Automobile

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Automobile pollution and strategies

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A N D I T S C O N T R O L S T R A T E G I E S
Automobile pollution
What is automobile pollution?
Motor Vehicle Emissions
 The transportation sector in the United States
accounts for a significant fraction of all the criteria
pollutants except for sulphur oxides. Most of those
emissions are from cars and trucks, which emit those
pollutants right in the middle of crowded, urban
populations. In many of the developing countries of
the world, the growth rate in numbers of motor
vehicles far outstrips the population growth rate,
which is leading to urban congestion and very
unhealthy air quality.

 1. Induction (fuel enters)
 2. Compression
 3. Ignition (fuel is burnt)
 4. Emission (exhaust out)
Internal Combustion Engine
NO
x

Mono-nitrogen oxides NO and NO
2
react with ammonia,
moisture, and other compounds to form nitric acid vapor
and related particles. Small particles can penetrate deeply
into sensitive lung tissue and damage it, causing
premature death in extreme cases. Inhalation of such
particles may cause or worsen respiratory diseases such
as emphysema, bronchitis it may also aggravate existing
heart disease. In a 2005 U.S. EPA study the largest
emissions of NOx came from on road motor vehicles, with
the second largest contributor being non road equipment
which is mostly gasoline and diesel stations.
Smog in New York City as viewed from the World Trade Center in 1988. A 2009 report
indicates that, despite the City's air being close to the EPA's short-term ozone standard, that
New Yorkers still face a 25 per-cent increased risk of dying from lung disease
 When oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile
organic compounds (VOCs) react in the
presence of sunlight, ground level ozone is
formed, a primary ingredient in smog. A
2005 U.S. EPA report gives road vehicles as
the second largest source of VOCs in the U.S.
at 26% and 19% are from non road equipment
which is mostly gasoline and diesel stations.

27% of VOC emissions are from solvents
which are used in the manufacturer of paints
and paint thinners and other uses.
Source:
http://www.epa.gov/air/emissions/voc.htm.
Non road equipment is mostly gasoline and diesel stations.
Ozone (O3)
 Carbon monoxide poisoning is the
most common type of fatal air
poisoning in many countries.

Carbon monoxide is colorless,
odorless and tasteless, but highly
toxic. It combines
with hemoglobin to
produce carboxyhemoglobin,
which is ineffective for delivering
oxygen to bodily tissues. In the
U.S. 60% of carbon monoxide is
caused by on road vehicles.
MOPITT (Measurement Of Pollutants In The Troposphere) satellite computer
image of carbon monoxide March 2010.
Hazardous air pollutants (toxics)
 Chronic (long-term) exposure to benzene (C
6
H
6
)
damages bone marrow. It can also cause excessive
bleeding and depress the immune system, increasing
the chance of infection. Benzene causes leukemia
and is associated with other blood cancers and pre-
cancers of the blood.
Particulate Matter (PM
10
and PM
2.5
)
 The health effects of inhaling particulate matter have
been widely studied in humans and animals and
include asthma, lung cancer, cardiovascular issues,
and premature death. Because of the size of the
particles, they can penetrate the deepest part of the
lungs. A 2011 UK study estimates 90 deaths per year
due to passenger vehicle PM. In a 2006 publication,
the U.S. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
state that in 2002 about 1 per-cent of all PM
10
and 2
per-cent of all PM
2.5
emissions came from the
exhaust of on-road motor vehicles (mostly
from diesel engines).
Particulate
Matter
 Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas. Motor vehicle
CO
2
emissions are part of the anthropogenic
contribution to the growth of CO
2
concentrations in
the atmosphere which is believed by a majority of
scientists to play a significant part in climate change.
Motor vehicles are calculated to generate about 20
per-cent of the European Union's man-made
CO
2
emissions, with passenger cars contributing
about 12 per-cent. The European Union average new
car CO
2
emissions figure dropped by 5.4 per-cent in
the year to the first quarter of 2010, down to
145.6 g/km.
Catalytic Converter
the catalytic
converter (colloquially,
"cat" or "catcon") is a
device used to convert
toxic exhaust
emissions from an
internal combustion
engine into non-toxic
substances. Inside a
catalytic converter,
a catalyst stimulates
a chemical reaction in
which noxious
byproducts
of combustion undergo
a chemical reaction.
There are 2 types:
1. Two-way
2. Three-way

Working principle
Cleaner Gasoline
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)
 Compressed natural gas (CNG) is a fossil fuel substitute
for gasoline (petrol), diesel, or propane/LPG. Although its
combustion does produce greenhouse gases, it is a more
environmentally clean alternative to those fuels, and it is much
safer than other fuels in the event of a spill(natural gas is lighter
than air, and disperses quickly when released). CNG may also be
mixed with biogas, produced from landfills or wastewater, which
doesn't increase the concentration of carbon in the atmosphere.
 CNG is made by compressing natural gas (which is mainly
composed of methane [CH
4
]), to less than 1% of the volume it
occupies at standard atmospheric pressure. It is stored and
distributed in hard containers at a pressure of 200–
248 bar (2900–3600 psi), usually in cylindrical or spherical
shapes.


Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)
 Liquefied petroleum gas (also called LPG, GPL, LP Gas, autogas,
or liquid propane gas) is a flammable mixture of hydrocarbon gases
used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles. It is increasingly
used as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant, replacing
chlorofluorocarbons in an effort to reduce damage to the ozone
layer.
 Varieties of LPG bought and sold include mixes that are
primarily propane (C
3
H
8
), primarily butane (C
4
H
10
) and, most
commonly, mixes including both propane and butane, depending on
the season — in winter more propane, in summer more
butane. Propylene and butylenes are usually also present in small
concentration. A powerful odorant, ethanethiol, is added so that
leaks can be detected easily. The international standard is EN 589.
In the United States, thiophene or amyl mercaptan are also
approved odorants.
The Toyota Prius is the world's top selling hybrid car,
The Toyota Prius is the world's top selling hybrid car, with
cumulative global sales of 2.36 million units by August 2011
global sales of 2.36 million units by August 2011
A hybrid electric
vehicle (HEV) is a type
of hybrid
vehicle and electric
vehicle which combines a
conventional internal
combustion engine (ICE)
propulsion system with
an electric propulsion
system. The presence of
the electric powertrain is
intended to achieve either
better fuel economy than
a conventional vehicle, or
better performance. A
variety of types of HEV
exist, and the degree to
which they function as
EVs varies as well. The
most common form of
HEV is the hybrid
electric car, although
hybrid electric trucks
(pickups and tractors) and
buses also exist.

Honda 2008 FCX Clarity
A Fuel cell
vehicle or Fuel Cell
Electric
Vehicle (FCEV) is
a type of hydrogen
vehicle which uses
a fuel cell to produce
electricity, powering
its on-board electric
motor. Fuel cells in
vehicles create
electricity to power
an electric
motor using hydroge
n and oxygen from
the air.

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