Project Report On “Brand equity of coca cala” Submitted for partial fulfillment of requirement for the award of degree Of Master of Business Administration Of GRAPHIC ERA UNIVERSITY DEHRADUN (UTTRAKHAND) Session 2010-12
Under the Supervision of Prof. Fatima mariyam Faculty of Management Studies 11141056
Submitted By Pawan kumar Roll No-1401056 Enrolment No-
FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES GRAPHIC ERA UNIVERSITY 1
I hereby declare that the project report entitled”Brand equity of coca cola”submitted for the Degree of Master Of Business Administration,is my original work and the project report has not formed the basis for the award of any degree,diploma,associate ship,fellowship or similar other titled.It has not been submitted to any other University or institution for the award of degree or diploma.
(singnature of student) Name of student Pawan kumar
CERTIFICATE BY GUIDE
I have the pleasure in certifying that Mr.Pawan kumar.is the student of Grapich Era University of the Master,s Degree in Business Adminstration(MBA).His university Roll No 1401056. He has completed his project work Title as” Brand equity of coca cola”under the guidance. I certify that is his original effort and has not been copied from any other source.This project has also not been submitted in any other University for the purpose of award of any Degree. This project fulfill the requirement of the curriculum prescribed by the Grapic Era University,Dehradun for the said course. I recommend this project work for evaluation and consideration for the award of Degree to the student.
Signature: Name of the Guide: Prof. Fatima mariyam
I express my sincere thanks to my project guide Prof.Fatima mariyam faculty of management Deptt.,for guiding me right form the inception till the successful completion of the project.I also guidance during the presentation of this project report.I am grateful to Faculty of Management Studies of Graphic Era University Dehradun.
I wish to record my sincere thanks to our Parents, family members, relatives and our friends for their help and cooperation throughout our project and for providing us support, encouragement and suggestions at every stage of our research My thank,s are due to those who have helped in collecting data or analysis or typesetting etc.
(Signature of student) Name of student Pawan kumar
Project report in any organization is an attempt to provide the student a practical Input and Exposure to the Real world situation in which he has to work in future. My Project in COCA-COLA was an attempt in this regard. The project work provided to me was a survey titled based on E.D.S.-Every Dealer Survey it was to find out the Effect of Merchandising and Route Assessment on Productivity/Sales, Availability of product, MKT. Condition, Demand & supply of product, Distribution Channel, Cooler display, warm display, in Dehradun City. The Extract of the work is presented in this report under various headings as, Introduction, Company’s Profile, Project Introduction, Methodology, Data analysis, Suggestions and Conclusions. This report provides me a chance to study and analyses the practical aspects of the topic (Merchandising and Route Productivity). It enhanced my knowledge in the field of marketing. This project also gave me the chance to improve logical thinking and interacting patterns. While working on the project, we came to know about the latest marketing strategies and trends prevailing in the market. The way of selling and distribution network of Coca Cola was different.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page no.
I. II. III. IV.
DECLARATION BY STUDENTS CERTIFICATE BY GUIDE ACKNOWLEDLEMENT BY STUDENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. INTRODUCTION 2. COMPANY PROFILE 3. REVIEW OF LITRETURE 4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 5. MARKETING STRATEGY OF COKE 6. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 7. CONCLUSION, SUGGESTION,LIMITATION 8. BIBLOGRAPHY 9. ANNEXURE QUESTIONNAIR
The cola industry has phenomenal possibilities for rocketing profit growth inspite of the sign of relief heaved by the manufacture at the abrupt sensational termination of coca cola monopoly the tastes of cola is by no means extinguished the coca. Cola have a status symbol to it..., generated by the sub standard, penetrated, advertising and extensive distribution network.
Total soft drink segment is growing at the rate of 10% per year still if international standard area considered the per capita consumption of three serving in rock bottom, less than even our neighbors Pakistan and Bangladesh, where it is four more as much. So with kind of a market potential coke entered in India in 1991 after the permissions of setting up Britico Food company to coke was granted by the government in Pune in 1992 the plant was established for is deducted then the bottle are taken out of the line and cleaned again or rejected.
The most important step is the mixing of drink concentrate dissolved in the soft water the sugar syrup at the same time. Carbon dioxide is passed in the drink to produce a fizz.
After the crowing of the bottle the crown contains the manufacturing data batch number and Time. After crowing the bottle, the bottle comes again at checking screen for checking the bottle.
DOUGLAS N. DAFT Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer
The Coca-Cola Company
Douglas N. Daft was elected chairman, Board of Directors, and chief executive officer of The Coca-Cola Company on February 17, 2000. Mr. Daft is the 11th chairman of the Board in the history of the Company.
Mr. Daft, 60, joined the Company in 1969 as planning officer in the Sydney, Australia office. He held positions of increasing responsibilities throughout Asia and in 1982 was named vice president of Coca-Cola Far East Ltd.
In December 1988, Mr. Daft was named president of the North Pacific Division and president of Coca-Cola (Japan) Co., Ltd. He moved to the Company’s Atlanta headquarters
in 1991 to assume the responsibility of president of the Pacific Group and in 1999 his responsibilities were expanded to include the Company's Africa Group, and
Schweppes Beverage Division, as well as the Middle and Far East Group.
officer of The Coca - Cola
Company in December 1999.
He serves on the boards of Sun Trust Banks, the Boys & Girls Clubs of America, Catalyst, the CERGE-EI Foundation(Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education - Economics Institute) in the Czech Republic, the Lauder Institute for Management and International Studies at the University of Pennsylvania, the Prince of Wales International Business Leaders Forum, the Grocery Manufacturers of
America, the British - American Chamber of Commerce, the G100, the Woodruff Arts Center, the Commerce Club, and the McGraw-Hill Companies. Mr. Daft is a trustee of Emory University, the American Assembly and the Center for Strategic & International Studies. He is also a member of The Trilateral Commission, The Business Council, and The Business Round table.
AROUND THE WORLD
Although Coca-Cola® was first created in the United States, it quickly became popular wherever it went. Our first international bottling plants opened in 1906 in
Canada, Cuba and Panama, soon followed by many more. Today, we produce more than 300 brands in over 200 countries. More than 70 percent of our income comes from outside the U.S., but the real reason we are a truly global company is that our products meet the varied taste preferences of consumers everywhere OUR PARTNERS The Coca-Cola Company works with a wide variety of organizations to support health, fitness and good nutrition. Visit these sites for more information about positions, programs and activities. The Coalition for a Healthy and Active America (CHAA) CHAA was formed in 2003 by concerned organizations and national leaders to educate parents, children, schools, and communities about the critical roles physical activity and nutrition education play in reversing the alarming trends of childhood obesity. As a non-profit National grassroots coalition, CHAA is a vigorous advocate for developing healthy and active lifestyles for America's youth. CHAA is committed to working with schools to
rededicate time for physical fitness; giving parents the freedom to help their children make their own nutritional choices; building school-business model relationships that benefit our families by supporting healthy and active lifestyles; and finding solutions to childhood obesity that are both responsible and realistic American Council for Fitness and Nutrition The American Council for Fitness and Nutrition (ACFN) is a group of food, beverage and consumer products companies, not-for-profit organizations and trade associations working together to improve the health of all Americans, particularly youth, by encouraging a healthy balance between fitness and nutrition. The cornerstone of all ACFN initiatives is the idea that lasting solutions to the nation's obesity problem must be 12
based on sound science and behavioral research. Such policies are likely to help parents and their children develop eating and exercise habits that lead to a healthier life. Grocery Manufacturers of America The Grocery Manufacturers of America (GMA) represents the food, beverage and consumer products industry on key issues that affect the ability of brand manufacturers to market their products profitably and deliver superior value to the consumer.
International Food Information Council (IFIC) Foundation The IFIC Foundation is a public education foundation disseminating sound, science-based information on food safety, nutrition and health. International Life Sciences Institute Founded in 1978, the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) is a nonprofit, worldwide foundation that seeks to improve the well-being of the general public through the pursuit of balanced science. Its goal is to further the understanding of scientific issues relating to nutrition, food safety, toxicology, risk assessment, and the environment by bringing together scientists from academia, government, and industry.Kidnetic.com is a fun, interactive Web site that emphasizes healthy living achieved through a balance of physical activity and responsible eating habits. The Web site gives young people and their parents the tools and ideas to help change habits and plant the seeds for healthier families tomorrow. Kidnetic.com is a program of the International Food Information Council (IFIC) Foundation. National Association for Sport and Physical Education association for Sport and Physical Education seeks to enhance knowledge and professional practice in sport and physical
activity through scientific study and dissemination of research-based and experiential knowledge to members and the public. National Soft Drink Association the National Soft Drink Association (NSDA) is the trade association for America's soft drink industry, serving the pub THE PRESENT POSITION OF COKE IN INDIA
Coke is a households name and is the lips of every one. In present time every person know the name of coca cola since India is one of biggest market and sultry summer from march the end of October and huge population has immensely helped in the sales the sales of coke in India and its making it more economical.
Last years, the market share of Coca Cola was not specific. In this year company’s top management adopted new policy and increased the rate of all brands of coke. By this decision top management determined the rate of 300 ml / 10Rs. And the brand of 200 ml determines the rate of this brand 7Rs. By which medium size family and lower level family can be taken the enjoy of coke. By this decision company’s marketing share has been increased.In present time coke is captured approximate 60% market share in cold Dinks line. Now coke has defeated all the soft drinks company. According to service and according to advertising coke has appropriate position.It has now emerged as the winner and has a good image in the market.
MISSION OF THE COCA-COLA COMPANY The mission of the Coca-Cola Company is to increase shareowner value over time. The company accomplished the mission by working with its business partners to deliver satisfaction and value to customers and consumers through a worldwide system of superior brands and services, thus increasing brand equity on a global basis. GUIDING PRINCIPLES OF COCA-COLA INDIA 1. We will conduct ourselves and our business activities with the highest standards of honesty integrity and professionalism. 2. We will recognize the positive contributions that we make as individuals and team members to produce our business success. 3. We will encourage a learning environment where people can constantly grow, develop and contribute. 4. We will strive for excellence and seek continuous improvement in everything we do. 5. We will respect all stakeholders, including employees, partners and suppliers and instill them with a passion to deliver the highest quality goods and service. 6. We will foster initiative and creativity by empowering individual to attain welldefined objectives.
COKE BRANDS IN INDIAN ORIGIN
Developed in a brass pot in 1886, Coca-Cola is the most recognized and admired trademark around the globe. Not to mention the best selling soft drink in the world.
SPRITE: In 1961, a citrus-flavored drink made its U.S. debut, using "Sprite Boy" as inspiration for its name. This elf with silver hair and a big smile was used in 1940s advertising for Coca-Cola. Sprite is now the fastest growing major soft drink in the U.S., and the world's most popular lemon-lime soft drink.
FANTA: The name "Fanta" was first registered as a trademark in Germany in 1941, when it was used for a few years for a soft drink created from available materials and flavors. The name was then revived in 1955 in Naples, Italy, when it was used for the "Fanta" orange drink we know today. It is now the trademark name for a line of flavored drinks sold around the world.
DIET COKE: The extension of the Coca-Cola name began in 1982 with the introduction of diet Coke (also called Coca-Cola light in some
countries). Diet coke quickly became the number- one selling low-calorie soft drink in the world.
VANILA : It is an Ice Cream in taste. Launched in 2004.
LIMCA: This is thirst-quenching beverage features a fresh and light lemon-lime taste and a lighthearted attitude. The Limca brand was introduced in 1971 and acquired by the Coca-Cola Company in 1993.
MAAZA : Maaza, launched in 1984 and acquired by The Coca-Cola Company in 1993, is a non carbonated mango soft drink with a rich, juicy m natural mango taste.
THUMPS UP : In 1993, The Coca-Cola Company acquired this brand, which was originally introduced in 1977. Its strong and fizzy taste makes it unique carbonated Indian Cola.
KINLEY WATER: This is thirst-quenching beverage features fresh the fresh water with the saturated oxygen level.
SUNFILL: This is thirst-quenching beverage features a fresh and light orange taste and a lighthearted attitude.
VISION The long-term vision of Coca-Cola in India is to provide exceptional strategic lead to the Coca-Cola in India.
Through Coca-Cola system resulting in consumer & customer preference and loyalty through Coca-Cola is commitment to them and in a highly profitable Coca-Cola Corporate branded beverage system.
MISSION The mission of coca cola in India is:
Increase in shareholder's value over time. To achieve the above by working with business partners to deliver satisfaction and value to customers and consumers through world wide system of superior brand and services thus increasing the brand equity. To achieve the mission the company seeks the contribution from each of the given areas: People working in the company. Commitment of the company. Goals & objectives of the company. Environmental policy. Internal control. Policy & producers.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
A literature review discusses published information in a particular subject area, and sometimes information in a particular subject area within a certain time period. A literature review can be just a simple summary of the sources, but it usually has an organizational pattern and combines both summary and synthesis. A summary is a recap or the important information of the source, but a synthesis is a re-organization, or a reshuffling, of that information. It might give a new interpretation of old material or combine new with old interpretations. Or it might trace the intellectual progression of the field, including major debates. And depending on the situation, the literature review may evaluate the sources and advise the reader on the most pertinent or relevant. Purpose of review of Literature is to provide a backdrop of the present study. It is the context to wfi1ch our present study can be referred to determine its relevance
Operational SetupThe success of any survey is depends upon resources, quality and timing and integrity of the surveyor who compiles the primary data. So it is a very important task is to manage all the available resources which make impact on the quality of survey. ApproachThe approach behind a surveyor the project varies with the purpose of the survey. Under this report, "quantitative" approach is used which is concerned with the objective assessment of the availability and display that is clearly visible and can be easily quantified. No subjective assessment is involved in this report.
Area of surveyFor performing any survey a sample is selected from the population. All the consumers are chosen from different location of Dehradun City.
Planning: For a successful compilation and best result within a limited time the planning was must. In this way the first step was to design an appropriate data form we can say it questionnaire that covers all the mandatory areas of information that is to be analyzed. The data form which I was used to collect data was designed by my immediate supervisor. Schedule: To achieve the desired goal it was necessary to make schedule of tasks which were handed over to us. So keeping in view the original objective, the content of the schedule was prepared. Then I and my group members collected data from the desired field. Since the data form distribution and collection was an official work so it was a time taking process. In the meantime it was our work to keep in touch with our fields. Sampling Design : Design is the plan, structure & strategy of investigation conceived so as to attain answer to questions' to survey and to control the variances. According to this project's / survey's purpose the analytical, interpretive/objective design was chosen.
Data Collection Method: The two sources for data collection are documentary or secondary and field or primary is used. Because I have to collect the information, which is fickle in nature, the availability and display of the product changes even each and every day, therefore questionnaire is selected as the survey instrument. The forms used for the survey were close-ended questionnaire consisting of various items. I have covered Dehradun City & took data of different areas it was great to visit company like "Coca-Cola", season like "Summer" and product like "Cold Drink", combining all the factors together make the sample design for the project very important for the real extract from the market. According to my judgment and to cover all the major areas the sample was selected. The sample size was 100 consumers. Statistical Tools: Representation of statistical data by diagram, graphs, charts or pictures is more effective than tabular representation being easily intelligible to a layman, indeed diagrams is most essential whenever it is required to convey any statistical information to the general public.
The more important types of diagram which are use in statistical work are:1. Bar Diagram :
Mode of diagrammatic representation of data is the bar diagram. In this method bar of equal width are taken for the different items of the series. The length of the bar represents value of the variables concerned. 2. Pie Chart : It is a circle whose area is divided proportionately among the different components by straight lines drawn from the center to the circumference of the circle. When statistical data are given for a number of categories and we are interested in the comparison of various categories or between a part of the whole, such a diagram is very helpful in effectively displaying the data. Sample Size Type of Sampling : : 100 Random Sampling.
MARKETING STRATEGY OF COKE As millions of rural Indians reach for a cold soft drink in the hottest summer in years, Coca-Cola India seems to have discovered the consumers who could rescue its dismal sales record. Coca-Cola India totally misjudged rural India, home to two-thirds of the country's 1 billion population, when it re-entered the country a decade ago. Yet as the country side emerges as the fastest-growing source of demand for consumer products, the local arm of the US soft drinks giant seems to have learnt its lesson. "We were just not addressing the masses, that were the problem," says Mr. Sanjeev Gupta, Coca-Cola's operations chief. The company's new strategy of smaller bottles, price cuts and advertising that straddles cities and villages pushed turnover last year up by a quarter to nearly Rs.5000 crore. And Thumbs Up, a local brand that Coca-Cola bought and then ran down, is also recovering spectacularly. The success of Thumbs Up, whose market share is now roughly equal to that of marker leader Pepsi at 23 percent, is an embarrassment for Coca-Cola, which is in third place with 16.5 percent (from 12 percent three years ago) in India's Rs.8000 crore soft drinks market. Coca-Cola returned to India after being kicked out by the government in the mid-1970s. It paid a high price for the then market leader, Thumbs Up, and tried to kill it off in the mistaken belief that this would pave the way for CocaCola's rise. Extravagance, unoptimistic and naive reading of the market and mismanagement of its new bottling assets led Coca-Cola to write down Rs.2000 crore of its Indian assets in 2000. The greatest indignity is that India is one of the few markets where Pepsi has outsmarted Coca-Cola.
"Coca-Cola came in blazing but mishandled itself and Thumbs Up. That makes its recovery all the more remarkable." says Mr. C Srinivasan, chairman of business consultant AT Kearney India. Coca-Cola's Indian management, now stable after recent flurry of departures, persuaded the US parent to persist with India, and won $100 m to fix problems such as poor distribution. Its Atlanta headquarters was won over because of India's potential. India's per capita consumption of carbonated drinks is less than hall the level in Pakistan and about 8 percent of China's. Mr. Gupta argued that closing the gap would only come by chasing the rural consumer. "We had to address the 75 percent (that lives in rural areas) and not just the 25 percent (in cities) and that meant using small-pack innovations," says Mr. Gupta. "The only consumer goods companies that make it in India are those that sell micro-sized products at low prices." Coca-Cola's 200 ml bottle (down from 300 ml) sells for Rs.7, half the price of a conventional sized bottle. To achieve a return on this "low margin, high volume" strategy. Coca-Cola had to shrink its ballooning costs, while raising output in a market growing at just 8-9 percent per year. Coca-Cola added 30 assembly lines, including five plants; cut costly staff; revamped transport; shrunk bottles and made them lighter and packed in smaller crates to increase a truck's carrying capacity; added distributors and expanded the number of outlets in towns and villages by a fifth to about 1 m. Coca-Cola's aim was to "lock in" retailers in villages of at least 1,000 people connected to usable roads. One method was to help those with no savings or access to formal credit to buy their costliest asset: a fridge. The company
negotiated big discounts from fridge producers, placing an order equivalent to two months' output of the domestic fridge industry. Discounts were passed on to the retailers, cutting the average purchase price by Rs.3,000 more than three months' wages in a village. Finally, Coca-Cola dumped a global advertising campaign that was irrelevant to the Indian market and adopted one featuring Bollywood stars. "The campaign is finally speaking to the right market." says marketing consultant Mr. Jagdeep Kapoor. The adverts also loudly proclaimed the Rs.5 price benchmark, meaning retailers could not overcharge.
Marketing Mix and Strategy: Marketing mix of any organization consists of 4 P's i.e. product, price, place and promotion having its own significance, which varies from one organization to the other. In Coca-Cola the information about all the 4 P's that can be available to me is given here:
PRODUCT:Product mix of Coca-Cola consists of the various brand packs and flavors given in the table. Product strategy of the Coca-Cola is to promote all the brands available in all the brands packs and to introduce the product in new flavors and. even new product. Regarding this Kinley soda is introduced. Fanta in green apple flavor is also introduced.
PRICE: Regarding the pricing policy or the price to the distributor is not disclosed to me, but as done for the different product of the company, company has priced the product same as that of its major competitor or the market leader. PLACE: The Coca-Cola Company in India is governed from its corporate office located at Gurgaon in Haryana. It governs the working of five zones covering whole India these zones are: - Northern zone, Eastern zone, Western zone, Southern zone and Andhra Pradesh zone. These zones are divided in to various, plants, which govern the area assigned to them. The areas are the various distribution centers called distributors and C&F agents. Then comes the retailers/customer for the company's product, they receive goods from distributors and C&F agents. Finally consumer is there, having the product from the customer's shops or delivered to their home, it is more clearly visible through this chart. The Coca-Cola Company, which gave its reach to the mouth of billions of people all around the world having a wide distribution, network. In India, the pace and speed at which Coca-Cola has widened its business is really amazing. Distribution network is the biggest strength of the company. PROMOTION:
This part of the marketing is playing a very vital and important role in the current situation in India. Looking at the competition and promotion and advertising budget of both the companies coca cola and Pepsi, one can easily estimate the importance of this. The promotion mix of Coca-Cola is divided in to COMPETITORS: Since there is only one major competitor of the Coca – Cola i.e. Pepsi. There is some information about the Pepsi Company. Pepsi Cola, Headquartered N.Y., is the refreshment beverage unit of Pepsi Co. Beverages and Foods, a division of Pepsi Co. Inc. Pepsi Co. Beverages and Foods at North America also comprise Pepsi Co`s Tropicana, Gatorade and Quaker Foods businesses in the United States of America and Canada also Pepsi-Cola non-carbonated beverage portfolio includes Aquafina, Which is the number one brand of bottled water in the United States, Dole single serve juices and some, which offers a wide range of drinks with herbal ingredients. The company also makes and markets North America’s best-selling, ready to drink iced teas and coffees via joint venture with Lipton and Starbucks, respectively. Pepsi Co, Inc. is one of the world’s largest food and beverage companies. The company’s principle business includes: • • Frito-Lay snacks Pepsi-Cola beverages 31
Pepsi Co Inc. was founded in 1965 through the merger of Pepsi-Cola and Frito-Lay. Tropicana was acquired in 1998. In 21001 Pepsi Co merged with the QUAKER Oats Company, creating the world’s fifth largest food and Beverage Company, with 15 brandseach generating more than $1million in annual retail sales. Pepsi Co's success is the result of superior products, high standards of performance, distinctive competitive strategies and the high level of integrity of their people.
Soft drink business is built on two pillars - Brands and Distribution. We present below comprehensive conceptual coverage of these and other key marketing concepts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Branding Valuation of brands Distribution Marketing Market Research Market segmentation and positioning
Advertising and promotions
What is a brand ? A brand is name, term, sign, symbol or design or a combination of them which is intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors' A Trade mark is "a brand or a part of brand that is given legal protection because it is capable of exclusive appropriation." Manufacturers can use their own brands (known as Manufacturers' brands) or brands of their distributors (Distributors' brands). Why branding? Manufacturers/ distributors use brand names for a variety of reasons from simple identification purposes to having legal protection for unique features of the products from imitations and help consumers recognize certain quality parameters. In some cases, brands are just used to endow the product with unique story and character which itself can be a basis for product differentiation.
Special importance of brands for soft drink products While brands can represent all types of goods or entities, they have special importance for products. Brand equities are stronger in soft drink products as the consumer is reluctant to try unknown brands/ unbranded products for the following reasons • • • These products individually account for a small part of household spending. Most of these products are for personal use. In many cases, it is difficult to differentiate a product on technical or functional grounds and therefore the consumer is reluctant to switch to an unknown brand. • Successful brands generate strong cash flows, which enable the owner of the brand to reinvest a part of it in the form of aggressive advertisements/ promotions. This reinforces the perceived superiority of a brand How a brand is created? Soft drink companies spends enormous sums on building a brand equity by way of advertisements/publicity free samples -low entry price promotions (schemes for dealers, consumers etc) 34
Advertisement and promotion can induce trials but for sustained loyalty, the manufacturer has to offer superior quality and value for money. Most successful brands are founded on a chance discovery of a new product/ process or assiduous research and development work. Major players invest in R&D on their existing brands and improve the product quality continuously to maintain their edge over competitors.
VALUATION OF BRANDS : Value of a brand is represented by the incremental cash flow resulting from a
product with a brand versus a product without a brand name or with weaker brand name. Brand valuation is a complex process and involves a lot of subjectivity. There are no widely accepted techniques of brand valuation. There are several considerations which cannot be standardized or quantified such as • • • • To pre-empt competition from taking over a brand • Synergy with the company acquiring existing brands/ businesses • Strategic entry into a new product category Prevent damage to existing brands. Many a times stiff competition results in price cutting, aggressive promotions, lower margins for all the competing brands. • Confidence in the acquirer of the brand to rejuvenate a languishing brand.
Value of an acquired brand : In case of an acquired brand, price paid for the brand over and above the value of tangible assets, represents value of the brand. For accounting purposes consideration paid for the brand is typically broken up as follows: Goodwill Trademark and patents Technology and know-how
Non compete agreement Some of the popular methods for valuation of brands are discussed below Bert technique (Intra-brand Pic) values brands based on following factors. It gives scores on each factor and values the brand as multiple of sales/ earnings based on the aggregate score. USP's of the brand Stability of the brand Markets namely the industry in which the brand is in use. International of the brand commanding a higher weightage than a local brand. The long term trends of the brands Brands receiving consistent investment are more valuable. Legal protection commanded by brands through registration and trade mark laws. Quality of support received by the brands. Cost basis - The valuation is done by aggregating all costs incurred on a brand from the conception stage. These costs include market survey, research & development, launch and subsequent advertising expenditures. These costs are adjusted for inflation and present values are calculated. Then adjustments are made to provide for discount in case of a declining trend in the product life cycle or premium in case of ascending trend in market share and product life cycle. Market value - Valuation at market price (the best bidder quote) can be at divergence from the fundamental value of the brand. For instance, a large company may
pay an abnormally high price to protect its major brand or remove a nuisance from the market or derive synergies in its existing business. Such valuations are subjective. Earnings model - In this method, valuation is done by identifying, separating and quantifying earnings that can be attributed to the brand and capitalizing these earnings at a suitable discounting rate. The multiple would depend on several factors such as category growth prospect, emerging competition and brand's relative position, edge in terms of technology, strength of loyalty to the brand etc. 3. DISTRIBUTION : Marketing or Distribution channel refers to the set of marketing intermediaries which manufacturer's link together to reach their products to the ultimate consumers. Depending on the product, nature of market and manufacturers' resources/strategy, there can be one or more links between the manufacturer and consumer. Manufacturer – Retailers Manufacturer - Wholesalers – Retailers Manufacturer - Stockists - Wholesalers – Retailers
Why use distribution channelsThere are several benefits for a manufacturer particularly in case of consumer goods to rely on these marketing intermediaries rather than develop one's own distribution network. • Efficiency in performing the basic marketing task by these intermediaries who through their experience, specialization, knowledge of local conditions, contacts and scale, offer services. • • Which manufacturers can scarcely do on their own. Cost advantage most of these intermediaries in India are family owned outfits. Their cost of operations and overheads are substantially lower. • Focus: Manufacturers can concentrate on their core activity and optimize return on assets. RETAILING : In India, there are over 5 million retail outlets dispersed all over the country. The retailing industry provides employment to over 18mn people. 1 out of every 25 families in India is engaged in the business of retailing. Ownership and management are predominantly family controlled. However in sharp contrast to developed countries, unit average size of a retail outlet in India is very small. Organized retailing, however, has been a recent phenomenon and is relatively undeveloped. There are no large super market chains/ shopping malls. Consumers are unwilling to pay a premium for convenience shopping as their counterparts in the western 39
countries do. While small chain stores called Apna Bazaars and Sahakan Bhandaars, which offer products at reasonable prices, have been fairly popular, Department Stores and Food Stores are slowly gaining popularity. A large number of corporates have recently ventured into retailing. The retail outlet in India can be broadly categorized as follows: Grocery stores General purpose stores Food stores Pan bidi shops Chemist/ drug stores Cold chains The relative share of grocers dropped from over 50% in the early 90's to 35% in the late 90's. Chemist outlets on the other hand, have been expanding their product range to include high margin FMCG products from shampoos to ketchup. Pan-wallas are also emerging as full fledged consumer product outlets 4. MARKETING :
Direct marketing : In direct marketing manufacturers reach the consumers directly. Direct marketing can be undertaken in several ways such as mail order, own retail outlets, mobile vans etc. A new innovative approach to direct marketing viz multilevel marketing is becoming
increasingly popular. Also gaining ground slowly is E-tailing i.e. selling products through the internet. Multilevel marketing model : Multi level marketing refers to direct marketing through an ever-increasing number of direct distributors. Independent distributors sell products directly to the consumers and appoint new distributors and train them. The distributor earns commission at two levels; one is his/ her own commission and two a proportion of commission earned by other distributors appointed by him/ her. None of these distributors are employees of the company. Distributors are not allowed to sell these products to retailers. The company saves about 25% of realizations by eliminating retail channel, which is shared with distributors. The company insists that the distributors should take prior appointment with the consumer. Personal interaction is not only convenient but adds value as customer get valuable advice on the product and how to use it. This helps in creating awareness and removing misconceptions like cosmetics are harmful for the skin. Direct marketing (multi level approach) in persona care products is extremely popular abroad. In Brazil, about 60% of personal care products are sold through direct marketing. In India, direct marketing has been slowly growing. Word of mouth has a strong impact on purchase decision of a consumer, specially in personal care and
cosmetic products. Direct marketing has mainly been undertaken by the new MNC entrants (notably Oriflame, Avon). Hindustan Lever has also recently launched a new personal product brand Aviance which is sold directly to consumers exclusively by trained beauty specialists. Direct marketing has also been extensively used in marketing of household appliances like Vacuum cleaners. However given the widely spread geographical area in India, direct marketing cannot be easily used to build an extensive national reach and is more likely to be used as a supplementary channel. 5. Market Research : Market research activities encompass studies on market characteristics measurement of market potential and size, market share analysis, competitive products, new products acceptance/ product preference, sales (region wise, consumer wise etc) analysis, short/ long term sales forecasting, advertisement effectiveness post-shipment data (actual shipment by manufacturers), retail stores audit (actual sales at sample outlets) trade feedback and distribution, brand recall, point of sale material etc.
It requires skilled people for data collection as well as analysis. Several large consumer companies have in-house MR department. Most others retain specialized and professional MR agencies. The significance of market research has increased considerably in the recent times as Size of operations of major players has increased to national and international markets. Marketing executives are physically away from the market and hence the need for flow of information. In the environment of increasing competition and multiple products competing for consumers' preference information about the market has tremendous utility. Information is required for segmenting the market and appropriate pricing and positioning of the products. Market research approach : Typically, a market research activity involves the following 5 steps, Problems definition This forms the basis of research and failure to identify the problem precisely will result in finding a correct solution for a wrong problem. Research design: The next step is to set out objectives of research clearly, determined data collection methods to finalize research instruments and sampling plan.
Field work: After finalization of research design, the actual data collection begins. It can be done by the agency on its own or through subcontracting to third parties. Data is collected by questionnaires/ direct interviews, telephonic interviews, simple observation etc. Data analysis: The next step forms the heart of research activity. It involves extracting meaningful information from the data collected and analyzing the information statistically and also from business perspective. Statistical techniques include simple/ multiple linear programming models, time series, exponential series, regression analysis, simulation, Marko chain process etc. Report preparation: The final step is to prepare a report, present major findings in a manner amenable to managerial decision taking. There may be some follow up and revalidation required. TEST MARKETING : Test marketing refers to testing out product and marketing mix with a small number of well chosen consumers which are representative of the target segment. Test marketing is frequently used by consumer companies, in contrast to industrial companies which prefer feedback through informal channels. Test marketing improves knowledge of target consumers, potential sales and is an effective tool to pre-test alternative marketing plan. In most products, it is important to check trial rates as well as re-purchase rates. CONSUMER'S PANELS :
Consumer panels refer to a set of consumers with different demographic characteristics (so as to be representative of target population) who agree to co-operate in market research, typically for a consideration. Market research agencies and companies try to collect information on buyer's characteristics by introducing a new product to the consumer panels. The firm estimates trials as well as the repeat purchasing by this method. There are statistical models to forecast market shares, demand, brand switching etc. 7. ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION : Advertising consists of non-personal form of communications. The
communication is conducted through trade media under player sponsorships. Advertising aims at providing information about the product arouse demand for the product and emphasize on superior features of the advertised product over others. Players have to decide on overall advertisement budget, message and mode of presentation, type of media, timing etc. They invariably do post audit of advertising efficacy. Promotions are of two types viz. pull promotions where consumers are incentivized and push promotion where dealers/ retailers are incentivized. There are several forms of promotion such as distributing free samples, discount coupons, gift offers for consumers and target based incentives and display schemes etc for retailers. Marketers also sponsor charity programmes, sports etc to promote corporate/ brand image.
A definition of dynamic control is also required before we go further. Dynamic control is the distribution manager's ability to rapidly set and change priorities and modes of transportation in response to the war fighter's requirements. If Quartermasters cannot dynamically control the delivery of supplies and materiel, we remain at the mercy of the transportation system and will be forced into the comfort and expense of a stockagebased supply system. INDIA DIVISION The Head quarter of India is at Enkay Towers, Udyog Vihar,Gurgaon. Coca Cola became 3rd largest FMCG from zero in India in just 8 years. There are 40 producing units across the country. There are 5 regions in India viz., North, South, West, East & Andhra Pradesh. The company operates in two types of Bottling operations viz., 1. COBO (Company Owned Bottling Operations) - In COBO, the Company owns the unit and is a property of India. 2. FOBO (Franchisee owned Bottling Operations) - FOBO is operated by Bottlers, who are given license by the Company to bottle its products on their behalf. THE NORTH REGION : The headquarter of Northern Region is at JMD Towers, Regent Square, Gurgaon. It comprises of Delhi, Western UP, Eastern UP, Jammu & Jaipur units. It has 9 production units viz, Delhi, Jaipur, Kanpur, Varanasi, Dasna, Mundka Depo, Jammu,
Delhi FOBOs & East-West UP FOBO. It is the largest region in India with 1313 employees PRODUCTS OF COMPANY It has brown colour with high content of C02 (Carbon di-oxide) which makes its COLA flavour heavy. It is available in different volumes in market like : 1. 2. 3. 4. 200 ml glass bottle 300 ml glass bottle 600ml pet bottle 2.Litre pet bottle. It has dark brown color with very high content of CO2 which makes the Cola flavor is very strong. It is available in different volumes in market like: 1. 2. 3. 4. 200 ml glass bottle 300 ml glass bottle 600ml pet bottle 2.Litre pet bottle It comes in many flavours like orange, with light content of CO2 that makes its make its flavour delicious. It is available in different volumes in market. 1. 2. 3. 200 ml glass bottle 300 ml glass bottle 600 ml pet bottle
2.Litre pet bottle Limca has light grey colour with light content of CO2 that makes its flavour tasty.
It is available in market in following packs of quantities: 1. 2. 3. 4. 200 ml glass bottle 300 ml glass bottle 600 ml pet bottle 2 Litre pet bottle It is colourless with packing in green coloured bottle. It has normal content of CO2. It has a nice flavour available in market in following packing: 1. 2. 3. 4. 200 ml glass bottle 300 ml glass bottle 600 ml pet bottle 2 Litre pet bottle It is of yellow colour with decent taste of mango. It doesn't contain CO2. Its available packing in market are: 1. 250 glass Bottle Soda- It is colourless & available in market in 300 ml glass bottle in the market.K -Water it is a mineral water available in following volumes in the market: 1. 1 liter, pet little
2 liter, pet little
Ingredients Cola carbonated sugar
Pack Flavour 200Ml. water 300Ml. 500Ml. 1.5 Litre 2 Litre
The given Chart & Table show that the most no. of respondent like to take cold drink because it gives the full satisfaction in the hot and humid day. It was found that 100% of respondent likes to take the soft drinks and 00% respondent don’t want to take cold drinks. The people who don’ts prefer are because of their taste and preference. They are of the perception that Lassie and Nimbu pani are beneficial than the carbonated soft drinks.
GRAPH-1 Prefer to have cold drinks
Table- II Consumption of cold drinks in a day
Response No of Respondent (Time a day) Less than 2 2–4 More than 4 + Total Analytical Interpretation: The given diagram & table show the frequency of taking cold drinks in a day. It was found that 54% of respondent takes the less than 2 cold drink a day, 35% of respondent takes 2 – 4 cold drinks a day. And 11% of the respondent likes to takes more than 4 cold drinks in a day. The people who consume more than two cold drinks have a habit of a high consumption. For them a change in price doesn’t changes their demand to a great extent. They also maintain a brand loyalty in the brand they are regularly consuming. 54 35 11 100 Percentage (%) 54% 35% 11% 100%
35 40 30 20 10 0
Less than 2 2–4 More than 4 +
Graph II Consumption of cold drinks in a day
Table- III Preference of flavours
Flavour Cola Citric Lemon Orange Others Total Analytical Interpretation:
No of Respondent 41 26 21 10 02 100
Percentage 41% 26% 21% 10% 02% 100%
The given graph & table show the most popular flavour in cold drinks is Cola. It was found that the 41% respondent likes the Cola Flavoured, 21% of respondent likes the Lamon flavoured, 26% of respondent likes the citric flavour, 10% likes the Orange flavour and only 2% likes the other flavoured.
45% 40% 35% 30% 25% GRAPH-III 20%
15% Preference of flavours 10% 5% 0% Cola Citric
Table- IV Preference of Brand name
Response Yes No Can’t Say Total
No of Respondent 56 39 05 100
Percentage (%) 56% 39% 05% 100%
The graph & table clear view regarding the importance given to a brand name while choosing the cold drinks. It was found that the 56% of Respondent says Yes and 39% of respondent say No and the only 5% of respondent not in a position to say anything.
Graph IV Preference of Brand name
Yes 56% No Can’t Say
Table- V Factors Influences choosing particular Brand
Response Brand Flavour Advertisement
No of Respondent 28 48 06
Percentage (%) 28% 48% 06%
The chart and diagram shows that the way respondent likes the particular brand of cold drinks. It was found that 48% of respondent likes the because of flavour, 28% respondent likes the cold drinks because of brand, 18% of respondent likes because of chilled and only 6% of respondent likes because of advertisement.
The given diagram gives the view regarding the most popular and demanded brand. It was found that the 58% of respondent preferred the Coke as most popular brand, 21% of respondent say Pepsi as most popular brand, 16% of respondent referred the coke as the popular brand and the only 21% of respondent say others was a the most popular brand.
The given chart table shows that the most available flavour on the respondent retailer’s shops. It was found that the 61% of respondent (Consumers) say that they find Cola flavour on their retailer’s shop.30% of respondent found the citric flavor on their retailer’s shop. Science cola flavour is a Universal flavour in India, with consumers of all age, sex and preference accepting it whole heartedly.
Graph VII Availability in retailer’s shop
70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Table- VIII Availability in College Canteen/Locality/Colony
Brand Coke Pepsi Others Total Analytical Interpretation:-
No of Respondent 51 47 02 100
Percentage (%) 51% 47% 02% 100%
The graph & table gives the information regarding the available the available brand on their college canteen or a colony or a locality. It was found that 51% of respondent found the Coke brands of cold drink highly available while 47% of respondent said that they found Pepsi brand as highly available and only 02% of respondent said that they found other brand like Frooti or others brands highly available. This difference in the response is because of the consumption of different brands in different segments.
47% Availability in College Canteen/Locality/Colony 51%
Coke Pepsi Others
Table-IX Opinion towards Taste
In a cola flavor.
Brand Coke Pepsi Total
No of Respondent 75 25 100
Percentage (%) 75% 25% 100%
The given table and diagram gives the idea of the respondent opinion regarding the Cola flavour drink. It was found that the 75% of respondent likes the Coke and the only 25% respondent likes the Pepsi flavour.
In Citric flavoured?
Brand Mountain Dew 7`Up Sprit Total Analytical Interpretation:
No of Respondent 41 30 29 100
Percentage (%) 41% 30% 29% 100%
The given table and Diagram gives the idea of the respondent opinion regarding the citric flavour drink. It was found that the 41% of respondent likes the Mountain Dew, 30% of respondent likes the 7 UP and the only 29% of respondent likes the Sprit in Citric flavoured. The consumers of Mountain Dew say that it has a better and genuine taste than the Sprit flavoured of Coke.
(iii) In orange flavoured?
Brands Miranda Orange Fanta Others Total Analytical Interpretations:
No of Respondent 64 28 08 100
Percentage (%) 64% 28% 08% 100%
The above given table and chart show the opinion of the respondent regarding Orange flavour. It was found that the 28% of respondent likes fanta of COKE brand, 64% of respondent likes the miranda of the PEPSI brand and 8% of respondent likes the other soft drinks of orange flavour.
In Mango flavour?
Brands Mazza Slice
No of Respondent 37 22
Percentage (%) 37% 22%
Others Total Analytical Interpretations:
The above shown table and chart gives the view regarding the opinion of respondent about the Mango flavour. It was found that the 41% of respondent likes Frooti, 37% of respondent like Mazza of Coke and only 22% of respondent likes the Slice of Pepsi brand. One of the greatest advantages with Frooti is that it comes in tetra pack which is a one way pack. People find it convenient to take it home for consumption. Even coke and Pepsi have introduced tetra pack in the Mango drink recently but it will definitely take some time take away market from the market leader. Also Frooti is a well established brand has available in tetra pack for a long time.
Graph IX Opinion towards Taste
IN A COLA FLAVOR
25% 46% Thumps up
Graph IX Opinion towards Taste (II) IN CITRIC FLAVOURED?
29% 41% Sprite Dew
Mountain Dew 7`Up
Graph IX Opinion towards Taste (III) IN ORANGE FLAVOURED
Miranda Fanta Orange
Fanta Orange Miranda
Graph IX Opinion towards Taste IN MANGO FLAVOUR?
37% Mazza Slice 22% Others
Table-X Cause of Choosing Brand
Subject Blend Brand Image Availability Advertisement Total Analytical Interpretations:
No of Respondent 20 38 26 16 100
Percentage (%) 20% 38% 26% 16% 100%
The graph & table above say that why the respondent like their favoured brand. It was found that 38% of respondent likes his brand because of brand Image, 26% of respondent likes because of availability, 20% of because of Blend and only 16% of advertisement. Brand image refer to the perception of the customers regarding the choice of a particular brand. It comes with the kind of advertisement brought by the company. Blend over here refers to the taste of the flavour demanded.
38% 40% 35% 30% (IV) 20% 25% Cause of Choosing Brand 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Blend 26%
74 Brand Image
Table-XI Most appealing Brand advertisement
Brands Coke Pepsi Total Analytical Interpretations:
No of Respondent 52 48 100
Percentage (%) 52% 48% 100%
The given chart shows that the respondent about the most appealing brand advertisement. It was found that the 52% of respondent says that Coke advertisement is most appealing, 48% of respondent says Pepsi advertisement is most appealing one. The advertisement of Coke features Bollywood star like Aishyarwa Rai, Hritik Roshan, Karishma Kapoor and Amir Khan who are highly acceptable by the public. The advertisement of Coke featuring Amir Khan with a punch line “Thanda Matlab…………….Coca-Cola” It was a super hit which took Coke not only to the rural markets but also 38% overturned the market of Pepsi. 40%
35% 30% 25% 20% 15% Table XII 10% Most appealing Brand Punch Line 5% 0% Coke
Graph XI Most appealing Brand advertisement
48% Coke 52% Pepsi
Table-XII Most appealing Brand Punch Line
Brand Coke Pepsi Total
No of Respondent 68 32 100
Percentage (%) 68% 32% 100%
The chart shows the opinion regarding the most effective punch line in respondent view. It was found that 68% of respondent feel that Coke punch line is most effective, 32% of respondent feels Pepsi ‘Punch line is most effective, Major no. of people thinks that the most effective punch line is ‘Thanda Matalab……….Coca-Cola” and Punch
“Matlab ……Chota Coke”, Then “Ye pyass hai Badi” and “yeh dil mange more”
Graph XIII Opinion towards product, which is promoted by celebrity
28% 40% Yes No 32% Can’t say
Table XIV Opinion towards Pricing Strategy
Response Yes No Can`t Say Total Analytical Interpretations:
No of Respondent 64 22 14 100
Percentage (%) 64% 22% 14% 100%
The given table & diagram shows that how effective the companies facility the consumer. It was found 64% of respondent says yes. 22% of respondent says No and 14% respondent can’t say anything. India is a mass market for the consumer product but at the same time it is also a very “Price Sensitive” Market. So with a small decrease in price results in a drastic increase in the demand. Since soft drink is a consumer product, the price has a great influence on the demand of the product.
Table XIV Opinion towards Pricing Strategy
Yes 22% 64% No Can`t Say
FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS
SWOT ANALYSIS STRENGTH: Coca-cola Potential brands position in the market. Good quality and innovation of product for long term customer relationship. Good advertising campaign, and brand ambassador. Advertisement campaign more effective and change punch line make. Emotional touch with customer and retail. High investment in research and development. Coca-cola has a good market share. Segment of coke product to every age group. To satisfy of retail or through schemes SGA, display.
WEAKNESS: Lack of proper distribution in many areas. Lack availability 1 it & 1.5 it product pack. Lack supply of Kinley water in the market. Rising No. of date dealers that will wrong effect in market condition. Retailers are not getting schemes at the time. No distribute enough signage to retailers.
OPPORTUNITY: Coke is able to capture large mkt. Share. More monopoly counters of coke brand. To improve market mix (Product, price, promotion, place). To increase the sale of Kinley water.
THREATS: Pepsi is the major competitors, that means watch myopia in the market every time. Pepsi have captured major market of 500 ml, 1.5 & 2 lt. Retailers divert to pepsi because they are getting good schemes and SGA signage. Increase local brand in the market.
Doing a survey on consumers market provided a lot of insight into the dynamics of the market place and with it valuable insights were also gained into the psyche of consumer and owners.
1. SUPPLY The demand of Thums up & Maaza far exceed the supply especially in case of 200ml and pet bottles. Few shop owners’ clamed that many a times no supply is made for 3 days and some times even more. Sometimes the delivery vans of Coca-Cola starts late from the distribution point and that of rivals reach early .so eateries, which generally serve soft drinks in the glass, buy the soft drinks from the delivery van which arrives first. Salesman at the delivery van to be inconsistent on certain meters likes the concept of broken bottles. When dealing with the shop and the eatery owners some salesman do exchange bottles while some do not? All flavors and all size of bottles are kindly available in the market.
2. COMPANY REPRESENTATION Owners confirmed that Company representatives don’t come when called repeatedly.
The Company must ensure that the representatives do visit an outlet at least once in 3 days to listen and to attained to complaints, if any.
3. SALES PUSH BY EAT & DRINK OUTLET The Company easily influenced many eatery owners, which provide them with better facilities. There was a tendency to push the product of the Company which ever offered them better scheme or benefits.
From this project titled "Merchandising and route productivity" in Coca-Cola, I have learned a lot about real practical work being done in the market I have also watched & learned the practical applicability of the various things that we have studied theoretically. I observed on the basis of survey in Dehradun city that Coca-Cola lay emphasis on merchandising in order to become the No.1 brand in soft drink industry the report was finds out the availability of different flavor and packs. Cola-Cola adopt a good customer relationship management, it is focus on the, segment of the product because each segment is affected by different sets of factor which hamper or enhance sales. Each segment had its own Pros & Cons. So we have to understand the various segment of soft drink industry that which flavor is existing more in the market, Such as Thums-up strong brand of coke which is more popular in young generation. I also observe about fate dealer, sub dealer, monopoly counter & its marketing strategy. Such as fate dealer is influence wrong direction to the market. They are supply product at high margin with low scheme. As we know till now since ill soft drink industry the concept of brand loyalty is not in that shape in which it is in countries. So company could take some steps to be to have a good report with the retailers why supply them regularly and provide them with other monetary benefit.
LIMITATION OF RESEARCH 1.The area of study is limited to the merchandising and route productivity aspects of the system, while the marketing has other crucial areas too which were left uncharted
2. The study is limited to eastern region of coca cola which is a multinational company, so the area plays as a constraint in the study.
3. The time period allotted for the study was only of two months, which may provide a deceptive picture in comparison of the study based on long run.
4. The study was based on both primary and secondary data but the relevance of the secondary data may not be justified.
5. The success of any survey depends upon the quality and integrity of the surveyor who collect the basic data by expressing the subject under the study and on the respondents who provides the data required by filling up the questionnaire .The accuracy of the data collected solely depends upon the cooperation and truthfulness of the person who is being interviewed.
6. Interaction skills as well as the behaviour of the respondents also played as a constraints during the research.
1. Name of the Respondent:2. Address: 3. Age group: (a) Below 15 (d) 25 – 35 1. Educational Background (a) (b) (c) (d) Matric & Below Intermediate Graduation Post Graduation
(b) 15 – 20 (e) 35 – 45
(c) 20 – 25 (f) Above 45
2. Do you take cold drink? (a) Yes (b) No
7. If yes how frequently? (Daily) (a) Less than 2 (b) 2 – 4 (c) More than 4
8. Which flavour do you like most? (a) Cola (d) Lemon (b) (e) Citric Others. (c) Orange
9. Do you give importance to brand name while choosing your cold drink? (a) Yes (b) No (c) Can’t Say
10. Which brand you prefer most?
11. You like the particular brand of cold drink because of? (a) (d) Brand Chilled (b) Flavor (c) Advertisement
12 In your opinion which brand of cold drink is most demanded or popular? (a) Coke (c) Pepsi (d) Others.
13. Which brand is more available in your retailer’s shops? (a) Cola (b) Citric (c) Fruit Flavored.
14 Which brand of cold drink do you find most in your college canteen/colony/locality? (a) Coke Brand (b) Pepsi Brand (c) Others.
15. In your opinion which soft drink is better taste? (i) In Cola Flavor (a) Coke (ii) (c) Pepsi
In Citric Flavoured. (a)Sprite (b) Mountain Dew (c) 7`Up
In Orange flavoured. (a) (c) Fanta Others. (b) Miranda Orange
In mango Flavoured. (a) Mazza (b) Slice (c) Others.
Why do you like your brand? (a) (d) Blend Advertisement (b) Brand Image (c) Availability
Which brand advertisement appeals you most? (a) Coke (b) Pepsi (c) Others.
Most effective punch line in your opinion of? (a) Coke (c) Pepsi (b) (d) Thumps up Others.
You like the product which is promoted by the celebrity? (a) Yes (b) No (c) Can’t Say
Do you think that the pricing strategy adopted by the cola companies fascinate the consumer? (a) Yes (b) No (c) Can’t Say