Brain Finger Printing

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A patented new technique of proven accuracy

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v.sai sneha,









ABSTRACT The secrets of Brain Fingerprinting  Brain





co compu mpute terr-bas based ed tech techno nolo logy gy to iden identi tify fy the the  perpetrator



a by






responses to crime-relevant words or pictures  presented






 Fingerprinting has proven 100% accurate in over 120 tests, including tests on FBI agents, tests for a US intelligence agency and for the US Navy Navy,, and test testss on re real al-l -lif ifee si situ tuat atio ions ns including felony crimes.

Matching evidence at the crime scene with evidence in the brain

When a crime is committed, a record is stored in the brain of the perpetrator. Brain Fingerprinting provides a means to objectively and scient scientif ifica ically lly connect connect evidenc evidencee from from the crime scene with evidence stored in the brain. (This is similar to the process of connecting DNA DN A sa samp mple less fr from om th thee pe perp rpet etra rato torr wi with th  biological evidence found at the scene of the crime; only the evidence evaluated by Brain

Why Brain Fingerprin Fingerprinting??? ting???

Fingerprint Finger printing ing is evidence stored stored in the brain.)


Brain Fingerprinting measures electrical brain activity in response to crime-relevant words or 

Brain Fingerprinting is based on the

 principle that the brain is central to all human acts. In a criminal act, there may or may not be many ma ny kind kindss of pe peri riph pher eral al ev evid iden ence ce,, bu butt the the  brain is always there, planning, executing, and recordin ding


criime. cr


fun und damental

difference between a perpetrator and a falsely accused, innocent person is that the perpetrator, having committed the crime, has the details of 

 pictures presented on a computer screen, and revea evealls a br brai ain n MERME ERMER R (mem memor ory y an and d encoding



electroence elect roencephalogr phalographic aphic response) response) when, and only when, the evidence stored in the brain matche mat chess the eviden evidence ce fr from om the cri crime me scene. scene. Thus Th us,, th thee guil guilty ty ca can n be id iden enti tifi fied ed an and d th thee innoc nnocen entt can can be cl clea eare red d in an ac accu currat ate, e,

the crime stored in his brain, and the innocent suspect does not. This is what Brain Fingerprinting detects scientifically


sc scie ient ntif ific ic,,

ob obje ject ctiv ive, e,

nonnon-in inva vasi sive ve,,

stressful, and non-testimonial manner 


MERMER Methodology The proced procedure ure used used is simila similarr to the Guilty Guilty

indicating that the information is absent from

Knowledge Test; a series of words, sounds, or 

their mind. Note that there does not have to be

 pictures are presented via computer to the

an emot emotio iona nall re resp spon onse se of an any y ki kind nd to th thee

subject for a fraction of a second each. Each of 

st stim imul ulii- th this is te test st is en enti tire rely ly re reli lian antt up upon on

these stimuli are organised by the test-giver to  be a “Target,” “Irrelevant,” or a “Probe.” The

recognition response to the stimuli, and relies upon upo n a differ differenc encee in recogni recognitio tionn- hence hence the

Targ Target et stim stimul ulii are are ch chos osen en to be re rele leva vant nt

association with the Oddball effect

information to the tested subject, and are used to es esta tabl blis ish h a base baseli line ne brai brain n re resp spon onse se for  for  inform inf ormati ation on that that is signif significa icant nt to the subjec subjectt  being tested. The subject is instructed to press on button for Targets, and another button for  all all othe otherr stim stimul uli. i. Most Most of the the nonnon-Ta Targ rget et stimuli are Irrelevant, and are totally unrelated to the situation that the subject is being tested for. for. The The Irre Irrele leva vant nt stim stimul ulii do no nott el elic icit it a MERMER, and so establish a baseline brain response for information that is insignificant to the subject in this context. Some of the nonTa Targ rget et are are rele relevan vantt to the the si situ tuat atio ion n that that the the su subj bjec ectt is be bein ing g test tested ed for. for. Thes Thesee st stim imul uli, i, Prob Probes es,, are are relev elevan antt to the the tes estt, and and ar aree signi signifi fica cant nt to the the su subj bjec ect, t, and and wi will ll el elic icit it a MERM ME RMER ER,, sign signif ifyi ying ng that that the the su subj bjec ectt ha hass underst unde rstood ood that that stimul stimulii to be signif significa icant. nt. A subject lacking this information in their brain, thee resp th respon onse se to the the Pr Prob obee st stim imul ulus us wi will ll be indistinguishable from the irrelevant stimulus.






Fingerprinting In fi fing nger erpr prin inti ting ng and DNA DNA fi finge ngerp rpri rint ntin ing, g, evidence recognized and collected at the crime scene, and preserved properly until a suspect is apprehended, appreh ended, is scientifica scientifically lly compared compared with evidence eviden ce on the person of the suspect suspect to detect a match that would place the suspect at the cr crim imee

sc scen ene. e.

Br Brai ain n

Fi Fing nger erpr prin inti ting ng

work workss

simila sim ilarly rly,, except except that that the eviden evidence ce collec collected ted  both at the crime scene and on the person of the susp suspec ectt (i (i.e .e., ., in th thee br brai ain n as re reve veal aled ed by electr ele ctrica icall brain brain respon responses ses)) is inform informati ational onal evidence rather than physical evidence. There are four stages to Brain Fingerprinting, which are similar to the steps in fingerprinting and DNA fingerprinting:

This response does not elicit a MERMER,


1. Brain Fingerprinting Crime Scene Evidence

("innocent") – the details of the crime is not

Collection;; Collection

stored in the brain of the suspect


Brai Brain n

Fing Finger erpr prin inti ting ng  Brain


Scie Sc ient ntif ific ic Pr Proc oced edure ure,, Re Rese sear arch ch,, an and d

Collection;; Collection


3. Brain Brain Finger Fingerpri printi nting ng Comput Computer er Evidence Evidence

1. Informational Evidence Detection.

 Analysis;; and  Analysis The detection of concealed information stored 4. Brain Fingerprinting Scientific Result . In the Crime Crime Scene Scene Evidenc Evidencee Collec Collecti tion, on, an expert expe rt in Brain Brain Finger Fingerpri printi nting ng examine examiness the crime scene and other evidence connected with the crime to identify details of the crime that would be known only to the perpetrator. The ex expe pert rt then then co cond nduc ucts ts the the Brai Brain n Evid Eviden ence ce Collection in order to determine whether or not the evidenc evidencee from from the crime scene scene matche matchess evidence stored in the brain of the suspect. In the Comput Computer er Eviden Evidence ce Analys Analysis, is, the Brain Brain Fingerprint Finger printing ing system system makes a mathematic mathematical al determination as to whether or not this specific evidence eviden ce is stored stored in the brain, and computes computes a

in the brains of suspects, witnesses, intelligence sources, and others is of central concern to all  phases of law enforcement, government and  private




operations. Brain Fingerprinting presents a new  paradigm in forensic science. This new system detects information directly, on the basis of the el elec ectr trop ophy hysi siol olog ogic ical al man anif ifes esttat atio ions ns of  infor nforma mattio ionn-pr proc oces esssing

br brai ain n

ac acttiv iviity,

measured non-invasively from the scalp. Since Brain Bra in Finger Fingerpri printi nting ng depe depends nds only only on bra brain in information processing, it does not depend on the emotional response of the subject. 2 The Brain MERMER 

statisti stat istical cal confidence confidence for that determinat determination. ion. This determinat determination ion and statisti statistical cal confidence confidence co cons nsti titu tute te the the Scie Scient ntif ific ic Re Resu sult lt of Brai Brain n

Br Brai ain n Fi Fing nger erpr prin inti ting ng ut util iliz izes es mult multif iface acete ted d electr ele ctroenc oencepha ephalog lograp raphic hic respon response se analys analysis is

Finger Fin gerpri printi nting: ng: either either "infor "informat mation ion presen present" t"

(MERA) (ME RA) to detect detect inform informati ation on stored stored in the

("guilty") – the details of the crime are stored

human brain. A memory and encoding related

in the brain of the suspect – or "information

multifaceted electroencephalographic response


(MER (M ERME MER) R) is el elic icit ited ed when when an in indi divi vidua duall

recognizes and processes an incoming stimulus

Some of the non-target stimuli are relevant to

that th at is sign signif ific icant ant or notew notewor orth thy. y. When When an

the the cr crim imee or si situ tuat atio ion n un unde derr in inve vest stig igat atio ion. n.

irrelevant irre levant stimulus is seen, it is insignifi insignificant cant

These relevant stimuli are referred to as probes.

and and

For a subject who has committed the crime, the


not not

not notewor eworth thy, y, an and d


resp respon onse se is ab abse sent nt.. The The MERM MERMER ER oc occu curs rs

 probes are noteworthy due to his knowledge of 

with within in ab abou outt a seco second nd af afte terr the the st stim imul ulus us

the details of the crime, and therefore probes

 presentation, and can be readily detected using

el elic icit it a br brai ain n MERM MERMER ER.. For For an in inno noce cent nt

EEG amplif amplifier ierss and a comput computeri erized zed signal signal--

subject lacking this detailed knowledge of the

detection algorithm.

crime, crime, the probes probes are indist indisting inguis uishabl hablee fr from om the irrelevant stimuli. For such a subject, the

3. Scientific Procedure

Brain Fingerprinting incorporates the following  procedure. A sequence of words or pictures is

 probes are not noteworthy, and thus probes do not elicit a MERMER. 4. Computer Controlled

 presented on a video monitor under computer  control. Each stimulus appears for a fraction of 

Thee entir Th entiree Br Brai ain n Fi Fing nger erpr prin inti ting ng Sy Syst stem em is

a second. Three types of stimuli are presented:

under computer control, including presentation

"targets," "irrelevants," and "probes."

of the stimuli and recording of electrical brain activity, as well as a mathematical data da ta analysis

The targets are made relevant and noteworthy to all subjects: the subject is given a list of the tar arge gett stimu timulli and and ins instruc tructe ted d to pres presss a  particular button in response to targets, and to  press another button in response to all other  stimuli. Since the targets are noteworthy for the subject, they elicit a MERMER. Most of the non-target stimuli are irrelevant, havi having ng no rel relatio ation n to the cr criime. me. Thes Thesee

algorithm that compares the responses to the three



de dete term rmin inat atio ion n

stimuli of


pr pro oduc ucees

"i "inf nfor orma mati tion on


pr pres esen ent" t"

("guilty") or "information absent" ("innocent"), an and d a st stat atis isti tica call co conf nfid iden ence ce le leve vell fo forr th this is determination. At no time during the testing and







interp interpret retati ations ons of a system system expert expert affect affect the stimulus presentation or brain responses.

irrelevants do not elicit a MERMER.


The devices used in brain fingerprinting

-----Red -----Red:: information the suspect is expected to know -----Green:: information not known to suspect -----Green -----Blue:: information of the crime that only -----Blue  perpetrator would know

NOT GUILTY:  Lines closely correlate, suspect does Because the blue and green

Brain waves:

GUILTY: Line Liness cl clos osel ely y co corr rrel elat ate, e, and and  because the blue and red

susp suspec ectt

ha hass

 Not have critical knowledge of the crime critical knowledge of the crime Scie Scienti ntific fic Ex Exper perim imen ents, ts, Field Field Tests Tests,, and Criminal Cases

Sc Scie ient ntif ific ic st stud udie ies, s, fi fiel eld d

te test sts, s, an and d ac actu tual al

criminal cases involving over 120 individuals Using brain waves to detect guilt

described in various scientific publications and technical reports by Dr. Lawrence A. Farwell

How it works

A Suspect is tested by looking at three kinds of 

ha have ve ve veri rifi fied ed th thee ex extr trem emel ely y hi high gh le leve vell of  accura acc uracy cy and overal overalll effect effective ivenes nesss of Brain Brain

informati infor mation on represented represented by Different Different colored colored

Fingerprinting. The system had 100% accurate


scientific results in all studies, field tests, and

actual cases conducted at the Federal Bureau of  Invest Inv estiga igati tion, on, a US intell intellige igence nce agency, agency, the

Determination: information absent.


Alex Alexan andr dria ia

(VA) (VA)

Poli Police ce

Depa Depart rtme ment nt,,

the the

offices of the Macon County (MO) Sheriff, and other organizations and individuals. Some of  these tests are described below. Terry Harrington's Brain-Wave Responses

Statistical Confidence: 99.9% Conclusion: Certain significant details of the

murder of John Schweer are not stored in Terry Harrington's brain.

Y-axis: voltage in micro volts at the parietal

(Pz) scalp site. X-axis: time in milliseconds (msec). Stimulus

Determination: information present.

was presented at 0 msec. Statistical Confidence: 99.9% Conclusion: Certain significant details of the

murder of John Schweer are stored in Terry Harrington's brain.


Result Res ultss of the Bra Brain in Fin Finger gerpri print nting ing


test on Terry Harrington 1. La Lande nderr ES. ES. DNA DNA fi fing nger erpr prin inti ting ng on tr tria ial. l.

For the


on Sc Sch hweer's

murd urder,


de dete term rmin inat atio ion n of Br Brai ain n Fing Finger erpr prin inti ting ng was was "i "inf nfor orm mati ation

abs absent, ent,""

wi with th


sta tattistic stical al

confidence of 99.9%. The information stored in Harrington's brain did not  match the scenario in which Harrington went to the crime scene and commit com mitted ted the murder murder.. The determ determina inatio tion n of  the Brain Fingerprinting test for alibi-relevant information was "information present," with a confidence of 99.9%. The information stored in Harrington' Harri ngton'ss brain did match the scenar scenario io in which Harrington was elsewhere (at a concert and with friends) at the time of the crime.


 Nature 1989. 2. Simpson L. Courts Ready to Accept DNA  Profiling As Evidence. Sydney Morning  Herald 4 March 1989. 3. Lambourne GTC. The Use of Fingerprints in  Identification.  Med. Sci Law 1979. 4. Kasprzak J. Possibilities of Cheiloscopy. Forensic Sci Int. 1990. 5. Farw Farwel elll LA an and d Smit Smith h SS. Us Usin ing g Br Brai ain n  MERMER To Dete Detect ctTesting  Conc Concea eale led d Know Knowle ledg dgee Desp Despit itee  Efforts To Conceal Journal of Forensic Sciences 2001. 6. Farwell LA and Donchin E. The Truth Will  Out: Interrogative Polygraph (“Lie Detection”) With Event Related Potentials. 7. Farwell LA. 8. Was Wasse serrman man S, Bo Bock cken enho holt lt U. (1989 1989). ).  Bootstrapping: applications to bioinformatics

and secure secure authen authentic ticati ation on analysi analysiss Dept. Dept. of   Defense Research. Brain Fingerprinting is a revolutionary new scie scient ntif ific ic iden id enti tify fyin ing g

tech techno nolo logy gy

for for

pe perp rpet etra rato tors rs,,

solv solvin ing g an and d

cr crim imes es,,

ex exone onera rati ting ng

inno innoce cent nt susp suspec ects ts,, with with a re reco cord rd of 10 100% 0% ac accur curac acy y in rese resear arch ch wi with th US go gove vern rnme ment nt ag agenc encie ies, s, actu actual al crim crimin inal al ca case ses, s, an and d other  other  applications. The technology fulfills an urgent need need

for for

go gove vern rnme ment nts, s,

la law w

en enfo forc rcem emen entt

agencie agen cies, s, corpor corporati ations ons,, invest investiga igator tors, s, crime crime victims, and falsely accused innocent suspects.

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