking devices into one coherent network.
Types of inputs and outputs
Analog inputs are used to read a variable measurement. Examples
are temperature, humidity and pressure sensors which could
be thermistor, 4-20 mA, 0-10 volt or platinumresistance
thermometer (resistance temperature detector), or wireless sensors.
A digital input indicates if a device is turned on or not. Some examples of an
inherently digital input would be a 24VDC/AC signal, current switch, an air
flow switch, or a volta-freerelay contact (Dry Contact). Digital inputs could
also be pulse type inputs counting the frequency of pulses over a given

period of time. An example is a turbine flow meter transmitting rotation data
as a frequency of pulses to an input.
Analog outputs control the speed or position of a device, such as a variable
frequency drive, an I-P (current to pneumatics) transducer, or a valve or
damper actuator. An example is a hot water valve opening up 25% to
maintain a setpoint. Another example is a variable frequency drive ramping
up a motor slowly to avoid a hard start.
Digital outputs are used to open and close relays and switches as well as
drive a load upon command. An example would be to turn on the parking lot
lights when a photocellindicates it is dark outside. Another example would be
to open a valve by allowing 24VDC/AC to pass through the output powering
the valve. Digital outputs could also be pulse type outputs emitting a
frequency of pulses over a given period of time. An example is an energy
meter calculating kWh and emitting a frequency of pulses accordingly.

Various components that make up a building automation system
Controllers are essentially small, purpose-built computers with input and
output capabilities. These controllers come in a range of sizes and
capabilities to control devices commonly found in buildings, and to control
sub-networks of controllers.
Inputs allow a controller to read temperatures, humidity, pressure, current
flow, air flow, and other essential factors. The outputs allow the controller to
send command and control signals to slave devices, and to other parts of the
system. Inputs and outputs can be either digital or analog. Digital outputs
are also sometimes called discrete depending on manufacturer.
Controllers used for building automation can be grouped in 3 categories.
Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), System/Network controllers, and

Terminal Unit controllers. However an additional device can also exist in
order to integrate 3rd party systems (i.e. a stand-alone AC system) into a
central Building automation system).
PLC's provide the most responsiveness and processing power, but at a unit
cost typically 2 to 3 times that of a System/Network controller intended for
BAS applications. Terminal Unit controllers are usually the least expensive
and least powerful.
PLC's may be used to automate high-end applications such as clean rooms or
hospitals where the cost of the controllers is less of a concern.
In office buildings, supermarkets, malls, and other common automated
buildings the systems will use System/Network controllers rather than PLC's.
Most System controllers provide general purpose feedback loops, as well
as digital circuits, but lack the millisecond response time that PLC's provide.
System/Network controllers may be applied to control one or more
mechanical systems such as an Air Handler Unit (AHU), boiler, chiller, etc., or
they may supervise a sub-network of controllers. In the diagram above,
System/Network controllers are often used in place of PLCs.
Terminal Unit controllers usually are suited for control of lighting and/or
simpler devices such as a package rooftop unit, heat pump, VAV box, or fan
coil, etc. The installer typically selects 1 of the available pre-programmed
personalities best suited to the device to be controlled, and does not have to
create new control logic.
Occupancy is one of two or more operating modes for a building automation
system. Unoccupied, Morning Warmup, and Night-time Setback are other
common modes.
Occupancy is usually based on time of day schedules. In Occupancy mode,
the BAS aims to provides a comfortable climate and adequate lighting, often
with zone-based control so that users on one side of a building have a
different thermostat (or a different system, or sub system) than users on the
opposite side.
A temperature sensor in the zone provides feedback to the controller, so it
can deliver heating or cooling as needed.
If enabled, Morning Warmup (MWU) mode occurs prior to Occupancy. During
Morning Warmup the BAS tries to bring the building to setpoint just in time
for Occupancy. The BAS often factors in outdoor conditions and historical
experience to optimize MWU. This is also referred to as Optimised Start.
An override is a manually initiated command to the BAS. For example, many
wall-mounted temperature sensors will have a push-button that forces the
system into Occupancy mode for a set number of minutes. Where present,
web interfaces allow users to remotely initiate an override on the BAS.

Some buildings rely on occupancy sensors to activate lighting and/or climate
conditioning. Given the potential for long lead times before a space becomes
sufficiently cool or warm, climate conditioning is not often initiated directly
by an occupancy sensor.
Lighting can be turned on, off, or dimmed with a building automation or
lighting control system based on time of day, or on occupancy sensor,
photosensors and timers. One typical example is to turn the lights in a space
on for a half hour since the last motion was sensed. A photocell placed
outside a building can sense darkness, and the time of day, and modulate
lights in outer offices and the parking lot.
Lighting is also a good candidate for Demand response, with many control
systems providing the ability to dim (or turn off) lights to take advantage of
DR incentives and savings.
In newer buildings, the lighting control is based on the field bus DALI. Lamps
with DALI ballasts are fully dimmable. DALI can also detect lamp and ballast
failures on DALI luminaires and signals failures.
Air handlers
Most air handlers mix return and outside air so less temperature/humidity
conditioning is needed. This can save money by using less chilled or heated
water (not all AHUs use chilled/hot water circuits). Some external air is
needed to keep the building's air healthy. To optimize energy efficiency while
maintaining healthy indoor air quality (IAQ), demand control (or controlled)
ventilation (DCV) adjusts the amount of outside air based on measured levels
of occupancy.
Analog or digital temperature sensors may be placed in the space or room,
the return and supply air ducts, and sometimes the external air. Actuators
are placed on the hot and chilled water valves, the outside air and return air
dampers. The supply fan (and return if applicable) is started and stopped
based on either time of day, temperatures, building pressures or a
Constant volume air-handling units
The less efficient type of air-handler is a "constant volume air handling unit,"
or CAV. The fans in CAVs do not have variable-speed controls. Instead, CAVs
open and closedampers and water-supply valves to maintain temperatures in
the building's spaces. They heat or cool the spaces by opening or closing
chilled or hot water valves that feed their internal heat exchangers.
Generally one CAV serves several spaces
Variable volume air-handling units
A more efficient unit is a "variable air volume (VAV) air-handling unit," or
VAV. VAVs supply pressurized air to VAV boxes, usually one box per room or

area. A VAV air handler can change the pressure to the VAV boxes by
changing the speed of a fan or blower with a variable frequency drive or (less
efficiently) by moving inlet guide vanes to a fixed-speed fan. The amount of
air is determined by the needs of the spaces served by the VAV boxes.
Each VAV box supply air to a small space, like an office. Each box has a
damper that is opened or closed based on how much heating or cooling is
required in its space. The more boxes are open, the more air is required, and
a greater amount of air is supplied by the VAV air-handling unit.
Some VAV boxes also have hot water valves and an internal heat exchanger.
The valves for hot and cold water are opened or closed based on the heat
demand for the spaces it is supplying. These heated VAV boxes are
sometimes used on the perimeter only and the interior zones are cooling
A minimum and maximum CFM must be set on VAV boxes to assure
adequate ventilation and proper air balance.
VAV hybrid systems
Another variation is a hybrid between VAV and CAV systems. In this system,
the interior zones operate as in a VAV system. The outer zones differ in that
the heating is supplied by a heating fan in a central location usually with a
heating coil fed by the building boiler. The heated air is ducted to the exterior
dual duct mixing boxes and dampers controlled by the zone thermostat
calling for either cooled or heated air as needed.
Central plant
A central plant is needed to supply the air-handling units with water. It may
supply a chilled water system, hot water system and a condenser water
system, as well astransformers and auxiliary power unit for emergency
power. If well managed, these can often help each other. For example, some
plants generate electric power at periods with peak demand, using a gas
turbine, and then use the turbine's hot exhaust to heat water or power
an absorptive chiller.
Chilled water system
Chilled water is often used to cool a building's air and equipment. The chilled
water system will have chiller(s) and pumps. Analog temperature sensors
measure the chilled water supply and return lines. The chiller(s) are
sequenced on and off to chill the chilled water supply.
A chiller is a refrigeration unit designed to produce cool (chilled) water for
space cooling purposes. The chilled water is then circulated to one or more
cooling coils located in air handling units, fan-coils, or induction units. Chilled
water distribution is not constrained by the 100 foot separation limit that
applies to DX systems, thus chilled water-based cooling systems are typically
used in larger buildings. Capacity control in a chilled water system is usually

achieved through modulation of water flow through the coils; thus, multiple
coils may be served from a single chiller without compromising control of any
individual unit. Chillers may operate on either the vapor compression
principle or the absorption principle. Vapor compression chillers may utilize
reciprocating, centrifugal, screw, or rotary compressor configurations.
Reciprocating chillers are commonly used for capacities below 200 tons;
centrifugal chillers are normally used to provide higher capacities; rotary and
screw chillers are less commonly used, but are not rare. Heat rejection from
a chiller may be by way of an air-cooled condenser or a cooling tower (both
discussed below). Vapor compression chillers may be bundled with an aircooled condenser to provide a packaged chiller, which would be installed
outside of the building envelope. Vapor compression chillers may also be
designed to be installed separate from the condensing unit; normally such a
chiller would be installed in an enclosed central plant space. Absorption
chillers are designed to be installed separate from the condensing unit.
Condenser water system
Cooling tower(s) and pumps are used to supply cool condenser water to
the chillers. Because the condenser water supply to the chillers has to be
constant, variable speed drives are commonly used on the cooling tower fans
to control temperature. Proper cooling tower temperature assures the proper
refrigerant head pressure in the chiller. The cooling tower set point used
depends upon the refrigerant being used. Analog temperature sensors
measure the condenser water supply and return lines.
Hot water system
The hot water system supplies heat to the building's air-handling unit or VAV
box heating coils, along with the domestic hot water heating coils (Calorifier).
The hot water system will have a boiler(s) and pumps. Analog temperature
sensors are placed in the hot water supply and return lines. Some type of
mixing valve is usually used to control the heating water loop temperature.
The boiler(s) and pumps are sequenced on and off to maintain supply.
The installation and integration of variable frequency drives can lower the
energy consumption of the building's circulation pumps to about 15% of
what they had been using before. If that sounds hard to believe, I'll explain,
and we can do the math. A variable frequency drive functions by modulating
the frequency of the electricity provided to the motor that it powers. In the
USA, the electrical grid uses a frequency of 60 Hertz or 60 cycles per second.
Variable frequency drives are able to decrease the output and energy
consumption of motors by lowering the frequency of the electricity provided
to the motor, however the relationship between motor output and energy
consumption is not a linear one. If the variable frequency drive provides
electricity to the motor at 30 Hertz, the output of the motor will be 50%

because 30 Hertz divided by 60 Hertz is 0.5 or 50%. The energy consumption
of a motor running at 50% or 30 Hertz will not be 50%, but will instead be
something like 18% because the relationship between motor output and
energy consumption are not linear. The exact ratios of motor output or Hertz
provided to the motor (which are effectively the same thing), and the actual
energy consumption of the variable frequency drive / motor combination
depend on the efficiency of the variable frequency drive. For example,
because the variable frequency drive needs power itself to communicate
with the building automation system, run its cooling fan, etc., if the motor
always ran at 100% with the variable frequency drive installed the cost of
operation or electricity consumption would actually go up with the new
variable frequency drive installed. The amount of energy that variable
frequency drives consume is nominal and is hardly worth consideration when
calculating savings, however it did need to be noted that VFD's do consume
energy themselves. Due to the fact that the variable frequency drives rarely
ever run at 100% and spend most of their time in the 40% output range, and
the fact that now the pumps completely shut down when not needed, the
variable frequency drives have reduced the energy consumption of the
pumps to around 15% of what they had been using before.
Alarms and security
All modern building automation systems have alarm capabilities. It does little
good to detect a potentially hazardous or costly situation if no one who can
solve the problem is notified. Notification can be through a computer (email
or text message), pager, cellular phone voice call, audible alarm, or all of
these. For insurance and liability purposes all systems keep logs of who was
notified, when and how.
Alarms may immediately notify someone or only notify when alarms build to
some threshold of seriousness or urgency. At sites with several buildings,
momentary power failures can cause hundreds or thousands of alarms from
equipment that has shut down — these should be suppressed and
recognized as symptoms of a larger failure. Some sites are programmed so
that critical alarms are automatically re-sent at varying intervals. For
example, a repeating critical alarm (of an Uninterruptible power supply in
'bypass') might resound at 10 minutes, 30 minutes, and every 2 to 4 hours
thereafter until the alarms are resolved.

Common temperature alarms are: space, supply air, chilled water
supply, hot water supply.

Pressure, humidity, biological and chemical sensors can determine if
ventilation systems have failed mechanically or become infected with
contaminants that affect human health.

Differential pressure switches can be placed on a filter to determine if
it is dirty or otherwise not performing.

Status alarms are common. If a mechanical device like a pump is
requested to start, and the status input indicates it is off, this can indicate
a mechanical failure. Or, worse, an electrical fault that could represent a
fire or shock hazard.

Some valve actuators have end switches to indicate if the valve has
opened or not.

Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide sensors can tell if concentration
of these in the air are too high, either due to fire or ventilation problems
in garages or near roads.

Refrigerant sensors can be used to indicate a possible refrigerant leak.

Current sensors can be used to detect low current conditions caused by
slipping fan belts, clogging strainers at pumps, or other problems.
Security systems can be interlocked to a building automation system. If
occupancy sensors are present, they can also be used as burglar alarms.
Because security systems are often deliberately sabotaged, at least some
detectors or cameras should have battery backup and wireless connectivity
and the ability to trigger alarms when disconnected. Modern systems
typically use power-over-Ethernet (which can operate a pan-tilt-zoom
camera and other devices up to 30-90 watts) which is capable of charging
such batteries and keeps wireless networks free for genuinely wireless
applications, such as backup communication in outage.
Fire alarm panels and their related smoke alarm systems are usually hardwired to override building automation. For example: if the smoke alarm is
activated, all the outside air dampers close to prevent air coming into the
building, and an exhaust system can isolate the blaze. Similarly, electrical
fault detection systems can turn entire circuits off, regardless of the number
of alarms this triggers or persons this distresses. Fossil fuel combustion
devices also tend to have their own over-rides, such as natural gas feed lines
that turn off when slow pressure drops are detected (indicating a leak), or
when excess methane is detected in the building's air supply.
Good BAS are aware of these overrides and recognize complex failure
conditions. They do not send excessive alerts, nor do they waste precious
backup power on trying to turn back on devices that these safety over-rides
have turned off. A poor BAS, almost by definition, sends out one alarm for
every alert, and does not recognize any manual, fire or electric or fuel safety
override. Accordingly good BAS are often built on safety and fire systems.
Room automation

Room automation is a subset of building automation and with a similar
purpose, it is the consolidation of one or more systems under centralized
control, though in this case in one room.
The most common example of room automation is corporate boardroom,
presentation suites, and lecture halls, where the operation of the large
number of devices that define the room function (such
as videoconferencing equipment, video projectors, lighting control
systems, public address systems etc.) would make manual operation of the
room very complex. It is common for room automation systems to employ
a touchscreen as the primary way of controlling each operation.

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