Bio Medical Waste Management

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Biomedical waste management

Learning Objectives
 Define

biomedical waste management  Classification of biomedical waste management  Disposal of biomedical wastes.

Biomedical waste management

“Bio Medical waste” is any waste, which is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human beings or animals or in research activities pertaining to or in the production or testing of biologicals and categories.

Healthcare waste Definition

Healthcare waste (HCW) is defined as the total waste stream from a healthcare facility (HCF) Two basic categories

Healthcare General Waste (HCGW) 75-90% Healthcare Risk Waste (HCRW) 10-25%

Healthcare general waste
Healthcare General Waste (HCGW)
Paper Packaging  Plastic packaging  Food preparation  And other items that haven’t been contaminated

Healthcare risk waste

Healthcare Risk Waste (HCRW)
Infectious waste  Hazardous waste  Harmful to humans and environment


Biomedical waste is generated in: hospitals, nursing homes, clinics, medical laboratories, blood banks, animal houses etc. Such a waste can also be generated at home if health care is being provided there to a patient (e.g. injection, dressing material etc.)



Catheters and tubes  Disposable masks and scrubs  Disposable tools  Medical gloves  Wound dressings



Blood  Body fluids and tissues  Cell, organ and tissue cultures

Sharps:  Blades (Razor or Scalpel)  Material made up glass such as cuvettes and slides.  Needles  Plastic pipettes and syringes


Laboratory waste:

Animal carcasses  Hazardous chemicals  Medicinal plants  Radioactive material with biological components  Supernatants  Cadavers,urine,feces and cytotoxic drug are not considered biomedical waste



Non hazardous: approximately 75-90% of the biomedical waste is non-hazardous and as harmless as any other municipal waste. (E.G, Plastic,Glass,Cardboared,etc)

Hazardous waste:
10-25% is hazardous and can be injurious to humans or animals and deleterious to environment. It is important to realise that if both these types are mixed together then the whole waste becomes harmful.

Classification and management
Category Waste Type Treatment and Disposal Method

Human Wastes Category 1 (Tissues, organs, body parts Category 2 Animal Waste Microbiology and Category 3 Biotechnology waste
Category 4 Sharps Discarded Medicines and Cytotoxic Drugs

Incineration / deep burial Incineration / deep burial Autoclave/microwave/incineration Disinfection (chemical treatment)+/autoclaving/microwaving and mutilation shredding Incineration/ destruction and drugs disposal in secured landfills

Category 5

Waste Type Treatment and Disposal Method Contaminated solid Incineration/autoclaving / Category 6 waste microwaving Solid waste (disposable Disinfection by chemical treatment+ Category 7 items other than microwaving/autoclaving & sharps) mutilation shredding Liquid waste (generated from laboratory Disinfection by chemical treatment+ Category 8 washing, cleaning, and discharge into the drains housekeeping and disinfecting activity) Category

Category 9 Incineration ash

Disposal in municipal landfill
Chemical Treatment + and discharge in to drain for liquids and secured landfill for solids

Category10 Chemical Wastes

Color coding

Type of container

Waste category option Cat 1,2,3,6 deep


Incineration /




Disinfected container / plastic bag

Blue/white Plastic bag/ translucent Puncture proof

burial Cat 3,6,7 Autoclave/microwave /chemical treatment Cat 4,7 Autoclave/microwave /chemical treatment / destruction shredding Cat 5,9,10 Disposal in secure landfill


Plastic bag

Disposal Of Wastes

Containers Type

Container type

Must be appropriate to contents & regulations

  

Bags – NO sharps, medicines or liquids Sharps bins – sharps ONLY Other Rigid Bins – various e.g.
High liquid-content Clinical  Combustible Radioactive  Special & Clinical (e.g. Cytotoxic)  Waste medicines

Containers – Colour

Container colour
Tells other staff what is in the container  Tells the contractor what to do with the waste  Can apply to both sacks and rigid containers

Safe for Disposal to General Waste Lab plastics Carcass, anatomical

Sharps Cytotoxic

Disposal Procedure – Carcass

Carcass or anatomical material
Small / medium carcasses or obvious body parts  Render safe first  Yellow bags or containers  Freeze prior to collection or keep refrigerated

Disposal Procedure – Blood

Blood or body fluids
Render safe first  Including heavily soaked materials (e.g. swabs, dressings)  Yellow containers or heavy gauge yellow bags (only if doubled and NOT leaking)  Freeze prior to collection

Disposal Procedure – Sharps

Including needles, scalpel blades and small pieces of glass  ALWAYS USE a Sharps bin  Do NOT overfill or shake  Follow H&S guidance and take care  (If contaminated) autoclave when bin is full

Disposal Procedure – Plastics

Laboratory plastics
Render safe first  If non-identifiable following autoclave then nonclinical disposal [Black Bag and label “Safe for Disposal”]  If identifiable still then possibly “offensive” Orange Bag and label as for Clinical Waste


Introduction to Biological Waste Training Session

Slide #26

Disposal Procedure – Glass

Render safe first  Designated boxes – clearly labelled “Broken Glassware – Safe for Disposal”

Except if contains hazardous chemicals – special disposal route via Chemistry

Disposal Procedure – Medicines

Designated medicine bins only (usually Blue Rigid container)  Do not use containers intended for other uses (e.g. sharps bins)  Do not pour down the drain  Some medicines are considered to be Special Waste

Disposal Procedure – Special I

Cytotoxic Waste

Special Waste, therefore
Packaging and labelling requirements  Holding locations – separate containment  “Pre-notification” of SEPA by contractor & Special Waste Consignment Note  Extra charges

Notify Waste Manager

Disposal Procedure – Special II

Infectious Waste
Wherever possible, should be rendered safe / inactivated BEFORE leaving the lab  If not possible then special conditions apply:

Packaging and labelling  Holding locations – separate containment  “Pre-notification” of SEPA  Extra paperwork  Extra charges

Notify Waste Manager immediately

Disposal Procedure - Reminder

Key points to remember:
Never fill sacks more than ¾ full  Never overfill sharps bins  Do NOT use anything that leaks  Secure sacks with a plastic tie/seal bins before removing from lab  Always use a Barcode Label and complete your Label Record Sheet  Know if it is “Special Waste” & act accordingly  Place in approved Holding Location (freezer)


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