Baking Ingredient Substitution Table

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Baking Ingredient Substitution Table
Sometimes you may find it necessary to substitute one ingredient for another in a recipe. But using a different ingredient may change both the taste and texture of your baking, so it is a good idea before substituting to understand the role that ingredient plays in the recipe. Use this table as a guideline only.

INGREDIENT
Almond Meal

AMOUNT

SUBSTITUTION
grams) (240 ml) sliced (blanched (skins off) or natural (skins on)) almonds with 1 tablespoon (14 grams) granulated white sugar in a blender or food processor and process until finely ground. Sugar or flour is added to the almonds to prevent clumping as it absorbs the oil exuded from the almonds. Toasting the almonds first dries them which also helps to prevent clumping.

1 cup (240 ml) To make your own almond meal place 1 cup (100 (100 grams)

Almond Paste

1 1/3 cups 1 3/4 cups (175 grams) (420 (320 ml) (300 ml) ground blanched grams) almonds plus 1 1/2 cups (175 grams) (360 ml) powdered (confectioners or icing) sugar plus 1 large egg white (30 grams) plus 1 teaspoon almond extract plus 1/4 teaspoon salt 3/4 teaspoon 1 tablespoon (15 grams) 1 teaspoon baking soda 1 tablespoon (15 grams) cornstarch, potato starch or rice starch 2 tablespoons (25 grams) all purpose flour

Ammonium bicarbonate Arrowroot

Baking Powder, double-acting 1 teaspoon (Rule of Thumb: 1 teaspoon for every 1 cup (240 ml) of flour) High-Altitude Adjustments: above 3000 ft. - reduce baking powder 1/8 teaspoon for every 1 teaspoon of baking powder in recipe above 5000 ft. - reduce baking powder 1/8-1/4

1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar plus 1/4 teaspoon cornstarch 1 1/2 teaspoons singleaction baking powder 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 cup (120 ml) buttermilk, sour milk or yogurt to replace 1/2 cup (120 ml) non-acidic liquid

teaspoon for every 1 teaspoon baking powder in recipe above 7000 ft. - reduce baking powder 1/4 teaspoon for every 1 teaspoon baking powder in recipe Baking Powder, single-acting 1 teaspoon 2/3 teaspoon double-acting baking powder 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar plus 1/4 teaspoon cornstarch Baking Soda (Sodium Bicarbonate) (Rule of Thumb: 1/4 teaspoon for every 1 cup of flour) 1/2 teaspoon 2 teaspoons double-acting baking powder (must replace the acidic liquid in recipe with non-acidic liquid) 1/2 teaspoon potassium bicarbonate Bread Crumbs, Dry 1 cup (240 ml) 1 cup (240 ml) crushed (150 grams) cracker crumbs 1 cup (240 ml) matzo meal 1 cup (240 ml) crushed cornflakes 1 cup (240 ml) ground oats 1 cup (240 ml) crushed potato chips Buttermilk (Sour Milk) (see 1 cup (240 ml) below under MILK, Buttermilk) Carob Powder 1 tablespoon (7 grams) 1 ounce (30 grams) 1 tablespoon (7 grams) cocoa powder (either natural or Dutch-processed) 1/2 ounce (15 grams) unsweetened chocolate plus 1 tablespoon (15 grams) granulated white sugar 1 ounce (30 grams) bittersweet or semi-sweet plus 1 tablespoon (15 grams) granulated white sugar 1 ounce (30 grams) sweet dark chocolate 1 ounce (30 grams) white chocolate

Chocolate, Bittersweet or Semi-sweet

Chocolate, Milk

1 ounce (30 grams)

Chocolate, Sweet German

1 ounce (30 grams)

1 ounce (30 grams) bittersweet or semi-sweet chocolate plus 1/2 tablespoon (7 grams) granulated white sugar 1 ounce (30 grams) milk chocolate

Chocolate, Unsweetened

1 ounce (30 grams)

3 tablespoons (20 grams) natural cocoa powder (not Dutch-processed) plus 1 tablespoon (14 grams) unsalted butter, vegetable oil or shortening 1 ounce (30 grams) milk chocolate 1 ounce (30 grams) sweet dark chocolate

Chocolate, White

1 ounce (30 grams)

Cocoa Powder, DutchProcessed

3 tablespoons 3 tablespoons (20 grams) (20 grams) natural unsweetened cocoa powder plus 1/8 teaspoon baking soda 1 ounce (30 grams) unsweetened chocolate plus 1/8 teaspoon baking soda (reduce fat in recipe by 1 tablespoon) 3 tablespoons (20 grams) carob powder

Cocoa Powder, Natural Unsweetened

3 tablespoons 3 tablespoons (20 grams) (20 grams) Dutch-processed cocoa plus 1/8 teaspoon cream of tartar, lemon juice or white vinegar 1 ounce (30 grams) unsweetened chocolate (reduce fat in recipe by 1 tablespoon) 3 tablespoons (20 grams) carob powder

Coconut, fresh

1 cup (240 ml) 1 cup (240 ml) (90 grams) dried flaked coconut 3/4 cup (180 ml) (75 grams) dried shredded coconut

Coconut, dry shredded

1 cup (240 ml) 1 1/4 (300 ml) cups freshly (90 grams) grated coconut 1 1/4 cup (300 ml) (110 grams) dried flaked coconut

Coconut milk, fresh

1 cup (240 ml) 1 cup (240 ml) canned coconut milk (not low fat) 3 tablespoons canned cream of coconut plus enough hot water or milk to equal 1 cup (240 ml) 1/4 cup (60 ml) coconut cream powder plus 1 cup (240 ml) hot water or milk

Coconut cream, fresh

1 cup (240 ml) 1 cup (240 ml) canned coconut cream 1 cup (240 ml) top layer of canned coconut milk (not low fat) (do not shake or stir can before skimming) 1 cup (240 ml) heavy whipping cream (35% butterfat) plus 1/2 cup coconut cream powder

Coffee, strong brewed

1/4 cup (60 ml)

2 tablespoons (10 grams) instant espresso powder dissolved in 3 tablespoons hot water Can substitute equally among chocolate wafers, vanilla wafers, graham crackers, macaroons, or gingersnaps

Cookie Crumbs

1 cup (240 ml) (100 grams)

Cornmeal, stone ground

1 cup (240 ml) 1 cup (240 ml) regular milled cornmeal 1 cup (240 ml) corn grits 1 cup (240 ml) polenta 1 cup (240 ml) maize meal

Corn Syrup, Dark

1 cup (240 ml) 3/4 cup (180 ml) light corn syrup plus 1/4 cup (60 ml) light molasses 1 cup (240 ml) 1 cup (240 ml) dark corn syrup 1 cup(240 ml) treacle 1 cup (240 ml) liquid glucose 1 cup (240 ml) honey 1 cup (200 grams) granulated white sugar (increase the liquid in the

Corn Syrup, Light

recipe by 1/4 cup (60 ml)) Cornstarch or Corn flour (for thickening) 1 tablespoon (15 grams) 2 tablespoons (25 grams) all purpose flour 1 tablespoon (15 grams) potato starch or rice starch or flour 1 tablespoon (15 grams) arrowroot 2 tablespoons (25 grams) quick-cooking (instant) tapioca Cream of Tartar Cream, Clotted 1/2 teaspoon 1/2 teaspoon white vinegar or lemon juice

1 cup (240 ml) 1 cup (240 ml) (225 grams) (225 grams) creme fraiche 1 cup (240 ml) (225 grams) mascarpone cheese 1 cup (240 ml) heavy whipping cream (35% butterfat), whipped

Cream, Creme

Fraiche

1 cup (240 ml) 1 cup (240 ml) sour cream (225 grams) 1 cup (240 ml) whipping cream plus 1 tablespoon buttermilk or yogurt 1/2 cup (120 ml) whipping cream plus 1/2 cup (120 ml) sour cream 1 cup (225 grams) mascarpone cheese

Cream, Half & Half (10 - 12% 1 cup (240 ml) 7/8 cup (210 ml) whole milk Butterfat) plus 2 tablespoons (25 grams) melted unsalted butter 1/2 cup (120 ml) light cream (5% butterfat) plus 1/2 cup (120 ml) whole milk 1/2 cup (120 ml) partly skimmed milk plus 1/2 cup (120 ml) heavy whipping cream (35%) Cream, Heavy (35% butterfat) 1 cup (240 ml) 2/3 cup (160 ml) whole milk (not for whipping) plus 1/3 cup (75 grams) melted unsalted butter

Cream, Light or Coffee Cream 1 cup (240 ml) 1 cup (240 ml) half & half (18% Butterfat) cream (12% butterfat) 7/8 cup (210 ml) whole milk plus 3 tablespoons (35 grams) melted butter 1/2 cup (120 ml) evaporated milk or heavy cream plus 1/2 cup (120 ml) milk Cream, Light Whipping (30% Butterfat) (not for whipping) 1 cup (240 ml) 3/4 cup (180 ml) whole milk plus 1/4 cup (57 grams) melted unsalted butter 1 cup (240 ml) half & half cream (12% butterfat) Cream, Sour 1 cup (225 grams) (8 ounces) (240 ml) 1 cup (240 ml) (225 grams) plain yogurt 3/4 cup (180 ml) sour milk, buttermilk or plain yogurt + 1/3 cup (75 grams) melted butter 1 cup (225 grams) (240 ml) creme fraiche 1 tablespoon lemon juice or vinegar plus enough whole milk to fill 1 cup (240 ml) (let stand 5-10 minutes) Currants 1 cup (240 ml) 1 cup (120 grams) (240 ml) (120 grams) raisins 1 cup (120 grams) (240 ml) chopped dates 1 cup (120 grams) (240 ml) other dried fruit (cranberries, cherries, blueberries) Eggs, whole 1 large (about 2 large egg yolks (36 grams) 2 ounces) plus 1 tablespoon water (in baking) In Shell (57 grams) 2 large egg yolks (36 grams) Without Shell (for custards, sauces, (50 grams) puddings and mousses) 3 1/2 tablespoons frozen whole egg, thawed 3 1/2 tablespoons egg substitute

2 1/2 tablespoons powdered whole egg plus 2 1/2 tablespoons water Eggs, whites 1 large egg white (30 grams) 2 tablespoons frozen egg whites, thawed 1 tablespoon powdered egg white plus 2 tablespoons water Eggs, yolks 2 large yolks (36 grams) 1 large yolk (18 grams) 1 large whole egg (In Shell 57 grams) (Without Shell 50 grams) 2 tablespoons powdered egg yolk plus 2 teaspoons water 3 1/2 teaspoons frozen egg yolks, thawed Extract, pure Vanilla 1 teaspoon 1/2 of vanilla bean 1/2 - 1 teaspoon other extract (almond, orange, lemon, etc.) Other Extracts (almond, lemon, orange, peppermint, etc.) 1 teaspoon 1 teaspoon of other extract (vanilla, orange, lemon, etc.) 1 to 2 drops of oil of same flavor Fats, Salted Butter 1/2 cup (120 ml) (113 grams) 1/2 cup (113 grams) (120 ml) unsalted butter plus 1/4 teaspoon salt 1/2 cup (113 grams) (120 ml) margarine 1/2 cup (113 grams) (120 ml) solid vegetable shortening or lard Fats, Unsalted Butter 1/2 cup (120 ml) (113 grams) 1/2 cup (113 grams) (120 ml) salted butter (decrease the salt in recipe by 1/4 teaspoon) 1/2 cup (113 grams) (120 ml) margarine 1/2 cup (113 grams) (120 ml) solid vegetable shortening or lard Fats, Lard 1/2 cup (120 ml) (113 grams) 1/2 cup (113 grams) (120 ml) solid vegetable shortening 1/2 cup (113 grams) (120

Eggs, yolks

ml) plus 1 tablespoon (14 grams) unsalted butter Fats, Margarine 1/2 cup (120 ml) (113 grams) 1/2 cup (113 grams) (120 ml) salted or unsalted butter 1/2 cup (113 grams) (120 ml) solid vegetable shortening Fats, Solid Vegetable Shortening 1/2 cup (120 ml) (113 grams) 1/2 cup (113 grams) (120 ml) salted or unsalted butter 1/2 cup (113 grams) (120 ml) lard 1/2 cup (113 grams) (120 ml) margarine Flour, All Purpose 1 cup (240 ml) 1 cup (110 grams) (240 ml) (130 grams) plus 2 tablespoons (20 grams) sifted cake flour 1 cup (130 grams) (240 ml) self-rising flour (omit baking powder and salt from recipe) 7/8 cup (130 grams) rice flour (starch) (do not replace all of the flour with the rice flour) 1/2 cup (60 grams) (120 ml) white cake flour plus 1/2 cup (70 grams) (120 ml) whole wheat flour FLOUR, Bread FLOUR, Cake 1 cup (240 ml) 1 cup (130 grams) (240 ml) (160 grams) all purpose flour 1 cup (240 ml) 3/4 cup (100 grams) (180 (120 grams) ml) all purpose flour plus 2 tablespoons (20 grams) cornstarch (corn flour) (packed) 2 cups (480 ml) (270 grams) 1 1/3 cup (175 grams) (320 ml) all purpose flour plus 2/3 cup (80 grams) (160 ml) cake flour

FLOUR, Pastry

FLOUR, Rice FLOUR, Self-Rising

1 cup (240 ml) Equal amounts of cake or (150 grams) pastry flour 1 cup (240 ml) 1 cup (130 grams) (240 ml) (130 grams) similar grade (all purpose) flour plus 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder plus 1/4 teaspoon salt 1 cup (240 ml) 7/8 cup (120 grams) all

FLOUR, Whole Wheat

(140 grams)

purpose flour plus 2 tablespoon (6 grams) wheat germ 1 cup (240 ml) graham flour

GELATIN, Leaf or Sheet

4 leaves (4 x 9 1 - (1/4 ounce) envelope (7 inches) (10 x grams) powdered gelatin 23 cm) 1 envelope 4 leaves sheet gelatin (1/4 ounce) (1 tablespoon 2 teaspoons agar granules) (7 grams) 1 tablespoon 1 tablespoon clarified butter 1 tablespoon vegetable oil

GELATIN, Powdered (Unflavored)

Ghee

Ginger Root, freshly grated

1 tablespoon

1 tablespoon candied ginger, rinsed and finely chopped 1 1/2 teaspoon ground dried ginger plus 1/2 teaspoon fresh lemon juice

Glucose, liquid

1/2 cup (120 ml)

1/2 cup (120 ml) light corn syrup 1/2 cup (120 ml) golden syrup

Golden Syrup

1 cup (240 ml) 1 cup (240 ml) treacle 1 cup (240 ml) light molasses 1 cup (240 ml) corn syrup

Honey

1 cup (240 ml) 3/4 cup (180 ml) maple syrup plus 1/2 cup (100 grams) (120 ml) granulated white sugar 3/4 cup (180 ml) light or dark corn syrup plus 1/2 cup (100 grams) (120 ml) granulated white sugar 3/4 cup (180 ml) light molasses plus 1/2 cup (100 grams) (120 ml) granulated white sugar 1 1/4 cups (250 grams - 265 grams) (300 ml) granulated white or brown sugar plus 1/4 cup (60 ml) additional liquid in recipe plus 1/2

teaspoon cream of tartar Lemon Juice, freshly squeezed 1 tablespoon 1 tablespoon bottled lemon juice 1 tablespoon fresh lime juice 1/2 tablespoon vinegar (depending on recipe and do not use for flavoring) Lemon, Zest 1 teaspoon 1 teaspoon orange or lime zest 1/2 teaspoon lemon extract Lime Juice, freshly squeezed Lime, Zest Maple Sugar, finely grated 1 tablespoon 1 teaspoon 1/2 cup (120 ml) (100 grams) 1 tablespoon lemon or orange juice 1 teaspoon lemon or orange 1 cup (240 ml) maple syrup (reduce liquid in recipe by 1/4 cup) 3/4 cup (150 grams) (180 ml) granulated white sugar plus 1 teaspoon pure maple extract Maple Syrup 1 cup (240 ml) 1/2 cup (100 grams) maple sugar (increase liquid in recipe by 1/4 cup (60 ml)) 1 cup (240 ml) honey 3/4 cup (180 ml) corn syrup plus 1/4 cup (57 grams) (60 ml) butter plus 1/2 teaspoon maple extract (optional) Marshmallows 8 regular 1 cup (240 ml) miniature marshmallows 2.5 ounces marshmallow cream Marzipan 2 1/2 cups (560 grams) (600 ml) 2 cups (450 grams) (480 ml) almond paste plus 1 cup (115 grams) (240 ml) powdered sugar plus 2 tablespoons light corn syrup 1 cup (240 ml) creme fraiche 3/4 cup (170 grams) (180 ml) cream cheese beaten with 1/4 cup (60 ml) heavy whipping cream (35%)

Mascarpone Cheese

1 cup (8 ounces) (225 grams) (240 ml)

MILK, Buttermilk (sour milk)

1 cup (240 ml) 1 tablespoon lemon juice or vinegar (white or cider) plus

enough milk to make 1 cup (240 ml) (let stand 5-10 minutes) 1 cup (240 ml) plain or low fat yogurt 1 cup (240 ml) sour cream 1 cup (240 ml) water plus 1/4 cup buttermilk powder 1 cup (240 ml) milk plus 1 1/2 - 1 3/4 teaspoons cream of tartar MILK, Sweetened Condensed 14 ounce can (396 grams) 1 cup (240 ml) instant nonfat dry milk plus 2/3 cup (135 grams) (160 ml) granulated white sugar plus 1/2 cup (120 ml) boiling water plus 3 tablespoons (35 grams) melted unsalted butter (process in blender or food processor until smooth)

MILK, Evaporated Whole

1 cup (240 ml) 1 cup (240 ml) half & half (10-12% butterfat) 1 cup (240 ml) light or table cream (20% butterfat) 1 cup (240 ml) light (30% butterfat) or heavy whipping cream (35% butterfat)

MILK, Skim (Non fat)

1 cup (240 ml) 1/4 cup (60 ml) powdered skim milk plus 7/8 cup (210 ml) water 1/2 cup (120 ml) evaporated skim milk plus 1/2 cup (120 ml) water

MILK, Whole (3.5%)

1 cup (240 ml) 1/2 cup (120 ml) evaporated whole milk plus 1/2 cup (120 ml) water 1/2 cup (120 ml) condensed milk plus 1/2 cup (120 ml) water 1 cup (240 ml) skim milk plus 2 tablespoons (25 grams) melted butter or margarine 1/4 cup (60 ml) powdered skim milk plus 7/8 cup (210

ml) water plus 1 tablespoon (14 grams) melted butter or margarine Molasses 1 cup (240 ml) 1 cup (240 ml) honey 1 cup (240 ml) dark corn syrup 1 cup (240 ml) maple syrup 3/4 cup (180 ml) (160 grams) light or dark brown sugar heated to dissolve in 1/4 cup (60 ml) liquid Nuts, chopped, ground, or whole Oats, quick-cooking rolled 1 cup (240 ml) 1 cup (100 grams) (240 ml) (100 grams) of similar nuts prepared in the same way 1 cup (240 ml) 1 cup (90 grams) (240 ml) (90 grams) regular (old fashioned) rolled oats 1 cup (240 ml) 1 cup (90 grams) (240 ml) (90 grams) quick-cooking rolled 1 cup (240 ml) 1 cup (240 ml) reconstituted frozen concentrate 1 teaspoon 1 teaspoon lemon or lime zest 1 teaspoon finely chopped candied orange peel Polenta, dry 1 cup (240 ml) 1 cup (240 ml) cornmeal (180 grams) 1 cup (240 ml) maize meal 1 cup (240 ml) corn grits Raisins 1 cup (240 ml) 1 cup (120 grams) (240 ml) (120 grams) dried currants 1 cup (120 grams) (240 ml) pitted chopped dates 1 cup (120 grams) (240 ml) dried fruit, finely chopped (cherries, cranberries, blueberries, etc.) Ricotta Cheese 1 cup (8 ounces) (240 ml) (225 grams) 1 teaspoon 1 teaspoon 1 teaspoon 1 cup (225 grams) (240 ml) dry cottage cheese

Oats, regular (old-fashioned) Orange Juice, freshly squeezed Orange, Zest

Rose Water Salt, kosher Salt, sea salt

1 teaspoon any flower-based water 1 teaspoon sea salt or table 1 teaspoon kosher or table

Salt, table SUGAR, granulated white

1 teaspoon

1 teaspoon kosher or sea salt

1 cup (240 ml) 1 cup (200 grams) (240 ml) (200 grams) caster (superfine) sugar 1 cup (215 grams) (240 ml) tightly packed light or dark brown sugar

SUGAR, brown, light or dark

1 cup (240 ml) 1 cup (215 grams) (240 ml) (215 grams) raw sugar 1 cup (200 grams) (240 ml) white granulated sugar 1 cup (200 grams) (240 ml) white granulated sugar plus 1/4 cup (60 ml) unsulfured light molasses For light brown sugar substitute 1/2 cup (105 grams) (120 ml) dark brown sugar plus 1/2 cup (100 grams) (120 ml) white granulated sugar

SUGAR, caster (superfine)

1 cup (240 ml) 1 cup (200 grams) (240 ml) (200 grams) granulated white sugar, processed in food processor until very fine 1 cup (240 ml) 1 cup (210 grams) (240 ml) (215 grams) light or dark brown sugar 1 tablespoon (12 grams) 2 tablespoons (24 grams) pearl tapioca, soaked 1 1/2 tablespoons (20 grams) flour

SUGAR, raw Tapioca, instant or quickcooking

Treacle

1 cup (240 ml) 1 cup (240 ml) light or dark corn syrup 1 cup (240 ml) light molasses

Vanilla Bean Vanilla Extract

1 bean 1 teaspoon

2 - 3 teaspoons pure vanilla extract 1/2 teaspoon powdered 1/4 cup (60 ml) white vinegar 1/4 cup (60 ml) apple cider vinegar 1/3 cup (80 ml) freshly squeezed lemon juice

VINEGAR, apple cider vinegar 1/4 cup (60 ml) VINEGAR, white 1/4 cup (60 ml)

YEAST, active dry

1 envelope 1 scant (7 grams) (1/4 ounce) (7 tablespoon active dry yeast grams)

1 cake (3/5 ounce) fresh compressed yeast 1 tablespoon (7 grams) fastrising active yeast YEAST, compressed 1 cake (3/5 ounce) 1 (1/4 ounce) envelope (7 grams) active dry yeast 1 scant tablespoon (7 grams) active dry yeast Yogurt, plain (not low fat) 1 cup (240 ml) 1 cup (225 grams) (240 ml) (225 grams) sour cream 1 cup (240 ml) buttermilk 1 cup (225 grams) (240 ml) creme fraiche 1 cup (240 ml) heavy whipping cream (35% butterfat) plus 1 tablespoon freshly squeezed lemon juice

SABLES
In the bowl of your electric mixer (or with a hand mixer), beat butter and sugar until light and fluffy (2-3 minutes). Add the egg and vanilla extract and beat until blended. In a separate bowl, whisk together the flour, baking powder and salt. Add the flour mixture to the butter mixture and beat just until incorporated. Do not over mix the dough. Transfer the dough to a lightly floured work surface, knead the dough a few times to bring it together, and then divide the dough in half. Wrap each half in plastic wrap and refrigerate until firm (at least an hour). Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (177 degrees C) and place rack in the center of the oven. Line two baking sheets with parchment paper and set aside. Remove one portion of the dough from the refrigerator and place on a lightly floured work surface. Roll out the dough until it is 1/4 inch (1 cm) thick. Using a lightly floured 2 inch (5 cm) round fluted cookie cutter, cut out the cookies, placing them on the prepared sheet. Place the baking sheet of cut out cookies in the refrigerator for about 15 -20 minutes to chill the dough. Meanwhile, in a small bowl, whisk the egg with the water for the egg wash. Remove the cookies from the refrigerator and brush the tops with the egg wash. Then, with the tines of a fork (or I like to use the end of a toothpick), make a crisscross pattern on the top of each cookie. Bake cookies in the preheated oven for about 12 - 14 minutes (depending on size of cookie) or until golden brown around the edges. Cool cookies on wire rack. Store in an airtight container for up to a week. Makes about 3 dozen cookies.

Sables: 10 tablespoons (140 grams) unsalted butter, room temperature 1/2 cup (100 grams) granulated white sugar 1 large egg 1 teaspoon pure vanilla extract 2 cups (260 grams) all purpose flour 1/2 teaspoon baking powder 1/4 teaspoon salt Egg Wash: 1 large egg 1 tablespoon water

Homemade Doughnuts:
In a large bowl whisk together 2 1/4 cups (295 grams) flour and the yeast. Add the butter and, with a pastry blender or your fingertips, cut or rub the butter into the flour mixture until you have coarse crumbs. Stir in the sugar and salt. Make a well in the center of the flour mixture and add the lukewarm milk and lightly beaten egg and stir until you have a ball of dough. Add more flour, a tablespoon at a time, if necessary. Then transfer the dough to a lightly floured surface and knead until the dough is no longer sticky and is smooth and elastic (about five minutes). Shape the dough into a ball and place in a large lightly greased bowl, turning once. Cover the bowl with plastic wrap and let rise in a warm place until doubled (approximately 1 1/2 - 2 hours). Then place the dough on a lightly floured surface, and gently punch the dough to release the air. With a lightly floured rolling pin, roll the dough to a thickness of about 1/2 inch (1 cm). Cut the dough into about 2 1/2 - 3 inch (6-7 cm) circles, using a lightly floured doughnut cutter or cookie cutter (will need a smaller cookie cutter to cut out the center "hole"). Place the doughnuts on a lightly floured baking sheet, lined with parchment or wax paper. Gather up the scraps, roll, and cut out remaining doughnuts. You can keep the donut holes to fry separately, if you like. Loosely cover the doughnuts with plastic

wrap (lightly butter or spray the plastic wrap with a non stick vegetable spray so the doughnuts won't stick) and let rise in a warm place until almost doubled (about 30-60 minutes). Clip a candy thermometer to the inside of a large, deep, heavy bottomed saucepan (Dutch oven), and at medium-high heat, bring about 2 inches (5 cm) of oil (canola, vegetable, peanut, or corn) to 375 degrees F (190 degrees C). Carefully place the doughnuts into the hot oil, about 2 to 3 at a time (do not over crowd). Fry each side until golden brown, about 45-60 seconds per side. The doughnut holes will only take about 30 seconds per side. Carefully remove the doughnuts from the hot fat with the end of a wooden spoon, tongs, slotted spoon, bamboo chopstick, or Chinese skimmer. Place on a baking sheet lined with clean paper towels. After a minute, roll the doughnuts in the sugar. Let the oil return to 375 degrees F (190 degrees C) before adding more doughnuts. These doughnuts are best freshly made. Makes about 8 - 3 inch doughnuts and 8 doughnut holes.(The recipe can be doubled.) Preparation time 60 minutes.

Homemade Raised Doughnuts: 2 1/4 - 2 1/2 cups (295 - 325 grams) all-purpose flour 1 1/2 teaspoons active dry yeast 3 tablespoons (40 grams) room temperature unsalted butter, cut into small pieces 3 tablespoons (35 grams) granulated white sugar 1/4 teaspoon salt 1/2 cup (120 ml) milk, heated to lukewarm

1 large egg, lightly beaten Topping: 1/2 - 1 cup (100-200 grams) granulated white sugar or 1/2 - 1 cup (60 - 120 grams) sifted powdered (confectioners or icing) sugar

Whipped Cream Frosting:
Place your mixing bowl and wire whisk in the freezer for about 15-30 minutes. Then place all the ingredients in the cold bowl and beat just until stiff peaks form. If not using immediately, cover and refrigerate. Makes about 2 cups (480 ml) whipped cream. Raspberry Whipped Cream: Make the whipped cream frosting but beat only until very soft peaks form. Then add the raspberry puree or jam, and beat just until stiff peaks form. Taste and fold in more sugar or puree, as needed. If not using immediately, cover and refrigerate. Makes about 2 cups (480 ml) whipped cream. Strawberry Whipped Cream: Make the whipped cream frosting but beat only until very soft peaks form. Then add the strawberry puree or jam, and beat just until stiff peaks form. Taste and fold in more sugar or puree, as needed. If not using immediately, cover and refrigerate. Makes about 2 cups (480 ml) whipped cream. Lemon Whipped Cream: Make the whipped cream frosting but beat only until very soft peaks form. Then add the chilled lemon curd, and beat just until stiff peaks form. Taste and fold in more sugar or lemon curd, as needed. If not using immediately, cover and refrigerate. Makes about 2 cups (480 ml) whipped cream. Chocolate Whipped Cream: Place your mixing bowl and wire whisk in the freezer for about 15-30 minutes. Place the vanilla extract, 3 tablespoons of sugar, and cocoa powder in the cold bowl. Stir in about 2 tablespoons of the cream to form a thick paste (this will dissolve the cocoa powder). Then add the rest of the cream and beat just until stiff peaks form. If not using immediately, cover and refrigerate. Makes about 2 cups (480 ml) whipped cream. Mocha Whipped Cream: Place your mixing bowl and wire whisk in the freezer for about 15-

30 minutes. Place the vanilla extract, 3 tablespoons of sugar, cocoa powder, and instant coffee powder in the cold bowl. Stir in about 2 tablespoons of the cream to form a thick paste (this will dissolve the cocoa and coffee powder). Then add the rest of the cream and beat just until stiff peaks form. If not using immediately, cover and refrigerate. Makes about 2 cups (480 ml) whipped cream.

Whipped Cream Frosting: 1 cup (240 ml) cold heavy whipping cream (35-40% butterfat content) 1/2 teaspoon pure vanilla extract 1-2 tablespoons (15-25 grams) granulated white sugar, or to taste Raspberry Whipped Cream: Make the Whipped Cream Frosting and Add: 1/3 cup (80 ml) chilled raspberry puree or seedless raspberry jam Strawberry Whipped Cream: Make the Whipped Cream Frosting and Add: 1/3 cup (80 ml) chilled strawberry puree or strawberry jam Lemon Whipped Cream: Make the Whipped Cream Frosting and add 1/4 to 1/3 cup (60-80 ml) chilled lemon curd Chocolate Whipped Cream: 1/2 teaspoon pure vanilla extract 3 - 4 tablespoons (35-50 grams) granulated white sugar, or to taste 2 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa powder (regular or Dutch processed) 1 cup (240 ml) cold heavy whipping cream

Mocha Whipped Cream: 1/2 teaspoon pure vanilla extract 3 - 4 tablespoons (35-50 grams) granulated white sugar, or to taste 2 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa powder (regular or Dutch processed) 1 teaspoon instant coffee powder or espresso powder 1 cup (240 ml) cold heavy whipping cream

American Sponge Cake:
Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (180 degrees C) and place rack in center of oven. Have ready an ungreased two-piece 10 inch (25 cm) tube pan. Separate the cold eggs, placing the yolks in one bowl and the whites in another bowl. Cover the bowls with plastic wrap and bring the eggs to room temperature (about 30 minutes). Meanwhile sift or whisk the sifted flour with the baking powder and salt. Set aside. Place the egg yolks and 2/3 cup (135 grams) of the sugar in the bowl of your electric mixer, fitted with the paddle attachment (or use a hand mixer). Beat on high speed until they are thick, fluffy and light colored (when you slowly raise the beater the batter will fall back into the bowl in a slow ribbon). Then beat in the vanilla extract, water, and lemon zest. Set aside while you beat the egg whites. In a clean bowl, with the whisk attachment, whip the egg whites until foamy. Add the cream of tartar and continue beating until soft peaks form. Gradually add the 1/3 cup (65 grams) of sugar and continue beating until the egg whites are shiny and just form stiff peaks. Next, sift the flour mixture over the beaten egg yolks (about one third of the flour mixture at a time) and gently but quickly fold (with a wire whisk or rubber spatula) the flour into the egg yolk batter. Then gently fold a little of the beaten egg whites into the batter to lighten it, and then add the rest of the whites, folding just until incorporated. (Do not over mix the batter or it will deflate.) Pour the batter into the tube

pan, smoothing the top. Bake in preheated oven for 28 - 35 minutes or until a toothpick inserted into the center of the cake comes out clean. Remove from oven and immediately invert the pan (turn upside down) and suspend it by placing the inner tube on the top of a flat topped glass or bowl. Allow the cake to cool completely before unmolding (about one hour). Run a flat metal spatula or sharp knife around the inside of the pan and then remove the center core of the pan. Run the spatula along the bottom and center core of the pan. Invert the cake onto a greased wire rack. The cake can be served plain with a dusting of powdered sugar or with fresh fruit and softly whipped cream. This cake can be covered and stored for a few days, or it can be frozen. Serves about 10 people.

American Sponge Cake: 6 large eggs, separated 1 cup (100 grams) sifted cake flour

1/4 teaspoon baking powder 1/4 teaspoon salt
1 cup (200 grams) granulated white sugar, divided 1 teaspoon pure vanilla extract 2 tablespoons water Zest of a lemon or orange (outer skin) 3/4 teaspoon cream of tartar

Read more: http://www.joyofbaking.com/AmericanSpongeCake.html#ixzz2CGoQS5EX

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