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The Silk Road: Ancient Trading
Route in the Eurasian Continent
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Erin Ouano
Athena Janobas
Senior Division
Group Website

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Primary Sources

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Cantu, Danny. Digital image. History. History, 10 Sept. 2002. Web. 5 Jan.

2016. <http://www.history.com/topics/exploration/marco-polo>.


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This image shows a portrait of Marco Polo.

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Chai, Masala. The Compass. Digital image. Contemporary Silk Road.

Tpcrimmo, 8 Aug. 2013. Web. 3 Jan. 2016. <https://



asiandesignrmit.wordpress.com/2013/08/08/the-compass/>.


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This photo shows a Chinese invention of a compass. It is made of
lodestone during Han Dystany.


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Cohen, Kathleen. History. Digital image. Silk Road. Silk Road Study Group,

12 Mar. 2000. Web. 25 Nov. 2015. <http://gallery.sjsu.edu/silkroad/

history.htm>.


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This photo shows a caravanserai located along the Silk Road. Travelers at
the time stayed in these guest houses. Exchanges and trade took place at
these guest houses. Many stayed here for safety reasons.


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Gifford, Rob. China Road. Digital image. Journey Into The Power.

SilkMoto, 21 May 2008. Web. 25 Nov. 2015. <http://


www.silkmoto.com/?p=46>.


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This digital image shows multiple people with their camels. They are
resting from traveling the Silk Road. The camels are dressed in
extravagant clothing. Some can be seen trading with others in the photo.


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Heping, Zhou. Chinese Printing Blocks. Digital image. Ancient Printing

Techniques. National Library of China, 2 Dec. 2004. Web. 3 Jan.

2016. <http://www.nlc.cn/newen/nlcnews/201404/



t20140425_84083.htm>.


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This digital image shows hundreds of ancient Chinese printing blocks. This
was one of the famous inventions that influenced the Silk Road and was
also exchanged on it.


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Jody, Vic. Black Death. Digital image. Old Diseases. The Richest, 23 May

2014. Web. 9 Jan. 2016. <http://www.therichest.com/rich-list/5-old-

diseases-that-are-still-attacking-us/?view=all>.


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This digital image shows Europeans suffering on the streets from the Black
Plague. It killed about 2/3 of the European population.


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Lupsor, Andrea. Digital image. Historia.ro. Historia.ro, 9 Mar. 2012. Web. 3

Jan. 2016. <http://www.historia.ro/exclusiv_web/articol/top-inven-ii-

chineze-ti-care-au-schimbat-lumea>.


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This image shows the process of paper making. It gives each step from
the start to the finish of making.


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McCurry, Steve. Sandstorm. Digital image. Karavansara. Wordpress, 30

Aug. 2013. Web. 9 Jan. 2016. <https://karavansara.wordpress.com/

2013/08/30/writing-prompt-sandstorm/>.


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This digital image shows a camel and its owner in the middle of a
sandstorm. This was one of the obstacles travelers faced on the Silk Road.


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Mitchell, Ted. Gunpowder (Invented in China). Digital image. The Silk

Road: Yesterday and Today. Ted Mitchell, 2011. Web. 3 Jan. 2016.

<http://www.mitchellteachers.org/ChinaTour/SilkRoadProject/

silk_road_dunhuang.html>.


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In this image Muslims are using the gun powder the Chinese made. the
Chinese made the gunpowder on accident but had figured a way to use it
later on and had allow others to use it as well.


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Mulloy, Shawn. Buddha Statue. Digital image. Carving China's Own

Buddhist Tradition. Sina, 26 Jan. 2013. Web. 3 Jan. 2016. <http://

english.sina.com/culture/p/2013/0126/553846.html>.


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This image is of a seated Buddha carved into the side of a hill in Western
China. This shows how religion was often visible when traveling the Silk
Road.


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Sanders, Jared. Digital image. Encyclopaedia Britanica. Encyclopaedia
Britanica Online, 27 July 2012. Web. 9 Jan. 2016. <http://
www.britannica.com/place/Zeravshan-Range>.

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This image shows the Zeravshan range. During summer the area gets very
hot and dry, a problem for the travelers of the silk road.

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Tai, Huan. Silk Road History. Digital image. History. China Culture, 22 Jan.

2013. Web. 25 Nov. 2015. <http://www.chinaculture.org/chineseway/

2013-01/22/content_450786.htm>.


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This digital image shows a merchant traveling with camels and horses. The
camels are carrying goods and they are exiting a trading center.


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Wei, Ian. Digital image. China Discovery. China Discovery, 10 May 2009.

Web. 9 Jan. 2016. <http://www.chinadiscovery.com/china-photo-

tours/gansu-photography-tour.html>.


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This image shows the Dunhuang desert. It is located at the edge of the
gobi desert and is a very well known for its large sand dunes.


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The Wind. Digital image. The Geological Society. The Geological Society of

London, 15 Oct. 2007. Web. 9 Jan. 2016. <https://



www.geolsoc.org.uk/ks3/gsl/education/resources/rockcycle/

page3579.html>.


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This image shows an approaching sandstorm on a hot desert town.

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Secondary Sources

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Anita, Avanti. Colored Powder. Digital image. Holi. India Travel, 26 Mar.

2013. Web. 3 Jan. 2016. <http://www.indianholiday.com/blog/holi/>.


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This digital image shows a diverse choice of colored powder offered at a
booth. This is one of the many goods that were sold on the Silk Road.


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Cho, Lia. China Printing Museum. Digital image. Culture China. Lia Cho, 18

Sept. 2013. Web. 3 Jan. 2016. <http://arts.cultural-china.com/en/

102Arts12662.html>.


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This photo shows the printing blocks that the Chinese invented. The
printing blocks is the ancestors of the printing press and printer.


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Cohen, Kathleen. "Silk Road." Silk Road. Silk Road Study Group, 2 Nov.

2000. Web. 14 Dec. 2015. <http://gallery.sjsu.edu/silkroad/


index.html>.


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This website helped tremendously by giving background information on
the Silk Road and many topics that go along with it. It provided details on
culture, religion, and civilization.


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Cohn, David. "SilkRoad." SilkRoad. Stanford, 17 Sept. 2005. Web. 09 Jan.

2016. <http://virtuallabs.stanford.edu/silkroad/SilkRoad.html>.


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This website contained an informational timeline about the Silk Road. It
included many important dates and events that occurred during that time
period.


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Debbie, Betty. "Printing." The Silk Road. The Silk Road Foundation, 18

Sept. 2013. Web. 5 Jan. 2016. <http://www.silk-road.com/artl/

printing.shtml>.


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This website provided information on how and when printing was
invented. An emperor ordered the printing of Buddhist images and
scriptures. The first technology used was cubed wooden blocks. Over time
it advanced.


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Feng, Jiang Yun. Trading Along Silk Road. Digital image. Modern Trading.

Gbtimes, 27 Oct. 2013. Web. 25 Nov. 2015. <http://gbtimes.com/

business/modern-trading-along-old-silk-road>.


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This digital map shows one of the main routes used on the Silk Road. It
also shows major civilizations along the road. This map gives a
visualization and displays the environmental obstacles, such as rivers and
mountains.


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Finnin, D. Food of The Silk Road. Digital image. Traveling the Silk Road.

FoodWineTravel, 15 June 2012. Web. 25 Nov. 2015. <http://

www.foodwinetravel.com.au/travel/canberra/travelling-the-silk-road/

>.


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This photo shows a few of the foods that were traded along the Silk Road.
A variety of food was traded along the route. Some include spices, oils,
and fruits.


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Foltz, Richard. Religions of the Silk Road: Premodern Patterns of

Globalization. 2nd ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010. Print.


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This book told us that Ferdinand von Richthofen invented the term "Silk
Road" for the multiple trade routes in Eurasia. It also gave us an insight
into the religions that spread on the Silk Road.


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The Silk Road and Ancient Trade. Dir. John Green. Perf. John Green.

Youtube. Crash Course, 22 Mar. 2012. Web. 3 Jan. 2016. <https://

www.youtube.com/watch?v=vfe-eNq-Qyg>.


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This video gave information on what countries exported what goods. It
also helped us understand how the Silk Road helped with globalization.


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Gordon, Oliver. Famous Travelers on The Silk Road. Digital image. The Silk

Road. Cultural China, 3 Sept. 2010. Web. 25 Nov. 2015. <http://

www.cnto.org/iconic/silk-road-2/>.


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This image shows the Ningxia desert while camels are traveling on it. The
desert is located in the northern, central area of China. If taking a certain
route, travelers would have to pass through this desert.


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Hansen, Valerie. "The Legacy of the Silk Road." The Legacy Of The Silk

Road. Yale, 25 Jan. 2013. Web. 09 Jan. 2016. <http://



yaleglobal.yale.edu/content/legacy-silk-road>.


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This website helped us by providing analysis into the Silk Road. It also
included many quotes that are shown on our website.


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Hansen, Valerie. Silk Road: A New History. New York, NY: Oxford UP, 2015.

Print. 1st edition.


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This book helped our project by giving specific details about the Silk Road.
The communities near the Silk Road were more focused on agriculture
rather than commercial needs. Trading of goods was more common than
the use of coins.


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Kartapranata, Gunawan. "Buddhist Expansion." Buddhism Entering Silk

Road. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Jan. 2016. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

Silk_Road_transmission_of_Buddhism#/media/




File:Buddhist_Expansion.svg>.


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This map shows how Buddhism spread into Asia. It also shows major
cities and details of how it spread.


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Kimball, Charles. General History of the Middle East. Digital image. Http://

xenohistorian.faithweb.com/index.html. Charles Kimball, 29 Apr.

2000. Web. 3 Jan. 2016. <http://xenohistorian.faithweb.com/

neareast/ne09.html>.


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This map showed the spread of Islam west of the Silk Road. It gives detail
of where the religion spread.


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Liu, Xinru. The Silk Road in World History. 1st ed. New York: Oxford U,

2010. Print.


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This book helped our project by explaining how the Silk Road affected
world history forever.


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Mark, Joshua J. "Silk Road." Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ancient

History Encyclopedia, 28 Mar. 2014. Web. 14 Dec. 2015. <http://

www.ancient.eu/Silk_Road/>.


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The website gave information on the origin of name, how the Silk Road
was formed, important routes that made up the road, and important dates
associated with the Silk Road.


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Millward, James A. The Silk Road: A Very Short Introduction. 1st ed. New

York: Oxford UP, 2013. Print.


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This book helped us in the beginning of our research because it introduced
us to the Silk Road. It also said the Silk Road was neither "silk" or a
"road." The Silk Road consisted of multiple routes and it was not made of
silk.


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Neelis, Jason. "Buddhism on the Silk Routes." Washington Edu. University

of Washington, 18 July 2014. Web. 03 Jan. 2016. <https://


depts.washington.edu/silkroad/exhibit/religion/buddhism/


buddhism_silkroad.html>.


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This website helped me understand how Buddhism began to diffuse into
China. After the first Buddhist community was established, monasteries
began to form around the Silk Road.


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Pratima, Kali. "The Decline of the Silk Road." The Decline of the Silk Road.

Republic of China in India, 10 June 2006. Web. 05 Jan. 2016. <http://

in.china-embassy.org/eng/ssygd/sczl/t139384.htm>.


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This website gave information of the age of exploration. Also the the
downhill of the Silk Road.


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Preston, Diana. Turpan. Digital image. Central Asia. Travel, 22 July 2012.

Web. 30 Dec. 2015. <http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/

02282/silkroad4_2282913c.jpg>.


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This picture shows Turpan, an oasis located on one of the routes of the
Silk Road. Travelers and their animals would often stop here to rest and
refresh. Interaction of diverse people took place at oasis’.


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Roon, Hans Van. Discover the Secrets of the Silk Road -- before Everyone

Else Does. Digital image. Mongols China and the Silk Road. N.p., 12

Oct. 2010. Web. 2 Dec. 2015. <http://





mongolschinaandthesilkroad.blogspot.com/2010/10/discover-

secrets-of-silk-road-before.html>.


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The path shown, stretches from east Asia to the Mediterranean. This
image shows the historical landmarks along the Silk Road. Also a route
taken by the popular Marco Polo.


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Samuel, Jesse. "Gun and Gunpowder." The Bridge Between the Eastern

and Western Culture. The Silk Road Foundation, 3 Mar. 2007. Web. 5

Jan. 2016. <http://www.silk-road.com/artl/gun.shtml>.


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This website gave information on how and when guns and gunpowder
were invented. Gunpowder was found on accident when alchemists were
searching for an elixir of immortality. Instead they found gunpowder.


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Sanders, Jill. "The Three Kingdoms." Kingdoms of China. N.p., n.d. Web.

30 Dec. 2015. <https://encrypted-tbn1.gstatic.com/images?

q=tbn:ANd9GcRJRaL9wp_9K-






YTiHl9J7NXRG4D7fCvB6Nwyl7J7Ed6Jys4DhqpKg>.


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This map shows three important kingdoms during the time period of the
Silk Road. Wei, Wu, and Shu were the names of the kingdoms.


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Shelly, Gary. "The History of Paper." The Silk Road. The Silk Road

Foundation, 24 Nov. 2004. Web. 5 Jan. 2016. <http://www.silk-

road.com/artl/papermaking.shtml>.


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This website provided information on when and how paper was invented.
At first it was made of tree bark but it eventually advanced and the
process of making it became easier.


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Smith, Dylan. "SilkRoad." SilkRoad. Stanford, 21 Apr. 2007. Web. 14 Dec.

2015. <http://virtuallabs.stanford.edu/silkroad/SilkRoad.html>.


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This website contributed to our project by having a specific and detailoriented timeline. The timeline gave us an idea of what may have caused
certain events and the effects that came with it.


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Szostak, John D. "Virtual Art Exhibit - Islam." Virtual Art Exhibit - Islam.

University of Washington, 19 Aug. 2014. Web. 03 Jan. 2016.

<https://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/exhibit/religion/islam/

islam.html>.


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This site gave me more insight of how Islam had spread through the Silk
Road. It also went in depth of the conversion of Muslims and non-Muslims
west of the Silk Road.


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Taonga, Asim. "The Compass." Contemporary Silk Road. Asian Research,

8 Aug. 2013. Web. 5 Jan. 2016. <https://





asiandesignrmit.wordpress.com/2013/08/08/the-compass/>.


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This website helped by giving information on the technology used with the
first early compasses. Compasses were used for several different things.
Also, the Chinese invented them.


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Tara, Nitika. "Spreading of Black Death." The Black Death. N.p., n.d. Web.

9 Jan. 2016. <https://historyrepeatingdotorg.files.wordpress.com/

2014/10/plague-routes-eurasia.jpg>.


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This map shows the path that the bubonic plague spread on. Many
experts think that the Silk Road aided with the spreading of the disease.


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