(>:?itt'd to a&y ot%'r U&iA'r(ity or I&(tit>tio& 3or t%' a9ard o3 M#B#A#
D-te@ 42-.e @ (S.R.KRISHNA VASANTHA'
I should take the responsibility to acknowledge the following distinguished personalities who graciously allowed me to carry out this project work successively. I am also thankful to all other members of the staff for their kind cooperation in this behalf. Mainly I am very much thankful to MR. J.NAGENDRA KUMAR sir, M.B.A, and Head of the department of management studies.
I am highly thankful to my guide Mrs.A.VIJAYA BHARGAVI madam, M.B.A, faculty in management for her valuable advices and encouragement throughout the course.
It gives me great pleasure for doing this project in SRINIVASA HATCHERIES LTD. My sincere thanks to Dr. K. SOMI REDDY Joint Managing Director and Dr .B.BUCHIRAMAYYA Marketing manager for the matchless motivation. And also thanks to Mr. R. SRINIVAS Sr. systems officer and K.RAMAMOHAN RAO Jr. systems officer involved in this project. Finally I am thankful to my parents and all my friends who have made this project a success.
INTRODU7TION OB0E7TIVES OF STUDY S7O4E OF STUDY METHODO8O,Y OF STUDY 8IMITATIONS OF STUDY
THEORETI7A8 FRAME ?ORK
DATA ANA8YSIS AND INTER4RETATION
FINDIN,S SU,,ESTIONS 7ON78USION
randing is an art and is the cornerstone of marketing. !he success of any company in international markets heavily depends on the "rand strategies. rand strategies are "ased on identity# positioning and image. !he identity is the core element of the internationali$ation strategy of the "rand# whereas the positioning depends on the glo"al of
international characteristics of the "rand. rand strategies are playing a prominent role in the performance management of the "rand and the strategically outcome of the company in the international markets. !he successful# consistent international "rands confirm this remarka"le role of the management. According to the American Marketing Association# %A "rand is a name# term# sign# sym"ol# or design# or a com"ination of them# intended to identify the goods or services of one seller and to differentiate them from those of competitors&. Functionally and conte'tually# there are proprietary# visual# emotional# rational# and cultural images associated with a company or product. (hen we think )olvo# we might think safety. (hen we think *ike# we might think of an advertising campaign prompting %just do it.& (hen we think I M# we might think % ig lue.& +r %,eh Dil Mange More& of -epsi. !he fact that we remem"er the "rand name and have positive associations with that "rand makes the product selection easier and enhances the value and satisfaction from the product.
THE CONCEPT OF A BRAND
A "rand is a promise. It says. you know the name# you can trust the promise.. As is with all promises# it is trusted only as far as those promises are met. !rust is critical first step and "rands aim to accelerate that step leveraging the implied promise of the "rand. Most of the "rands have a logo which acts as a short/cut to remind us of the "rand promise. !he logo uses color# shape# letters and images that are designed "oth to catch our eyes and to guide our thoughts in the right direction. !he "rand may also "e associated with tunes# cele"rities# catchphrases and so on. All parts of the "rands can drive success in competitive and financial markets and indeed "ecome the organi$ation.s most valua"le assets.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
!he o"jectives of the study are0 ♣ !o study the S1I*I)ASA 2A!3241I4S 5!D in general. ♣ !o study the firm sales promotional activities. ♣ !o know a"out the e'iting competition in the market.
♣ !o know regarding measures for improving the marketing of S1I*I)ASA 2A!3241I4S 5!D. ♣ !o know the offensive measures and suggest necessary improvements. ♣ !o discuss the changing pattern of logos for creating new markets. ♣ !o know the practices followed "y S25 a"out 6uality -roducts.
♣ !he scope of the study is restricted in S.2.5 only. ♣ !he scope of the study to "rand and "rand e7uity of S.2.5 only. ♣ !he scope e'cludes financial matters and human resource development matters in the organi$ation
(hen once the pro"lem is identified# it must "e determined how to o"tained the necessary information to solve the pro"lem. !he data for the study was o"tained from -rimary data Secondary data
8. !his comprises of various data collected directly "y interviewing and o"serving Managers of the company. 9. It also includes data gathered from selected customers using the S25 products. Such selection of customers is purely random. :. +pinions and views of various associations# syndicates and e'perts in the poultry industry were included in the work and this also forms part of primary data.
8. +ther statistical data was collected from journals and annual reports provided "y S1I*I)ASA 2A!3241I4S 5td.# -romotion 3ouncil of the company etc.# 9. !he data regarding num"er of units operating and their working and production capacity utili$ation was collected from the production plant. Industry profile was collected from Indian journals of marketing and Internet. :. -rofile of the company and its o"jectives were gathered from the Memorandum of Association of the 3ompany and other working papers provided "y the company.
!he accuracy of the information generally depends upon the 7uality of the data o"tained from the company source. *on availa"ility of e'tensive literature on S1I*I)ASA 2A!3241I4S 5!D the scope for analysis. !he sample is restricted to ;rishna district only. Some of the answers given "y the customers may "ias. !he comparative analysis is completely self/designed company has provided information to limited e'tent. !he major part of the project is "ased on the availa"ility of secondary data. +pinion survey is su"ject to personal "ias of the users.
POULTRY INDUSTRY IN INDIA
!he poultry industry in India is transforming itself at an incredi"le pace from an age/old "ack yard avocation to a dynamic agro/"ased industry with most housing and handling facilities. !he industry valued at over 1s.:<#=== crores has shown a record spurt "oth in terms of eggs and "roiler production and allied trades which have placed the country in pre/eminent position in the world poultry scene. 3ommercial poultry production in India is "arely := years old# although poultry raising dates "ack to prehistoric times. During the last three decades# annual output of eggs has gone up "y over > times to :? "illion# making poultry the fastest growing sector of Indian agriculture. India with an annual production of :? "illion eggs stands second in terms of egg production and with an annual production of 8.9 "illion "roilers stands fifth in terms of production of poultry meat in the world with an annual growth rate of 8=@ to 89@ in layer segment and 8<@ to 9=@ in "roiler segment. -oultry is one of the fastest growing segments of the agricultural sector in India today. (hile the production of agricultural crops has "een rising at a rate of 8.< to 9 percent per annum# that of eggs and "roilers has "een rising at a rate of > to 8= percent per annum. As a result# India is now the worldAs fifth largest egg producer and the eighteenth largest producer of "roilers. Driving this e'pansion is a com"ination of factors / growth in per capita income# a growing ur"an population and falling real poultry prices. In the conte't of this emerging scenario# 7uestions are "eing raised a"out the impact of the scaling up of production/through structural factors# e'ternalities and policies/on small/scale producers. Do the transaction costs# policy distortion and environment e'ternalities place the small/scale producer at a disadvantageB (hy do some poultry farms have higher income than othersB Do large farms earn more profit per unit of output than small onesB (hat e'plains the differentials in profita"ilityB !his report *, which forms part of an ongoing international comparison study on poultry# seeks to address these 7uestions. It attempts to assess the impact of policy and environmental factors on the scale of poultry operations in India as well as the implications of that impact for small/scale production. !he study aims to collect and analy$e consistent data. See Mehta 1.# *am"iar 1. C.# et.al.# it5ivestock Industriali$ation# !rade and Social / 2ealth 4nvironment Impact in Developing 3ountries0 A 3ase Study of Indian -oultry Sectorle# DMimeoE -hase I project report su"mitted to IF-1I# May 9==9.
REGIONAL VARIATION IN POULTRY DEVELOPMENT
Another important aspect of poultry development in India is the significant variation in the industry across regions. Figure 8.8 illustrates egg production in India "y state during 8FF>/FF. !he four southern states / Andhra -radesh# ;arnataka# ;erala and !amil *adu / account for a"out G< percent of the countryAs egg production# with a per capita consumption of <H eggs and =.< kg. of "roiler meat. !he eastern and central regions of India account for a"out 9= percent of egg production# with a per capita consumption of 8> eggs and =.8: kg. of "roiler meat. !he northern and western regions of the country record much higher figures than the eastern and central regions with respect to per capita availa"ility of eggs and "roiler meat. Figure 8.9 shows egg production in India "y region during 8FF9/F:.
GROWING PRODUCTION OF EGGS AND BROILERS
!a"le eggs and "roiler meat are the major end products of the poultry sector in India. -resently production of eggs is estimated to num"er a"out :H "illion# that of "roilers >F< million# and that of poultry meat H:<#=== tonnes. !he value of egg and poultry production in India during 8F>=/9=== is illustrated in Figure 8.:. In addition# organi$ed facilities have "een set up over the years for the manufacture of egg powder and fro$en# processed "roiler meat essentially to cater to e'port markets and markets in the metropolitan areas of India.
INCREASING SCALE OF OPERATION
!he growth of the poultry sector in India is also marked "y an increase in the si$e of the poultry farm. In earlier years "roiler farms had produced on average a few hundred "irds D9==/<== chicksE per cycle. !oday units with fewer than <#=== "irds are "ecoming rare# and units with <#=== to <=#=== "irds per week cycle are common. Similarly# in layer farms# units with a flock si$e of 8=#=== to <=#=== "irds have "ecome common. Small units are pro"a"ly finding themselves at a disadvantage "ecause of high feed and transport costs# e'pensive vaccines# and veterinary care services and the non/availa"ility of credit. Some
small units are reported to "e shifting from layer to "roiler production "ecause output in "roiler units can "e reali$ed in si' weeks.
STRUCTURE OF THE POULTRY INDUSTRY
!he structure of IndiaAs poultry industry varies from region to region. (hile independent and relatively small/scale producers account for the "ulk of production# integrated large/scale producers do account for a growing share of output in some regions. Integrators include large regional firms that incorporate all aspects of production# including the raising of grandparent and parent flocks# rearing D+3s# contracting production# compounding feed# providing veterinary services# and wholesaling.
CONCENTRATION OF POULTRY UNITS AROUND CITIES AND URBAN CENTERS
!here has also "een a growing tendency for poultry units to "e concentrated around ur"an areas "ecause of the e'istence of ready markets for the end products of poultry production.
LOW PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION
4ven though India is the worldAs fifth largest egg producer and the eighteenth largest producer of "roilers# its per capita consumption of these products is poor / :H eggs and 8 kg. of poultry meat per capita per annum. 2ere# again# there is considera"le variation in per capita consumption "etween rural and ur"an areas and also across the region. -er capita consumption of eggs is only H.H per annum in rural areas compared with 8H.> per annum in ur"an areas. In seven states# per capita consumption is less than :.< per annum. Similarly# per capita consumption of poultry meat is =.9G kg. in rural areas and 8.=> kg. in ur"an areas.
SLOW CHANGES IN CONSUMPTION HABITS
An analysis of consumption data originating from *ational Sample Survey D*SSE rounds reveals many interesting facts. First# G9 percent of households are vegetarian in that they do not eat fish# meat or eggs. !he remaining ?> percent of households are non/ vegetarians. +ver time there has "een a gradual shift from vegetarianism to non/ vegetarianism. !he change is more visi"le in rural areas than in ur"an areas. For instance# "etween 8F>H/>> and 8FFF/9===# the proportion of households consuming only one of the three items / fish# meat or eggs / increased "y only one percent in ur"an areas# while in
rural areas this proportion increased "y four percent. Second# calculation of income elasticity of demand for different commodity groups shows that the commodity group that includes meat# fish or eggs ranks second in the 7uantity of commodities consumed in rural areas Dmilk and milk products rank firstE# while in ur"an areas consumption of the meat# fish# or egg commodity group ranks third. !he estimated income elasticity is 8.=8 in rural areas and =.?? in ur"an areas. !hird# the price elasticity also follows the same order. Meat# fish or eggs have the high price elasticity of =.H< in rural areas and =.?> in ur"an areas. Fourth# estimates of income and price elasticity.s calculated for each of the four e'penditure groups show that elasticity.s tend to decline as one move from the poor to the non/poor and the wealthy. !he income elasticity is low for the wealthy / =.< in rural areas and =.? in ur"an areas. !he other two income groups in rural areas have high/income elasticity / greater than unity. -rice elasticity.s are greater than unity for the very poor and the poor in rural areas# and for the very poor in ur"an areas. A significant policy implication of these consumption ha"its is that there is lot of scope in raising the demand for poultry products in rural areas.
4'ports of poultry products from India comprise ta"le eggs# meat# live "irds and value/added products such as egg powder and fro$en yolk. !he value of aggregated e'ports was 1s. 8#?>: million in 8FF?/FH. 4'ports were e'pected to reach the level of 1s. < "illion "y the year 9===.
!hree decades ago# when egg and "roiler production was 8= "illion and := million# respectively# the total employment num"ers in the poultry sector were not so encouraging. As income and employment in the crop sector started diminishing# the non/crop sector# which includes dairy and poultry# underwent a significant shift. (ith the demand for poultry increasing and production reaching :H "illion eggs and 8 "illion "roilers# this sector now employs around 8.? million people. At least >= percent of employment in the poultry sector is generated directly "y these farmers# while 9= percent is engaged in feed# pharmaceuticals# e7uipment and other services re7uired "y the poultry sector. Additionally#
there may "e a similar num"er of people roughly 8.? million who are engaged in marketing and other channels servicing the poultry sector.
CONSTRAINTS ON THE GROWTH OF THE POULTRY INDUSTRY
A major constraint affecting the growth of the poultry industry in India is the lack of "asic infrastructure such as storage and transportation# including cold chain. As a result# there are wild price fluctuations in the prices of poultry products# i.e.# eggs and "roilers. Another constraint to growth is an inefficient marketing system. !he presence of so many market intermediaries harms "oth the producer and the consumer. A third pro"lem relates to the price availa"ility of feed resources. Mai$e or corn plays a major role in "roiler production# as it constitutes <= to << percent of "roiler feed. As the "roiler industry is growing at the rate of 8< percent per annum# the demand for mai$e is thus likely to increase. -resently India grows only 88 million tons of mai$e and only < million tons are availa"le for poultry# which is not sufficient if the current growth rate of the industry is to "e maintained.
!he policy measures that are re7uired to improve the poultry industry must involve0 DaE improving infrastructure facilities# which will help not only to sta"ili$e the price of poultry products in the domestic market# "ut will also make them availa"le in remote areasI D"E creating an efficient marketing channel that will help provide remunerative prices to producers Din other words# IndiaAs marketing set/up should also grow along professional linesEI and DcE increasing mai$e production# which will involve using CM Dgenetically modifiedE seed varieties or# alternatively# will necessitate finding other sources of feed ingredients that can replace mai$e.
METHODOLOGICAL CHALLENGES IN SCALING-UP OF LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION
!he primary methodological challenges of empirical work e'amining why livestock production is scaling/up are# first# to define a 7uantitative measure of relative farm competitiveness in production and# second# to consider in a structured way all of the factors that differ across farms that might e'plain higher relative competitiveness across farms. !hose factors include technical and allocate efficiencyI asymmetries in access to assets De.g.# credit# li7uidity# fi'ed capitalE and information De.g.# education# e'perienceEI e'ternalities Di.e.# some farmers get away with uncompensated pollution while others do notEI and policies Di.e.# some farmers get a "etter deal from the state than othersE. !he failure to consider all the relevant factors when e'plaining competitiveness De.g.# looking at the differential efficiency across farms while neglecting transaction cost differences# or vice versaE leads to "iased estimates. Furthermore# the inclusion of e'planatory factors of relative competitiveness that are themselves functions of relative competitiveness leads to simultaneity "ias. For e'ample# the relative competitiveness of a farm might "e enhanced "y its "eing recogni$ed as a sales leader# "ut "eing recogni$ed as a sales leader may depend on "eing more competitive than other farms. !he two/way causality among the varia"les leads to "ias in the empirical estimation of the effect of all varia"les unless appropriate procedures are used.
DEFINING A FARM-SPECIFIC COMPETITIVENESS
1elative competitiveness might "e thought of as having the a"ility to produce at a lower unit cost of production than oneAs competitors. In fact# if large farms can produce livestock at a lower unit cost than small ones# they will clearly drive small farms out of the market over time. !he market price that applies to "oth large and small farms will# "y this reasoning# fall as large/scale producers e'pand production# and the small farmers will get s7uee$ed out. !he only way for smallholders to survive then will "e if they produce for a few higher/priced niche markets / if they e'ist / that are not economically feasi"le for larger farms to serve# and to cut costs "y remunerating their own DfamilyE la"or force at a
wage lower than that a large farmer pays to hired la"or. 4ven if small farmers act in such a way# it is unlikely that they will "e a"le to stay in "usiness long "y doing so. !he reverse is not necessarily true# however. If small farms can produce at lower unit costs than large farms# they may still "e s7uee$ed out "ecause large/scale farms can remain profita"le with very thin profit marginsI they make up in volume what they lose in per unit profit. )ery low per unit profits# coupled with a small sales volume# may not provide enough income for a smallholder to stay in "usiness. !hus if large farms have lower per unit costs of production when all la"or is costed at market wages# the ne't 7uestion to consider is whether this finding still holds true if smallholders do not cost their family la"or. If the finding does hold true# then there would "e little reason for smallholders to stay in poultry "usiness. If# on the other hand# small farms can produce at lower per unit costs in the same markets as large farms / perhaps "y not costing their own la"or at full market wage rates or for some other reason / then there is at least some hope that they will continue to e'ist. !hus having higher unit profit# with or without the cost of family la"or# is a necessary "ut not sufficient condition for the competitiveness of smallholders. !o o"tain a more satisfactory measure of relative competitiveness that is not dependent on the issue of larger farms "eing a"le to e'pand production while small ones cannot it is necessary to e'amine the notion of efficiency. Small farmers are most likely to "e a"le to stay in "usiness / and perhaps even to gain market share / if they are more efficient users of farm resources# "oth in a technical sense Di.e.# "eing on the production possi"ility frontier# given e'isting technologyE and an allocative sense D"eing on the right place on the production frontier# given prevailing pricesE. If small farms are more efficient users of farm resources# perhaps "ecause they put more care in producing per unit of input# then they have a market advantage over large/scale producers that will "e difficult to surpass. !his market advantage then yields a measura"le inde' of relative competitiveness / relative farm efficiency in securing profit per unit of output. Ceteris paribus# farmers that are more efficient users of farm resources to secure profits per unit of output# are more likely to "e a"le to maintain market share than larger producers who are less efficient in their use of
resources. +ver time# the more efficient producers are in a "etter position to invest more in their farm enterprise and to grow# regardless of their initial si$e. A standard way of assessing farm/specific relative profit efficiency is to estimate a is profit frontierly across a sample of farms# and then to measure how far each farm in the sample lies "elow the frontier. 3onceptually# such a frontier can "e thought of as a function mapping profit per unit to relative input and output prices and 7uantities of non/traded factors of production# where each point is the ma'imum profit per unit that a farm can achieve# given those relative prices and access to resources. Civen a set of prices# the average farm with a given level of resources will fall "elow the frontier. !hus an ordinary least s7uares regression on data from a sample of farms with different si$es of profits per unit of output against input and output prices and fi'ed factor of production De.g.# land# la"orE will always lie "elow the theoretical frontier. !he frontier itself has to "e estimated in some fashion "y looking at data for farms that perform well at each level of resources. A variety of approaches to this are descri"ed "y Fried# 5ovell and Schmidt D8FF:E. !he measurement of if Jmost efficientJ can "e improved "y estimating a stochastic profit frontier# which allows for measurement error in the econometric estimation of the frontier itself and thus for the fact that o"servations for some farms will lie a"ove the estimated J"estJ frontier Dsee attese 8FF9 for a survey of this literatureE. In the case of this study# the dependent varia"le is profit per unit of output# and the e'planatory varia"les are farm/ specific fi'ed resources De.g.# land# family la"or# sunk capitalE# farm/specific input prices De.g.# for feed# medicines# stockE# and farm/specific output prices. In the -hilippines situation that was studied# farm resources such as land may "e non/trada"le inputs and must "e accounted for in the frontier in terms of the amount availa"le# and not in terms of their price. !he unit prices received for output and prices paid for inputs can also "e e'pected to vary greatly# and to reflect Dand control forE 7uality differences and differential transactions costs such as "argaining power and riskiness. !he actual performance of each farm in terms of unit profit can then "e compared to an ideal unit profit for that farm# taking into account its resources and prevailing input prices. !he difference "etween the ideal and the actual profit per unit for that farm is the farmAs relative profit inefficiency. Following Ali and Flynn D8F>FE# Figure :.8 traces a profit
frontier for a sample of farms0 each dot corresponds to the actual outcome in terms of profit per unit of output for a specific farm relative to input pricesI points on the stochastic frontier curve Destimated "y ma'imum likelihood methods and la"eled M54. Ma'imum 5ikelihood 4stimationE represent fully efficient farms Don the frontierEI and all points "elow the stochastic frontier curve represent inefficient farms in terms of their specific resources at prevailing input prices.
Farm/specific profit efficiency Ddeviations "elow the frontierE are measured as the ratio of actual profit per unit D,i in figure :.8 for farm iE and ideal profit D,KE. *ote that the curve denoting average profit for any given level of resources Dshown as the locus of points , in Figure :.8E / estimated "y +rdinary 5east S7uares 1egression D+5SE. LindicatesBM less than ideal profit. !he measure of farm efficiency em"odied in ,iN,K is "ounded "y 8 DJ"estJ on the frontierE# and = DJworstJE or no profit. Farm/specific inefficiency is the distance "elow the frontier# D,K / ,iE.
If small farms average significantly higher profit efficiency per unit of output when family la"or is not costed the outlook for those farms is more encouraging. !his is even more true if the higher profit efficiency holds when family la"or is costed at the market wage rate. !his methodology# however# allows one to go "eyond simply making this determinationI it also permits the investigation into which elements contri"ute most to e'plaining relative unit profit efficiency for large and small farms. Individual farms / large or small / may lie well "elow the profit frontier for reasons other than technical or allocative inefficiency0 farm/specific transaction cost "arriers or policy distortions may also affect a farmAs position relative to the frontier.
!wo pro"lems arise in trying to account for why some farms pollute more per unit of output than others when assessing why some farms have higher profits than others. !he environmental e'ternalities of livestock production are "oth hard to measure and# in many cases# determined simultaneously with the level of actual profit per unit. An e'ternality is defined here as a return to an economic agent where part of the cost Dor "enefitE of undertaking an activity accrues to another entity that is not compensated Dor chargedE in the market. *egative e'ternalities may "e created in the production process for animal agriculture through odor# flies# and the nutrient/loading effects on soil of manure that is either mishandled or supplied in e'cess. -roducers capture the "enefit of negative e'ternalities "y receiving payment for livestock output "ut not "earing the full cost of their enterpriseAs impact# in terms of odor# flies# and poor water 7uality# for e'ample# on surrounding communities. -roducers that do not pay the full cost of production per unit may show up as Jmore efficientJ Din financial termsE than producers who are otherwise similar "ut internali$e some of the e'ternality "y cleaning up after their enterprise# or "y making compensatory payments to surrounding communities. !he first pro"lem relates to how the value of not paying for pollution created is measured# particularly if this differs "y scale of farm# since that will lead to erroneous comparisons of unit profits across scale categories. 4'ternalities of the sort involved are e'ceedingly difficult to measure. !here is the Jnon/point sourceJ issue# which "asically concerns how to decide which farmAs pollution run/off ended up in a river. Another issue
that can arise concerns farmers themselves suffering from some of their own pollution# a fact that needs to "e separated out of the e'ternality. ,et another issue is that the negative effects of pollution carry over into future time periods. !he costs of decreased sustaina"ility are also very difficult to measure physically. Furthermore# the true conse7uences for sustaina"ility from a given amount of manure will differ depending on soil type# temperature# rainfall# and so forth. In view of these many difficulties in conducting measurements# it is not practical in the present study to attempt to measure actual negative e'ternalities. Instead# the focus is on differences across farms in terms of the amount of e'ternality Jinternali$edJ when a farmer invests in pollution a"atement "y handling manure and dead stock in an ecologically sound manner. 2igher e'penditure per unit of output on a given farm for a"atement of environmental e'ternalities# with other things "eing e7ual# should "e inversely correlated with the incursion of net negative environmental e'ternalities per unit of output# under the assumptions a"ove. !hus a farm that spends more per unit of output on environmental a"atement is postulated to incur less negative environmental e'ternalities than a farm that spends less on environmental services per unit of output. !he heroic assumption that allows us to pro'y environmental mitigation with the monetary value of manure management is that any amount of manure of any sort is e7ually polluting regardless of which farm it comes from if it is not spread on oneAs own or someone elseAs fields. !his assumes that spreading manure on crops is uniformly good Ddespite run/off going into watercourses in some casesE# and ignores the fact that farms close to population centers and watercourses pro"a"ly produce more ecological harm per ton of manure / other things "eing e7ual / than farms farther away from people and watercourses. y the same logic# if one is willing to assume that the relationship is cardinal as well as ordinal / O8 per 8== kg. of output in a"atement on farm A is twice as environmentally friendly as O=.<= per 8== kg. of output on a different farm / then we have a worka"le inde' that differentiates DinverselyE across farms in terms of the amount of negative environmental e'ternalities incurred. !he assumptions are not perfect "ut the only feasi"le alternative / to ignore negative e'ternalities altogether in econometric production work / seems worse.
!he components that go into the measurement of environmental mitigation include all costs of disposing of manure# including transport and other costs associated with manure disposal# the costs of disposing dead "irds# the cost of controlling flies# and the cost of pollution payments. In addition# the spreading of manure on crops is considered to transform a potential e'ternality DpollutionE into a positive contri"ution to soil structure and fertility. It is difficult to cost this "enefit accurately. !he simple approach adopted is to value all the manure sold for spreading on othersA fields Dthe reason for which it is purchasedE at its sale value at the producing farm gate. Manure spread on oneAs own fields is valued at what it could have "een sold for at the farm gate. !hus if manure is spread in the field and has any market value Di.e.# people are not just dumping the manureE the latter is included in the internali$ation of the e'ternality. !he worst that any farm can do under this approach is to have no a"atement e'penditure at all per unit of output# yet this is actually the case for many farms. 2aving a working inde' of environmental mitigation creates a new pro"lem and a new opportunity. !he new pro"lem is that this inde'# measured in rupees D1pE per kg. +f "roilers Dor per egg in the case of layersE# is in many cases simultaneously determined ith profits per unit. !hus profit per unit depends on environmental mitigation e'penditures# "ut environmental mitigation e'penditures are also influenced "y profit. !he new opportunity is the solution to the econometric pro"lem# which involves creating an instrumental varia"le for environmental mitigation "y regressing it on a series of e'ogenous determinants of environmental mitigation. +pportunity lies in the insights that the solution to this pro"lem gives into why some farms are prone to spend more on environmental mitigation than others. Among the factors accounted for in this study that might influence the amount of environmental mitigation e'penditure across farms are farmsA access to assets and information Dtransactions costsE# farm characteristics such as location# and policy su"sidies. +ther e'amples of such varia"les include the education# e'perience# gender# and age of the household headI access to technical assistanceI mortality rateI family la"orI scale dummyI and other locational varia"les. !he predicted value of the dependent varia"le from these regressions P environmental mitigation / can then "e used as an e'planatory varia"le in the
second stage regression that e'plains why some farms are closer to the profit frontier than others. !he measurement of environmental mitigation "y the procedure a"ove is only one approach to measuring the important environmental impact of livestock. !he development of the measurement procedure was motivated "y the need to incorporate environmental factors in the analysis of efficiency. More direct measures of environmental impact are possi"le# however# outside of this framework. !he ne't section e'plores a methodology for directly assessing the interaction of animal density and environment.
SR. NO. 8
9 : G < ? H > F 8= 88 89
DIRECTORFS NAME DESIGNATION
3. Jagapati 1ao 3 .Suresh 1ayudu ; .Somi 1eddy ;. Ashok 1eddy !. ;rishna 1eddy Sudit ;. -arekh 4 .-admaja - .Ssha 5akshmi , .Sanjay ;umar A .Sreenivasa 1ao )ivek hargava 3h. ,ugendhar 1ao 4'ecutive 3hairman )ice 3hairman Q Mng.Director Joint Managing Director (hole !ime Director Director Directors Director Director Director Director Director Director
C. JAGAPATI RAO:
Sri 3. Jagapati 1ao# 4'ecutive 3hairman has a"out := years e'perience in poultry industry. Also he has 3o/promoted )enkateshwara 2atcheries Croup and has "een incharge of 2ydera"ad operations for two and half decades. 2e was actively involved in poultry related associations like *433# A.-. poultry Federation and -oultry Association. 2e is also a mem"er of the international 4gg 3ommission in S.;. reeders
C. SURESH RAYUDU:
Sri 3. Suresh 1ayudu# )ice chairman and Managing Director of the company is a Craduate in 3omputer 4ngineer and also he has done M A from 4mory Sniversity# Atlanta# SSA. 2e was rich e'perience in the field of poultry# computers# finance# and general administration.
K. SOMI REDDY:
Dr.;. Somi 1eddy is gold medalist in poultry science from Andhra -radesh Agriculture Sniversity. 2e gained rich e'perience for < years working with )enkateshwara 2atcheries Croup. 2e is the Joint Managing Director of the company and is actively involved in the day/to/day operations of the company.
K. ASHOK REDDY:
Sri ;. Ashok 1eddy# (hole P!ime Director is a graduate in engineering and has completed M.S degree in SSA. 2e is the incharge of )isakhapatnam operations of the company.
T. KRISHNA REDDY:
Dr. !. ;rishna 1eddy# !he oard consists of professional Directors such as Dr.!. ;rishna 1eddy# who is director D!echnical Services Q *utritionE of the company. 2e holds master.s degree in veterinary science from A.- Agriculture Sniversity and a Doctorate from ;ansas State Sniversity S.S.A. 2e has 8< years vast e'perience in the areas of disease diagnostics la"oratories# poultry farmers.
SUDIT K. PAREKH:
Sri Sudit ;. -arekh# Director# is a practicing chartered accountant and advises the company on ta'ation and finance matters. Smt.4. -admaja# M A and Smt. -.Ssha 5akshmi# Dr. ,. Sanjay ;umar# Dr. A. Sreenivasa 1ao# Mr. )ivek hargava and Sri 3. ,ugendhar 1ao are also Directors of the company. !he oard is assisted "y a good num"er of chartered accounts# company secretary# senior veterinary doctors# systems e'ecutives and other professionals.
SRINIVASA HATCHERIES POULTRY BREEDING
!he 3ompany was incorporated as a -rivate 5imited 3ompany in 8FH> with the o"jective of carrying on the "usiness of poultry "reeding and production of layer chicks. !he 3ompany was converted to a pu"lic limited 3ompany on +cto"er 9?#8FFG vide special resolution passed at the e'traordinary general meeting held on +cto"er 88# 8FFG. !he necessary certificate of change of name from Srinivasa 2atcheries -rivate 5imited to Srinivasa 2atcheries 5imited DS25E has "een o"tained vide certificate dated +cto"er 9?# 8FFG from the 1egistrar of 3ompanies# Andhra -radesh. !he 3ompany o"tained a franchise from the )enkateshwara 2atcheries Croup in 8FHF for procurement of day old parent "irds for production of day old commercial layer and "roiler chicks to cater mainly to the needs of poultry farms located in the eight coastal districts of Andhra -radesh. !he 3ompany commenced its operations in 8FHF with a farm and hatchery having a capacity of ?#=== layers parents. +ver the years# with the active support of its franchiser# it increased its capacity and today the 3ompany has a capacity of 8#?>#=== layer parents and 8G#=== "roiler parents and is the "iggest franchisee of the )ankateshwara 2atcheries Croup.
DIRECTORS RESPONSIBILITY STATEMENT
-ursuant to Section 98HD9AAE of the 3ompanies Act# 8F<? as amended "y the 3ompanies DAmendmentE Act# 9===# the Directors confirm that0 8. In preparation of the Annual Accounts for the year ended :8.=:.9==H the applica"le accounting standards have "een followed. 9. Appropriate accounting policies have "een applied consistently. Judgment and
estimates# which are reasona"le and prudent# have "een made so far as to give a true and fair view of the state of affairs of the 3ompany as at the end of the Financial ,ear and of the profit of the 3ompany for the period. :. -roper and sufficient care has "een taken for the maintenance of ade7uate accounting records in accordance with the provisions of the 3ompanies Act# 8F<? for safeguarding the assets of your company and preventing and detecting fraud and other irregularities# G. !he Annual Accounts have "een prepared on a going concern "asis.
IMPLEMENTATION OF SAP - ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING %ERP& PROGRAMME
In poultry field this is the first company of implementation of SA-. ,our Directors are glad to inform that the 3ompany# at the initiative of the Managing Director# has implemented SA- which is an 4nterprise 1esource -lanning tool to aid and disseminate faster and accurate information flow across the 3ompany. !he Directors wish that implementation of this programme ushers in efficiency# accuracy and saving of management time which in turn results in 7uick decision making and efficiency in operations.
• • • 2,DA1A AD )IJA,A(ADA )ISA;2A-A!*AM
BRANCHES OF SALES OFFICES WITH DISTRICT WISE
• • • • • • CS*!S1 -1A;ASAM 4AS! C+DA)A1I (4S! C+DA)A1I )IUIA*ACA1AM And S1I;A;S5AM
BRANCHES OF HATCHERIES
• • • • • •
ACA*AM-SDI 2A!3241, D AACA*AM-SDI E 2+CA-S1AM 2A!3241, D 2+CA-S1AM E 4-S1S 2A!3241, D 4-S1S E CA**A)A1AM 2A!3241, D CA**A)A1AM E M) -A54M 2A!3241, D )IUAC E -4DAS!A-A55I 2A!3241, D -4DAS!A-A55I E 1AJA2MS*D1, 2A!3241, D 1AJA2MS*D1, E
CAPACITIES C MARKET SHARE
!he company has capacity of :#==#=== layer parents and 9#==#=== "roiler parents at present. !he company.s market share of layer chicks at present is FF.<@ in its area of operations and G9@ in "roiler chicks. !he success of the group can "e gauged from the fact that every H th egg consumed in India comes from the chicks produced "y the S2 Croup and this represents : eggs per capita per annum for the entire population in India. !he pre/eminent status of the company "ears elo7uent testimony to the foresight and missionary $eal of the promoters.
MANAGEMENT DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS REPORT
A separate Management Discussion and Analysis report is also enclosed as Anne'ure to the Directors 1eport.
Sri 3. Suresh 1ayudu# Dr. !. ;rishna 1eddy and Sri Sudit ;. -arekh# Directors retire "y rotation at the forthcoming Annual Ceneral Meeting and "eing eligi"le# offer themselves for re/appointment.
MNs. S. Daga Q 3o# 3hartered Accountants# 2ydera"ad# the 3ompany.s Statutory Auditors hold office# in accordance with the provisions of the 3ompanies Act# 8F<?# up to the conclusion of the forthcoming Annual Ceneral Meeting and are eligi"le for reappointment.
!he assets of the 3ompany are ade7uately insured against all types of risks. 2owever# in order to meet any unforeseen risk in respect of the stock of poultry "irds# the 3ompany has
created a 3ontingency 1eserve in lieu of insurance# in line with the decision taken "y the management earlier.
,our 3ompany has not invited or accepted any pu"lic deposits during the year 9==?/=H and as such no amount on account of principal or interest on deposits was outstanding on the date of the alance Sheet.
PARTICULARS OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY, TECHNOLOGY ABSORPTION AND FOREIGN EXCHANGE EARNINGS D OUTGO
Information re7uired to "e furnished under the 3ompanies DDisclosures of particulars in the 1eport of oard of DirectorsE 1ules# 8F>># is furnished "elow0
CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
!he operations of your company involve low energy consumption. Ade7uate measures have# however# "een taken to conserve the energy wherever practica"le. . !432*+5+C, A S+1-!I+* 3. DaE F+14IC* 4V32A*C4 4A1*I*CS D"E F+14IC* 4V32A*C4 +S!C+ 0 1s. 89.?: lakhs 0 *I5 0 *I5
PARTICULARS OF EMPLOYEES
As per the provisions of Section 98HD9AE of the 3ompanies Act# 8F<? read with the 3ompanies D-articulars of 4mployeesE 1ules# 8FH< as amended from time to time# there were no particulars to "e furnished since no employee of your company is drawing remuneration in e'cess of the prescri"ed limits as laid down in the rules.
Since inception# Srinivasa 2atcheries 5td has outperformed the industry growth and has achieved a compounded Annuali$ed Crowth 1ate D3AC1E of ::@ in turnover and
:8@ in profita"ility. !he key indicator of the 3ompany.s financial performance in the last four years DAuditedEare as under 0!he Directors have pleasure in presenting the 9Fth Annual 1eport of the 3ompany together with the Audited Financial Accounts for the year ended :8 st March# 9==H.
-A1!I3S5A1S -rofit "efore !a' 5ess0 -rovision for !a' For the year Deferred !a' / 3hargeND1eleaseE Fringe enefit !a' -rofit after !a' DAddEN5ess0 -rovision for ta' for earlier years alance of -rofit "rought forward -rofit Availa"le for Appropriation A--1+-1IA!I+*S0 aE -roposed Dividend "E Interim Dividend cE 3orporate Dividend !a' dE !ransfer to Ceneral 1eserve eE !ransfer to 3ontingency 1eserve fE -rofit 3arried Forward
3ontinuous research and development upon BV-@?? has made it a highly refined "reed of e'cellent genetic potential and one of the "est layer "reeds e'isting in the world today. BV-@?? has proved its a"ility to perform under various agro/climatic conditions. BV-@?? is recogni$ed as the most adapta"le# consistent and prolific egg layer# there "y enjoying over ><@ market share in India for the last three decades. -rofit margins in poultry "usiness have shrunk due to the increased capital investment and the operative e'penses to the producer. 2ence# efficient management of BV-@?? is the key to success of poultry farming. Management guide for BV-@?? commercial layers has "een produced for efficient and sound management techni7ues. BV-@?? chicks represent finest genetic package and have "een "red/in for profits. 2owever# management skill alone can reali$e the profits. !his guide reveals the "asic principles of the layer management. eing a guide it is not a guarantee for performance. !he conditions provided to the "irds will only "e responsi"le for making profit or loss.
TYPES OF HOUSING
BV-@?? "irds can "e reared in deep litter system as well as in cages. !here are three types of houses re7uired for rearing0
• • •
!he "rooder house !he grower house !he layer house
!he houses may "e environmentally controlled houses or open sided houses. In India# open sided houses find favor and have proven successful. 5engthwise# poultry houses should "e in an east/west direction. !he sheds should "e well ventilated with even light distri"ution all over the house. Sheds should "e constructed with rat/proof projections and should have an overhang Di.e. the outward projection of the roofing sheetE of five feet. (indows may "e provided in the ga"le walls. 3hicken wire
mesh or chain link DG s7. inchE should "e provided lengthwise# on "oth sides in open sided houses.
THE ADVANTAGES OF OPEN-SIDED HOUSES ARE:
• • 5ess capital investment Minimum use of electricity as compared to that of environmentally controlled houses • !he ventilation is not dependent on electricity
rooding and growing of "irds are carried out either in deep litter or in cages. 2owever# laying "irds are generally housed in cages.
DEEP LITTER SYSTEM
For "rooding each :== pullet chicks# the following items of e7uipment are necessary0
+ne "rooder made of "am"oo or tin# ? feet in diameter and "rooder guard made up of tin or card"oard. !in may "e preferred as it is easy to clean and disinfect D9= feet long and 8> inch high card"oard sheet or tin made in perfect circle to function as "rooder guard for this si$e of "rooderE. !hree water fountains with the capacity of two litres each !hree feeder lids or e7uivalent.
(all hanging type of thermometer to check the room temperature and also to check the temperature at chick level "rooders. rooding lights or electric thermo/coils or gas
It is essential to ensure movement of air without creating a draught at the chick level. Similarly# arrangements to reduce flow of cold air in winter should also "e provided.
It is necessary to provide sufficient feeding and watering space to "irds# to avoid needless struggle amongst the "irds for feed and water which could interfere with overall development of all the "irds.
T($ r$I,#r$-$!" + +$$3$r )!3 4)"$r *.)'$ + r 3$$. /#""$r Floor Feeder (ater (eeks s7.feet inches chicksNnipple =PG =.< s7.feet 8 inch 8? <P> 8.= s7.feet 8 inch > F P 8G 8.9 s7.feet 9 inches ?
If "ell type water fountains are used for the drinking water system# a standard round drinker should "e kept# one for ma'imum 8== chicks or H< growers or <= layers.
!he "irds can "e reared in cages right from day one. !he following re7uirements should "e met with while designing the cages for chicks.
!he chicks should "e warm "ut not hot. 3hicks should easily reach feed and water. 3ages should have enough light so that the chicks can locate waterers and feeders easily. 4ach cage should have an access to two watering devices so that if one cup or nipple fails# "irds will not remain without water.
rooder cages may have different si$es. !he si$e may "e @?J 4#3"(# 5KJ 3$."( and 5KJ ($#<("# i.e. a floor area of G<= s7.inches which can accommodate 8< chicks up to H weeks of age. !he "ottom of these cages should "e flat and have a mesh of ?.KJ E ?.KJ. S.$'#+#')"# !* + r Br 3$r C)<$ Sr. *o. 8. 9. :. G. <. -articulars System *o. of "irds per "o' ottom !ier Spper !ier Floor space per "ird 3ommercial DSp to Hth (eekE 9 !ier P 1eversi"le 8< :=J ' 8<J ' 8<J :=J ' 8<J ' 8<J := s7.inches 3hicks
S.$'#+#')"# !* + r Br 3$r C)<$ ?. Feed !rough
99 C Aluminum Feeders
!otal num"er of chicks per "o' would vary depending upon the age. !he recommended num"ers are0 := chicks per "o' "etween = / : weeks 8< chicks per "o' up to Hth week
Sse of 5-C operated Cas rooders gives much more uniform heat as compared to
conventional types of "rooding practices like 4lectric 5amps# 3oal or (ood 2eaters. !he radiant Cas rooder creates micro/climate for the chicks so that they can choose their most comforta"le place and warmth at any time. !his results in proper growth and weight gain# which is more uniform. 5-C Cas rooding can "e done either "y central 3ontrol System or "y Individually 3ontrolled Infra 1ed radiant gas "rooders. ,ou should remem"er that any "rooding system must have temperature control device. !he advantage of temperature control is in energy saving and to meet the precise heat re7uirement of the "irds which changes with their age. Infra 1ed 1adiant rooder can "e placed F= to 8:= cm a"ove the ground level depending upon the heat re7uirement. !he num"er and types of Cas rooders can "e decided as per the specifications of the Cas rooder. It is very important to note that the Cas rooder# which you select# spells out the specifications in terms of !S or k( rating# operating
pressures# etc. It is always safe to select the "rooder# which has got international 7uality mark for safety and relia"ility. efore chicks arrive# please ensure that the filled 5-C Cas 3ylinders are availa"le at the site. Maintain temperature of :9W to :GW3 on day one. Measure the same at 8= to 9< cm a"ove the litter level. 5ower the temperature appro'imately "y :W3 per week until attaining a temperature of 9<W3. !he temperature can "e sensed "y a sensor connected to the individual Cas rooders or to the 3entral 3ontrol System.
!he si$e of the grower cage is generally 58J 4#3"(# 5KJ 3$."( and 5KJ ($#<(". !his provides a floor area of 9H= s7.inches and can accommodate five "irds from > weeks of age up to 8? weeks of age allowing for <G s7.inches per "ird. !he "ottom of these cages also is flat and should have a mesh of K.?J E 5.?J.
S.$'#+#')"# !* + r Gr 4$r C)<$ Sr. *o. 8. 9. :. G. <. ?. H. -articulars System *o. of "irds per "o' ottom !ier Middle !ier Spper !ier Floor space per "ird Feed !rough 3ommercial Crowers D> weeks to 8? weeksE : !ier P 1eversi"le < 8>J ' 8<J ' 8<J 8>J ' 8<J ' 8<J 8>J ' 8<J ' 8<J <G s7.inches 99 C Aluminum Feeders
!he "ottoms of layer cages have slants to facilitate the easy rolling out of eggs once they are laid. !herefore# the height of layer cages is less at the "ack than in front. !he si$e of layer cage should "e 5KJ 4#3"(# 5AJ 3$."( and 5KJ ($#<(" at the "ack and 57.KJ height at front. !his cage provides a floor area of 58? *I.#!'($* and can accommodate : laying "irds providing an area of ?= s7.inches per "ird. !he "irds are kept in these cages from the 8Hth week till end of their productive life. A nipple drinking system is preferred "ut provision for an additional open water channel will depend upon the severity of summer in that area.
S.$'#+#')"# !* + r L);$r C)<$ Sr. *o. 8. 9. :. G. <. ?. H. -articulars System *o. of "irds per "o' ottom !ier Middle !ier Spper !ier Floor space per "ird Feed !rough 3ommercial 5ayers D8Hth week onwardsE : !ier : 8<J ' 89J ' 8<J 8<J ' 89J ' 8<J 8<J ' 89J ' 8<J ?= s7. inches 99 C Aluminum Feeders
N "$: Depending upon the age of the housing "irds# nipple drinking system may "e located suiting to the convenience of "irds.
5ight "ul"s or fluorescent tu"es should "e so located that the feeders and waterers receive light directly. Artificial light should "e evenly distri"uted all over the house. Flourescent "ul"sNtu"es should "e cleaned at regular intervals. 4ggs should "e a"le to roll out smoothly# avoiding collision or "reakage. !he height of the cage/stands should "e such that the workers should "e a"le to see them well enough to spot dead "irds or non/functioning e7uipment.
• • • •
Ade7uate ventilation should "e provided in the laying house. Sheds should "e protected from e'treme heat or cold "y providing ade7uate insulation or curtains.
-rovide ade7uate clean feed storage. -reventing the entry of rats# wild "irds# parasites# etc. should "e a point to remem"er while designing the poultry house.
Dead "irds should "e removed daily and disposed off "y "urning them in an incinerator or "y proper "urial.
5ST TO A?TH WEEK !he ) :== "ird is e7uipped with the genetic potential of producing :9= eggs in
her commercial life. 2owever# this production can only "e achieved if the chicks are provided with all due care in its "rooding stage. If reared scientifically# the chicks will have standard and uniform "ody weights and the mortality will "e negligi"le. !herefore# ma'imum attention should "e paid while rearing the chicks in "rooding stage. A REARING PROGRAM SHOULD SATISFY THE FOLLOWING GOALS:
At least >=@ of the "irds should "e in the range of standard "ody weight X 8=@. !he flock should "e uniform. irds should not "e fatty or underweight. irds should "e completely healthy# free from internal and e'ternal parasites and immune to all endemic viral and "acterial infections.
PREPARATIONS FOR ARRIVAL OF CHICKS Well begun is half done. 3onforming to this prover"# a well managed "rooding program is like meeting the half way mark to an e'cellent BV-@?? performance. rooding the chicks is an important and skillful part of good poultry management. rooding is the "ase for the production of a good pullet. 2eating devices in the shed should "e switched on at least si' hours "efore the e'pected arrival time of chicks in cool seasons# so that the shed is heated to re7uired temperature "efore chicks are placed in the shed. (aterers should "e filled with water# electrolytes and anti/stress preparations. 4nsure that the tyre dip at the entrance of the farm is filled with the right disinfectant in correct dilution# so that the wheels of all incoming delivery vans containing chicks will "e disinfected at the entrance. !he water in the tyre dip should "e changed periodically.
(ater to "e given to the "irds should "e fresh# clean and pota"le. !he following ta"le shows standards for water 7uality0 Dr#!=#!< W)"$r S")!3)r3* P)r)-$"$r *o. of acteriaNm5 *o. of 3oliformsNm5 2ydrometric 5evel +rganic Su"stances *itrates Ammonia 3loudinessN!ur"idity Iron Manganese 3opper Uinc 3alcium Magnesium Sulphates 3hlorides p2
(hile collecting water samples for "acterialNmicro"iological testing# care should "e taken regarding the following0
(ater samples should "e collected in sterile "ottles.Sntreated water should "e collected directly from the source of water supply. (ater treated with some water saniti$er should "e collected from storage tanks# water pipelines and waterers for the "irds.
(ater consumption of poultry "irds varies su"stantially# depending upon the am"ient temperature# humidity# temperature of water and age of "irds. -lease do not restrict 7uantity of drinking water to "e offered to the "irds. !he following ta"le gives the general guidelines on the 7uantity of water consumed "y 8== "irds of different age groups daily at an am"ient temperature of 9>W3 D>9WFE. W)"$r C !*,-."# ! A<$ + B#r3* W)"$rD5?? DweeksE DlitresE 8st and 9nd G.>= :rd <.G= Gth H.<= <th 8=.<= ?th 89.== Hth 8:.9= >th 8G.G= Fth 8G.H= 8=th 8<.== 88th 8<.:= 89th 8?.9= 8:th 8?.>= 8Gth 8H.G= 8<th 8>.== 8?th 8>.?= 8Hth 8>.F= 8>th 8F.>= 8Fth 99.<= 9=th 9G.?=
(hile the genetic potential of BV-@?? for egg production has made consistent and considera"le progress# simultaneously the "irdAs adapta"ility to various agro/climatic conditions# feeding practices and management practices has also improved tremendously over the last few decades. 2owever# to optimise profits# it is necessary to provide economic "ut nutritionally "alanced feed to o"tain desired production. !here are a num"er of agro/climatic $ones with varying seasons and temperatures. As nutritional re7uirements vary from area to area and season to season# you may need to consult the local BV-@?? e'pert for designing feed formulation. 2owever# in the following sections we have descri"ed general nutritional re7uirements for BV-@??. Summer makes the "ird eat less and hence# efforts should "e made to increase their nutritional density and "ring down the temperature in the house "y various means. Similarly "irds tend to eat more in winter and therefore# there is a need to make necessary changes in feed formulations. Feed consumption should also "e correctly monitored so that correct nutrient levels can "e provided. FEED USED IN ALL PHASES OF THE LIFE CYCLE OF POULTRY BIRDS MUST MEET THE FOLLOWING CRITERIA: *utrients should "e supplied in proper proportions and in a form which is "io/availa"le to the "irds. !e'ture# color# taste of feed must "e accepta"le to the "irds. Feed must not "e dusty. Ideally feed must "e free from following contaminants0
o o o
All pathogenic organisms 2armful chemicals and !o'ins
If animal "y/products like meat/meal# fish/meal# liver/meal# "lood/meal and hydrolysed feather/meal are used# care should "e taken to ensure that they are a"solutely free from all types of contaminants.
Soy"ean meal# used in poultry feed# must have "een properly roasted. Inade7uate or e'cess heat during processing of soy"ean for oil e'traction will damage the nutritional value of soy"ean. !he level of roasting of soy"ean can "e judged "y feed analytical la"oratories.
3alcium should "e added to the feed in form of oyster/shell with particle si$e of 9.< mm to :.< mm. If calcium is to "e added in form of limestone# 9N:rd should "e used as large particles D:/< mmE and only 8N:rd in the form of powder. 5imestone so used# should "e low in magnesium.
3ontamination of feed during storage# transport and delivery must "e avoided. (ild/"irds and rodents can contaminate the feed in any of the a"ove stages.
If you are making your own feed# formulate your feed according to the season# age Q "ody weight and production level of the "irds.!he formulations should "e "ased on the actual weight of different ingredients and the accurate valuation of each feed ingredient "efore they are added together.
FEEDING RECOMMENDATIONS FOR BV-@??
3hick mash should "e fed to the "irds from its arrival until the average "ody weight of the "irds reaches <>= g. !his is a feed/to/weight program rather than feed/to/age program. ody weight gains are "etter with pelletedNcrum"led feed compared to mash feed. !herefore it is recommended to use pelletedNcrum"led chick feed.
!he grower feed should "e fed till flock reaches an average "ody weight of 88== g. Do not administer prelay feed to the "irds weighing "elow 88== g.
3are should "e taken to ensure prelay feed is introduced after the flock attains an average "ody weight of 88== g and usually for two to three weeks.
5ayer feed offered to the laying "irds should "e formulated according to the age of the "irds and egg production. Accordingly# layer feed can "e divided into three groups i.e. -hase I# -hase II and -hase III. -hase I feed should "e given upto the age of G= weeks and later -hase II ration may "e given. -hase III feed should "e given after the age of ?= weeks. hase feeding saves money. S,<<$*"$3 C(#'=* )!3 Gr 4$r*
R$I,#r$-$!"* C(#'= M)*(Gr 4$r M)*( up to <>= g <>= / 88== g
8. ** 3are should "e taken to ensure that -relay Feed is introduced after the "irds attain a "ody weight of 88== g. 9. Sodium chloride and Sodium "i/car"onate may "e used proportionately to "alance sodium and chlorine ions.
:. 3alcium may "e incorporated in the proportion of 8N:rd powder form and 9N:rd grit form. G. If the a"ove given calcium levels are maintained# then there is no need of top dressing of shell grit or mar"le grit.
!he information regarding gains in "ody weight indicates the growth of a "ird. A sample of appro'imately 8== "irds will provide ade7uate information. 2owever# it is recommended that the sample should "e minimum <@ of the flock at the ages of ># 89# 8? and 9= weeks. In cages# the "irds should "e selected from "o'es in different rows to represent the flock. As far as possi"le weigh the same cage "irds every time. !he underweight "irds indicate e'cessive crowding# lack of feeder and waterer space# disease conditions# different types of stress and im"alanced or inade7uate feed among other reasons. !he information on "ody weights of "irds will give the indication a"out the uniformity of the flock.
Flock of ready/to/lay pullets should have uniform weights. Sniform flocks attain "etter peaks in productivity and sustain for a longer period than flocks showing wide variation in "ody weights. !he following chart gives the criteria to decide the range of uniformity among the "irds0 F/ '= U!#+ r-#"; -ercentage of -ullets within X8=@ of Avg. Sniformity 1ating Flock (eight ><@ and over 4'cellent >= / ><@ )ery Cood H= / H<@ Fair 5ess than H=@ Snsatisfactory
DOUBLE BEAK TRIMMING PROGRAMME
De"eaking is a standard practice among poultry men. !his operation reduces feed wastage and also mortality in "irds resulting from pecking and su"se7uent canni"alism. De"eaking should "e done in time and following proper procedures. It is recommended that the "eak trimming "e done in chicks at the age of ? to 8= days. 8N:rd of the "eak should "e removed with the least possi"le stress to the chicks and minimi$ing the "leeding "y proper cauteri$ation. Centle pressure on the "irdAs throat with the inde' finger on the neck will retract the tongue of the to prevent it from "urning. De"eaking results in one of the greatest single stress in pullet rearing and hence anti/stress medication is advised "efore# during and after de"eaking. -ullets may "e de"eaked again at the age of 89 / 8G weeks using methods and e7uipment suita"le for the "irds of that age. 2owever# the de"eaking should never "e adopted after the age of 8? weeks. As a preventive measure administer V#")-#! K in water one day "efore and on the day of de"eaking.
SINGLE BEAK TRIMMING PROGRAMME
!he "est age for one/time "eak trimming is ? to 8= days of age or as per recommendation of machine manufacturer.
4nsure that vaccines to "e used are sourced from reputed manufacturers. !he products of such manufacturers are produced under rigid standards of production and 7uality control. )accines should "e transported in insulated# cooled and secured packing and should "e stored under conditions specified "y the manufacturer. 3onsult your local BV @?? T$'(!#')/ R$.r$*$!")"#2$ or V$"$r#!)r; EE.$r"# to decide the vaccination schedule for your farm. It is desira"le to undertake serological monitoring for "etter designing of vaccine schedule.
LIGHTING TYPES OF LIGHTING
!wo types of light sources are availa"le for use in poultry houses. !hese are / fluorescent and incandescent.
!he poultry house should "e provided with re7uired warmth for chicks and enough natural light to locate feeders and waterers. During the "rooding period# artificial lights should necessarily "e provided for the initial G> hours. Su"se7uently# depending upon the climatic conditions and "rooding management# the need of artificial lights may "e decided in consultation with local technical person.
It is important to place "ul"s in such a way so as to achieve e7ual distri"ution of light of the specific intensity throughout the poultry house.
Cood 7uality time switches can "e installed for poultry houses. !his ena"les the availa"ility of an e'act 7uantity of artificial light to the "irds. +ne has to monitor clocks# make adjustments for increasing or decreasing day lengths# power failures# etc.
LIGHT DURING GROWING PERIOD
In India# the day length varies from region to region and "etween summer and winter. !he total duration of lighting to "e provided to the "irds should take into consideration the availa"le natural light.
5ight has a direct effect on se'ual maturity. !he period of light made availa"le to the flock affects the time the first egg is laid. Decreasing day length during growing period increases their growing period or helps in delaying se'ual maturity. 5ight day Dtotal light in hoursE# should not "e allowed to increase during growing period. In India# we have open sided houses. BV-@?? needs no special lighting programme during growing period. !herefore# do not give any artificial lights after >th week of age.
INCREASING NATURAL DAY LENGTH DURING GROWING PERIOD
Monitor feed consumption and see that increase in the length of day light at se'ual maturity coincides with an increase in feed consumption. During the initial period of lay# egg production rises rapidly and there is a rise in "ody weights too. 4ach of these changes needs additional feed intake. In areas where longer day length coincides with summer# one must take additional care for making feed allotments in cooler parts of the day to induce feed consumption.
LIGHT DURING THE LAYING PERIOD
Se'ual maturity is controlled "y the lighting program during the rearing period. !he length of day i.e. num"er of hours of light per day and the intensity of light are "oth factors that need to "e considered. 5ighting programs are designed to have a flock lay <@ production at 8Fth week of age and attain peak production "y 9<th week of age. !he average "ody weight of BV-@?? pullet at the age of 9= weeks should "e 8:?= g. Many farmers use 3ompact Fluorescent 5ight D3F5E during laying period. 3F5s of 89 watts# are economical# as they save on electricity# provide an even distri"ution of light# and whose results are compara"le. *atural light should "e made use of till the flock achieves the desired "ody weight and >=@ production. 5ater# increase the artificial light "y L hour every week till it reaches 8< hours# inclusive of natural light.
THINGS TO REMEMBER
Do not increase the light suddenly. 4nsure the length of the day Dnatural R artificialE# intensity and e7ual distri"ution of light in poultry house.
*ever allow rise in day length more than one hour. -refera"ly# increase Y hour per week to reach re7uired period of ma'imum 8< hours.
As a thum" rule# provide 8 watt per G s7.feet area or < to 8= lu'.
DISINFECTION AND BIO SECURITY
3leaning and disinfection plays a vital role in the management of poultry# helping avoid various "acterial# viral# fungal and proto$oal diseases. After vacating the shed of all "irds# prefera"ly in one operation or in shortest possi"le time# the house should "e disinfected and kept vacated thereafter for sufficient time until arrival of new flock.
CLEANING AND DISINFECTION
8. 1emove all waterers# feeders# curtains and "am"oo "asket "rooders DhoversE. 3lean and wash them thoroughly with water jets and then washing soda solution. Afterwards dip them in a virucidal disinfectant as per manufacturer.s instructions. !hen sun dry for a day or so. 9. 1emove all organic material e.g. manure# litter# feathers# dust# etc. prefera"ly after spraying <@ to 8=@ formalin and collecting the a"ove in closed containers e.g. gunny "ags or plastic "ags. All organic matter mentioned a"ove should "e disposed off# away from farm premises Din deep pits with formalin spray# caustic soda# salt# etc.E. :. Measures should "e taken for controlling the entry of rodents and wild "irds.
G. 3lean all the fans# "ul"sNtu"es# wirenets and water tank. DFor automatic drinking system# remove all water from pipeline. Fill the whole watering system with <@ to 8=@ solution of sodium hypochlorite# keep it overnight or at least :/G hours. Flush the system with plain water to remove the solutionE. <. am"oo "asket "rooders from all I D affected sheds should "e disposed off "y "urning and new "rooders should "e used for new "atch. ?. C($-#')/ Tr$)"-$!": Floors should "e soaked with strong solution of caustic soda flakes D*a+2E with p2 a"ove 89 for 89 to 9G hours. !hen drain out the water completely. 2ose: 3austic soda flakes D*a+2E* 88 to 89 g per liter of water. 8== liters of such solution should "e used for 8=== s7.feet. (ashing Soda D*a93+:E G to < times the a"ove dose i.e. <= to ?= g per litre of water or < to ? kg per 8=== s7.feet. 1ewash the flooring "y spraying any of the "elow mentioned disinfectants e.g. a. 6uaternary Ammonium compound or chlorine 8= to 9= ppm to "e used either in the form of "leaching powder or sodium hypochlorite Dcontaining 9=@ availa"le chlorineE. ". Iodine in dilution to provide 8=== ppm. * Ca-tion: It is necessary to use handgloves and gum/"oots during use of caustic soda treatment. H. In case of ticks# mite and lice infestation the shed may "e sprayed with 3ythion at the rate of >= m5 to 8?= m5 per 8= litres of water. 2ere it is very important and mandatory to follow the safety precautions# as spraying of this type of insecticide is ha$ardous.
>. P)#!"#!<: (hite wash the shed with lime solution with 8@ kerosene and <@
formalin. 3lick for Details. In case of previous "atch history with high mortality#
recommendation. F. F,-#<)"# !: 1efi' all washed and disinfected curtains and fumigate as "elow. Fumigation with Formaldehyde gas is a common practice. H 4$2$r '($'= 4#"( ; ,r / ')/ ),"( r#"#$* 4($"($r #" #* .$r-#**#9/$. Single strength concentration is o"tained "y mi'ing G= m5 of formalin with 9= g of potassium permanganate for volume of 8== cu"ic feet. Dou"le strength is sometimes used in speciali$ed needs. Fumigation is more effective in presence of humid atmosphere than dry. 2ence# spraying the walls and floors with water "efore fumigation is necessary. All the cracks# crevices and windows should "e sealed till the fumigation is in process Dnormally G= hoursE. Formalin is poured over the potassium permanganate# over the pots "eginning from the farthest end of the shed. Ca-tion: Fumigation should "e done under supervision of competant person. For effective fumigation it is desira"le to have wetness DhumidityE inside the shed and temperature a"ove 9GW3. 1ote: In case the distance "etween sheds is short or the "irds are present in the neigh"ouring sheds# then fumigation may "e undesira"le and hence "e avoided. (herever fumigation is not possi"le it is suggested to wet the flooring and walls up to : feet height with formalin solution D<@E for a period of at least ? hours. 8=. At the end# use spray of virucidal disinfectants commercially availa"le in the market. 3onsult local technical e'pert or veterinary e'pert for choosing the disinfectants and follow manufacturerAs instructions for the usage. 88. After cleaning and disinfection keep the house vacant for a period of 8< days. 89. It is advisa"le to undertake spraying of virucidal disinfectant G> to H9 hours "efore actual arrival of chicks.
Civen "elow is the formula# which gives proportion of different ingredients to "e included in lime. !o the whitewash thus prepared# add following ingredients for special effects. (hite washing of house with this mi'ture will serve the "asic purpose. BIO SECURITY 3ll ,n 3ll %-t: !he system is strongly recommended for ma'imum e'traction of genetic potential of "irds. It is suggested to have separate "rooding and growing facility away from laying facility. 4estriction on &en and &aterial: Sales persons# egg "uyers# servicemen and visitors should not "e allowed to enter in. (orkersA movement from one age group to other should "e minimised to the e'tent possi"le. Snder no circumstances should men move from laying houses to "rooding. .oot $aths: Foot "aths should "e provided at the entry of the farm necessarily and each house wherever possi"le. !his foot "ath should contain suita"le disinfectant in necessary dilution. (ater from foot "aths should "e changed periodically. .oot 6ear: Foot wears Dprefera"ly ru""er slippersE should "e used for changing the foot wear "efore entering the farm. 2isposal ðods of 2ead $irds: !he immediate "urning or "urying of dead "irds is an important part of a good disease prevention program. I!'#!$r)" r*: A good incinerator is pro"a"ly the "est means of disposal# especially in an area where there is poor soil drainage or a danger of contaminating the water supply. Important - when operating an incinerator, be very sure that birds are completely burnt to a white ash. D#*. *)/ P#": A less desira"le "ut accepta"le method of dead "ird disposal is through the use of an ade7uately designed and tightly covered disposal pit. A pit of ? feet D8.>: mE in diameter and ? feet deep D8.>: mE is large enough to take care of one 8=#=== capacity layer unit. It is necessary to remove all dead "irds immediately and they should "e disposed off properly. RECORD KEEPING Accurate record keeping is essential to monitor the performance and profita"ility of layers# and to ena"le forecasting# programming and preparing cash flow projections. It also serves to provide an early warning of potential pro"lems# and so is invalua"le to all round good management. DAILY RECORDS SHOULD MONITOR
8. Feed consumption 9. (ater consumption :. Ma'imum and minimum temperature G. Mortality and la"oratory diagnostic reports <. Medication ?. )accination H. Feed# gas# litter deliveries# etc. >. ody weight records
RECORD ON A FLOCK BASIS 8. 4lectricity usage 9. CasNoil usage :. Stocking density G. Feed samples which should remain from each load delivered and stored in airtight# vermin/proof containers COMPARE FINANCIAL RETURNS ON A FLOCK TO FLOCK BASIS, USING THE FOLLOWING RECORDS 8. Income from sale of eggs and culls 9. 3ost of chicks :. 3ost of feed G. 3ost of la"or <. +ther varia"le costs From this information# arrive at a formula for measuring profita"ility# "y determining the return on capital# i.e. the net profit as a percentage of capital invested. !o do this# calculate the gross profit "y taking the total income and deduct all the costs shown a"ove. !hen from gross profit deduct all administration# management and overhead e'penses to give net profit. 3apital should include fi'ed capital items such as plant and "uilding# as well as work capital.
!he following performance goals are e'pected to "e achieved during the <9 weeks of laying circle0 5iva"ility 4gg ,ield Feed 3onsumption -eak -roduction F?@ :9= eggs cumulative hen housed G8.9< kgN"ird during laying Da"ove F=@E 9< weeks to <9 weeks of age
!he term "rand means different things to the different roles of "uyer and seller# with "uyers generally associating "rand with a product or service# and merchants associating "rand with identity. rand can also identify the company "ehind the specific product // thatAs not just a "iscuit# thatAs ritannia "iscuit. !his use of "rand puts a JfaceJ
"ehind the name# so to speak# even if the JfaceJ is the result of advertising copy and television commercials. !his use of "rand also says nothing of 7uality# just the "uyerAs e'posure to the "randAs -1 and media hype. For the typical merchant# "randing is a way of taking everything that is good a"out the company // positive shopping e'perience# professionalism# superior service# product knowledge# whatever the company decides is important for a customer to "elieve a"out the company // and wrapping these characteristics into a package that can "e evoked "y the "rand as signifier. INTRODUCTION TO BRANDING !he American Marketing Association defines a "rand as %A name# term# sign# sym"ol or design or a com"ination of them# intended to identify the goods and services of one seller or group and to differentiate them to those for competitors&. A "rand is thus a product or service that.s adds a Dimension that differentiates it in some way from other products or services designed to satisfy the same need. !hese differences may "e functional# rational# or tangi"le/ relate to product performance of the "rand. randing has "een around for centuries as a means to distinguish the goods of one producer to those of another. !he earliest signs of "randing can "e traced to 4urope where the medieval guilds re7uired that craftsmen put trademarks on their product to protect themselves and producer against inferior 7uality su"stitutes. Also in fine arts "randing "egan with artists signing their works. rands today play a num"er of important roles that improve the consumer.s lives and enhance the financial value of firms. rands identify the source or maker of the product and allow consumers/either individual or organi$ations/ to assign responsi"ility to a particular manufacturer or distri"utor. 3onsumers may evaluate the identical product differently depending how it is "randed. 3onsumers lean a"out the "rand with its past e'perience and the marketing program. As consumers lives "ecomes more complicated# time starved the a"ility of "rand to simplify decision making is invalua"le. rands also perform valua"le functions for the firm. First they simplify the product handling and tracing. rands help to organi$e inventory and accounting records. !he "rand name can "e protected registered trademarks. !he intellectual property rights ensure that the firm can safely invest in the "rand and can reap the "enefits over a long period of time.
rands can signal a certain level of 7uality so that satisfied "uyers can easily choose the product again. rand loyalty provides predicta"ility and security of demand for the firm and creates "arriers to entry that makes it difficult for other firms to enter the market. !his "rand loyalty can translate into willingness to pay higher price. In this sense "randing can "e seen as powerful means to secure a competitive advantage. rands represent enormously valua"le pieces of legal property that can influence consumer.s "ehavior. Strong "rand results in "etter earnings and profit performance for firms# which in turn# creates greater value for shareholders. 2ow do you % 1A*D& a productB Although firms provide the impetus to "rand creation through marketing programs and other activities# ultimately a "rand is something that resides in the mind of the consumers. A "rand is a perpetual identity that is rooted in reality "ut reflects the perceptions and perhaps even the ultimate choice of the consumers. randing is endowing products and services with the power of "rands. !o "rand a product# it is necessary to teach the consumers %who& the product/"y giving a name. randing involves creating mental structures and helping consumers organi$e their knowledge a"out products and services in a way that clarifies their decision making and in process provides value to the firm randing can "e applied virtually anywhere a consumer has a choice. It is possi"le to "rand0
• • • • •
A physical good D*estle soup# -antene shampoo or Maruti SwiftE# A service D;ingfisher Airlines# !A!A AIC medical insuranceE# A store D ig a$aar# A!A storesE# A place D!he state of ;erala# -ushkar MelaE# A person DShahrukh ;han# Sachin !endulkarE# rand is the proprietary visual# emotional# rational# and cultural image that you
associate with the company or a product. (hen you think of )olvo# you think of safety. (hen you think of *ike# you think of Michael Jordon or ZJust Do It.. (hen you think of I M# you think of Z ig lue.. !he fact that you remem"er the "rand name and have positive associations with that "rand makes your product selection easier and enhances the value and satisfaction you get from product.
(hile rand V cola or even -epsi/3ola may win "lind taste tests over 3oca/3ola# the fact is that more people "uy 3oke than any other 3ola. !he fond memories of childhood and refreshment that people have when they drink 3oke is often more important than a little "it "etter cola taste. It I this emotional relationship with "rands that make them so powerful. PURPOSE OF BRANDING !he purpose of "randing is to create a powerful and lasting emotional connection with customers and other audiences. A "rand is a set of elements or %"rand assets& that in com"ination create a uni7ue# memora"le# unmistaka"le# and valua"le relationship "etween an organi$ation and its customers. !he "rand is carried "y a set of compelling visual# written and vocal tools to represent the "usiness plan and intentions of an organi$ation. randing is the voice and image that represents your "usiness plan to the outside world. (hat your company# products and services stand for should all "e captured in your "randing strategy# and represented consistently throughout all your "rand assets and in your daily marketing activities !he "rand image that carries this emotional connection consists of the many managea"le elements of "randing system# including "oth visual image assets and language assets. !he process of managing the "rand to the "usiness plan is important not only in %"ig change situation& where the "rand redefinition is re7uired# "ut also in the management of routine marketing varia"les and tactics. !his does not have to "e a %ground/up& situation where there are wholesale changes to the "usiness. 1ather it is more common that specific changes to the changes to the "usiness plan are incremental and the work of the "rand strategist and designer is to interpret these changes and revise the "randing strategy and resulting "rand assets and define their use in the full range of marketing varia"les. BRAND IDENTITY rand Identity includes "rand names# logos# positioning# "rand associations# and "rand personality# "rand toons etc. A good "rand name gives a good first impression and evokes positive associations with the "rand. A positioning statement tells what "usiness the company is in# what "enefits it provides and why it is "etter than the completionB rand
personality adds emotion# culture and myth to "rand identity "y the use of a famous spokesperson D ill 3os"y/JelloE# a character D-ink -antherE# an animal Dthe Merrill lynch "ullE etc. rand associations are the attri"utes that costumer thinks of when they hear or see the "rand name. McDonalds television are a series of one "rand association after another# starting in yellow arches in the low right corner of the screen and following with associations of ig Mac# 1onald MacDonald# kids# happy meal# food 7uality etc. !he first step in creating a "rand for your company is "randing workshop. HOW DO WE DETERMINE OUR BRAND IDENTITYN rand has "een called the most powerful idea in commercial world# yet few companies create a "rand identity. Do you want your company.s "rand identity created for you "y competitors and unhappy customersB +f course not. +ur advice to e'ecutives is to research their customers and find the top ranked reasons that the customers "uy their product rather than their competitors. !hen# pound that message in every ad# in every news release# in communications with employees and in every sales call or media interview. y continuous repetition of messages customer will think of your product and then "uy it. TOOLS FOR BUILDING BRAND IDENTITY rand "uilders use a set of tools to strengthen and project the "rand imageI Strong "rands typically e'hi"it an owned word# a slogan# a color# a sym"ol# and set of stories.
Many companies successfully added a slogan or tagline to their "rand name which is repeated in every ad they use. 2ere are some well/known "rands slogans# which people on the street may easily recall or recogni$e0
3+M-A*, ritish Airways Ford 5I3
S5+CA* %!he world.s favorite airline& %6uality is our num"er one jo"& %Jeevan ke saath "hi jeevan ke "aad "hi&
COLORS It helps for a company or a "rand to use a consistent set of color to and in the "rand recognition. 3aterpillar paints all its construction e7uipments yellow. ,ellow is the color of ;odak film. I M uses "lue in its pu"lications# and I M is called % ig lues&. SYMBOLS AND LOGOS 3ompanies would "e wise to adapt a sym"ol or logo to use in their communications. Many companies hire a well/known spokesperson# hoping that his or her 7uality transfer to the "rand. *ike uses Michael Jordon who has worldwide recognition and lika"leness# to advertise its shoes. Sporting goods manufacturers sign contracts with top athletes to serve as their sym"ols# even naming the product after them. CARTOONS AND ANIMATIONS A less e'pensive approach is to develop a character# animated# to etch the "rand.s image into customer.s mind. !he advertising agency 5eo urnett has successfully created a num"er of memora"le animated characters. 2ere are some well known "rand cartoons which people may recogni$e0
3ompany I3I3I -rudential Amul utter McDonalds All +ut mos7uito 1epellent -ills"ury H Sp
OBJECTS Still another approach is to choose an o"ject to represent a company or "rand. !he travelers. insurance company uses an um"rella# suggesting that "uying insurance is e7uivalent to having an um"rella availa"le when it rains. !he prudential insurance company features the rock of Ci"raltar# suggesting that "uying an insurance is e7uivalent to %owing a peace of rock %which is of course# solid ad dependa"le. 3ompanies have developed many logos or a"stracts# which are easily remem"ered "y people. 4ven the way the "rand name is written makes a "rand recogni$a"le and memora"le.
BRAND EFFECTIVENESS (ith an increase in glo"al competition# "randing has "ecome a source of competitive advantage. In rapidly evolving market for consumer# and industrial products and services# the source of ne't generation competency will "e "randing. In this "riefing we demonstrate how to calculate the "rand strength# the price premium associated with the products categories# and type of customers attracted to the %-remium -roducts&. Marketers who match their "rand with customers needs will have a sustaina"le competitive advantage. MEASURING BRAND EFFECTIVENESS !here are many metrics to measure the potential of and actual effectiveness of "rands. !he simplest way is to apply the concept of what we call the G D.s of differentiation# distinctiveness# defenda"le# digit/a"le.
D#*"#!'"#2$!$**0 your "rand should "e distinct when compared to your competitors and to all spoken and visual communications to which your target audiences will "e e'posed. !he more uni7ue and distinct your communications# the wider the filed of effective competitive strength it will have. !here are simple means to apply to test the distinctiveness of your "rand.
D#++$r$!"#)"# !: the "rand strategy and "rand assets must set you.re offering apart and clearly articulate the specific positioning intent of your offering. D$+$!3)9/$: you will "e investing in creating your "rand assets and in all cases your "rand must have proprietary strength to keep others from using close
appro'imations. !his applies to your trade names and other proprietary words as well as to your logos# sym"ols and other visual assets.
D#<#"-)9/$0 in most "usinesses there is strong and growing element of electronic communications and commerce that dictate all "rand assets "e leveraged effectively in tactile and electronics form. !his goes for all "rand assets.
Much of the "rand manager.s work is to "uild a "rand image. ut its jo" doesn.t stop there. !he "rand manager needs to make sure that "rand e'perience matches the "rand image. Much can go wrong. A fine "rand of canned soup descri"ed in a full page color ad may "e found in dented and dusty condition in the "ottom shelf of a supermarket. !he ad descri"ing a gracious hotel chain is "elied "y the "ehavior of a surly concierge. Br)!3 )!3 R$.,")"# ! A "rand e'ists in the mind# or not at all. !he mind it e'ists in may "e that of a customer# a potential customer# an interested o"server# a disinterested o"server... or almost any"ody. Awareness of a "rand may "e irrelevant to any purchasing decision that an individual may make. -eople are aware of the Mercedes car "rand# "ut cannot envisage any circumstance under which they would Dcould[E "uy a Mercedes. !hey are aware of Marl"oro Dand scores of other cigarette "randsE "ut as a non/smoker they will never convert their awareness into purchase. Male with no children are not targeted "y -ampers or 2uggies "ut still are aware of the "rands. -eople wear many hats. ut are or not a potential customer. -eople may "e an
employee# an investor# a citi$en# a hus"and and so on. !hey hate McDonald.s ham"urgers "ut might love their stock market record and therefore "e a potential customer for their stock. !hey will never "uy a oeing HHH "ut might "e impressed "y the aircraft and favor an airline that flies them. !hey have no idea what an Intel chip is# "ut might "e persuaded that it is a good thing to have in my -3 and therefore "uy a computer from a company that uses them. rand Aware argues that there is no difference "etween J randJ and J1eputationJ. Some conventional wisdoms state that customers "uy "rands# "ut that investors "uy reputations. !hose potential employees join companies "ecause of their reputation# that the
media and other JstakeholdersJ judge a company on its reputation in some way as a distinct concept from its "rand. !his part argues that such distinctions are fallacious for all companies# "ut especially for single "rand companies such as a McDonalds# a 3oca/3ola# a 3ompa7 or a Shell. !hese companies. reputations are part and parcel of their "rand. !heir "rands are their reputation. T($ Br)!3 !o any individual a "rand Din his mindE is a comple' com"ination of e'periences# "eliefs# perceptions and associations that have grown up over time. For e'ample 3oca/3ola is a company "rand# a product "rand# a service "rand and a "rand with a long history. It is a "rand which may represent Dto any one individualE diversity# internationality# technical e'cellence# financial strength etc. etc. It may also mean insensitivity# environmental pollution# a"use of power and other negative perceptions. P$r'$#2#!< "($ 9r)!3: An individual "uilds up his perceptions of a "rand via a wide range of communications channels. !hey are as follows0
!he most powerful influence is e'periential. !his is when the
individual actually has a J rand e'perienceJ. !he most o"vious are0 / 2e visits a McDonald.s restaurant or a Shell petrol station. 2e "uys a 3oca/3ola "randed product or service. 2e views a 3oca/3ola "ottlerAs facility. 2e visits a corporate we"site. 2e attends an interview at the company. 2e contacts the company office for information. 2e meets an employee of the company. 2e "uys a share in the company# etc.
A32$r"#*#!<: +ver time an individual who lives in a country in which the companyN"rand is active# or travels to one on "usiness or vacation# will "e e'posed to their advertising. !his advertising may "e in a wide range of media0
!) commercials for products and services
1ecruitment ads inviting employment applications J3orporateJ !) commercials promoting the companyAs JreputationJ (e" "ased advertising An ad for the company.s "randed products or services in a wide variety of print media. ill"oards on highways
1adio -oint of sale etc.
M$3#) r$. r"* )!3 *" r#$*: Individuals will "e e'posed to a wide variety of reports a"out companies in the media Dprint and "roadcastE where the editorial content is only partly influence a"le "y the company Din some casesE or not at all Din most casesE. !hese stories will come from a variety of primary and secondary sources0 /
-ress releases -ress conferences 1eporting of JeventsJ Investigative journalism Stories passed to the media "y third parties D*on governmental organi$ations etc.E
Pr +$**# !)/D9,*#!$** #!"$r$*"0 For some individuals to interface professionally# or from a specific "usiness need# with famous companies Dor to o"serve themE is part of their jo". !hey will usually procure their information from a variety of sources and via a variety of channels of communication. !hese individuals have a special interest in the companies and they include0 /
Financial analysts and journalists with an interest in share performance 4'isting or potential suppliers of products and services 4'isting or potential industrialNcommercial customers B,#/3#!< "($ Br)!3 !he art of marketing is largely art of "rand "uilding. (hen something is not a "rand# it will pro"a"ly "e viewed as a commodity. !hen price is the thing that counts. (hen price is the only thing that counts then the low cost producer wins. ut just having a "rand is not
enough. (hat does the "rand name meanB (hat associations# performances and e'pectations does it evokeB (hat degree of preferences does it createB C( *#!< ) Br)!3 N)-$ A "rand name first must "e chosen then its various meanings and promises must "e "uilt up through "rand identity work. In choosing a "rand name# it must "e consistent with the value positioning of the "rand. In naming a product or service the company may face many possi"ilities0 it could choose name of the person D2onda# 3alvin ;leinE# location DAmerican airlinesE# 7uality DSafety stores# 2ealthy choiceE# or an artificial name D4''on# ;odakE. A- !< "($ 3$*#r)9/$ I,)/#"#$* + ) 9r)!3 !)-$. S -$ )r$:
• • •
It should suggest something a"out the product "enefits. It should suggest product 7ualities such action or color It should "e easy to pronounce# recogni$e and remem"erI short names help a lot to recogni$e the product to the customers. It should "e distinctive. It should not carry poor meanings in other countries and languages etc.
B,#/3#!< P *#"#2$ A** '#)"# !* !he "est known "rand names carry associations. For e'ample# here is a list of words that people say they associate with McDonalds0
• • • • • •
;ids Fun 2appy Meal 1onald Mc. Donald 6uality !oys
In trying to "uild a rich set of positive associations for a "rand# the "rand "uilder should consider five dimensions that can communicate meaning0
THE IMPORTANCE OF BRANDS -4+-54 +F!4* AS; me# ZZ(hat is "rand e7uityB.. !here are many ways to answer this. Some say it.s everything associated with the "rand that adds to or su"tracts from the value it provides to a product or service. +thers emphasi$e the financial value of the "rand asset. Still others stress the consumer loyalty or price premium generated "y "rand e7uity. Some even talk a"out the permission and fle'i"ility a "rand gives an organi$ation to e'tend into new product and service categories. (hile all of these are very important parts of "rand e7uity# I think the following story "est illustrates what "rand e7uity is. Imagine you are having lunch with a long/time and very good friend. Several times throughout the lunch# she makes disparaging and sarcastic re/marks that make you feel "ad. ,ou think to yourself# ZZ!his just isn.t like her. She must "e having a "ad day... ,ou meet with her again a week or two later# and again she acts ornery and negative. ,ou think to yourself# ZZsomething must "e going on in her life that she.s really struggling with. May"e she is having difficulties with her jo" or her health or her marriage or her children... ,ou may even ask her if everything is all right. She snaps "ack# ZZ+f course it is... ,our interaction with her continues in this vein over the ne't couple of months. ,ou continue to try to "e supportive# "ut she.s definitely getting on your nerves. After many meetings and much interaction# you finally decide that she.s a changed person and someone with whom you prefer to spend less and less time. ,ou may get to this point after a few months# or perhaps even after a year or more. She doesn.t change# and eventually the relationship peters out. *ow consider for a moment that the person you first had lunch with is the same person as "efore# with one e'ception0 She is a total stranger to you. ,ou haven.t met her previously and she is not your dear friend. I would guess that after enduring many caustic comments and "eing insulted a few times at that lunch# your first impression wouldn.t "e very positive. In fact# you.d pro"a"ly "e inclined not to get together with that person again. ,ou.d pro"a"ly BRANDING PROCESS randing is one of the most important issue for any "usiness if it wants to succeed in this field of fierce competition. randing is a colla"orative process# which consists of the following five stages. • A""r#9,"$*C B$!$+#"*
A "rand "rings to mind certain attri"utes# such as e'pensive# well/"uilt# well/ engineered# dura"le etc. Attri"utes must "e translated into functional and emotional "enefits. !he attri"ute %dura"le& could translate into the functional "enefits# %I won.t
have to "uy another car for several years. %!he attri"ute& e'pensive& translates into the emotional "enefits# %!he car makes me feel important and admired.&
V)/,$*: !he "rand also says something a"out the producer.s value. !he values related to high performance# safety# and prestige.
C,/",r$: !he "rand may "e represent a certain culture# which may represent Cerman cultural aspects of "eing well/ organi$ed# efficient# and delivering high 7uality.
P$r* !)/#";: !he "rand can project a certain personality of a person# animal or o"ject.
!he "rand suggests the kind of consumer who "uys or uses the product we e'pect to.
BRAND MANAGEMENT (alk away from that lunch thinking# ZZwhat a misera"le person. I hope I don.t 1un into her again... In "oth of these scenarios it is the same person "ehaving the same way in the same situation. ,et in the first scenario# you are very 7uick to forgive the "ehavior. In fact# you feel a lot of concern toward her. In the second scenario# you can.t wait for the lunch to "e over and you hope never to see the person again. In the first scenario# the person was a long/time good friend. She had a lot of e7uity with you. In the second scenario# she had no e7uity at all. ,ou see# if people or "rands have a lot of e7uity\that is# if you know# like# and trust them \you will ZZcut them a lot of slack.. even if they repeatedly fail to meet your e'pectations. If a person# product# service# or organi$ation has no e7uity with you# no emotional connection# and no trust# then you are much less inclined to forgive unmet e'pectations. Did ,ou ;nowB ✔ ZZFamiliarity De'posure andNor useE leads to liking... ✔ Declining "rands tend to lose "uyers while the "rands. loyalty and purchase rates stay sta"le among remaining "uyers. ✔ In most product categories# price is the primary purchase incentive for no more than 8< percent to :< percent of all customers.
rand e7uity creates a relationship and a strong "ond that grows over time. It is often so strong that it compensates for performance flaws# such as an out/of/stock situation# poor customer service# a product that falls apart# inconvenient store hours# or a higher/than/average/price. In the end# you want to deliver good 7uality and good value# innovation# relevant differentiation# convenience# and accessi"ility with your "rand. 2owever# we must never
forget that "uilding "rand e7uity is like "uilding a close friendship. It re7uires a consistent relationship over time# trust# and an emotional connection . rand management is the application of marketing techni7ues to a specific product# product line# or "rand. It seeks to increase the product.s perceived value to the customers and there "y increases "rand franchise and "rand 7uality. Marketers see a "rand that will continue with present and future purchases of the same product. !his may increase sales "y making a favora"le comparison with a competing product. It may also ena"le the manufacturer to change more for the product. !he value of the "rand is determined "y the amount of profit it generates for the manufacturer. !his results from a com"ination of increased sales and increased price. A powerful tool lime a "rand cannot "e created in vacuum or from thin air. It re7uires following certain principles and should have a developed procedure along with a well/supplemented research "ase. All these issues make "randing a real art# which uses well/defined and esta"lished principles "ut can "e refined as well as mastered "y practice. It is something that influences us in several ways and leaves a deepening impact on all of us. !his art of creating and maintaining a "rand is called "rand management. includes much a"out changing minds. rand management is philosophy and a total approach to managing companies# and as such rand management starts with understanding what Z"rand. really means. !his starts with the leaders of the company who define the "rand and control its management. It also reaches all the way down to the company and especially to the people who interact with customers or who create the products that customers use. rand management performed to its full e'tent means starting and ending the management of the whole company through the "rand. It is a comprehensive effort and re7uires commitment# support and contri"ution from each person in the company.
A brand is a name or sym"ol used to identify the source of a product. (hen developing a new product# "randing is an important decision. !he "rand can add significant value when it is well recogni$ed and has positive associations in the mind of the consumer. !his concept is referred to as 9r)!3 $I,#";. WHAT IS BRAND EHUITYN rand e7uity is an intangi"le asset that depends on associations made "y the consumer. !here are at least three perspectives from which to view "rand e7uity0
F#!)!'#)/ / +ne way to measure "rand e7uity is to determine the price premium that a "rand commands over a generic product. For e'ample# if consumers are willing to pay O8== more for a "randed television over the same un"randed television# this premium provides important information a"out the value of the "rand. 2owever# e'penses such as promotional costs must "e taken into account when using this method to measure "rand e7uity.
Br)!3 $E"$!*# !* / A successful "rand can "e used as a platform to launch related products. !he "enefits of "rand e'tensions are the leveraging of e'isting "rand awareness thus reducing advertising e'penditures# and a lower risk from the perspective of the consumer. Furthermore# appropriate "rand e'tensions can enhance the core "rand. 2owever# the value of "rand e'tensions is more difficult to 7uantify than are direct financial measures of "rand e7uity.
C !*,-$r-9)*$3 / A strong "rand increases the consumerAs attitude strength toward the product associated with the "rand. Attitude strength is "uilt "y e'perience with a product. !his importance of actual e'perience "y the customer implies that trial samples are more effective than advertising in the early stages of "uilding a strong "rand. !he consumerAs awareness and associations lead to perceived 7uality# inferred attri"utes# and eventually# "rand loyalty.
Strong "rand e7uity provides the following "enefits0
Facilitates a - r$ .r$3#'")9/$ #!' -$ stream. I!'r$)*$* ')*( +/ 4 "y increasing market share# reducing promotional costs# and allowing premium pricing.
Br)!3 $I,#"; #* )! )**$" that can "e sold or leased.
2owever# "rand e7uity is not always positive in value. Some "rands ac7uire a "ad reputation that results in negative "rand e7uity. *egative "rand e7uity can "e measured "y surveys in which consumers indicate that a discount is needed to purchase the "rand over a generic product. BUILDING AND MANAGING BRAND EHUITY In his 8F>F paper# Managing Brand E uity# -eter 2. Far7uhar outlined the following three stages that are re7uired in order to "uild a strong "rand0 8. I!"r 3,'"# ! / introduce a 7uality product with the strategy of using the "rand as a platform from which to launch future products. A positive evaluation "y the consumer is important. 9. E/)9 r)"# ! / make the "rand easy to remem"er and develop repeat usage. !here should "e accessi"le "rand attitude# that is# the consumer should easily remem"er his or her positive evaluation of the "rand. :. F r"#+#')"# ! / the "rand should carry a consistent image over time to reinforce its place in the consumerAs mind and develop a special relationship with the consumer. rand e'tensions can further fortify the "rand# "ut only with related products having a perceived fit in the mind of the consumer.
ALTERNATIVE MEANS TO BRAND EHUITY uilding "rand e7uity re7uires a significant effort# and some companies use alternative means of achieving the "enefits of a strong "rand. For e'ample# "rand e7uity can "e "orrowed "y e'tending the "rand name to a line of products in the same product category or even to other categories. In some cases# especially when there is a perceptual connection "etween the products# such e'tensions are successful. In other cases# the e'tensions are unsuccessful and can dilute the original "rand e7uity. rand e7uity also can "e J"oughtJ "y licensing the use of a strong "rand for a new product. As in line e'tensions "y the same company# the success of "rand licensing is not guaranteed and must "e analy$ed carefully for appropriateness. MANAGING MULTIPLE BRANDS Different companies have opted for different "rand strategies for multiple products. !hese strategies are0
S#!</$ 9r)!3 #3$!"#"; / a separate "rand for each product. For e'ample# in laundry detergents -rocter Q Cam"le offers uni7uely positioned "rands such as !ide# 3heer# old# etc.
U-9r$//) / all products under the same "rand. For e'ample# Sony offers many different product categories under its "rand.
M,/"#-9r)!3 ')"$< r#$* / Different "rands for different product categories. 3amp"ell Soup 3ompany uses 3amp"ellAs for soups# -epperidge Farm for "aked goods# and )> for juices.
F)-#/; + !)-$* / Different "rands having a common name stem. *estle uses *escafe# *es7uik# and *estea for "everages.
rand e7uity is an important factor in multi/product "randing strategies. PROTECTING BRAND EHUITY !he marketing mi' should focus on "uilding and protecting "rand e7uity. For e'ample# if the "rand is positioned as a premium product# the product 7uality should "e
consistent with what consumers e'pect of the "rand# low sale prices should not "e used compete# the distri"ution channels should "e consistent with what is e'pected of a premium "rand# and the promotional campaign should "uild consistent associations. Finally# potentially dilutive e'tensions that are inconsistent with the consumerAs perception of the "rand should "e avoided. 4'tensions also should "e avoided if the core "rand is not yet sufficiently strong.
BRAND EHUITY MEASUREMENT AND MANAGEMENT 3ompanies work hard "uilding the strength of their "rands / it is critical to the ongoing "rand management process to have meaningful and actiona"le data/driven measures of these efforts. uilding a "rand# cultivating its strengths# pruning its weaknesses# and making it more valua"le to its owners is the "ottom line jo" of marketing. 4verything marketing does should ultimately work in concert to make a firmAs "rands more valua"le. !here are many different tactics and strategies that go into strengthening a "rand name0 advertising# promotions# pu"lic relations# and research and development# to name a few. (hile companies use these and many other methods to strengthen their "randsA positions in increasingly competitive markets# how can they measure the return on this workB More precisely# how can a company determine the worth of one# or any of its "randsB WHY MEASURE BRAND EHUITYN Measuring "rand e7uity allows a company to esta"lish a "aseline and track changes in its "rand e7uity over time. If a company consistently works to improve the strength of its "rands# it must track progress# or risk Jflying "lind.J 3hanges in a 7uantitative measurement of "rand e7uity can show the company the effects of its work# and greatly aid in setting marketing and management priorities in the ne't "usiness planning cycle. +nce a "rand e7uity measurement system is esta"lished# a company can "etter understand and therefore determine if e7uity in a given "rand can "e leveraged or transferred to an entirely new product or service category. !hus# a firm can increase the
return from the investment in "uilding a particular "rand over time "y e'tending that "randAs e7uity into new categories. A company may want to measure its "rand e7uity to aid in assigning a monetary value to a "rand. (all Street measures the strength of a "rand "y looking primarily at current and historical financial measures# with minimal use of information directly from the Jvoice of the marketplaceJ Di.e.# current and prospective customersE. (hile historical financial performance is important in understanding "rand strength# it does not tell the whole story# especially in terms of what the future might hold for the "rand. !his potential deficiency derives from the choices made in defining "rand e7uity. DEFINING BRAND EHUITY urke has developed a simple# yet powerful# definition of "rand e7uity. For a "rand to "e strong it must accomplish two things over time0 retain current customers and attract new ones. !o the e'tent a "rand does these things well# it grows stronger versus competition# and delivers more value to its owners. !he a"ility to retain customers is largely e'periential. 2igh e7uity "rands e'hi"it stronger levels of customer satisfaction and loyalty. 2istory has shown that consumers will continue to "uy a "rand that offers them Jtheir moneyAs worth.J !he a"ility to attract new customers is largely perceptual. ecause customers do not have actual "rand e'perience# they must go "y what they hear# see and "elieve a"out a "rand. !he two primary ways the market receives this information is through messages controlled "y marketing# such as advertising and -1 efforts# as well as uncontrolled messages such as press stories and Jword of mouth.J urke has identified two key drivers of the customer ac7uisition and retention dynamic0 rand 1ecognition and rand 1egard.
THE BURKE APPROACH TO TRACKING BRAND EHUITY urke has created a "rand e7uity score comprised of 1ecognition and 1egard components "ased on e'tensive 1QD using world class "rand as identified in usiness(eekAs Annual JMost )alua"le Clo"al randsJ issue. +ur "rand e7uity 1QD efforts included the following "rands# for which we conducted in e'cess of <#=== interviews.
1ecognition is measured "y determining "rand awareness levels such as Jtop of mind#J Junaided#J andNor JaidedJ awareness. urkeAs recommended J rand 1egardJ measure is the result of e'tensive analytical e'ploration across a wide set of "rand attri"ute
ratings. +ur 1QD efforts led to the testing of over FG#=== distinct versions of an overall rand 1egard measure# searching for the com"ination of perceptual "rand measures that optimi$e the correlation with market share.
!he final rand 1egard metric is composed of measures from dimensions related to !rust# -ride# )alue# 1esponsi"ility# Sta"ility# and 5oyalty. Specific "rand ratings from these dimensions are used to construct an overall rand 47uity Score Dwhen com"ined with 1ecognitionE. In addition to an overall score# our system is also designed to provide a more granular look at how the "rand is perceived "y current customers and non/customers. 5oyalty is measured using urkeAs Secure 3ustomer Inde']# so there is a natural "ridge "etween urkeAs recommended methods for rand 47uity research and 3ustomer 5oyalty Q 1elationship Management protocols.
urke typically reports "rand e7uity tracking results as part of a rand Scorecard system for clients# which can "e made availa"le for online access via urkeAs Digital Dash"oard] reporting tool. In addition to survey "ased measures of "rand e7uity Dsuch as awareness# image# value# loyalty# etcE# rand Scorecards also typically show information a"out changes in marketing activity such as trends in advertising and promotional e'penditures# as well as key "usiness outcomes such as trends in market share for the client "rand and competitors.
LINKING BRAND EHUITY TO FINANCIAL OUTCOMES 1ecognition and 1egard play critical intermediate roles in driving !otal rand 47uity D"uilt out of Ac7uisition 47uity and 1etention 47uityE which in turn drives the overall si$e of the customer "ase D"y ena"ling the "rand to capture more new customers and lose fewer current customersE. A larger customer "ase is the engine of aggregate 3ustomer )alue Dthe dollar value to the "rand of the annual "uying power of all customersE. uilding 3ustomer )alue in a sustained manner over time demonstrates the cash flow power of the "rand# leading ultimately to a greater rand )alue Di.e.# the dollar amount the "rand# independent of itAs physical assets# is worth to its owners as an intangi"le assetE. !he chain of "rand "uilding events is illustrated "elow0
urke 1QD using a set of 9G "rands identified "y usiness(eek as "eing among the most valua"le "rands in the world provides tangi"le proof that urkeAs rand 47uity metric is highly associated with greater "rand value. !he following chart shows the urke rand 47uity data"ase of scores divided into high# medium# and low performers on the urke rand 47uity Score. For each grouping# the average "rand value in dollars Das reported "y usiness(eekE is shown. !here is a clear and strong relationship# illustrating that "rands that perform "est on urke measures of !rust# -ride# )alue# 1esponsi"ility# Sta"ility# and 5oyalty represent significantly more value to their owners.
WHY USE BURKE FOR BRAND EHUITY TRACKING RESEARCHN
4'tensive e'perience conducting "rand e7uity tracking research for Fortune 8== companies 4'tensive e'perience designing and e'ecuting "rand e7uity research across multiple product and service categories
1QD/"ased# empirically determined "rand e7uity scoring system that is validated to correlate with real world market share# and "rand value in dollars
Clo"al research capa"ilities (orld class research design# analytical# and project management capa"ilities
THE BURKE APPROACH TO EXTENDING BRAND EHUITY efore you can successfully e'tend current e7uity# you must understand what images# attitudes# and associations come together to determine general market acceptance of the "rand# or J"rand regard.J (hen the elements that drive the parent "randAs overall regard and e7uity are understood# then evaluations can "e made as to whether or not potential "rand e'tensions have a good perceptual fit with the parent "rand. urkeAs approach to "rand e7uity e'tension provides understanding a"out how to "est leverage a parent "randAs core J"rand regardJ elements into a new category# and identify the risks Dif anyE to the parent "rand# and how to minimi$e them. Ssing concepts for new J"rand e'tensionJ products that are "randed with the desired parent "rand name# urke will conduct research that ena"les plotting each concept in a two dimensional space where one a'is is J"usiness potentialJ Da function of purchase intent and other affinity measuresE# and the other a'is is J"rand e7uity transference.J rand 47uity !ransference is determined "y the relative distance "etween parent "rand performance on key attri"utes and the importance of the attri"utes to the category of interest# weighted "y perceived "rand fit "etween the parent "rand and the concept. An e'ample of such a "rand e7uity e'tension map is shown "elow. !he upper right hand
7uadrant is the Jwinning $oneJ / that is# an area where "rand e'tension ideas simultaneously offer good sales potential# and have ma'imum JfitJ with the parent "rand.
urkeAs approach to "rand e7uity e'tension research will tell a client if a concept0
• • •
2as sufficient "usiness potential Is "etter or worse than other "rand e7uity e'tensions ideas "eing considered Is seen as "eing a reasona"le or credi"le e'tension from the parent "rand "y current customers andNor prospective customers.
From the a"ove analysis out +f <= respondents 8< said that they are company logo will improve the sale and firm value. 9> mem"ers said that they are company name will improve the sales and firm value. H mem"ers said that they are 7uality of the product will improve the sales and firm value. Finally most of the mem"ers said that company name will improve the sales and firm value.
9. + !AI*I*C 4S! 1A*D
TABLE: A +pinion 6uality of the product 6uantity of the product oth !otal GRAPH: A *o. +f respondents 89 9= 8> <= -ercentage 9G@ G=@ :?@ 8==@
In the a"ove analysis out of 8==@# 9G@ mem"ers said that they are 7uality of the product get the "est "rand. And G=@ mem"ers said that they are 7uantity of the product get the "est
"rand. :?@ mem"ers said that they are "oth 7uality and 7uantity customer get the "est "rand. Finally the most the people get the "est "rand only "ased on 7uantity of the product.
From the a"ove analysis out of <= respondents# G=@ of the people said that they are yes# and 8?@ people said that they are no# GG@ of the people said some e'tent. Finally the most of the people the aware of S25 products is some e'tent.
1A*D IMAC4 +F !24 -1+DS3!
TABLE: M +pinion Media -aper (ord of mouth +thers !otal GRAPH: M *o. +f respondents 8= F 98 8= <= -ercentage 9=@ 8>@ G9@ 9=@ 8==@
From the analysis says out of <= respondents# 9=@ of the customers they are getting information from media# 8>@ from paper# G9@ of customers from word of mouth and 9=@ of the customers getting information from other sources. Finally the most of the people knowing the information from word of mouth.
<.3SS!+M41S -14F414*34 +F !24 1A*D +!241 !2A* S25
TABLE: K +pinion Suguna 2atcheries Sing 2atcheries 3.-. 2atcheries !otal GRAPH: K *o. +f respondents := 89 > <= -ercentage ?=@ 9G@ 8?@ 8==@
INTERPRETATION: From the a"ove analysis out of <= respondents# ?=@ prefers Suguna hatcheries# 9G@
prefer sing hatcheries. And 8?@ of the customers prefer 3.- hatcheries . Finally most of the customers prefer Suguna hatcheries other than S.2.5.
From the a"ove analysis out of <= mem"ers# I have know that G=@ of people says the cost is medium# :=@ of people says afforda"le# 8?@ of people they feel the cost is high. And finally the most of the people says the cost is reasona"le. !he very few people feel the cost of S25 products is low.
H.3SS!+M41 +-I*I+* +* S25 -1+DS3!S
TABLE: 7 +pinion 4'cellent Cood Average elow Average !otal *o. +f respondents H 98 8G > <= -ercentage 8G@ G9@ 9>@ 8?@ 8==@
!he a"ove analysis# I have come to know that most of the customers feel good# and some of the customers feel average# the very few people feels S25 products are e'cellent and "elow average. I conclude that S25 products are "etter than other company products.
From the a"ove analysis out of <= customers# 9: customers feel some e'tent# 9= mem"ers feel satisfied with the sales services provided "y the company. And H mem"ers feel not satisfied with the sales service provided "y the company. I conclude that the most of the customers feel satisfied company provided "y the sales service.
F. 3SS!+M41 SA!ISFA3!I+* +F !24 S25 1A*D TABLE: 6 +pinion ,es *o Some 4'tent !otal C1A-20 F *o. +f respondents 99 > 9= <= -ercentage GG@ 8?@ G=@ 8==@
From the a"ove analysis the most of the customers feel satisfied the S25 "rand. And very few mem"ers feel not satisfied the S25 "rand. And finally I conclude that the most of the people satisfied and some e'tent of the S25 "rand.
8=.1A!I*C !24 S25 1A*D SSI*C A S3A54 +F 8== TABLE: 5? +pinion = P 9< 9< P <= <= P H< *o. +f respondents > < 8= -ercentage 8?@ 8=@ 9=@
H< P 8== !otal GRAPH: 5?
From the a"ove analysis out of <= people# <G@ of the people give the rating H</8==# 9=@ of the people <=/ H<# and very few people give the rating 9</ <=. And finally the most the people give the rating is H< P 8==.
rand 47uity rand Mark rand -romise !otal GRAPH: 55
8> 89 88 <=
:?@ 9G@ 99@ 8==@
From the a"ove analysis out of <= respondents# 8> mem"ers responds favora"le to rand 47uity# 89 mem"ers says "rand mark# 88 mem"ers says "rand promise # and F mem"ers says "rand elements is service to identify and differentiate the "rand. Finally the most of the people give the important to "rand e7uity and "rand mark.
In the a"ove analysis the most of the people thought that "rand image is identifying "rands under different conditions as reflected "y their "rand recognition or recall performance. )ery few mem"ers thought that "rand discrimination as reflected "y their "rand recognition or recall performance.
From the a"ove analysis out of <= mem"ers# :9 mem"ers like the !) media improves the "etter promotion of S25 products# 89 mem"ers like to news paper# and few people feel maga$ines will improve the "etter promotion of S25 products.
From the a"ove analysis out of <= respondents# 89 mem"ers says find the new products in the market# and :> mem"ers says there is no other products in the market "etter than these products. Finally the S25 products are "randed products.
+pinion !oo 5arge !oo Medium !oo Small !otal GRAPH: 5K
*o. +f respondents 9= 8> 89 <=
-ercentage G=@ :?@ 9G@ 8==@
From the a"ove analysis out of <= mem"ers# 9= mem"ers says too large company is gain the "rand image# 8> mem"ers says too medium companies are also gain the "rand image. And finally some of the people say small firms also will again "rand image.
S25 is only one which was implemented 41- system throughout the India
!he study done so far in the conte't of a "randing and the special focus on "rand e7uity leads to many important conclusions. In order to facilitate proper comprehension of the same# I illustrate the points as follows0 • T($ L)4 + C !"r)'"# !: A "rand "ecomes stronger when its focus is narrowed. !his does not imply carrying a limited product line# "ut rather limiting and focusing a "rand on only one type of core product# which in !itanAs case happens to "e watches. !itan# though possessed of a wide product line# has stuck to its focus. • T($ L)4 + A32$r"#*#!<: +nce "orn# a "rand needs to actively
advertise in order to stay healthy and maintain market share. If done right# advertising is more of an investment than an e'pense. • T($ L)4 + "($ W r3: Any "rand worth itAs salt should strive to JownJ a word or words in the mind of the consumer. 4'amples of such "rands are )olvo# who own the word JsafetyJ# Mercedes# who own the word JprestigeJ and 3oca/3ola# who own the word JcolaJ. !itan# at least when viewed in the conte't of the Indian watch market# seems to own the word J7ualityJ. • T($ L)4 + H,)/#";: !hough 7uality is essential to the survival and growth of any "rand# the fact remains that "rands are not "uilt "y 7uality alone. As mentioned previously !itan more or less owns the word J7ualityJ in the minds of the consumers# there"y implying that it is perceived as a 7uality product. !hus# itAs actual 7uality# as well as itAs perception of "eing a 7uality product com"ine to work towards "uilding the strength of the !itan "rand.
• T($ L)4 + "($ N)-$: In the long run# a "rand is nothing more than a name. !he difference "etween products is thus not so much "etween the products# as it is "etween their names# or perceptions of the names. • T($ L)4 + "($ C -.)!;: rands are "rands# and companies are
companies. !here is a difference. !itan is owned "y the !ata Croup# who though highly regarded in Indian industry are associated more with heavy industries such as steel and truck "uilding# than with watch making. • T($ L)4 + S#9/#!<*: !here is always a time and a place to launch a second "rand# "ut when this is done it should "e ensured that "oth "rands have separate and distinct identities. 4ach "rand should "e kept uni7ue and special. (hen !itan decided to diversify into the jewellery segment# they did not call their new "rand A!itan JewelleryA# in spite of the high standing of the !itan name in the minds of the Indian consumers. !o do so would "e to undermine the power of the !itan "rand# which is that of "eing %watch e'perts&B 2ence# the jewellery was called !anish7. • T($ L)4 + S().$: A "randAs logotype should "e well designed# in order to fit the eyes. )isual sym"ols Dagain with the possi"le e'ceptions of *ikeAs JswooshJ or MercedesA :/pointed starE are highly overrated. !he meaning lies in the words# not the sym"ol. !he !itan logo# though well recogni$a"le is always accompanied "y the words J!I!A*J in a clear# crisp typeface/denoting power Dthrough the use of capital lettersE and class at the same time.
• T($ L)4 + C / ,r: A "rand should use a colour and typeface that is the opposite of its major competitor. For e'ample# while 3oca/3ola stands for red and appears in running handwriting# -epsi stands for "lue and appears in capital# modern looking letters. T($r$+ r$, #! r3$r " $++$'"#2$/; 9,#/3 9r)!3 $I,#";, "($ + // 4#!< +)'" r* *( ,/3 )/* 9$ =$." #! -#!3: • D$+#!$ "($ ' r$ 9r)!3F* . *#"# ! )!3 2)/,$ '/$)r/;: A product should "e properly positioned and its value Dwhich includes price# 7uality and imageE should "e properly defined. As mentioned in the section regarding the law of the word# the two words most highly identified with !itan are %7ualityJ and JIndianJ. !hese should thus "e emphasi$ed upon. !his is e'actly what !itan has done# positioning itAs watches as high 7uality# Indian made watches# and emphasi$ing upon itAs value for money as well as itAs classy image. • D !F" !$</$'" P,9/#' R$/)"# !*: -u"lic 1elations# or -1# are vital to the success and survival of any "rand. Snfortunately# its value as a "rand "uilding tool has more often than not# "een undervalued. *ewsletters# event and entertainment sponsorships# and other forms of -1 help to define the personality of a company or "rand# positioning it as a good corporate citi$en# and someone nice to do "usiness with. In keeping with IndiaAs o"session with cricket# !itan has often sponsored cricket tournaments# including the now legendary 8FFH !itan 3up. !itan also sponsors a num"er of popular television programmes# a prime e'ample of which is Star (orldAs J!he -racticeJ.
• R$)/#B$ "()" .r - "# !* ')! 9$ "r#'=;: -romotions ought to "e used to create recognition and "uild "rand loyalty. *eedless and irrelevant contests tend to shift the customerAs attention from the product "eing promoted to the pri$e "eing offered D"e it a trip to the SS or a new carE. A "etter Dand far less e'pensiveE way to promote a "rand would "e to allow it to "e used "y other companies in their promotional offers. !itan is currently "eing offered "y "oth +utlook maga$ine and (elcomAward Dthe privileged customer programme of the (elcomCroup chain of hotelsE in their various promotional offers. !he most sensi"le and effective forms of promotions are measures such as esta"lishing a privileged customer clu" offering customer points redeema"le for discounts and re"ates. !itan has their own privileged customer clu"# !itan Signet# which has an impressive 8.? 5akh mem"ers. • A/4);* r$-$-9$r "($ USP: A SS- DSni7ue Selling -ropositionE is not only what gives the customer a reason to "uy the "rand# "ut is also what helps him distinguish the "rand from its competitors. !itanAs SS- is two fold# and can perhaps "est "e descri"ed in si' words. JAn Indian company offering international 7ualityJ. !his works for !itan in two ways. First of all# itAs emphasis on Ainternational 7ualityA successfully negates itAs major Indian competitor# 2M!# who is still perceived as a company offering solid and relia"le# yet singularly unstylish and staid looking watches. Secondly# with the plethora of foreign "rands availa"le in the country today# !itan emphasis on "eing Indian ena"les it to effectively
meet their threat. Interestingly# while !itan has never actively promoted the fact that itAs parent company is the !ata Croup# at the same time it has never really done much to hide the fact. !hus while capitali$ing on the !ata nameI it has "uilt its own identity as an Indian "rand offering high 7uality watches at prices significantly "elow those of compara"le foreign "rands. • I+ ; , ')!F" 9$ +#r*", 9$ 9$""$r: eing the first entrant in any category earns pioneer status for a "rand and gives it the advantage of "eing the pro"a"le market leader. Such was the case with 2M!. 2owever with itAs emphasis on itAs SS- and aggressive advertising# !itan convinced the market that it produced the "etter product and thus destroyed 2M!As near monopoly of the Indian watch market. • EE.)!3 *$!*#9/;0 4'tensions should always "e logical and market driven and not mere Jproduct e'plosionsJ. As the market environment changes with the addition of say# greater competition# or changing customer wants and perceptions# "rand e'tension should "e undertaken. It should not# however "e undertaken ar"itrarily. (hen !itan entered the market in 8F>H# its main competitor was 2M!# a company offering relia"le and economically priced watches. !itan thus started out "eing a company offering a wide variety of models# most of which were priced economically# with the added SS- of "eing a more stylish alternative to 2M!. As times changed# however# so did !itan. (ith the growing entry of foreign "rands into the market# !itan continued to introduce su" "rand after su" "rand to meet every new challenge. (ith the entry of the Jhigh performanceJ sports watch "rands in the form of !ag
2auer# +mega and
reitling# !itan introduced itAs own line of
chronographs priced significantly lower than the competition at a mere 1s <===/?===. Similarly# to counter the entry of foreign# youth oriented JstyleJ "rands such as 4sprit and Swatch# !itan introduced the AFastrackA su" "rand# again priced e'tremely competitively.
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*ame0 Age 0 Cender0 +ccupation0 Income0 8. (hat is the most important element which helps to improving the sales and firm valueB AE 3ompany 5ogo 9. E 3ompany *ame 3E 6uality of the -roduct -h0
2ow do you get the "est "randB 6uality of the -roduct 6uantity of the -roduct oth
Are you aware of S25B ,es *o Some 4'tent
From where did you get the information a"out this "rand image of the productB Media -aper (ord of Mouth +thers
(hich "rand do you prefer other than S25B Suguna 2atcheries Sing hatcheries 3.-.2atcheries
2ow would you feel a"out the cost of S25B
2igh 5ow Medium Afforda"le H. (hat is your opinion a"out S25 productsB 4'cellent >. Cood Average "elow Average
Are you satisfied with the after sales services provided "y the companyB Satisfied *ot Satisfied Some 4'tent
Are you satisfied with this "randB ,es *o Some 4'tent
2ow do you rate the S25 "rand using a scale of 8==B =/9< 9</<= <=/H< H</8==
(hat are those trademarked devices that service to identify and differentiate the "randB rand 4lements rand 47uity rand Mark rand -romise
(hat is consumers Za"ility to identity "rand under different conditions as reflected "y their "rand recognition or recall performanceB rand awareness rand identity rand image rand discrimination
(hich media you feel effective for the "etter promotion of S25 productsB !.) *ews -apers Maga$ines
Do you find any new kind of "randed products in the market which you feel and "etter than theseB ,es *o
!o what e'tend company is satisfied "y "rand image gain for theseB !oo 5arge !oo Medium !oo Small
Do you suggest any changesN improvements to "uilding are "etter "rand image for the company/////////////