Cairo University Faculty of Economics and Political Science Department of Political Science Curriculum Development Project
A Detailed Outlined Curriculum Proposal for
"Theory of Comparative Political Systems" Sophomore Students
Prof. Dr. Gaber Awad
Prof. Dr. Shadya Fathy Dr. Ayman El-Dessouki
I. Introduction Comparative politics is central to the undergraduate Political Science programs in all academic institutions all over the world. Though it is a sub-field of political science, Comparative Politics has grown into an enormously large field of study. Substantively, it encompasses a wide range of issues and topics. Methodologically, it engages many divergent modes of analyses and approaches. From the conceptual point of view, comparative politics is based on the idea that political interactions are comparable across all countries, regardless of a particular country's history, political culture, level of economic development, or type of regime. This is not to say that all countries are the same, but rather the differences between countries can be discussed using the same basic tools and concepts. Instead of dividing countries into categories before studying them, the conceptual approach to comparative politics opts to examine specific concepts and then evaluate how countries are similar or different in terms of these specific concepts. In fact, there is a pressing need to develop the course Syllabus of "Theory of Comparative Political Systems," offered to sophomore students majored in Political Science, in order to reflect major changes in both Comparative Politics, as a field of study, and political systems around the world. This report seeks to fulfill that task. The proposed course syllabus embarks from the latest approved course curriculum action currently at work in the Department of Political Science at Cairo University. II. Structure of the Report: The report reviews the current curriculum and surveys other curriculums in different universities worldwide. The principal purpose is to provide a course that helps students think about politics in systematic and comparative terms, to obtain a set of skills with which countries can be comparatively analyzed, and to provide a deeper understanding of modern political systems. This report is structured carefully to accomplish this purpose. First of all, the report analyzes the current situation of teaching Theory of Political Systems in Cairo University and in some other academic institutions in Europe and North
America. Second, it identifies the course objectives and specifies the intended learning outcomes. Third, the syllabus design and course planning carefully reflect identified objectives and targeted outcomes of the course. Moreover, the report clarifies methods of presentation and sets required and supplementary readings. Further, it identifies the course requirements and sets and explains the grading system. Lastly, the report provides some samples of exams in line with the course's intended learning outcomes followed by a list of references. III. Current Situation Analysis: A Comparative View: The Department of Political Science's, in Cairo University, Theory of Comparative Political Systems course is a theoretical introductory course to comparative politics, mainly presenting the basic approaches to the study of Comparative Politics. In this regard, the course attempts to clarify, distinguish, relate, and evaluate six major theoretical approaches. This includes the political culture approach, the group approach, the elite approach, the class approach, the structural functional approach, and the systems approach. The course outline includes the following topics: introduction to Comparative Politics, traditional and modern study of comparative politics, the essence of modernization and political development theory, political culture approach, political socialization, the group approach and comparative analysis, the elite analysis and theory building, the class analysis, the structural functional approach, the system-analysis and theory building in comparative politics. The course depends on (Bill & Hardgrave 19731) as required readings and (Cantori & Ziegler 19982) as supplementary or optional readings. The Department of Politics and International Relations at Oxford University offers a similar course titled "Comparative Government." The course focuses on theory-related issues in the study of Comparative Politics. Most Political Science departments in North America (Columbia University, the University of Pennsylvania, Iowa State University, the University of British Columbia and Mansfield University, for example) are to, a great extent, adopting equivalent techniques in teaching Comparative Politics. They introduce students to the basic concepts, topics, theories and approaches in the field and, then, address
Bill, James A.; and Hardgrave, Robert. 1973. Comparatives politics: the quest for theory. Columbus Ohio: Charles E. Merrill publishers. 2 Cantori, Louis; and Ziegler, Andrew. 1998. Comparative Politics in Post-Behavioral Era. Boulder, Colo: Lynne Reiner Publishers.
some practical issues or problems of concern to comparativists vary from a department to another. In essence, all offered courses consist of theoretical and practical part. It seems like teaching Comparative Politics in North America's universities, and very much in some other academic institutions in Europe, Asia and Africa, as it is illustrated below, is experiencing a process of standardization. The Columbia University's course reviews some foundational topics in comparative politics, such as state formation, nationalism, democratization, and revolution and focuses on some major puzzles in the sub-field relating to development, democracy, corruption and civil war. Similarly, the University of Pennsylvania's course is organized around three big puzzles in the real world that call for some kind of explanation: why some regimes are democratic and others are not; why the inhabitants of some countries and world regions experience higher levels of material well-being than others; and why social movements occur. The Iowa State University's "Introduction to Comparative Politics" addresses variation among political systems and variation among democracies. Then, it focuses on some case studies of political systems in advanced industrial democracies, in post-Communist states, in developing democracies. The POLI 220 (Introduction to Comparative Politics) of the University of British Columbia introduces students to some fundamental concepts and "vocabulary" used in contemporary comparative politics. In addition to the theoretical conceptualization, the course surveys the important political systems in the contemporary world, namely industrialized democracies, (post)-communist regimes and the third world. Mansfield University's course covers basic themes in comparative politics (the structure, processes, cultures, and policies) drawn from Europe, the former Soviet Union, and the developing world. Georgetown University offers a course on "Comparative Political Systems," serve as an introduction to comparative politics. It introduces students to the study of comparative politics. It looks at the major concepts and processes that characterize politics, such as the state, the nation, democracy and civil society, and, then, delves into the specific elements and institutions of modern political systems. Likewise, the "Introduction to Comparative Politics" of the University of Maryland addresses different methodological approaches and major themes in Comparative Politics, including power & the state, political economy, ideas in politics, regime types and regime change. McMaster University, in Canada, offers a two-term course on "Introduction to Comparative Politics." The course examines comparative methodology and
some analytical schools of comparative politics. It addresses some important areas of comparative politics such as the basic institutions of power, the structures and processes. Then, it delves into studying democracy, development and underdevelopment, comparative regimes, some of the most significant processes in the contemporary world, including globalization, social movements and political violence. The Department of Political Studies, University of Cape Town, South Africa offers a “Comparative Politics” class for sophomore students. The course introduces students to the major conceptual approaches, theories, debates, case studies and topics of inquiry in the dynamic field of comparative politics. The course is designed to relate specific theories to relevant and comparative case studies and empirical evidence. The course proceeds through the examination of political institutions, political systems, contentious politics and political violence. The first part of the course focuses on comparative government and the dynamics of political systems in modern democracies. In doing so, the course investigates and compares transitions to democracy, electoral systems, executive and legislative systems, and party systems. The second part of the course focuses on the dynamics of contentious politics and political violence. Using comparative cases, the course investigates the politics of urban riots, coups d’etat, revolutionary terrorism and social revolutions. The Comparative Politics' course adopted by the University of Prešov in Slovakia is innovative. It applies a theory-oriented technique and Theory-andpractice-oriented technique. In other words, it represents a theoretical element in teaching combined with a practical one. It introduces students to some major concepts, theories and approaches used in contemporary comparative politics. The students, then, are divided into groups. Each group compiles data on a particular country and at the end of course, then, each group submits a county portfolio taking into consideration the theoretical elements covered in class. This kind of courses motivates students to study and attend classes regularly, makes them participate during a whole class and improve their ability to apply theoretical knowledge in practical situations. Hence, our department course is much more theoretical than Comparative Politics' courses in other universities, especially in North America, as the main focus of the great majority of these universities is on using theories to help explain individual cases, and using cases to refine theories. Second, our Theory of Comparative Political Systems needs to address some real-world problems,
especially those of concern to the Arab and Muslim countries such as radicalism, corruption, democratization, poverty, economic reform and so on. It needs to deal with these problems not just as examples for illustration but as case-studies for indepth analysis. Third, our department course needs to address some contemporary issues of concern to comparativists such as the future of the post-communist regimes, the decline of political parties, post-modernity, women in politics, immigration, regionalism, environmental issues and so on. More important, our course is not really an introduction to comparative politics as sophomore students were introduced to the main themes of this subject in their freshman year. Instead, our Theory of Comparative Political Systems theory-oriented course; it is very much about theoretical approaches to the study of Comparative Politics. So, the Department needs either to widen the scope of introduction to comparative politics in the first year or to offer an independent course serves this goal in that year. Comparatively speaking, most universities choose the later alternative. IV. Course Objectives: Students’ ability to apply theoretical knowledge in practice seems to be one of the most desired results of education process in general. In this course, the instructor considers how to introduce new theories and facts to students of Comparative Politics so that they would understand them properly and were able to make use of them in real-life situations. The first objective of this course is to provide students with a good understanding of comparative methodology and the contestability of terms in political science. In addition, a key goal of this course is to equip students with the conceptual tools for better understanding the changing nature of political systems, to help them develop their analytic and critical thinking skills necessary to understand developments in the contemporary world and to provide a basis for more advanced study in the field and for upper-year political science courses in general. For one thing, this course will survey basic concepts, approaches and processes in comparative politics with special interest in enhancing students' ability to articulate the strength and weakness of different approaches in the field. Also, the course would help students understand the frontiers of research in the political system (structures and functions). Second, in a subject like Comparative Politics, where knowledge is tentative and empirical developments can overtake theories,
critical thinking is a key skill for college students to develop. Third, emphasis will be placed on the ability to use concepts covered in the course toward the analysis of current political issues in comparative politics. More important, the course enables the students to become more informed citizens so that they can more effectively develop their own political opinions and participation in political life, evaluate the actions and proposals of political leaders and make their own political decisions and electoral choices. V. Intended learning outcomes (ILO): 1. Knowledge and understanding: Upon completion of this course, students will be able to understand the central concepts, theories and approaches of comparative politics, identify and explain the goals and methods of comparative political analysis, and distinguish between descriptive, explanatory, and prescriptive statements about politics. More precisely, the student will be able to demonstrate good knowledge of basic field concepts and principles, understand some conceptual and empirical methods of analysis, identify and evaluate main issues facing political processes, and comprehend the impact of theories and approaches on policies. 2. Subject – specific and practical skills: At the completion of this course, the student will be able to understand central concepts, theories, and methods used to explain political behavior and processes and structures of political system, use knowledge of political scientific approaches and methods to analyze examples of political behavior and processes and structures of political system, and evaluate the applicability of political scientific knowledge for understanding political behavior, processes and structures of the political system in particular contexts. VI. Readings: The students are expected to keep up with all the required readings and be prepared to participate in class discussions. 1. Required Readings:
- Ragin, Charles C. 1987. The Comparative Method. Berkeley: University of California Press. - Wiarda, Howard J. 2000. Introduction to Comparative Politics: Concepts and Processes. Fordworth, TX: Harcourt College Publishers. - Brown, Bernard E. 2000. Comparative Politics: Notes and Readings. Fordworth, TX: Harcourt College Publishers. - Almond, Gabriel A.; and Powell, G. Bingham, Jr. et al. 2006. Comparative Politics: A Theoretical Framework. 3rd ed. New York: Longman. - Sodaro, Michael J. 2000. Comparative Politics: A Global Introduction. Boston: Mc Grow Hill. - Bill, James A.; and Hardgrave, Robert. 1973. Comparatives Politics: The Quest for Theory. Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill publishing Co. - Lijphart, Arend. 1999. Patterns of Democracy. New Haven: Yale University Press. 2. Supplementary Readings: - Cantori, Louis; and Ziegler, Andrew. 1998. Comparative Politics in PostBehavioral Era. Boulder, Colo: Lynne Reiner Publishers. - Huntington, Samuel P. 1991. The Third Wave: Democratization in the late twentieth century. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. In addition to the above-mentioned readings, the course will have a dedicated website that serves as the student's gateway to announcements, lecture outlines, sample questions bank and assignments. VII. Syllabus Design and Course Planning: The organization of this course carefully reflects its objectives and targeted outcomes. The course covers basic concepts, approaches, theories, principles and major issues and problems in the study of political systems; that is to say, a comprehensive comparative study of politics within states. Basically, this course is structured around six broad themes. First of all, the course introduces Comparative Politics as a field of study. Second, it reviews the evolution of this political science sub-discipline since the times of the ancient Greeks, with a primary focus on the transformation of the study of Comparative Politics from the traditional school to the modern school emphasizing the impact
of the latter on this subfield of Political Science. A further course theme is the structures, functions and processes in the political system. Fourth, the course addresses the basic approaches and theories to the study of comparative politics in a lively, readable manner. Then, attention will be shifted to some contemporary issues and real-world problems in comparative politics, especially those of concern to the Arab and Muslim countries. Finally, the course tackles some frontiers of research in Comparative Politics. In doing so, the course draws examples from the Egyptian and Arab experiences and from other experiences to introduce the whole field of Comparative Politics to students of Political Science as beginners. (1) Introduction: Comparative Politics and the Comparative Method: Comparative politics is unique among the sub-fields of political science in that it acquires its name not from the subject being studied, but rather from the method that is used for analysis. So we need to study what the comparative method is all about. The comparative method is a technique by which scholars attempt to identify possible causes for problems that they are studying. They do so by isolating specific variables. By comparing countries, in terms of their political systems, we could gain a descriptive understanding of the world, draw general conclusions about the nature of politics, understand cause and effect, and prescribe decisions for policymakers. Then, the course delves into addressing these questions; (1) what is comparative politics? (2) Why and how to compare countries, structures and phenomena? Comparative politics involves the systematic study and comparison of politics within states. It seeks to explain differences, as well as similarities, between and among countries. Comparative politics interested in exploring patterns, processes, and regularities among political systems. It looks for trends, for changes in patterns, and it tries to develop general propositions or hypotheses that describe and explain these trends. Some of the more important types of comparisons in this subfield of political science include comparisons between countries with different conditions, comparing countries with similar conditions, comparing change over time, and comparisons within the same countries. The types of studies that can be encompassed in comparative politics are varied and comprise studies of one
country, studies of two or more countries, regional or area studies, studies across regions, global comparisons and thematic studies. References: Almond, Gabriel A. 1990. A Discipline Divided: Schools and Sects in Dogan, Mattel; and Kazancigil, Ali. eds. 1994. Comparing Nations: Dogan, Mattel; and Pelassy, Dominique. 1984. How to Compare Political Science. Newberry Park, CA: Sage. Concepts, Strategies, Substance. Oxford: Blackwell. Nations: Strategies in Comparative Politics. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House Holt, Robert T.; and Turner, John E. eds. 1970. The Methodology of Hopkin, Jonathan. 2002. "Comparative Methods." In: Marsh, David;
Comparative Research. New York: Free Press. and Stoker, Gerry. eds. Theory and Methods in Political Science. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Mayer, Lawrence. 1989. Redefining Comparative Politics: Promise Vickers, Jill. 1997 “Understanding and Comparing Political Systems versus Performances. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. with Women in Mind,” in Reinventing Political Science: A Feminist Approach. Halifax: Fernwood Publishing. Wiarda, Howard J. 1998 "Is Comparative Politics Dead? Rethinking Wiarda, Howard J. ed. 1990. New Directions in Compensate Politics. Wiarda, Howard J. 2000. Introduction to Comparative Politics: the Field in the Post Cold War Era." Third World Quarterly 19(5) 935 – 99. 2nd ed. Boulder, CO: West View. Concepts and Processes. Wadsworth: Harcourt college publishers. 2) The Evolution of the Study of Comparative Political Systems: Comparative politics has a long history dating back to the systematic political studies in ancient Greece and Rome. The purpose of studying the history is to link the past to the present so as to provide background for today's comparative politics. In this regard, the course would review the historical developments of this field by examining the ancient Greeks' (Plato and Aristotle) contributions, the Romans', especially Cicero, legal and constitutional analysis, the middle Ages'
(Christianity and Islam) inputs, and, the pioneering writings of modern era; particularly those of Machiavelli, Thomas Hobbes John lock and Montesquieu. More importantly, the course critically addresses the transformation of the study of Comparative Politics from the traditional school to the modern (behavioral) school. It also sheds some light on post-behavioral trends and thoughts. The main focus would be on the content and characteristics of each school and its impact on the study of Comparative Politics. References: Learning. Dahl, Robert A.; and Bruce, Stinebrickner. 6th ed. 2003. Modern Easton, David. 1957. An Approach to the Study of Political Systems. Wiarda, Howard J. 2000. Introduction to Comparative Politics: Political Analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. World Politics. 9 (April) Concepts and Processes. (Second Edition). Orlando, FL., Harcourt College Publishers. Huntington, Samuel P. 1972.Political Order in Changing Societies. O'Donnell, Guillermo. 1995. Modernization and Bureaucratic New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Authoritarianism: Studies in South American Politics. Rev. ed. Berkeley: University of California Press. Roy, Macridis. 1955. The Study of Comparative Government. (New Finer, S. E. 1997. The History of Government. from the earliest Times, York: Random House). I-III. New York: Oxford University Press. Almond, Gabriel. 1956. Compensative Political Systems. Journal of Almond, Gabriel A.; and Coleman, James S. eds. 1960. The Politics of Beer, Samuel H. 1974. Modern Political Development. New York: Black, Cyril E. 1976. Comparative Modernization: A Reader. New Charles Hauss, 2003.Comparative Politics: Domestic Responses to Politics 18 (August). Developing Areas. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, Random House. York: Free Press. Global Challenges (Fourth Edition). Belmont, CA, Wadsworth/Thomson
3) Structures, Functions and Processes of Political Systems: Comparative politics examines political realities in countries all over the world. It looks at the many ways people behave in political life. In investigating some of the most important areas of comparative politics the course focuses on the basic institutions of power: states, markets, societies, and political systems, the structures and processes of the political system, political culture and political socialization, interest articulation, interest aggregation and political parties, government and policy making, and electoral systems. Some of the major questions we will explore include: How are (democratic and non-democratic) governments structured and how do they function? This area of inquiry focuses mainly on government institutions and the processes through which governments interact with their population in pursuing community goals. Here, the emphasis is on public policy, such as health policy, economic policy, and the like. How do political leaders and the population behave in politics, including the ways they participate in politics through such mechanisms as elections, political parties, interest groups, and other modes of political activity? The focus here is on elite and mass political behavior which includes political participation. How do political leaders and the mass public think and feel about politics? And how do their attitudes affect their behaviors? These are the sorts of questions which interest comparativists. References: Sage. Lapalombara, Joseph. ; and Weiner, Myron. eds. 1996. Political Parties and Political Development. Princeton, NJ: Princeton university press. Almond, Gabriel A.; and Verba, Sidney. 1963. The Civic Culture. Almond, Gabriel A.; and Verba, Sidney. eds. 1980. The Civic Culture Duverger, Maurice. 1969. Political Parties. 3rd ed. London: Methuen. Inglehart, Ronald. 1996. Cultural Change in Advanced Industrial Katz, Richard S.; and Mair, Peter. eds. 1994. How Parties Organize: Boston: Little Brown. Revisited. Boston: Little Brown.
Societies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton university press. Change and Adaptation in Party Organization in Western Democracies. London:
Lapalombara, Joseph. ed. 1963. Bureaucracy and political Lijphart, Arend. ed. 1992. Parliamentary and Presidential Loewenberg, Gerlard; and Patterson, S. 1979. Comparing Legislatures. Macridis, Roy C. 1991. Contemporary Political Ideologies. 5th ed. New Putnam, Robert D. 1993. Making Democracy Work: Civil Traditions in Pye, Lucian; and Sidney Verba. eds. 1965. Political Culture and Sartori, Giovanni. 1976. Parties and Party System. New York:
Development. Princeton, NJ: Princeton university press. Government. New York: Oxford University Press. Boston: little Brown. York: Harper Collins. modern Italy. Princeton NJ: Princeton university press. Political Development. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Cambridge university press. 4) Approaches to the Study of Comparative Politics: One major impact of the modern school of Comparative Politics on the field of Comparative Political Systems is the developing of a group of new approaches as general frameworks for analyzing and comparing political systems and their role in developing generalizations and empirical theories. This course will introduce students to these new approaches in the study of comparative politics. In this regard, the course attempts to clarify, distinguish, relate, and evaluate major theoretical approaches such as the political culture approach, the group approach, the elite approach, the class approach, the structural functional approach, the systems approach, dependency and the world systems approach, corporatism, Bureaucratic authoritarianism, political economy, state-society relations, and indigenous theories. To these approaches, rational choice theory and the new institutionalism were added in the 1980s. By the 1990s, there were several approaches, each with its own literature and disciples. Comparative Politics has become more divided and fragmented with a greater variety of approaches than ever before. In this context, this theoretical course aims to equip the students with the analytical tools which enable them to evaluate these approaches and apply them in their studies in the field. Major changes in comparative politics often corresponded to the changes of the decades. The traditional formal legal approach dominated the field through the 1950s. With the emphasizing more informal political processes and the emerging
of new and developing nations, the political development approach dominated during most of the 1960s. As the political development approach declined in the 1970s and on into the 1980s, a number of new approaches rose up to replace it. References: Bill, James; and Robert Hardgrave. 1973. Comparative politics: the Brown, Bernard E. 1962. New Directions in comparative politics. Chilcote, Ronald H. 1994. Theories of comparative politics: the search Deutsch, Karl w. 1963. The Nerves Government. New York: Free press, Easton, David. 1965. A Formwork for political Analysis: Englewood King, Gary, Robert O. Keohane; and Sidney, Verba. 1994. Designing Quest for theory, Columbus, O H: Merrill. London and New Delhi, Asia publishers. for a paradigm. 2d ed. Boulder, co: west view.
Cliffs, NJ: prentice- Hall. social inquiry: scientific Inquiry in qualitative research. Princeton, NJ: Princeton university press. Kuhn, Thomas S. 1970. The structure of scientific revolutions. 2nd Lan, Jan–Erik.; and Svate Ersson. 1994. Comparative politics: An Macridis, Roy C. 1955. The study of comparative government. New Connolly, William. 1983. "Essentially Contested Concepts in Politics." Kate Willis, 2005, “Introduction: What do we mean by development?” Levi, Margaret. 1997. "A Model, a Method, and a Map: Rational edition. Chicago university of Chicago press, Introduction and A new Approach. Cambridge: polity press. York: Random House. in Terms of Political Discourse. Princeton: Princeton University Press. in Theories and Practices of Development. New York: Rutledge. Choice in Comparative and Historical Analysis” in Comparative Politics: Rationality, Culture, and Structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 5) Contemporary Issues in Comparative Politics: Comparative politics is a very rich and dynamic field. It is especially rich because its range of inquiry is all over the world's political systems. So it is important to focus on some important recent issues in different systems as the following:
a. In the developing nations: Democracy and Democratization: There is no doubt that democracy is growing in the world. It is important to look particularly at the transition to democracy in Southern Europe and the developing countries to understand the causes of the transition, and the strengths and weakness of and prospects for democracy. With the study of this issue, student can answer the question of whether democracy and transition to democracy is a new approach in the field of comparative politics. What are the components of democracy? What are the prerequisites for and obstacles to democratization? What are the prospects for democracy in developing countries? Are capitalism and democracy inextricably related? How does democracy compare with other kinds of political systems? These are the sorts of questions which interest comparativists. b. The Future of post-Communist Regimes: The collapse of Marxism-Leninism and the disintegration of the communist systems of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe constitute one of the epochal changes of the late twentieth century. These transformations have ended the Cold war, fundamentally altered the face of the globe. Most post-communist regimes, most importantly Russia, made a transition to democracy almost fifteen years ago. We will examine how that transition has occurred and look at the prospects for the survival of democracy in these regimes. What is the future of the formerly communist countries? What we expect? The answer is not clear. It is difficult for the scholars of comparative Politics to construct a new model. The Result is that comparative politics lacks both a model of post-communist change and a set of categories to help us understand the often mixed patterns which are between communism and democracy. There is a great deal of Research yet on these post communist transitions. c. In the Developed Nations: If developed satieties are already modern societies, the question then becomes what will follow modernity? What are the new comparative politics students can study and think about? The types of issues that of concern to these countries include the end of ideology, the decline of political parties, the decline of union groups, the dominances of business, post-modernity (post-modern issues), changing public policy and global political economy.
References: west view, Buckley, Neil. 2005. "Worries about Concentration of Power." Calton, Timothy; and Robert legvold. eds. 1992. After the Soviet union Fish, Steven. 1998. "Democratization’s Requisites: The Postcommunist Huntington, Samuel p. 1993. The third wave: Democratization in the Lewis, Barnard. 1993. Islam and the West. New York: Oxford Linz, Juan and Alfred Stephan. eds. 1978. The Breakdown of Linz, Juan; and Stepan, Alfred. 1996. Problems of Democratic Financial Times, Survey on Russia. April 5, 2005. – New York: Norton Experience." Post-Soviet Affairs 14 (3). late twentieth century. Norman, OK: Oklahoma University Press. University Press. Democratic Regimes. Baltimore: the john Hopkins University. Transition and Consolidation: Southern Europe, South America, and PostCommunist Europe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Motyl, Alexander J. ed. 1992. The post-Soviet Nations: Perspectives on Nathan, Andrew J. 1985. Chinese Democracy. New York: Knopf. O'Donnell, Guillermo; Schmitter, Philippe C.; and Whitehead, the Demise of the USSR. New York: Colombia University press. Baloyra, Enrique. 1987. Comparing new Democracies. Boulder, CO:
Laurence. 1986. Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Comparative Perspectives. 4 Baltimore: The John Hopkins University. Sutter, Daniel. 2000. "The Transition from Authoritarian Rule: A Game Theoretic Approach." Journal of Theoretical Politics 12 (1): 67-89. 6) Frontiers of Research in Comparatives Politics: There are always new issues, new approaches to explore and explain. These changes make the matter of comparative politics so interesting. Some of the new issues that caught the interest of Comparative Politics Scholars comprise women in politics, immigration, regionalism and neoregionalism, environmental issues and pollution, population, hunger, tourism and terrorism. All of these are current-front burner issues that need to be addressed.
References: Haworth. Keating M.; and Jones, B. eds. 1985. Regions in the European Mittelman, James H. 1996. "Rethinking the 'New Regionalism' in the Newhouse, John. 1997. "Europe's Rising Regionalism." Foreign Affairs Richard, Sagar, Local control and accountability. Thousands Oaks, CA: Sbeldam, kanienick. ed. 1993. Environment politics in the international Schreurs, Elizabeth C. 1997. The Internationalization of Environmental Suro, Roberta. 1998. How Latina Immigration is Transforming Community. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Context of Globalization." Global Governance 2 (2): 180-213. 76 (1): 67-75. Carwin, 1996. Arena. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. protection. Cambridge: Cambridge quivers. America. New York: Knoph. Jacquette, Jane S. 1988. Women and Democracy. Baltimore: John Jacquette, Jane S. 1983. Women in devolving countries. New York: Hopkins Press.
VIII. Curse Outline: Week 1: Introduction The Importance of Comparison Introduction to the Comparative Method Comparative Politics defined: What are we comparing? Why and How to Compare Political Systems? why and how to compare countries, structures and phenomena (or utilizing comparative methods in the study of political science) Readings: - Ragin, Charles C. 1987. The Comparative Method. Berkeley: University of California Press, Chapters 1-2 - Wiarda, Howard J. 2000. Introduction to Comparative Politics: Concepts and Processes. Fordworth, TX: Harcourt College publishers, pp – 1 – 24.
- Brown, Bernard E. 2000. Comparative Politics: Notes and Readings. Fordworth, TX: Harcourt College Publishers. pp. 1– 49. Week 2: The Development of Comparative Political Analysis (I) The History of Comparatives Politics Readings: Wiarda, Howard J. Op.cit. pp 25 – 41.
Week 3: The Development of Comparative Political Analysis (II) The Transformation of the Study of Comparative Systems: The Traditional School, the Modern School and beyond (Post-behavioralism). Readings: Wiarda, Howard J. Op.cit. pp 41-63. Week 4: Types of Modern Governments: Elaboration on Parliamentary, Presidential and Mixed Types of Governments Readings: Lijphart, Arend. 1999. Patterns of Democracy. pp. 90-142. Week 5: Structures, Functions and Process in the Political System * Political Culture and political socialization Readings: Almond; and Powell, Jr. et al. Comparative Politics: A Theoretical Framework. pp. 46 – 60. Week 6: Interest Groups and Interest Articulation Political Parities and Interest Aggregations Political Parties and Party Systems Interest Groups and Corporatism Readings: Gabriel A. Almond, G. Bingham Powell, Jr. et al., op. cit. pp. 62-78. Lijphart. 1999. Patterns of Democracy, chapters 5 & 9. Week 7: Governments and Policy Making
Readings: Ibid. pp. 81 – 92 - Electoral System Readings: Michael J. Sodaro. 2000. Comparative Politics: A Global Introduction. Boston: Mc Grow Hill. pp. 70- 112. Week 8: Approaches to the Study of Comparative Politics - The group Approach Readings: Bill, James A. and Robert Hardgrave. 1973. Comparatives politics: the quest for theory. Columbus Ohio: Charles E. Merrill publishing Co. pp 121- 55. - The Elite Approach Readings: Ibid. pp. 156- 82. Week 9: Approaches to the Study of Comparative Politics - The Structure Functional Approach - The System Analysis Approach Readings: Ibid. pp. 201- 228. Week 10: Approaches to the Study of Comparative Politics - Dependency Theory and World System Approach - Political Economy and Comparative Politics - The Rational Choice - The New Institutionalism Readings: Wiarda, Howard J. Op.cit. p.p. 19- 99. Week 11: Cotemporary Issues in the Developing Countries Democracy and Democratization - What is democracy? - What is the ‘third wave’ of democratization? - The extent, dynamics, and outcomes of regime transitions in the developing countries What are the main constraints to democratization in Africa? Readings: Bernard E. Brown. Op. cit. pp. 222 – 246. - In the Post-Communist System: policy reform, political change, economic policy, the future of the Post-Communist Regimes.
Readings: Wiarda, Howard J. Op.cit. pp. 120- 31. Week 12: Cotemporary Issues in the Developed Countries (The end of ideology, the decline of political parties, post- modernity…) Readings: Wiarda, Howard J. Op.cit. pp. 79 – 100 Week 11: Frontiers of Research in Comparative Politics. (Women in politics, immigration, regionalism and environmental issues) Readings: Howard J. Wiarda, Op.cit. PP. 197-211. Michael J. Sodaro. Op.cit. pp. 40-5. Week 12: Revision IX. Prerequisites: "Introduction to Political Science I & II" are essential prerequisite to this course. In the introduction, students study core concepts and traditional approaches to fundamental political questions, including the nature of political authority and political power, variation in the role and meaning of government, the origins and dynamics of political institutions, various types of modern governments and the nature of international politics. The Introduction sheds some light on classical political thinkers as well as contemporary political scientists. All of these prepare students to the study of Comparative Politics.
X. Methods of Presentation: In addition to traditional lecturing, the course deploys some other methods of presentation, including tutorials, guest speaker, topical presentations, and audiovisual aids. These teaching methods the course applies are predominantly geared toward enhancing students' involvement, and consequentially, enhancing students' level of course absorption. a. The Format of the Lectures: The instructor will lecture for a bit more than an hour. The students should feel free to interrupt at any time for questions, problems, and comments. The floor will be opened to questions and a discussion after the lectures. b. Tutorials:
The start date for tutorials will be announced in class by the instructor. Students are responsible to add or change their tutorials. Students are expected to attend every tutorial and be prepared to discuss the assigned weekly readings. Students must participate regularly to receive a good grade in this section of the course; attendance alone will not be enough. Tutorial leaders may at their discretion design additional assignments specific to their tutorial. c. Guest Speaker: Incorporating a guest speaker into this course can be a great way to bring upto-the-minute expertise to the students. I attempt to invite at least one guest speaker per course. Hearing the perspective from a person who has day-to-day confrontation with the course topic, enables students to reflect upon issues that might not have been surfaced in a mere review of written material. Each guest lecture ends with a Q&A session. d. Topical Presentations: The instructor will create special time slots for presentations on a topic. The students are given a choice among pre-listed topics, or they may discuss their own suggestions with the instructor for approval. Most team- and individual presentations are executed in PowerPoint. e. Teaching with PowerPoint: PowerPoint works very well in comparative politics. The course will be taught with PowerPoint to supplement lecture and discussion. The choice of PowerPoint as the technological solution was driven substantially by the ease with which PowerPoint can be learned and integrated with existing course material. A further advantage of teaching comparative politics with PowerPoint is that it is now possible to go beyond mere text as the focus of testing and broaden the scope of what instructors can expect students to learn and retain. Quizzes and tests can be presented as a PowerPoint presentation, and ask essay, fill-in or multiplechoice questions, reducing photocopying costs for departments in an era of diminishing resources and increased expectations. One additional advantage of using PowerPoint is the ability to easily produce handout sheets with the bullet points clearly printed out. These sheets will be photocopied as a coursepack by a local vendor and available to students at the beginning of the semester. f. Office Hours: Students should take advantage of office hours at the times listed in the syllabus. The teaching-assistants (TAs) and I are more than willing to assist you
with questions or problems, to learn about your interests, and to listen to your impressions of the course. If you would like to meet with me but are busy during the listed times, e-mail me or approach me before or after class to schedule an appointment. Along with a number of obvious reasons why you should attend an office hour, that is the only way I will get to know you by name and to know your level of participation. g. Teaching-Assistant's Duties: In addition to lead tutorials, they are supposed to observe classes, take notes of students who participate in the class (lecture), collect and grade the assignments, evaluate, separately, students' participation and attendance in the section and help students develop effective note-taking strategies. XI. Course Requirements and Grading System: 1. Course Requirements: The course requirements consist of attendance, reading assignments and questions, written assignments, in-class participation, a mid-term exam, and a final exam. a. Attendance: Attendance is mandatory in both lectures and discussion sections. Attendance will be randomly taken in the former but will be regularly taken in the latter. One absence- excused or unexcused- will not affect your grade. More than two unexcused class or section absences will hurt your attendance grade. Exceptions will be made only in the rarest of occasions. At every lecture, the instructor distributes important handouts and makes announcements. Please be on time every time; class starts promptly at 1:35 am and ends promptly at 2:50 pm, for example. Do not come to class late. If you cannot make it on time, get advanced approval or skip the class. Along with a number of obvious reasons why you should attend class, the lectures will cover material that is not always addressed in the readings and that may appear on the exams. Take good notes (there will be outlines but no lecture notes posted on the course website). b. Readings:
The reading load is roughly 15-20 pages per night. The readings will help structure the lecture and in-class discussions. It is essential that you complete the readings in advance of the class meetings. While lectures will refer to the assigned readings, they will not summarize them, and are not an adequate substitute. Get in the habit of taking real notes on what you read. Study for the final exam will be a nightmare if, at the end of the semester, all what you have are highlighted passages in texts. c. Assignments: There will be two short writing assignments to sharpen your analytic writing skills due on March 8 and March 22, for example. Assignments are to be submitted in hard copy to your TA at the beginning of the section. No work will be accepted by email attachment. I do not permit late assignments unless there is a legitimate medical or family emergency, or unless it is the result of an officially sanctioned, scheduled university activity. In cases of medical or family emergencies, arrangements can be made with me or with TA. Students who miss an exam (mid-term exam) or assignment because of a university-sanctioned activity must arrange a make-up exam or quiz with me in advance of their absence. Please let me know as soon as possible if you are experiencing a medical or family crisis so that we have time to make arrangements for you to complete the coursework for this class. Assignment #1 on differences between presidential and parliamentary systems. Assignment #2 on differences in electoral and party systems d. Student Participation and Engagement: Participation is essential in this class. In-class participation means more than merely attending class meetings; it also entails that you do the readings and contribute insightful comments and questions to class discussions. In-class participation is essential not only for your personal success, but also for our collective success. While the quantity of your participation is important, quality participation that reflects the extent of your class preparation is also important. Students who receive high marks for participation combine quantity and quality. Participation will account for … percent of the final grade.
e. Two Exams: • Mid-Term Exam: It is due on March 30, for example. • Final Exam: It is due on May 30, for example. f. Academic Honesty: The Department of Political Science of Cairo University prohibits students from cheating on exams, plagiarizing papers, submitting the same paper for credit in two classes without authorization, buying research papers, submitting fraudulent documents, and forging signatures. Particularly, our Department has zero tolerance for plagiarism. Plagiarism is the presentation of the work of another person as one's own or without proper acknowledgment or for which other credit has been obtained. Cite other people’s ideas- other scholars, your instructor, your classmates- in your presentations and debates. Your own intellectual contributions stand out much clearer when you delineate them from those of others. g. Course Contract: • What the Instructor expects from the Students: Complete all assignments on time. Turn in your assignments when they are due. Keep up with the readings. If you fall behind, you will be lost in class and have difficulty catching up in time for exams. Keep informed about current events. Your ability to synthesize concepts and coherently examine political issues is the end product of this course. Dress and behave appropriately. Do not start packing your bags and backpacks until class has ended. Turn your mobile phone to silent before class begins; don’t text-message during class. • What the Students expect from the Instructor: While no one can claim to be completely impartial, I will do my best to be fair and faithfully present different sides to policy debates. My lectures will be well prepared and organized. I will see that your papers and exams are graded promptly and accurately. I will remain accessible throughout the semester and hold office hours regularly.
During the fourth week of class, I will ask for anonymous evaluations to make adjustments that improve the course. 2. Grading System: How to assess students’ work: When marking papers and essays the course team weighs the following components to determine the grade: 1. Attention to grammar, spelling, general writing style and quality - 20% 2. Essay Structure (e.g. introduction, thesis, organization) - 40% 3. Quality of argument, research, evidence and sources - 40% Further information on essay expectations will be distributed during the year. With regard to written exams, I grade them primarily on the content and clarity of your argument but will also consider writing style (grammar rules, punctuation, spelling, etc.). Therefore, I encourage students to improve their writing skills. Grade breakdown: • Attendance, in-class participation, assignments quizzes and mid-Term Exam: It is worth one third (10 marks) of the final grade. • Final Exam: It is worth two thirds (20 marks) of the final grade.
XII. Sample Questions: This section provides sample questions on each theme covered by the course. The questions are of varied types: oral, essay, short essay, short-answer, checklist or check-all-that-apply, matching, true/false (traditional true/false, true/false correction, true/false explanation questions), and MTQ (multiple choice). Distribute possible essay questions before the exam and make your marking criteria slightly stricter. This gives all students an equal chance to prepare and should improve the quality of the answers- and the quality of learning- without making the exam any easier. - Introduction: Comparative Politics and the Comparative Method: Essay Questions:
"The comparative method could be used at more than one level in the same study." Comment. Mark each of the following statements as (True) or (False): a) The term "Comparative Politics" is more accurate in describing the field of comparative political systems than the term "Comparative Governments." - The Evolution of Comparative Politics: Essay Questions: (1) Compare between the characteristics of the modern study and the traditional study of comparative political systems. Then, discuss the impact of the modern school on the field of comparative politics. - Structures, Functions and Processes of Political System: Short Answer Questions: What is “interest aggregation” and how do political parties do it? Mark each of the following statements as (True) or (False): a) Early elections are very rarely happen in presidential governments. b) In presidential government of separation of powers, there is no mechanism for dissolving the legislative branch. c) In parliamentary governments, the chiefs of state, monarchs or presidents, play no role at all in the lawmaking process. d) Unlike other cabinet members, Prime Ministers in parliamentary governments run at-large in the whole country when campaigning for office. Mark each of the following statements as (True) or (False) explaining why: a) The classifications of the various types of political orientations and interest groups made by Gabriel Almond in collaboration with S. Verba and B. Powell in order have middle-range comparative value. b) The civic culture, as presented by Almond and Verba, is just a mix of the various types of political orientations exactly as any other political culture." c) The Cabinet's authority to direct the executive agencies in a parliamentary government is granted to them by the public. d) Although some pressure groups offer good benefits, they may fail in attracting mass membership.
MTQ (Multiple Choice): (1) In a parliamentary democracy, a. there is separation of personnel between the legislative and executive branches b. there is always judicial review of Parliament's decisions. c. there is a series of checks and balances on each branch by the other. d. there is parliamentary supremacy. (2) Separation of power a. refers to the two level theory- nation and state. b. was devised by John Locke, the great English philosopher. c. is the principle of distributing power among coequal branches- legislative, executive and judicial. d. none of the above is correct. (3) Legislatures can be distinguished from the executive branch in that the former a. is multi-membered b. is formally equal voting members c. a and b is correct. (4) Among the functions of political parties in order of importance are: a. interest aggregation, campaigning, supplying money to worthy candidates. b. campaigning, compromising between factions, given legitimacy to candidates. c. campaigning, securing money for candidates, interest articulation. d. selecting candidates, election campaigning and organizing the government. e. compromising factions, creating coalitions, interest aggregation. - Approaches to the Study of Comparative Politics: Essay Questions: (1) Unlike the elite approach, the group approach has a parochial intellectual background. Comment then compare between the elite approach and the group approach emphasizing the strengths and the shortcomings of each in the study of comparative politics. (2) Mention the most important questions the class approach raises; then discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this approach compared with other approaches to the study of Comparative Politics.
(3) The elite approach to the study of Comparative Politics does not only challenge the traditional approaches, but also the group approach. Discuss then compare between the elite approach and the group approach emphasizing the strengths and the shortcomings of each vis-à-vis the other. (4) The class and the elite approaches to the study of Comparative Politics are divided by one major fundamental difference that is responsible for a number of the sharply different conclusions that develop from these two approaches. Comment showing the advantages and disadvantages of each approach vis-à-vis the other. Short Answer Questions: (1) "As an approach, political culture is necessarily limited." Comment. True/False Questions: Mark each of the following statements as (True) or (False): a) Because theories are able to explain and predict, they are more important than approaches. b) "Taxonomies are important as typologies." Mark each of the following statements as (True) or (False) explaining why: a) "Approach selection is highly important for theory building." b) "Although the group approach touches the very core of political life, its proponents failed to reach a middle-range empirical theory that has reasonable and acceptable explanatory and predictive power." c) "The elite approach has generated very little systematic theory." d) "There is an intimate built-in relationship between the elite approach and the political culture approach." e) Elite approach contributes a big deal in understanding the process of modernization. f) Elite approach tends two reach conclusions emphasizing cohesion and stability while group analysts often conclude with visions of division and instability. g) The group, the elite, and the class approaches are closely intertwined and interrelated. h) It is difficult to distinguish between class analysis and elite analysis than between class analysis and group analysis.
5) Contemporary Issues in Comparative Politics: Essay Questions: a. What is the ‘third wave’ of democratization? Explain the extent, dynamics, and outcomes of regime transitions in LDCs, providing some examples. b. What are the main constraints to democratization in the Arab World? Short Answer Questions: True/False Questions: MTQ (Multiple Choice): 6) Frontiers of research in comparatives politics: (women in politics, immigration, regionalism/ decentralization, environmental issues and pollution, population, hunger, tourism, terrorism…). Essay Questions: Short Answer Questions: True/False Questions: MTQ (Multiple Choice):
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