Brand Equity

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Brand equity and brand value are both measures that estimate what a brand is worth. The
difference between these two measures is that brand value refers to the financial asset that the
company records on its balance sheet, while brand equity refers to the importance of the
brand to a customer of the company.

Determining Brand Value
Brand value is easier for a company to estimate. The company can determine the fair market
value of the brand by asking other companies what price they would pay to purchase the
brand. The company can also add up its costs of hiring marketers, consultants and advertising
experts to develop a brand it already owns, or estimate the cost for the company to produce a
new brand for its products.
Determining Brand Equity
Brand equity is more difficult to estimate because it relies on customers' beliefs. The
company does not know whether a customer makes a purchase because he recognizes the
company's brand or whether the customer uses other criteria, such as price and convenience,
to make his decision. According to the University of Georgia, the company can attempt to
estimate its brand equity by sending surveys to its customers to see if they recognize the
brand.

Creating Brand Value
A brand may have a positive value on the company's books and still lack brand equity. When
the company begins a new branding project, the company pays its employees while they
work on the brand, but customers do not know about the brand yet. The company records
these brand value development costs, establishing brand value before the brand gains equity.
Creating Brand Equity
A company needs to develop brand equity past a certain point in a customer's mind before it
becomes effective. The customer may watch several advertisements on television and radio,
see the product in the store and buy the product several times before he recognizes the brand.
This threshold effect complicates the valuation of brand equity because the equity suddenly
goes from zero value to a high value.

Improving Value
Once the company establishes brand equity, brand equity can increase the value of the brand.
If the customer likes a shirt because of its brand name, he might also purchase a pair of pants
with that brand name or buy cologne that uses the brand name. The company can use the
future revenue it expects to collect by using the brand on these other products because of this
equity to calculate the current brand value.


What Is Brand Equity?
Brands represent enormously valuable pieces of legal property, capable of influencing
consumer behavior, being bought and sold, and providing the security of sustained future
revenues to their owner. The value directly or indirectly accrued by these various benefits is
often called brand equity (Kapferer, 2005; Keller, 2003).

A basic premise of brand equity is that the power of a brand lies in the minds of consumers
and what they have experienced and learned about the brand over time. Brand equity can be
thought of as the "added value" endowed to a product in the thoughts, words, and actions of
consumers. There are many different ways that this added value can be created for a brand.
Similarly, there are also many different ways the value of a brand can be manifested or
exploited to benefit the firm (i.e., in terms of greater revenue and/or lower cost.)

Brand Image: The impression in the consumers' mind of a brand's total personality (real
and imaginary qualities and shortcomings). Brand image is developed over time through
advertising campaigns with a consistent theme, and is authenticated through the consumers'
direct experience.

Brand image is the current view of the customers about a brand. It can be defined as a
unique bundle of associations within the minds of target customers. It signifies what the
brand presently stands for. It is a set of beliefs held about a specific brand. In short, it is
nothing but the consumers’ perception about the product. It is the manner in which a specific
brand is positioned in the market. Brand image conveys emotional value and not just a mental
image. Brand image is nothing but an organization’s character. It is an accumulation of
contact and observation by people external to an organization. It should highlight an
organization’s mission and vision to all. The main elements of positive brand image are-
unique logo reflecting organization’s image, slogan describing organization’s business in
brief and brand identifier supporting the key values.
Brand image is the overall impression in consumers’ mind that is formed from all sources.
Consumers develop various associations with the brand. Based on these associations, they
form brand image. An image is formed about the brand on the basis of subjective perceptions
of associations bundle that the consumers have about the brand. Volvo is associated with
safety. Toyota is associated with reliability.
The idea behind brand image is that the consumer is not purchasing just the product/service
but also the image associated with that product/service. Brand images should be positive,
unique and instant. Brand images can be strengthened using brand communications like
advertising, packaging, word of mouth publicity, other promotional tools, etc.
Brand image develops and conveys the product’s character in a unique manner different from
its competitor’s image. The brand image consists of various associations in consumers’ mind
- attributes, benefits and attributes. Brand attributes are the functional and mental connections
with the brand that the customers have. They can be specific or conceptual. Benefits are the
rationale for the purchase decision. There are three types of benefits: Functional benefits -
what do you do better (than others ),emotional benefits - how do you make me feel better
(than others), and rational benefits/support - why do I believe you(more than others). Brand
attributes are consumers overall assessment of a brand.
Brand image has not to be created, but is automatically formed. The brand image includes
products' appeal, ease of use, functionality, fame, and overall value. Brand image is actually
brand content. When the consumers purchase the product, they are also purchasing it’s image.
Brand image is the objective and mental feedback of the consumers when they purchase a
product. Positive brand image is exceeding the customers expectations. Positive brand image
enhances the goodwill and brand value of an organization.


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