Biometric User Identification and Authentication

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BIOMETRIC USER IDENTIFICATION AND AUTHENTICATION Biometrics comprises methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. In information technology, in particular, biometrics is used as a form of identity access managementand access control. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance. Biometric characteristics can be divided in two main classes:  



 



Physiological

are related to the shape of the body. Examples include, but are not limited to fingerprint, face recognition, DNA, hand and palm geometry, iris recognition, which has largely replaced retina, and odor/scent. Behavioral are related to the behavior of a person. Examples include, but are not limited to typing rhythm, gait, and voice. Some researchers[1] have coined the term behaviometrics for this class of biometrics.

Strictly speaking, voice is also a physiological trait because every person has a different vocal tract, but voice recognition is mainly based on the study of the way a person speaks, commonly classified as behavioral. Biometrics is the study of unchanging measurable biological characteristics that are unique to each individual - such as  fingerprints or irises. Biometrics can be implemented by: companies, governments, military, border control, hospitals, banks, etc. to either verify a person'sidentity for something like limiting or allowing access to a certain building area, computer files, border crossings, or

 

to identify individuals to record information about them such as with criminals

BIOMETRICS SOLUTIONS

 

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Biometrics products bySolution type. Showcases profile leading Industry Fingerprin ingerprintt Readers Iris Scanners & Recognition Hand Readers & Finger Scanners Facial Recognition Voice / Speech Recognition Biometrics Consultants Biometrics Smart Cards Signature / Keystroke Biometrics Vein

Recognition Biometrics Sensors and Detectors Middleware / Software 2D Bar Code Scanners BIOMETRICS APPLICATIONS

 

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Biometrics Application Showcases profile leading Industry products by use. Physical Access Control Logical Access Control Justice / Law Enforcement  Time and Attendance HealthCare Biometrics Border Control / Airports Financial and Transactional Biometrics Integrators and Resellers Mobile Biometrics Fingerprint and Biometrics Locks Consumer / Residential Biometrics Other Uses of Biometrics

 

 

Biometrics Characteristics Characteristics Biometrics characteristics are often classed in two main categories: 1) Physiological Biometrics - features notably identified through the 5 senses and processed by finite calculable differences: Sight (how a person looks including things like hair & eye color, teeth, or facial features), Sound (the pitch of a person's voice), Smell (a person's odor or scent), Taste (the composition of a person's saliva - or DNA), Touch (such as fingerprints or hand-prints). 2) Behavioral Biometrics - based on the manner in which a person conducts themselves, such as: writing style, walking rhythm, typing speed, etc. In order for any of these characteristics to be used in sustained identification encryption purposes, they must meet the criteria of: reliable, unique, collectable, convenient, longevity, universal, and acceptable. Currently, Biometrics is used with humans under two circumstances: Voluntarily for things like: employment, access to special services, information or protection, and Involuntarily for criminal identification and border control. As the technology improves and the implementation costs decrease, it will become more and more a part of our lives - especially in areas such as: the USA, UK, Europe, Japan,

Middle East, Australia and Canada.

 

The Acceptance of the Use of Biometrics The main concern for clients of biometrics devices is the accuracy of measurability, and cost effectiveness. Again, as technology improves and costs decrease, identification and verification systems will be implemental by industries who  find it in their best interest (cost vs. necessity) to safeguard their

data

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assets.

The main concerns for the general public acceptance of the voluntary use of biometrics identification are: privacy, necessity and identity protection. Many individuals are concerned that information collected about them could be used against them such as medical records preventing preventing them   from the ability to get health or critical illness insurance. The other concern about biometrics, is the information getting into of the wrong hands. beingissaid, when the convenience the use of theseThis devices met  with the confidence in their effectiveness and secure-ability they will become culturally accepted. It is clear that biometrics will be a huge part of our   future. findBiometrics.com findBiometrics.c om is dedicated to giving you the most up-dated information in the Biometrics industry. Whether you are a system integrator or business looking for biometrics solutions, or a consumer looking to protect  yourself and your family, you will find what you're looking for right here with one of  our Biometrics Solutions and Applications.

 

Introduction

The basic block diagram of a biometric system It is possible to understand if a human characteristic can be used for biometrics in terms of the following parameters: [2]   



 



 



 



 



 



 



Universality ² each person should have the characteristic. Uniqueness ² is how well the biometric separates individuals from another. Permanence ² measures how well a biometric resists aging and other variance over time. Collectability ² ease of acquisition for measurement. Performance ² accuracy, speed, and robustness of  technology used. Acceptability ² degree of approval of a technology. Circumvention ² ease of use of a substitute.

A biometric system can operate in the following two modes:  



 



Verification

² A one to one comparison of a captured biometric with a stored template to verify that the individual is who he claims to be. Can be done in conjunction with a smart card, username or ID number. Identification ² A one to many comparison of the captured biometric against a biometric database in attempt to identify an unknown individual. The identification only succeeds in identifying the individual if the comparison of 

 

the biometric sample to a template in the database falls within a previously set threshold. The first time an individual uses a biometric system is called an enrollment. During the enrollment, biometric information  from an individual is stored. In subsequent uses, biometric information is detected and compared with the information stored at the time of enrollment. Note that it is crucial that  storage and retrieval of such systems themselves be secure if the biometric system is to be robust. The first block (sensor) is the interface between the real world and the system; it has to acquire all the necessary data. Most of the times it is an image acquisition system, but it can change according to the characteristics desired. The second block performs all the necessary pre-processing: it has to remove artifacts from the sensor, to enhance the input (e.g. removing background noise), use some kind of  normalization, etc. In the thirdto block features needed are extracted. This step is an important step as the correct   features need to be extracted in the optimal way. A vector of  numbers or an image with particular properties is used to create a template. A template is a synthesis of the relevant  characteristics extracted from the source. Elements of the biometric measurement that are not used in the comparison algorithm are discarded in the template to reduce the  filesize and to protect the identity of the enrollee. If enrollment is being performed the template is simply stored somewhere (on a card or within a database or both). If a matching phase is being performed, the obtained template is passed to a matcher that compares it with other existing templates, estimating the distance between them using any algorithm (e.g. Hamming distance). The matching program will analyze the template with the input. This will then be output for any specified use or purpose (e.g. entrance in a restricted area). [edit]Performance

 

The following are used as performance metrics for biometric systems:[3]   



 



 



 



 false accept rate or false match rate (FAR or FMR) ² the probability that the system incorrectly matches the input  pattern to a non-matching template in the database. It  measures percent of invalid inputs which are incorrectlythe accepted.  false reject rate or false non-match rate (FRR or FNMR) ²  the probability that the system fails to detects a match between the input pattern and a matching template in the database. It measures the percent of valid inputs which are incorrectly rejected. receiver operating characteristic or relative operating characteristic (ROC) ² The ROC plot is a visual charactization of the trade-off between the FAR and the FRR. In general, the matching algorithm performs a decision based on a threshold which determines how close to a template the input needs to be for it to be considered a match. If the threshold is reduced, there will be less false non-matches but more false accepts. Correspondingly, a higher threshold will reduce the FAR but increase the FRR. A common variation is the Detection error trade-off (DET), which is obtained using normal deviate scales on both axes. This more linear graph illuminates the differences for higher performances (rarer errors). equal error rate or crossover error rate (EER or CER) ²  the rate at which both accept and reject errors are equal. The value of the EER can be easily obtained from the ROC curve. The EER is a quick way to compare the accuarcy of  devices with different ROC curves. In general, the device with the lowest EER is most accurate. Obtained from the ROC plot by taking the point where FAR and FRR have the same value. The lower the EER, the more accurate the system is considered to be.

 

 



 



 



 failure to enroll rate (FTE or FER) ² the rate at which attempts to create a template from an input is unsuccessful. This is most commonly caused by low quality inputs.  failure to capture rate (FTC) ² Within automatic systems, the probability that the system fails to detect a biometric input when presented correctly. template capacity ² the maximum number of sets of data which can be stored in the system..

As the sensitivity of the biometric device increases, the FAR decreases but the FRR increases

Privacy

and discrimination

Data obtained during biometric enrollment could be used in ways the enrolled individual does not consent to. Danger to owners of secured items When thieves cannot get access to secure properties, there is a chance that the thieves will stalk and assault the property owner to gain access. If the item is secured with a biometric device, the damage to the owner could be irreversible, and potentially cost more than the secured property. For example, in 2005, Malaysian car thieves cut off  the finger of a Mercedes-Benz S-Class owner when attempting to steal the car[4]. Cancelable biometrics One advantage of passwords over biometrics is that they can be re-issued. If a token or a password is lost or stolen, it  can be cancelled and replaced by a newer version. This is not naturally available in biometrics. If someone·s face is compromised from a database, they cannot cancel or reissue it. Cancelable biometrics is a way in which to incorporate protection and the replacement features into biometrics. It was first proposed by Ratha et al. [5] 

 

Several methods for generating cancelable biometrics have been proposed. Essentially, cancelable biometrics perform a distortion of the biometric image or features before matching. The variability in the distortion parameters provides the cancelable nature of the scheme. Some of the proposed techniques operate using their own recognition [6]

[7]

engines, such as Teoh et al. and Savvides et al., whereas other methods, such as Dabbah et al.,[8] take the advantage of the advancement of the well-established biometric research for their recognition front-end to conduct  recognition. Although this increases the restrictions on the protection system, it makes thecancellable templates more accessible for available biometric technologies. Biometrics in popular culture  



 



Biometric technologies have been found in a number of  popular cinema released films. This alone has created an interest, from general consumers, as a means of  identifying ones self. In 2003 both X 2:  2:  X-Men United and Hulk used biometric recognition technologies in the form of hand access control in X-Men 2 and  fingerprint access in Hulk. It wasn't however until 2004 when iRobot was released, starring AmericanThe actor, that truly showcased. filmWill set Smith, well into thebiometrics future hadwere some of the most advanced technologies on show, many of which hadn't, and still have not been developed today. The usage however of voice and palm recognition in the  film cemented the futuristic look of the film in the audiences' mind, and both of which are in constant use today for securing buildings or sensitive data, these though just being two of many applications.

 

 

In 2005 the film The Island was released. Twice in the film clones use biometrics as a way of entering a house and starting a car.

 

The movie Gattaca portrays a society in which there are two classes of people: those genetically engineered to be





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The television program MythBusters attempted to break into a commercial security door[specify] equipped with biometric authentication as well as a personal laptop so equipped.[23] While the laptop's system proved more difficult to bypass, the advanced commercial security door with "live" sensing was fooled with a printed scan of  a fingerprint after it had been licked.

 



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