Biometric Authentication

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Iris recognition is an automated method of biometric identification that uses mathematical pattern-recognition techniques on video images of the irides of an individual's eyes, whose complex random patterns are unique and can be seen from some distance.

Not to be confused with another, less prevalent, ocular-based technology, retina scanning, iris recognition uses camera technology with subtle infrared illumination to acquire images of the detail-rich, intricate structures of the iris. Digital templates encoded from these patterns by mathematical and statistical algorithms allow unambiguous positive identification of an individual. Databases of enrolled templates are searched by matcher engines at speeds measured in the millions of templates per second per (single-core) CPU, and with infinitesimally small False Match rates.

Many millions of persons in several countries around the world have been enrolled in iris recognition systems, for convenience purposes such as passport-free automated border-crossings, and some national ID systems based on this technology are being deployed. A key advantage of iris recognition, besides its speed of matching and its extreme resistance to False Matches, is the stability of the iris as an internal, protected, yet externally visible organ of the eye.

The core algorithms that underlie iris recognition were developed in the 1990's by Professor John Daugman, Ph.D, OBE (University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory). These were licensed to many developers of commercial iris cameras and systems including LG Electronics, Oki, Panasonic, Sagem, IrisGuard, and Sarnoff Labs. As of 2008, Daugman's algorithms are the basis of all commercially deployed iris recognition systems, although many alternative approaches have been studied and compared in the academic literature in hundreds of publications. Iris recognition remains a very active research topic in computing, engineering, statistics, and applied mathematics. Contents

* 1 Visible Wavelength (VW) vs Near Infrared (NIR) Imaging * 2 Operating principle * 3 Advantages * 4 Shortcomings * 5 Security considerations * 6 Deployed applications * 7 Iris recognition in fiction

* 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links

[edit] Visible Wavelength (VW) vs Near Infrared (NIR) Imaging

The majority of iris recognition cameras use Near Infrared (NIR) imaging by emitting 750nm wavelength low-power light. This is done because dark-brown eyes, possessed by the majority of the human population, reveal rich structure in the NIR but much less in the visible band (400 - 700nm), and also because NIR light is invisible and unintrusive. A further important reason is that by allowing only this selected narrow band of illuminating light back into the camera via its filters, most of the ambient corneal reflections from a bright environment are blocked from contaminating the iris patterns.

The melanin, also known as chromophore, mainly consists of two distinct heterogeneous macromolecules, called eumelanin (brown–black) and pheomelanin (yellow–reddish).[1][2] NIR imaging is not sensitive to these chromophores, and as a result they do not appear in the captured images. In contrast, visible wavelength (VW) imaging keeps the related chromophore information and, compared to NIR, provides rich sources of information mainly coded as shape patterns in iris. Hosseini, et al.[3] provide a comparison between these two imaging modalities and fused the results to boost the recognition rate. An alternative feature extraction method to encode VW iris images was also introduced, which is highly robust to reflectivity terms in iris. Such fusion results are seemed to be alternative approach for multi-modal biometric systems which intend to reach high accuracies of recognition in large databanks. Visible Wavelength Iris Image Near Infrared (NIR) version


NIRIris.png [edit] Operating principle An IriScan model 2100 iris scanner

An iris-recognition algorithm first has to localize the inner and outer boundaries of the iris (pupil and limbus) in an image of an eye. Further subroutines detect and exclude eyelids, eyelashes, and specular reflections that often occlude parts of the iris. The set of pixels containing only the iris, normalized by a rubber-sheet model to

compensate for pupil dilation or constriction, is then analyzed to extract a bit pattern encoding the information needed to compare two iris images. In the case of Daugman's algorithms, a Gabor wavelet transform is used. The result is a set of complex numbers that carry local amplitude and phase information about the iris pattern. In Daugman's algorithms, most amplitude information is discarded, and the 2048 bits representing an iris pattern consist of phase information (complex sign bits of the Gabor wavelet projections). Discarding the amplitude information ensures that the template remains largely unaffected by changes in illumination or camera gain (contrast), and contributes to the long-term usability of the biometric template. For identification (one-to-many template matching) or verification (one-to-one template matching), a template created by imaging an iris is compared to stored template(s) in a database. If the Hamming distance is below the decision threshold, a positive identification has effectively been made because of the statistical extreme improbability that two different persons could agree by chance ("collide") in so many bits, given the high entropy of iris templates. [edit] Advantages

The iris of the eye has been described as the ideal part of the human body for biometric identification for several reasons:

* It is an internal organ that is well protected against damage and wear by a highly transparent and sensitive membrane (the cornea). This distinguishes it from fingerprints, which can be difficult to recognize after years of certain types of manual labor.

* The iris is mostly flat, and its geometric configuration is only controlled by two complementary muscles (the sphincter pupillae and dilator pupillae) that control the diameter of the pupil. This makes the iris shape far more predictable than, for instance, that of the face.

* The iris has a fine texture that—like fingerprints—is determined randomly during embryonic gestation. Like the fingerprint, it is very hard (if not impossible) to prove that the iris is unique. However, there are so many factors that go into the formation of these textures (the iris and fingerprint) that the chance of false matches for either is extremely low. Even genetically identical individuals have completely independent iris textures.

* An iris scan is similar to taking a photograph and can be performed from about 10 cm to a few meters away. There is no need for the person being identified to touch any equipment that has recently been touched by a stranger, thereby eliminating an objection that has been raised in some cultures against fingerprint scanners, where a

finger has to touch a surface, or retinal scanning, where the eye must be brought very close to an eyepiece (like looking into a microscope).

* The commercially deployed iris-recognition algorithm, John Daugman'sIrisCode, has an unprecedented false match rate (better than 10−11 if a Hamming distance threshold of 0.26 is used, meaning that up to 26% of the bits in two IrisCodes are allowed to disagree due to imaging noise, reflections, etc., while still declaring them to be a match).[4]

* While there are some medical and surgical procedures that can affect the colour and overall shape of the iris, the fine texture remains remarkably stable over many decades. Some iris identifications have succeeded over a period of about 30 years.

[edit] Shortcomings Question book-new.svg This unreferenced section requires citations to ensure verifiability.

* Many commercial Iris scanners can be easily fooled by a high quality image of an iris or face in place of the real thing. * The scanners are often tough to adjust and can become bothersome for multiple people of different heights to use in succession. * The accuracy of scanners can be affected by changes in lighting * Iris scanners are significantly more expensive than some other forms of biometrics, password or prox card security systems * Iris scanning is a relatively new technology and is incompatible with the very substantial investment that the law enforcement and immigration authorities of some countries have already made into fingerprint recognition. * Iris recognition is very difficult to perform at a distance larger than a few meters and if the person to be identified is not cooperating by holding the head still and looking into the camera. However, several academic institutions and biometric vendors are developing products that claim to be able to identify subjects at distances of up to 10 meters ("standoff iris" or "iris at a distance" as well as "iris on the move" for persons walking at speeds up to 1 meter/sec). * As with other photographic biometric technologies, iris recognition is susceptible to poor image quality, with associated failure to enroll rates.

* As with other identification infrastructure (national residents databases, ID cards, etc.), civil rights activists have voiced concerns that iris-recognition technology might help governments to track individuals beyond their will.

[edit] Security considerations

As with most other biometric identification technology, a still not satisfactorily solved problem with iris recognition is the problem of live-tissue verification. The reliability of any biometric identification depends on ensuring that the signal acquired and compared has actually been recorded from a live body part of the person to be identified and is not a manufactured template. Many commercially available irisrecognition systems are easily fooled by presenting a high-quality photograph of a face instead of a real face, which makes such devices unsuitable for unsupervised applications, such as door access-control systems. The problem of live-tissue verification is less of a concern in supervised applications (e.g., immigration control), where a human operator supervises the process of taking the picture.

Methods that have been suggested to provide some defence against the use of fake eyes and irises include:

* Changing ambient lighting during the identification (switching on a bright lamp), such that the pupillary reflex can be verified and the iris image be recorded at several different pupil diameters * Analysing the 2D spatial frequency spectrum of the iris image for the peaks caused by the printer dither patterns found on commercially available fake-iris contact lenses * Analysing the temporal frequency spectrum of the image for the peaks caused by computer displays * Using spectral analysis instead of merely monochromatic cameras to distinguish iris tissue from other material * Observing the characteristic natural movement of an eyeball (measuring nystagmus, tracking eye while text is read, etc.) * Testing for retinal retroreflection (red-eye effect) * Testing for reflections from the eye's four optical surfaces (front and back of both cornea and lens) to verify their presence, position and shape * Using 3D imaging (e.g., stereo cameras) to verify the position and shape of the iris relative to other eye features

A 2004 report by the German Federal Office for Information Security noted that none of the iris-recognition systems commercially available at the time implemented any live-tissue verification technology. Like any pattern-recognition technology, livetissue verifiers will have their own false-reject probability and will therefore further reduce the overall probability that a legitimate user is accepted by the sensor. [edit] Deployed applications IrisGuard Inc. UAE Enrollment Station

* United Arab Emirates IrisGuard's Homeland Security Border Control has been operating an expellee tracking system in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) since 2001, when the UAE launched a national border-crossing security initiative. Today, all of the UAE's land, air and sea ports of entry are equipped with systems. All foreign nationals who possess a visa to enter the UAE are processed through iris cameras installed at all primary and auxiliary immigration inspection points. To date, the system has apprehended over 330,000 persons re-entering the UAE with fraudulent travel documents.

* Aadhar, India's UID project uses Iris scan along with fingerprints to uniquely identify people and allocate a Unique Identification Number.

* Iris is one of three biometric identification technologies internationally standardized by ICAO for use in future passports (the other two are fingerprint and face recognition).

* Police forces across America plan to start using BI2 Technologies’ mobile MORIS (Mobile Offender Recognition and Information System)in 2012. New York City Police Department was the first, installed in Manhattan fall of 2010.

* Iris recognition technology has been implemented by BioID Technologies SA in Pakistan for UNHCR repatriation project to control aid distribution for Afghan refugees. Refugees are repatriated by UNHCR in cooperation with Government of Pakistan, and they are paid for their travel. To make sure people do not get paid more than once, their irises are scanned, and the system will detect the refugees on next attempt. The database has more than 1.3 million iris code templates and around 4000 registrations per day. The one-to-many iris comparison takes place within 1.5 seconds against 1.3 million iris codes.

* At Schiphol Airport, Netherlands, iris recognition has permitted passport-free immigration since 2001.

A U.S. Marine Corps Sergeant uses an iris scanner to positively identify a member of the Baghdadi city council prior to a meeting with local tribal leaders, sheiks, community leaders and U.S. service members.

* UK's IRIS — Iris Recognition Immigration System, which started operating in 2004 but which was closed to new registrations in 2011 and which is being phased out in 2012.[5][6]

* Used to verify the recognition of the "Afghan Girl" (SharbatGula) by National Geographic photographer Steve McCurry. See

* In a number of US and Canadian airports, as part of the NEXUS program that facilitates entry into the US and Canada for pre-approved, low-risk travelers.

* In several Canadian airports, as part of the CANPASS Air program that facilitates entry into Canada for pre-approved, low-risk air travelers.

* Google uses iris scanners to control access to their datacentres[7].

* On May 10, 2011, Hoyos Group demonstrated a device called EyeLock using irisrecognition as an alternative to passwords to log people in to password-protected Web sites and applications, like Facebook or eBay. [8]

[edit] Iris recognition in fiction

* In Demolition Man (1993), a character played by Wesley Snipes uses the Warden's gouged eye to gain access through a security door. * In Dan Brown's 2000 novel Angels and Demons, an assassin gains access to a top secret CERN laboratory using a scientist's eye.

* Steven Spielberg's 2002 science fiction film Minority Report depicts a society in which what appears to be a form of iris recognition has become daily practice. The principal character undergoes an eye transplant in order to change his identity but continues to use his original eyes to gain access to restricted locations. * In The Island (2005), a human clone character played by Ewan McGregor uses his eye to gain access through a security door of the original's house. * The Simpsons Movie (2007) features a scene that illustrates the difficulty of image acquisition in iris recognition.[1] * Numb3rs features a scene where a robber gets into the CalSci facility by cracking the code assigned to a specific iris. * NCIS uses an iris scanner in the garage, where forensic vehicle investigations are carried out and evidence is stored. There is another scanner at the entrance to MTAC. The sequence of Leroy Jethro Gibbs being verified is shown in the title sequence. The imagery for this sequence has been "enhanced" using special effects. Iris recognition systems do not use the laser like beams shown in the sequence and the light that they do use is near-infrared and nearly invisible. Biometric authentication: what method works best?

There does not appear to be any one method of biometric data gathering and reading that does the "best" job of ensuring secure authentication. Each of the different methods of biometric identification have something to recommend them. Some are less invasive, some can be done without the knowledge of the subject, some are very difficult to fake.

Face recognition Of the various biometric identification methods, face recognition is one of the most flexible, working even when the subject is unaware of being scanned. It also shows promise as a way to search through masses of people who spent only seconds in front of a "scanner" - that is, an ordinary digital camera. Face recognition systems work by systematically analyzing specific features that are common to everyone's face - the distance between the eyes, width of the nose, position of cheekbones, jaw line, chin and so forth. These numerical quantities are then combined in a single code that uniquely identifies each person. Fingerprint identification Fingerprints remain constant throughout life. In over 140 years of fingerprint comparison worldwide, no two fingerprints have ever been found to be alike, not even those of identical twins. Good fingerprint scanners have been installed in PDAs like the iPaq Pocket PC; so scanner technology is also easy. Might not work in industrial applications since it requires clean hands. Fingerprint identification involves comparing the pattern of ridges and furrows on the fingertips, as well as the minutiae points (ridge characteristics that occur when a ridge splits into two, or ends) of a specimen print with a database of prints on file. Hand geometry biometrics Hand geometry readers work in harsh environments, do not require clean

conditions, and forms a very small dataset. It is not regarded as an intrusive kind of test. It is often the authentication method of choice in industrial environments. Retina scan There is no known way to replicate a retina. As far as anyone knows, the pattern of the blood vessels at the back of the eye is unique and stays the same for a lifetime. However, it requires about 15 seconds of careful concentration to take a good scan. Retina scan remains a standard in military and government installations. Iris scan Like a retina scan, an iris scan also provides unique biometric data that is very difficult to duplicate and remains the same for a lifetime. The scan is similarly difficult to make (may be difficult for children or the infirm). However, there are ways of encoding the iris scan biometric data in a way that it can be carried around securely in a "barcode" format. (See the SF in the News article Biometric Identification Finally Gets Started for some detailed information about how to perform an iris scan.) Signature A signature is another example of biometric data that is easy to gather and is not physically intrusive. Digitized signatures are sometimes used, but usually have insufficient resolution to ensure authentication.

Voice analysis Like face recognition, voice biometrics provide a way to authenticate identity without the subject's knowledge. It is easier to fake (using a tape recording); it is not possible to fool an analyst by imitating another person's voice. Iris scanning is a method of biometric identification; pattern recognition is used to determine the identity of the subject. Iris scans create high-resolution images of the irides of the eye; IR illumination is used to reduce specular reflection from the cornea. The iris itself is a "good subject" for biometric identification, because it is an internal organ that is well protected, it is mostly flat and it has a fine texture that is unique even for identical twins. Iris scans can be done regardless of whether the subject is wearing contact lenses or glasses. However, it is necessary for the system to take eye lids and eye lashes into account; both can obscure the necessary parts of the eye and cause false information to be added into automated systems. Iris scans are extremely accurate. Iris recognition is a biometric identification technology that uses high-resolution images of the irides of the eye. The iris of the eye is well suited for authentication purposes. It is an internal organ protected from most damage and wear, it is practically flat and uniform under most conditions and it has a texture that is unique even to genetically identical twins. Iris recognition is accomplished by applying proprietary algorithms for image acquisition and subsequent one-to-many matching that were developed initially by John G. Daugman, Ph.D., OBE.

Iris recognition algorithms produce remarkable results. Daugman's algorithms have produced accuracy rates in authentication that are better than those of any other method. IrisCode, a commercial system derived from Daugman's work, has been used in the United Arab Emirates as a part of their immigration process. After more than 200 billion comparisons, there has never been a false match. Earlier today, we revealed the future of security and advertising -- and how it will all fall under the watchful beam of an iris scanner. The company behind the technology, Global Rainmakers Inc., has big plans for the system, which is launching in the city of Leon, Mexico. To help wrap our heads around the project, we spoke with Jeff Carter, chief business development officer of GRI, to find out how it will change our lives. Fast Company: Why did GRI choose iris scans? Jeff Carter: Well, one of the big problems in corporate America is reference data--that is, all the data that is about us. We don't have any way to link it all together. It's one of the reasons why your bank account doesn't reconcile until 48 hours later because there's all this data behind it that they have to execute manually. When you look at the ways to link the data together, biometrics is the obvious choice. With a fingerprint, for instance, there's about 100 recognizable data points. For a really great fingerprint, you may get about 15 points--and that's if it's perfect. Of that, you only need 7 or 8 points to convict. So essentially, you only need 7 or 8 points across a huge population of people. It's one of the reasons fingerprints is causing so many problems. With iris, you have over 2,000 points. Those 2,000 points appear when you're born. When you're in your mother's womb, your iris tears in a unique fashion. That tear stays constant until the day you die. If you die, and your body loses blood pressure, the eye flattens. So while a lot of what you see in Minority Report is very real today, the part about pulling out eyeballs is not real. With those 2,000 points, you can create a unique 16,000 bit stream of numbers that represents every human on the planet. That provides a reference point that can connect everything you do in all aspects of life, for the first time ever. What about other biometrics? While fingerprints are not the best choice, they'll be part of the landscape for years to come. India right now is doing the world's first digital census. They're collecting fingerprints, face, and iris. Face is important -- our devices can capture face too. Voice biometrics are also huge. It's how the CIA monitors communication across the globe. They sift through cell phones and create voice biometrics to find Al-Qaeda members, for instance, and hit them in their car later with a missile. That is not going away either. All those biometrics are important, but what are the two biometrics that you can use for a program that spans the globe? DNA and iris. Obviously DNA can't be captured from a distance. But that probably will happen in the not-too-distant future. So that leaves you with


How hypothetical is this technology? It's not hypothetical at all. The time I spent at MIT and Harvard, they're already working on dramatic models that are able to determine intent from GPS and basic Web patterns. Again, an important concept to consider is that an iris fuses your digital and physical persona. Right now, we can determine how many eyeballs are on a Web page. And what you look at and click. For the first time, we can do that in a physical world. If you look at this or that advertisement, and then go purchase the product advertised, we can tie those two things together. Here's an example. If you ever purchase signage at airports, they'll give you lots of metrics on how many people walked past the sign each day. You can kind of guess what that means in terms of sales. It's very nebulous. We're going to make that very scientific

What are some of the innovations of GRI's iris technology? Iris has been around for a long time. The technology that really everyone uses except us was developed by John Daugman. His understudy was Dr. Keith Hanna, who is one of our founders and chief technology officer. He also invented the yellow line in NFL football. Those two individuals are the top iris specialists in the world. Daugman really focused on matching. So, once you had an image of an iris, how you would match it across a billion participants to make sure you had the right one. Here's what is different with our technology. Hanna said, Anyone can match--it's simply a numbers game. He focused on acquiring the iris. In motion.From a distance. Even with the technology in airports several years ago, you had to hold still for about 30 seconds so it could find you. If you moved, it would blur. Most all of our competitors have that same issue. Ours is different. You can move. So we've even worked with three-letter agencies on technology that can capture 30-plus feet away. In certain spaces, eventually, you'll be able to have maybe one sensor the size of a dime, in the ceiling, and it would acquire all of our irises in motion, at a distance, hundreds-probably thousands as computer power continues to increase--at a time. Do you believe this technology will be more important for security forces or advertisers? I just use advertising as an example because it's something we all have experience with. But

it's really all aspects of life. I liken it to what happened when we went from radio to TV. It's just a different world. But what's important for advertisers is that this technology will determine your geo-location based on the iris acquisition and your spatial location. So: Where are you in that space? And, based on how you are looking and moving, and your acceleration, what is your intent? In a retail environment, determining intent will be very important. Are you coming into the store? Are you leaving? Do you have packages? Are you looking at a sign? A sale? Matching that intent based on a lot of preferences that are all opt-in. The best security technology available that would give the TSA an alternative controversial body scanners is already in use worldwide -- just not here in the U.S. And it won't be here any time soon, either. Thanks to privacy concerns and infrastructure issues, iris scanners aren't planned for the U.S., a DHS spokesman told Airports and security checkpoints could use the machines, which take an instant picture of the eyeball from a few feet away and compare it against an internal database, in the hunt for terror suspects or illegal immigrants. They're not. But nothing has stopped the United Arab Emirates, India and Jordan who already use the technology at airports and border crossings, and a major U.S. company will soon announce another major deployment elsewhere in the world. “In UAE, we've scanned more than 40 million people from all nationalities and caught 600,000 trying to come back over the years by changing their name,” ImadMalhas, the founder of manufacturer IrisGuard, told India has already enrolled about 600 million people in an initial phase, said Joe O’Carroll, the vice president at the company, which has deployed its scanners in Jordan and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Jeff Carter, the chief data officer at Hoyes Group, told that iris scanning is the best identification method available. He says a fingerprint only has about 100 points to identify, and even a perfect capture uses only 15 points. False IDs occur in about 1 out of every 10,000 captures. Facial recognition systems, sometimes used to scan for terror suspects at public events, are even worse: they falsely identify one out of 100 captures. Iris scanning uses 2,048 points of the eye and a false identification occurs only once for every 100 million scans, Carter said. So why aren't we using this wonder technology in the U.S.? It's not for lack of trying. Last October, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) set up a trial in McAllen, Texas, at a border patrol station using technology developed by Hoyos Group. Chris Ortman, a DHS spokesman, confirmed the test -- and that the U.S. wouldn't be moving forward with it any time soon.

"It was a preliminary test of how the technology performs," Ortman told "We have no specific plans for acquiring or deploying this type of technology at this point." The “Minority Report” problem So the ideal border security technology in in use elsewhere, but won't be made available to guard our shores? Is a Steven Spielberg movie partly to blame? In the sci-fi flick Minority Report, which came out nine months after 9/11, Tom Cruise plays a detective who is scanned as he walks through a shopping mall. To circumvent the biometric readers prevalent in the movie's futuristic world, Cruise replaces his eyeballs. That's an extreme measure, for sure. But many people,viewing iris scanning as a Big Government program meant to spy on citizens, have a similar response to it. “Iris scanning seems pretty invasive to me,” says Lisa Malmstrom, a marketing consultant in Minnesota. “I'd be inclined to put my hand on a scanner for fingerprint identification much sooner than I would my eye.” She's not alone. The American Civil Liberties Union agrees, stating publicly that retina scans are an invasion of privacy because there is no way to control who is scanned in public and when. Shane MacDougall, a principal at Tactical Intelligence, also called iris scanning arguably the best identification method for use at border crossings, but there are several challenges that will make it difficult to deploy in the U.S. at major airports and borders. “We would need to deploy [the terminals] across the country in large numbers, reconfigure the software, train people on how to use them, and most importantly build a retina scan database,” he says. Building that database may be the biggest challenge of all. MacDougall says iris scanning could also have some competition in the next few years: realtime DNA scanning. Just put a drop of saliva in a reader to pass through a checkpoint -something privacy advocates are sure to howl about as well. Meanwhile, the prevalence of retina scans will only increase in foreign countries. But will you be scanned as you pass through a U.S. airport anytime soon? Don't count on it.

Read more:

1. What is iris recognition tech and how does it work?

Iris Recognition is a camera system that locates the eye and iris, evaluates the degree of occlusion by eyelids and determines image quality for identification processing. The features of the iris are then measured and encoded into a biometric record for enrollment or recognition.

The resulting record is compared to each and every other record enrolled in the database for recognition. Computations and decisions are accomplished at extremely high rates of speed, resulting in processing times of less than two seconds. 2. What is an iris? The colored part of the eye is called the iris. It is an internal organ that is part of the eye; protected by the eyelids It is the only internal organ of the body that is externally visible. The iris is depicted in the below drawing. The iris has distinctive patterns that allow for very accurate person identification, far more accurate than fingerprints or facial recognition. 3. Why is the bank using it? The bank is using IrisGuard’s solutions to protect its customer’s privacy and financial resources with the best possible technology available today. The bank regulators mandate a stronger authentication for consumer applications to help prevent online fraud and identity theft. The message is clear User ID/Password authentication will no longer be acceptable in the banking community. 4. How will I benefit from using the system Security, convenience and speed are the main benefits behind using the Iris system. At the teller, using the iris system means faster transactions and no requirement to remember ones account number or even carry any ID. At the ATM it means you do not need to carry the card or remember your pin. At home it means you do not have to remember or enter a username or password. In all cases, your transactions will be secured and concluded in a fraction of the time it takes in the conventional way.

5. Is the iris system more secure than passwords? Yes. The iris recognition system is far more secure and effective than a passwordbased system because the system is inherently harder to deceive. The weakness with a password/pin based-system is that they are difficult to remember, one tends to

write them down and that means someone can steal them. With the iris system, no one can steal your iris and only your irises will unlock and authorize the transaction. 6. How accurate is iris recognition? Iris recognition technology is accepted and proven to be the most accurate biometric technology available today. In field trials it has encountered no false matches in over two hundred billion cross-comparisons. IrisGuard’s system is 100% accurate and will never authorize access to anyone other than yourself to your account. You and only You will have access to your bank account. 7. What are advantages to you the customer? Iris recognition has many advantages over the other forms of biometric identificationis as it is first and foremost the most easy-to-use, accurate, stable, fastest& most secure method of customer identification for banks in the world. You no longer need to carry your bank card as your eye is now the key to your bank account. So whether you are interacting with the Teller, Customer Service or at the ATM, your transactions will be secured and concluded in a fraction of the time it takes in the conventional way. 8. What is the customer experience? The secure and safe user experience is such that it is a prime reason for customers to continue to interact with banks that deploy IrisGuards technology. The technology overwhelmingly is more secure, more convenient, easier, quicker, and more reliable than regular bank transactions whether at the Teller, Customer Service or at the ATM. The best liked feature of the system is that you don't need to use an ATM card as it is often lost or stolen. Most Bank customers want to see more iris recognition enabled ATMs installed all around town. Customers experience feedback from around the world, validates iris identification as the most accurate, customer friendly and cost effective personal electronic identification technique ever developed and deployed. 9. Is the iris unique? Yes. No two persons have the same iris distinctive patterns, including identical twins; furthermore, the left and right irises of a same person are different. 10. How fast is the iris system? The process of acquiring two photographs of the eyes, computations and decisions are accomplished at extremely high rates of speed, resulting in processing times of less than two seconds. 11. Will my identical twin have access to my bank account?

No, my twin will not have access to my bank account because identical twins have totally different irises. 12. Will my iris be stored in the database? Is it accessible to anyone else? Yes. The iris prints will be stored in a special Iris-database permutated using a unique key; the bank does not have the ability to expose your iris print and this permutation is unique to each bank such that your same iris will produce different (and not related) iris prints in two different banks. While every measure is taken to protect the database under strict banking procedures, the iris prints are ineffective in any other capacity outside the bank iris program which you subscribed to. 13. Why should I consider enrolling in the bank's iris program? Iris recognition has many advantages over conventional techniques such as using a card/pin or username/password. 14. Why is this good for me Your iris is non-transferable, it cannot be lost, stolen, forgotten, borrowed or duplicated and will provide you convenient, safe, fast and more secure access to your bank account. Iris recognition provides you enhanced security, no other person can assume your identity or access your bank account other than you. Various other technologies exist such as Fingerprint and Facial recognition however they are weaker identifiers and cannot inhibit identity theft like Iris Recognition. No other technology can offer so many user benefits. 15. Is the iris affected by surgery like Lasik eye correction or any other correction surgery, or by diseases? No. Eye surgeries do not affect the iris at all. 16. Is the iris affected by age? No. The iris image remains stable from the age of 18 months throughout life. 17. Does the iris wear-off like fingerprints? No. The iris is protected by the cornea and does not wear-off over time. 18. Is the iris imager safe to use? Are there any health risks associated with using iris technology? There is no health risks associated with iris recognition. Iris recognition technology simply uses a video imager to take high-resolution grayscale pictures of the eye. There are no flashes or bright lights. All IrisGuard imager are FCC and CE compliant and approved to meet international eye safety standards.

19. Can the iris imager affect pregnant women? No. The iris imagers use simple video photography to take a picture of the iris; there are no harmful radiations or any laser emissions whatsoever. 20. Can a dead person’s eye be used for identification, like in movies? No. The iris is an involuntary muscle, and like all muscles it is fully relaxed when an individual dies hence no iris is visible. Furthermore, after death, the cornea turns white from the lack of oxygen obscuring the entire eye. So consequently, the idea of someone taking somebody’s eye and using it to gain access is strictly a "Hollywood" notion and is scientifically false. 21. Can this technology be fooled by contact lenses or fake eyes? No. The IrisGuard imagers are able to detect counterfeit attempts to fool the system using contact lenses and other techniques and will not accept images in that case. 22. Can iris recognition be used for forensics? No. Iris recognition cannot be used for forensic applications as one does not leave one’s iris at the scene of a crime. Forensic methods are used in investigations and legal processes and are usually related to Fingerprints. Forensics usually require days of processing, versus seconds for iris recognition. 23. Does the imager use any laser beam to capture the iris? No. Iris recognition is completely safe because it uses simple video photography and special sensors that read the fine details of the person's iris without emitting any laser rays or x-ray or other harmful rays. 24. Is there any physical contact with the eye during the process? No. Iris recognition is a contactless technology. The person looks at the imager from a distance of 30 cm and the imager's takes a photograph of the iris and analyzes it to produce a special iris print used for identification. Due to the contactless nature of the technology no communicable diseases can be transmitted from one person to the other. 25. Does the iris recognition work on Oriental/Asian eyes? Yes. Iris recognition works equally well with all types of irises irrespective of race, gender, age or ethnic background. 26. Can the system work with one-eyed persons? Yes. The system does not require two irises to positively verify a person's identity; however, the IrisGuard imagers are specially designed and capable of capturing both irises of a person at once to produce a "Perfect" match.

27. Can the system work with a blind person? A person must of course have an eye, with an iris. Blind persons may have difficulty in getting themselves aligned with the iris imager at arm's length, because the systems relies on visual feedback via a mirror or LCD display to guide the user into alignment with the imager. 28. Is it possible to use an iris recognition system to tell whether I have an illness or have taken any drugs or consumed any alcohol? No. Iris recognition technology is not capable of detecting the presence of illness or alcohol or drug usage. The iris system at the bank is not a medical eye-examination system; it merely takes a photograph of the eye and produces a match print; no illness, drugs or alcohol affects the iris. 29. What if someone doesn’t want to use iris recognition? The iris recognition program at the bank is completely voluntary; it is intended to offer you a secure, convenient and easy way to access your account without a card, pin or username/password; however, clients can opt to continue to use the legacy card and pin if they decide not to use the iris system.

CONCLUSION Banking transactions using Iris Recognition are highly accurate and secure providing positive personal identification using the iris of your eye. The process uses simple and non-threatening video technology to take images of the iris, digitize the features, and create a biometric record code, which is then compared against an entire database in less than two seconds. You can sleep safely; IrisGuard is protecting your financial assets through its trusted authentication technology.

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