Building Design.2.12

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1
.กr· s.:íก.ar
Building Design
for
Climate Change
íaก.ar :
Climate Change
2
Arctic Iceberg
Arctic Iceberg
na·ก.aa·ก·a 2011-2012
• «r·«r·.rʾr+:«r·.r·r
• «r·.arrʾ «r·+:la.ara·ก aa:aør
• a·«·.»:.a+:aaaaar.a
3
Nock-ten
L
L
L
Haima 25-27 a.a.
Nock-Ten 25-31
ก.a.
.aaraก.·aa .aaraก.·aa· ·กra·ar กra·ar aøraก..aa .aa.»·».aa
a..+.aa· a·กก.·.กa-.aaa.aaa: 32
;aør ;aør ( (n;a»·aa n;a»·aa· ·กra·ar กra·ar, , aøraก..aa..rˈr
ara r 3 .»·».aaa..+.aa· a·กก.·.กa-.aaa
.aaa: 20 (.a.+·กrʾ 2513, 2499, 2554 2554
335 ..
406 ..
180 ..
120 ..
100 ..
Low dark cloud hangs over an empty Victoria
Harbour in the morning during a Typhoon 8 Signal
Warning as Typhoon Nesat passed close to Hong
Kong on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011
4
New York 29
October 2011
r.a.raarlr:
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
1886-1969 German-
American architect
Masters of Modern
architecture
“Less is More”
IBM
860-880 Lake
Shore Drive 1950
High field House
Farnsworth
House
5
Robert Charles Venturi, Jr.
(born June 25, 1925 in
Philadelphia
Masters of Post
Modern architecture
“Less is a Bore”
Venturi House
Freedom Plaza
National Gallery
Hoover Dam 1936
-2080 MW
Aswan Dam 1970-2100 MW
Pratt Street Power
Plant 1990
í..luu˂·.a.aar1897
Calder Hall Nuclear
Power 1956-50 MW
Electricity supply-Modernization
3. Evolution of Modern Building
Elevator-High rise
Middle age
Modern Architecture
4. Evolution of Modern Building
6
1928 Carrier 'Weather maker‘
1906'Apparatus for Treating
Air', Larkin Building, NY
1921,The first 'centrifugal
chiller'
1924, three Carrier centrifugal
chillers J.L. Hudson Department
Store
Willis Carrier 1902
1923,The Rivoli Theater NY
5. Evolution of Large Building
Air-conditioning
7
• Pre-mechanical 3000BC-1450AD
• Mechanical 1450-1840AD
• Electromechanical 1840-1940AD
• Electronic after 1940AD
..nr·ก·.sa. Information Technology
Slide rule 1600AD Difference engine 1822AD
Telephone 1876AD
Computer 1942AD
Roman abacus
Suanpan
• Electronic after 1940AD
..nr·ก·.sa. Information Technology
Vacuum tube 1951-58AD Transistor 1959-63AD
IC 1964-79AD
After 1979AD
Apple 1984AD
INTELLIGENT BUILDING
8
a·a·.a+a.a: :
a·a·.a+a.a: :
ar·aa.raarlr:
9
New World
Green CSR
Green Society
Green products
Green marketing
GREEN
BUILDING
10
aกa.sa.a.a.íaก :
11
aกr·r:
Utopia project
r·raa:«a.r·aaar·
aal.i«ar:
12
aaกrr·:
• r.ra.i«.s·กra»·.:a.aaaa
“»rr·».a»กrʾa«a:a·”
• rrrr.rˈrr·r rra·..rˈr
ar»r·ก·.
13
High roof
• Rain
• Incident solar intensity
• Temp stratification
• Stack ventilation
High floor
• Flood
• Drainage
• Mixed use
• Cool thermal storage
• Ventilation
Inclined roof
• Shading
• Rain fall speed
• Glare control
Roof curvature
• Solar reflection
Productive microclimate
• Green Kra thin narong / Cha-om
• Fish pond
• Storm drain retention
Rain water collection
• Earth jar
Clay shingle
• High emissivity
• Ventilation
Local
materials
• Wood
• Clay
Clo value 0.09
Retrofitting for flood-prone areas
14
• rrrr.rˈrr·r rra·..rˈr
ar»r·ก·.
• rr.aa.
.rˈra·a·nก
.ar
• rrrr.rˈrr·r rra·..rˈr
ar»r·ก·.
• rr.aa.
.rˈra·a·nก
.ar
• «r·a·..naก·..:r·aa·ก·a
15
16
ก·.r.«·.+aก·.
ก·..:r·ar·ør
Storm water/ Surface Run Off water management
17
Reduce Impervious surface
Permeable paving
Permeable Pavements
18
Storm water retention
Rain water harvesting system
Waterscape design
19
sa.araar:
ก·.r˂a.กrr·za ก·.r˂a.กrr·
.:rrnra·..+.r
larnr»íarr·
ก.:.ra.rnr»r·iaarza
Uplift Hydraulic forces
20
• «aก.aa.«a.iaar
arzaก.rˀˉaa
.ra.·กa·
n.aก.r·
• a..+.:ar«a.r·กra·r
aa:.:arnra r
»aa.aaa».:ar.»·l.«ra :
• aก.:arr·r
a.l.กar naaarl.
21
• +a«a.zก»· a·ก»·rrrr
.arlaa·ก »·a«.aa.a
• i«»a.:r·ar·aaa+·กranก
r·l«aaaa. laaar
• aก.:ar«a.r·
.·.»arrnrla.aa +:la
.:ara.sr 0.30-0.60 a
22
Under Floor Plumbing Systems
Above Floor Plumbing Systems
Floor trap and Above floor plumbing
23
• Wall mount WC
+:la.:ara.sr 0.80-
1.00 a
24
• aก.:ara.a.ai«a.ก.·
.:arr·iaara.aa
a.a.aa. a.alaar
.:arr·ia
ara.aa
.:arr·
a.aa
.·..:r·ar·
a.r·ra
aa»aa·ก·asra.
aa»aa·ก·asra.
a.rrnr:
• aa»aa·ก·asra.
aa·.ra·lr
25
• aaa.a.aกraaa
• a.a.a.arrnral«a:
26
Above ground Septic Systems Reuse water for irrigation
1. Pretreatment tank where influent enters.
2. Aeration chamber where oxygen is pumped into the waste water.
3. Clarifier chamber where the clear, odorless effluent rises.
4. Chlorinator where the clear effluent passes through for disinfection.
5. Holding tank for disinfected effluent ready for discharge.
6. Quiet, efficient aerator and pump.
7. Solid-state monitors and controls the system.
8. Discharge Pump
Landscaping Septic Systems
• .na«a.a..rrrr
..a.กrr
..a.i«¡
27
• aaa..arluu˂·ir.:ara.
aกaa:a..+aarla.·a
.r.a.กa.r˂a.กr
luu˂·aala«.ala:
Common fuse breaker opens circuit 15/20 A
Cardiac standstill and internal organ damage 2 A
Ventricular fibrillation threshold 100 mA
Paralysis of respiratory muscles 20 mA
Maximum current an average man can grasp and
“let go”
16 mA
Barely perceptible 1 mA
• aaa.arก.ar˂a.กrlu..
Earth Leakage Circuit
Breaker (ELCB)
.a.a.aalu..«.a».+กกr.· “.a.a.กr
luaa” rr aa.a.a.aaluu˂·aaíraa»
»·«r·»aalu.aaaก.:aaluu˂·r·.a.r..
«·alraalal«aกarlra·aa·aluu˂· aaa
lu..a.lrirar íaa»·r.·.ก·aaraa
«.a»·rar.rsa.arก.aluu˂·
28
• aaa.«aaara.luu˂·ir
.:ara.
• aaa.a».luu˂·ir.:ara.
• aaa.raกluu˂·ir.:ara. -1.10 .aa.
29
• aaa..:rra·aar
r·+:r.ari«aa·aarlaaa.
• .a.a.irluu˂·»a.a.a.«a·a aaa..·
aa.a a·aar íaaaก+:aaa.l.ira·a«r.«. a+a
»+:aa.a aa·aa r
• asa.a·aluu˂·.ar» aaa..·.rˈ ra·aar aa a
.sa. «.a a.sa.aar.«aa.
aaก..+.luu˂·
• aก.:ar.a.a.aa.
iraa. aaa·.arr·rก.ara.a
30
• aก.:ara.r·
aa·.rr·a..sra.a
• aก.:ar.a.a.arr·
aกaก.aa. nal«.
a. -1
a. -2
Pump
bypass
Check
valve
»ar·r.:r·.s·r ·r
»ar·r.:r·+·กa .aa.
T
a
n
k

b
y
p
a
s
s
Pump
no.1
Standby
pump
»ar·.aa
»ar·».
31
• .a.aaa.r·a·.a.
a. 1.5 M
3

aก2-4 a.a
l«a
a.l.a.«raa
r:
• a.a·.a.r·
• a.a.ก:a.ก·aa:srara
• a.r·raaa·ir.rˈra.r·
• a.a.ar.aa a·กaaalar·.ar
• rar·ir
.rˈrr·
a·.a.laa·a
+·.rˈr
• aaa..a.a.»·r·aa
a.a.a.ก.a.r·กarกa
32
• a.:rr»·r·aa.a.
aaก·.sra.r·aa
• .:r·ar·a.a.·.r·a»r
»a.:r·ar·
.·..:r·ar·aalaa.ก.·
»a.:r·ar·
• Self priming flood pump that
can pump dirty and clean water
• High flow pump
• Lift 6 m
• Float level switch for
automatic operation
33
• Vertical Axial flow
pump for flood control
station
• High flow pump
• Low lift
High level
Energy
Center
High level Waste Water Treatment Plant
34
• aก«a..a.a.i«a..s·l.
.a.aa
r·ar
i«na
10 .r
• .:..r·».arriaar
aกarraa:ra..:r·aa·ก·ai«a.l.
35
• «aก.aa.«a..a.a.r riaar
arˆ¡«·aa»·.:aa:ก·..:r·aa·ก·a
• r.a·ก·... · aกarra..rˈrar.กrr·aa:ก·..กa·a.·araaa»a
• a.:r·ar· · .:rrr˂a.กrr·».a
• Green belt
«aaara.luu˂·
ir.:ara.
a·aluu˂·ir
.:ara.
»r...øˆ.aก
Green Belt
a.:r·ar·
»
·
a
r
a

í
a
.
.

·
.
»
·
a
i
r
í
a
.
.

·
.
aกarra..rˈrar.กrr· .:r·ar·a.aar·íaaa..
Recycle concrete granule layer
36
Dykes
Foundation of flood protection walls (example)
37
38
Flood control station
r·r
rrrr.rˈrr·r rra·..rˈr
a.rarrarr
»+aa.a
The Bliz
r·r
rrrr.rˈrr·r rra·..rˈr
a.rarrarr
»+aa.a
Belle Sky
39
• Solar Home
Solar cell module
Power conditioner
Panel board
Integrating wattmeter
Indoor remote control monitor
Solar power generation
system 3.46 KW
Ceiling: Glass wool insulating
material 10K 200 mm
External wall: Glass wool insulating
material 16K 100 mm
Floor: Polystyrene beaded foam 94
mm
Window: Heat-insulating aluminum
sash and low-E
33% self-sufficient in electricity
a..กrr·ør
raก»ก Hydroponic
aกaa. ...rˈr.sar
rrrr.rˈrr·r rra·..rˈrar»r·ก·.
Hydraulic gradient
40
Singh Intrachooto
41
• a..กrr·ør
• »zก»· a·ก»·
• a.r»ก
Solar cell
r·raกa.
aกaa.
• a..กrr·ør
• »zก»· a·ก»·
• a.r»ก
Solar cell
r·raกa.
aกaa.
raa..:r·aa·ก·a
42
Under Floor System?
aa·ก·aa:a·aaarr aala.rʽa«r·a·. -·.·
..··ก·
r·ra:a·a as»·na..·.ก.˂·.ก·ˁ.ˈ··.-
.·...·ก.·.-...·.·.·.·.
43
Toyota Home - Applying the Toyota
Production System to Home Building
SUPER SKELETON INTELLIGENT INFILL
TOYOTA HOME
•ROOF FACING SOUTH
•ROOF ANGLE
44
MASS PRODUCTION HOME
CHOICES AND SAFETY
45
ก·..ar»a
.saairก·.aaกarra·a·..raar:
• «a..a.a.irrriaar:
• í...·rrr.aa.:


・ ・・ ・低 低低 低炭素建築 炭素建築 炭素建築 炭素建築
Highly efficient
air conditioning,
LED, BMS, etc.
District energy( (( (DHC DHC DHC DHC) )) )

Solar/wind power
generation
Waste incineration plant
Using waste heat
LRT LRT LRT LRT

〔 〔〔 〔Residential District Residential District Residential District Residential District 〕 〕〕 〕
・ ・・ ・Low carbon houses
・ ・・ ・Solar power, etc.
Elect ric vehicle Elect ric vehicle Elect ric vehicle Elect ric vehicle ( (( (EV EV EV EV) )) )
Farmland Farmland Farmland Farmland

〔 〔〔 〔Farming Community Farming Community Farming Community Farming Community〕 〕〕 〕
・ ・・ ・Low carbon houses
・ ・・ ・Biomass, etc.
Wind power generation
Intercity public railway
transport control system
District energy network
Using river water
Solar panels
District cooling/heating
Mega solar
power generation
Biomass power
generation
Farmland Farmland Farmland Farmland
Low carbon buildings
Untapped energy
〔 〔〔 〔Central Business District Central Business District Central Business District Central Business District 〕 〕〕 〕
46
Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city
Incheon Eco-city
Klong Toey ?
Makkasan ?
Chatujak ?
47
ก·.aar.·ก¡ก·.a.ก·:a.·a.ar
Anatomy-Physiology-Homeostasis
48
SUSTAINABLE
HIGH
PERFORMANCE
HEALTHY
·.»a··+a··a
Energy
Center
Fresh Air
System
Water System
49
Electricity
Cooling
energy
Watergy
IT and
Communication
Energy Center
COOLING TOWER WATER CHILLER
GENERATOR
ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION
Cooling
energy
Electricity
Energy center of
Load
Air Intake
Radial distribution
50
Fresh Air System
DEMAND CONTROL
FRESH AIR UNIT
5 million CFU/gm sampling from inside air supply plenum
How much airborne CFU/m3 ? (<700 ?)
Colony Forming Units or CFU per cubic meter
a·ก·.a·a·.rˁ.a
51
Cascade
Impactor
Microbial
Sampler and
Agar Plates
Carbon
Dioxide
Monitor
TVOC
PID
Monitor
INDOOR AIR QUALITY MEASUREMENT
.ra.·.rˈ rara.·aกras»·n
.r+·ก a .r¡ ra» rr
.r+·ก a .r¡ ra» rr
52
aaกก.:a·aaa»r. .a»r.arza .raar.rˈraa·.»ra.a »·aกr.ra.·
Mold Exposure Disease
Stachybotrys or ‘toxic black mold’
Asthma
Aspergillosis
.··..ก.. Aspergillus .ˈก..·.¸.....·....·...·.·.· ˁ· ......ก-
ก..-.· ·...ก·.-.·.·.-.ก . ·.ก ... ...··- .....ˁ .·. .··....··....·-
(Aspergilloma) ก..-.··. .·.· ···.ก...·.ก.·-ก ..·. .· ·...·.
.··.·-.-.·.-·ก. ·.·.·.·.....·-..ก-.-.·· ·- .·..·..·-··.
··.·ก· ..·.·. ·.ก. .·.-. .·. - .-.· steroid .·.. . .·· ...·.·.··
·.·
53
Water System
POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD
RECYCLE WATER
TREATMENT
FIRE WATER PUMP
WATER SUPPLY PUMP/ WATER
TREATMENT SYSTEM
WASTE WATER
TREATMENT PLANT
Understandings and Case Study
• Plant room
allocation concept
• Building core
design
ENERGY CENTER
COOLING TOWER
CAR PARK BUILDING
WATER PLANT
ROOF PLANT
TYPICAL SECTION
5 FLOORSX4.00 METER=20 METER
TOP SECTION
3 FLOORSX4.00 METER=12 METER
PODIUM
T
O
W
E
R
T
Y
P
I
C
A
L

B
L
O
C
K
4

S
E
C
T
I
O
N
S
X
2
0
.
0
0

M
E
T
E
R
=
8
0

M
E
T
E
R
TYPICAL CLASS 1
OFFICE
54
ENERGY CENTER
ENERGY CENTER
ENERGY CENTER
55
ENERGY CENTER
Machine loading
56
57
58
59
ENERGY CENTER
COOLING TOWER
CAR PARK BUILDING
WATER PLANT
ROOF PLANT
TYPICAL SECTION
6 FLOORSX3.50 METER=21 METER
TOP SECTION
5 FLOORSX3.50 METER=17.5 METER
PODIUM
T
O
W
E
R
T
Y
P
I
C
A
L

B
L
O
C
K
4

S
E
C
T
I
O
N
S
X
2
1
.
0
0

M
E
T
E
R
=
8
4

M
E
T
E
R
TRANSFER FLOOR
HOTEL
60
ENERGY CENTER
COOLING TOWER
CAR PARK BUILDING
WATER PLANT
ROOF PLANT
TYPICAL SECTION
6 FLOORSX3.50 METER=21 METER
TOP SECTION
5 FLOORSX3.50 METER=17.5 METER
PODIUM
T
O
W
E
R
T
Y
P
I
C
A
L

B
L
O
C
K
4

S
E
C
T
I
O
N
S
X
2
1
.
0
0

M
E
T
E
R
=
8
4

M
E
T
E
R
TRANSFER FLOOR
HOSPITAL
MECHANICAL FLOOR ABOVE
CRITICAL AREA
61
62
ENERGY CENTER
COOLING TOWER
CAR PARK BUILDING
WATER PLANT
ROOF PLANT
SHOPPING CENTER
SHOPPING CENTER
ENERGY CENTER
63
Machine loading
64
65
66
Frame Tube structure
cantilevered perpendicular to the ground
WTC
67
Trussed Tube structure Bundled Tube structure
Sears Tower John Hancock
INTERMEDIATE MECHANICAL FLOOR
68
Main Building Core
Elevator
arrangement
Sky lobby
Main floor
Assembly
Smoke ventilation
system
Number of elevator
Passenger Service
Office @3500m2 min 2 units
Class1 High zone/Low zone
Class2 Sky lobby+ Express lifts
Grade A VIP lifts
Hotel @100 room @200 room
Podium merchandise lifts
+escalators
Recommended capacity 1000-
1600kg or 15-24 persons
69
Car park
• COLUMN GRID
• LIFT TRAFFIC
• SECURITY CONTROL
ELECTRICAL RISER
IT RISER
WATER RISER
CHILLED WATER RISER
SANITARY RISER
Building Core Component
PIPE RISER
70
PIPE SHAFT
PIPE SUPPORT
ELECTRICAL SHAFT
71
AIR HANDLING UNIT ROOM-AHU
1. VENTILATION DUCT
2. FRESH AIR DUCT
3. PRESSURIZING AIR DUCT
4.SMOKE EXHAUST DUCT
Air-conditioning System
Do not locate AHU inside
main core
72
Public toilet location
Executive toilet
BUILDING CORE LAYOUT
< 1500 M
2
FLOOR SPACE
EE
IT
SERVICE
LIFT
STAIR
TOILET
LIFT
AHU
AHU
VENTILATION
DUCT
FIRE
STAIR
VENTILATION
DUCT
SMOKE
CONTROL
DUCT
SANITARY
SHAFT
PIPE
RISERS
FIREMAN
LOBBY
JANITOR
PANTRY
73
BUILDING CORE LAYOUT
< 1500 M
2
FLOOR SPACE
EE
IT
SERVICE
LIFT
STAIR
TOILET
LIFT
AHU
AHU
VENTILATION
DUCT
FIRE
STAIR
VENTILATION
DUCT
SMOKE
CONTROL
DUCT
SANITARY
SHAFT
PIPE
RISERS
FIREMAN
LOBBY
JANITOR
PANTRY
Ceiling space
10 RT 0.45 m
20 RT 0.55 m
30 RT 0.70 m
40 RT 0.80 m
50 RT 0.90 m
74
STEP 1
75
STEP 2
STEP 3
MAIN
BUILDING
CORE
BUILDING
CORE
PERIPHERALS
BUILDING
CORE
PERIPHERALS
BUILDING CORE LAYOUT
< 2500 M
2
FLOOR SPACE
76
BUILDING CORE LAYOUT
< 2500 M
2
FLOOR SPACE
77
78
Condominium
Transformer 2x2,000 kVA
Condominium
Generator 1x400 kVA
Hotel
Transformer 2x1,000 kVA
Hotel
Generator 1x400 kVA
Office & Retails
Transformer 2x1,000 kVA
Condominium
Generator 1x400 kVA
At Basement Level
Low Zone
(For Hotel & Podium)
High Zone
(Condominium)
Fire water tank 340 m3 (1hr)
Fire pump diesel 1 unit
Jockey pump 1 unit
Fire water tank 85 m3 (1/2hr)
Fire pump diesel 1 unit
Jockey pump 1 unit
Fire Water
Tank
340 m3 (hr)
Condo Water
Tank
250 m3
Hotel Water
Tank
370 m3
Office&Retail
Water Tank
100 m3
Intermediate Tank
For Condo 60 m3
Roof Water
Tank 60 m3
Sanitary System For Assembly Occupancy
1. Separate water tank & pump for
1.1 Condominium
1.2 Hotel
1.3 Office and Retail
2. Maintain and Regulate pressure in 15 – 50 psi range
3. Condominium supply by Gravity Tank system
and Booster pump for top five floor.
4. Hotel domestic water supply by variable speed
Booster pump set .
5. Office and Retail supply by variable speed
Booster pump set.
Booster Pump Set
Pressure Zone
15 psi – 50 psi
Office &
Retail
Hotel Guest Room
Zone
Hotel Facility
Zone
79
Waste From Waste From
Condo Condo
Meter Meter
Meter Meter
Meter Meter
Wastewater Wastewater
Treatment Treatment
Plant Plant
Waste From Waste From
Hotel Hotel
Waste From Waste From
Retail Retail
Filtration Filtration
Plant Plant
Selling Selling
To Make up To Make up
Cooling Cooling
Tower Tower
Cooling Tower Plant
at Roof of Podium
Area Required 75 m2
Water Cooled Chiller
150 Ton (2 Duties, 1 Standby)
Chiller Plant at B1:
Area Required 170 m2
Cooling Tower Plant
at Roof of Podium
Area Required 75 m2
Water Cooled Chiller
150 Ton (2 Duties, 1 Standby)
Chiller Plant at B1:
Area Required 170 m2
80
Cooling Tower: 200 Ton (3 Duties, 1 Standby)
Plate Heat Exchanger (High Zone)
at Roof Area Required: 75 m2
+
FCU & Water Cool Condensing Unit
Plate Heat Exchanger (Low Zone)
at Level 34M: Area Required 30 m2

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