Storybook for Bundoran Farm located in North Garden, VA.
U N D O R A N F A R M A Conservation Community
AN AFFILIATE OF
SITE INVENTORY & ANALYSIS
PROCESS EXISTING ROADWAYS PUBLIC VIEWSHED STREAM CORRIDORS & WETLANDS PRODUCTIVE FARMLAND FOREST/WILDLIFE HABITAT MOUNTAIN PROTECTION ZONES PRESERVATION AREAS POTENTIAL DEVELOPABLE AREAS HOMESITES SLOPE ASPECT
SITE DESIGN ELEMENTS
EASEMENTS PROPOSED ROADWAYS PHASING MASTER PLAN SUSTAINABILITY CENTER PROCESS SUSTAINABILITY CENTER DESIGN HOMESITE DEVELOPMENT PRIVATE RESIDENCE AUDUBON
In Southern Albemarle, on the upper branches of the Hardware River, lies Bundoran Farm. Home to a family of farmers since 1940, this valley is a place where the traditions of peaceful, sustainable country life have never gone away. The landscape is as varied as it is spectacular. The vast areas of verdant pasture, orchard, and well-managed forest are interspersed with riding and walking trails; and the breathtaking views of the farm, the valleys, and the Ragged Mountains in the distance cultivate a sense of a place that is enduring, timeless, and deeply rooted in tradition. Bundoran farm is comprised of 2,300 acres of rolling Albemarle County countryside located twenty minutes from Charlottesville and the renowned University of Virginia. The mindful stewardship of this land over the years has resulted in a place that would not be unfamiliar to a visitor from the time of Thomas Jefferson. Heavy stands of orchard grass and fescue cover a landscape of rolling pastures and secluded valleys and hollows. A ﬁfteen-mile network of riding trails, sprinkled with benches and gazebos, leads visitors through a dazzling variety of mature Piedmont forest species, through and along the streams that tumble down through each valley. Two ponds provide a place for quiet reﬂection or ﬁshing; and farm buildings and cottages dot the landscape, framing views that typify the slower pace and natural beauty of the Albemarle County lifestyle. Bundoran Farm is also the location of a new kind of rural community; one that presents a unique concept of farmland and forest preservation, combined with extremely limited residential development. In the case of Bundoran Farm, these principles result in a lowdensity community of approximately one hundred homesites, with the great majority of the farm’s acreage put under a unique regime of easements and deed restrictions to ensure the character, function, and maintenance of the farm in perpetuity.
Analogous to the principles of sustainability and the “triple bottom line,” the fundamental model of Preservation Development has been described as a “three-legged stool.” Each leg of this stool represents a different activity and a different constituency, and all three bear an equal amount of weight. At Bundoran Farm the three legs of the stool are: 1. Farming – represented by agricultural work and land management activities; 2. Environmental Goals – expressed at Bundoran Farm by the work of Audubon International; and 3. Home Development – exhibited by home ownership and residency on a working farm. Taken together, these three interdependent legs of the stool create a seat or platform that is both enduring, meaning capable of sustaining itself into future generations, and replicable, serving as a model for similar developments that share this approach. Historically, the settlement of rural areas was accomplished by cataloging valuable resources such as water, soils, crops, and trees and then building where the land was least productive. The creation of the Bundoran Farm community followed a similar pattern. The result is not reﬂective of a particular idealogy, such as “New Urbanism,” “New Ruralism,” or “Conservation Development.” Rather, the design has been a process of rigorous analysis and a great deal of time spent in the ﬁeld. To start, the project team designated areas for permanent protection and enhancement and worked backward to locate homesites that leave intact the most precious and fragile resources of the land. At the heart of the vision for Bundoran Farm is the idea of the “Working Landscape”. It is one of the key elements that distinguishes Preservation Development from other real estate developments, even those that place lands in conservation or preservation covenants. Bundoran Farm is a working industry whose base of operations is the topsoil. This is true of all farms (and when we speak of farms here, we speak broadly, including all properties that make productive use of the land for pasturelands, woodlots, orchards, etc.). Unique to Preservation Development is the fact that we are retaining that working arrangement, so any successful approaches to developing the land must be consonant with this situation. This is not an approximation of living on a golf course or beside a national park. The land has been and will continue to be manipulated, worked, and managed. As such, it is not “natural” in the romantic sense of the word, which is to say it is not pristine. These lands are and will remain, however, earthy, beautiful, meaningful, and deeply rooted not only in nature but also in millennia of human activity.
Bundoran Farm rests in the serene countryside of Central Virginia that Thomas Jefferson once described as “the Eden of the United States”. The 2,300 acres of Bundoran Farm comprise an extraordinary parcel of farmland, forest, orchards, cottages, and estates in southern Albemarle County. Straddling Plank Road (SR 692) west of US 29 South, as well as Edge Valley Road (SR 696) north of Plank Road, this scenic property is familiar to commuters and cyclists and to the Albemarle agricultural community as the previous home of the Albemarle County Fair. The farm’s landscape is varied, but in many ways typical of rural Albemarle. 1,000 acres, or roughly half of the farm, is wooded and a good example of well-managed mature Piedmont hardwood forests. Orchards bearing red and golden delicious apples cover approximately 200 acres. The remainder, roughly 1,100 acres, is fenced, well-watered pastures of orchard grass and fescue, and includes a cow-calf operation. The farm is also home to two estates; nine rental cottages; and numerous agricultural shops, barns, and other outbuildings. The property, assembled by continuous acquisitions of parcels over the past sixty years, has for decades embodied the value of stewardship of forest land. Very limited harvesting, as well as localized timber stand improvement and, more recently, aggressive invasive eradication work in conjunction with the Virginia Department of Forestry have resulted in large areas of exemplary mature forest. Likewise, the careful management of the farm over many years has resulted in pastures and orchards relatively free of many of the invasive-species challenges typical of nearby parcels. Management of cattle operations has been generally good, but uneven, across the various pasture areas. Over the past few years, pastures have been under several leases, with varying levels of commitment to rotational grazing and other best management practices. Baseline water testing for sedimentation and for marker species (“bug counts”), bears out this initial assessment, showing markedly reduced impacts in areas with faster rotation schedules.
The farm has, over the past decade or so, moved in this direction and is expanding the lease area of the operator with the most fervent commitment to these principles. The farm abuts the southern edge of the Rivanna watershed, but the property itself drains to the Hardware River. In fact, one primary perennial stream is the Middle Branch of the North Fork of the Hardware River. In accordance with county and state policies, a wetlands delineation was performed on the property and submitted with the Final Plat Application. Two constructed ponds can also be found on the property. In one case, Lake Scogo, the dammed stream has sponsored a limited, though functional vegetated wetland. Intervention in this area will be include a long-term program of assessment and invasivereduction. The thousand or so acres of hardwood forest include valuable habitat, as do the large grassland areas of the pastures. Initial assessment tells us that the primary habitat of value, in a regional perspective, is the large unfragmented areas of interior forest. Of special value are those on the west side of the property, which abut large contiguous acreage used for timber. However,this habitat faces issues typical of large forested parcels in the area, particularly those concerning deer population control. The property hosts an active hunt club, implementing a state-directed deer management assistance program (DMAP), a site-speciﬁc deer management program that increases a landowner’s or hunt club’s management options for control of deer populations. The team is committed to continuing the DMAP program in perpetuity. Other communities in the area that have not responded to this challenge at the time of development are often forced to do so later, with concurrent disruption and expense.
Albemarle County is located in Central Virginia and within the Piedmont Plateau. Boasting a rich history, Albemarle County is known worldwide as the home of Thomas Jefferson’s Monticello, James Monroe’s Ash LawnHighland, and Patrick Henry’s Red Hill and is within close proximity to some of the most notorious battle sites of the Civil War, including Richmond, Wilderness, and Appomattox. Albemarle County enjoys a modiﬁed continental climate with mild winters and mild to humid summers. The average temperature from June to August is 75 degrees and the average for December through February is 37 degrees. Average annual rainfall is 47.29 inches and snowfall is 24.2 inches. Albemarle County was formed in 1744 from Goochland County and named for William Anne Keppel, the second Earl of Albemarle, titular governor of Virginia from 1737 to 1754. In 1761 the county government was moved to Charlottesville, which was established as a town in 1762. Albemarle County is approximately 110 miles southwest of Washington, D.C., 70 miles west of Richmond, and 115 miles northeast of Roanoke. The county surrounds the city of Charlottesville and shares the University of Virginia campus. The majority of the county’s 721 square miles are designated for rural area protections, with just over 72 squaremiles, or roughly 10 percent, set aside for urban-residential, commercial, and industrial land uses. As of 2007, 895 farms were operating in the County, accounting for 158,317 acres, or a little over 34 percent of the County’s total land area. Farming practices are diverse and include cattle, equestrian, and even buffalo operations as well as a number of orchards and a rapidly growing number of vineyards. Perhaps the most noted characteristic of the region is its exceptional natural beauty and magniﬁcent surroundings. Situated in the foothills of the stunning Blue Ridge Mountains, the area draws on the best traditions of Virginia country living and its distinctive and individual lifestyle. Located just minutes from historic Charlottesville, Bundoran’s residents will be part of this progressive, vibrant community which offers ﬁne art museums, an array of performing arts venues, annual equestrian events, and the nationally recognized Virginia Film Festival. In addition, residents and their guests will enjoy experiencing the area’s many award-winning vineyards, ﬁne antique shops, and the University of Virginia’s Academical Village.
TAY LO RS GA P
ALBEMARLE COUNTY, VIRGINIA
Located in the Piedmont region of Central Virginia
SE portion of Albemarle County, Piedmont Upland Physiographic Region
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The rolling hills and valleys of Bundoran Farm are the product of billions of years of natural history and thousands of years of human use. It has known landlocked mountains reaching higher than the Himalayas; it has been a coastline, a seabed, and a featureless plain. The land has been nourished with minerals washed from rivers and mulched with the rich compost of innumerable species of plants. The area’s rivers have revealed its valleys as mountains have slowly risen again, and may still be rising. Even before Europeans arrived, the land around Bundoran might have been cleared and cultivated. Within a virgin forest of magniﬁcent American Chestnut, whose trees towered as much as 160 feet above the ground, the ancestors of the Monacan Indian Nation may have maintained ﬁelds near villages here. Although we have no certain proof, the rich soils still present today suggest that natives might have settled and cultivated ﬁelds in the bottom lands of Bundoran. They would have burned such ﬁelds annually in order to keep them open, either for agriculture or to attract wildlife. And these ﬁrst peoples likely would have cultivated tobacco here, which was sacred to them, and probably taught visitors how to do the same. Bundoran’s topsoil has been in nearly constant production since that time, including tobacco which was a popular crop even among the earliest settlers. Unfortunately, these pioneer farmers did not necessarily understand the beneﬁts of growing their crops in line with the land’s contours. Moreover, tobacco does not grow well in soggy soil, so it appears that early tobacco farmers dug deep ditches down the hillsides, perpendicular to the contours, to drain water from the rolling ﬁelds. Such practices put the topsoil at risk. And this, combined with the heavy toll tobacco takes on the soil’s nutrients, meant that farmers had to turn to other other crops that were better suited to the conditions, such as corn and fruit. Luckily the hills around Bundoran are ideal for growing apples. Each spring, the cool air sinks along the slope of
the hillsides and drains away from the new apple buds, preventing them from freezing. The lower grounds have always provided perfect pasturelands for livestock. The land itself was discovered by settlers in the early 18th century when scouts following the North Fork of the Hardware River determined that the area we know as Bundoran Farm was a prime site for settlement and called it North Garden. Other westward explorers following the South Fork of the Hardware River named that region South Garden. North Garden and South Garden can be geographically described as two natural “bowls” with higher ground between them. The fertile bottomland soils surrounding mountain forests and the adjacent Hardware River provided the basic needs for early settlers and opportunities to trade and prosper. After the Revolutionary War, more and more settlers crossed the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia to live in the Shenandoah Valley and Trans-Allegheny region. A way of transportation connecting the east and west was needed to accommodate the increasing population, and so the Staunton or Rockﬁsh Gap Turnpike was authorized in 1818. Bisecting the southwest quarter of the county, the turnpike linked the port of Scottsville on the James River directly with the Shenandoah Valley and its many agricultural products. The high ground between North and South Garden emerged as a regional hub when the new Staunton or Rockﬁsh Gap Turnpike created an intersection with Old Lynchburg Road. Locals called it the Crossroads. In 1818, the Sutherland family built the Crossroads Tavern on the corner of Rt. 29 and Plank Road (SR 692) for travelers and farmers using the Staunton and James River Turnpike. The farm as we know it today was originally purchased by the Scott family in the 1940s, was assembled by continuous acquisitions of parcels over the past sixty years, and has for decades been a testament to the value of land stewardship.
SITE INVENTORY & ANALYSIS
A number of inventory and analysis studies were conducted pertaining to the physical elements of the farm property. These studies, and the resulting ﬁndings, assisted the team in making solid, justiﬁed, and appropriate planning and design decisions for the project. Field visits and on-site reconnaissance were necessary to investigate design opportunities and constraints and to familiarize the team with the property. Assessment of natural and man-made factors and land uses were all part of the site investigation. The following analysis describes the implications and characteristic of each physical element.
STREAM CORRIDORS AND WETLANDS
MOUNTAIN PROTECTION ZONES
POTENTIAL DEVELOPABLE AREAS
“A SUBTRACTIVE PROCESS”
The design of the Bundoran Farm community has embodied the notion of a bottom-up approach. The design team came to the land with a great deal of combined experience in land-planning, conservation, and community development, but with no preconceptions. The design process at Bundoran Farm began with the land itself. An exhaustive, iterative process, involving numerous professionals from the ﬁelds of landscape architecture, engineering, farming, forestry, and real estate development was applied. In the case of the 2,300 acres comprising Bundoran Farm, this process took the team over a year to complete and reﬂects a philosophy to “let the land tell you what to do.” First, the areas of the farm under cultivation or pasture were cataloged and evaluated, with the goal of identifying the most productive, economically viable, and sustainable agricultural land. The key here was to protect large, contiguous, accessible areas with good soils, shade, and water. At Bundoran Farm, this analysis extended to the identiﬁcation and protection of important stands of timber and forest environments. Next, the design team overlaid a “viewshed” analysis, documenting areas of the farm that are visible from public and private roads, homesites, and adjacent properties during different seasons in order to determine areas that should be preserved to maintain the scenic and rural character of the property. On top of these, the design team then mapped critical natural resources of all kinds, including forest and meadow habitats; water resources such as streams, wetlands, and ponds; and many individual areas particularly threatened by development or farming activity, such as steep slopes, microhabitats, and wildlife corridors. This analysis extended to improvements and common area amenities such as trails, recreation areas, and scenic views. Finally, the selection of homesite locations and the design of the ﬁnal homesite is the result of the culmination of this rigorous anaylsis and assessment process, coupled with considerable time spent on the ground.
LAY LIGHTLY ON THE LAND
The existing roads, paths, and trails were located, studied, and whenever possible, incorporated into the engineered road system of the Farm. The end results are roads that “lay lightly on the land” as well as minimal soil disturbance.
PROTECTION OF THE PUBLIC VIEWSHED
The land of Bundoran Farm is an iconic image of Albemarle County. A top priority was to protect the visual character of this landscape. A series of studies were undertaken to fully understand what people see and experience as they travel along the public roads and through the pastures and meadows of the farm
Yellow – Areas Visible From Public Roads During Non-Winter Months.
STREAM CORRIDORS & WETLANDS
The streams, ponds, and wetlands found at Bundoran Farm are valued, sensitive resources. In addition to providing water for agricultural and recreational activities, the water courses lead to the Hardware River, the James River, and eventually to the Chesapeake Bay. Ongoing water quality testing is underway to fully assess the impacts of the development and natural resource management concepts.
PROTECTION OF STREAM CORRIDORS & WETLANDS
-Two major constructed ponds -Stream corridors delineate perennial / intermittent watercourses -Preserves on and off site water quality -Creates abundant wildlife habitat
CONSTRUCTED POND STREAM CORRIDOR
Light Blue - Stream Corridors & Wetlands
PROTECTING THE FARM
A major focus of the design process was protecting and preserving the Bundoran landscape. This was accomplished in part by placing all areas of the farm that are actively managed for agriculture practices under agriculture easement. Under guidance from a steering committee and an on-site Natural Resources Manager, the resident farmer is allowed use of this land for cattle, orchards, or other farm use, employing practices approved Audubon International for Bundoran Farm. Most forested areas of the property are under conservation easement, which commits the managers to maintain the forest under a professionally-developed plan for timber stand and wildlife preservation. Individual homesites are located in the seams between these important agricultural and forest areas, typically in locations with good access and incomparable views. In the end, with many individuals owning a piece of the property, the farm still provides large contiguous areas for pasture, recreation, and forestry which guarantee the future viability of all these functions. Furthermore, road access is not designed to minimize expense, an approach that typically results in short culs-de-sac and homes located close to public roads. Rather, Bundoran Farm accepts unusually long roads, when required, to minimize fragmentation or other disturbance of agricultural or forestal uses. In return for allowing easements on their property, homeowners receive two beneﬁts. First, though they may have bought only a few acres, they are welcome to use the entire farm property. Second, the maintenance of this land as farmland protects the investment of the homeowner, as there is no possibility of a neighbor changing the character of adjacent property to non-agricultural use. Large, contiguous areas of productive farmland are essential to maintaining the local economy, culture and landscape. Bundoran Farm’s pastures and orchards not only help to enable more efﬁcient agricultural operations, they also protect the primary public viewsheds.
Light Yellow – Pasture / Cattle Operations Orange – Under Orchard Leases Essential to maintenance of local economy, culture and landscape. Principal public viewsheds.
Recognizing that this land is part of the larger ecosystem of the area’s Piedmont forests, Bundoran Farm will continue in its commitment to sustainable, longterm thinking in forestry management. While management plans that have been in place for decades will continue to be followed and updated, the Bundoran project has partnered with Audubon International to create a comprehensive plan for the property with the goal of maintaining and improving the important functions of this land in the areas of water quality and wildlife habitat. Large portions of forested land on the site will remain as preserves for wildlife; and the streams, ponds, and wetlands will be monitored, maintained, and protected for future generations. A signiﬁcant component of the land and natural resource management includes native wildlife habitat protection and enhancement. Large contiguous areas of Piedmont hardwoods have been mapped and will continue to beneﬁt from a comprehensive forest management plan. These vast acreages provide a wonderful and diverse habitat for plants, animals, and human recreation.
PLANT & ANIMAL HABITAT
Although a number of struggling native species such as the white-tailed deer have recovered, losses of other native plants and animals are a signiﬁcant concern. For example, a number of eastern migratory songbirds are in decline, likely due to human activities. Those declines are caused by several factors such as fragmentation of habitat-- the dividing of large areas into smaller parcels, and the resulting disruption of forest cover. As stated in the Albemarle County Comprehensive Plan: “Wildlife is a renewable natural resource which requires both protection and harvesting for proper management. The mountainous areas of the County contain the more dense populations of wildlife...” By planning for the active management and protection of wildlife habitat, the design team sought to position Bundoran Farm as a model of this philosophy.
Green - Forest/Wildlife Habitat
PRESERVE FOREST/WLIDLIFE HABITAT
Because of its high value for wildlife habitat the main focus was on the preservation of: Large Contiguous Interior Forest Areas Adjacent to Neighboring Forests Areas more threatened than edge habitat.
MOUNTAIN PROTECTION ZONES
PROTECTION OF MOUNTAIN LANDSCAPES MOUNTAIN PROTECTION ZONE
Albemarle County’s mountains have been and continue to be a source of income, natural resources, scenic beauty, and recreation. Directly and indirectly, the County’s mountainous areas provide tens of millions of dollars to the local community in employment, tourism, and agricultural and forest products. Beyond the economic beneﬁts, the mountains provide important natural functions, such as provision of clean water, contributions to healthy air, and habitat for many plant and animal species. To many residents, the “blue” backdrop of the mountains gives Albemarle County its sense of place, a quality that makes this area special and consistently ranked among the top places to live in the United States. Concerns regarding disturbance of steep land become pronounced in mountain areas due to generally shallow soils and length of grade on side slopes. Soil erosion, surface water runoff, and septic system contamination are ampliﬁed in these areas. Forest cover is the optimum land use for minimizing soil erosion and maximizing water quality. Soils on steep slopes are typically more erodible than in other areas. Inaccessibility and isolated location of development sites in mountain areas necessitate longer driveways and access roads disturb many times more land area than a dwelling itself. Because of their high ecological and cultural value as well as their propensity for soil erosion, the mountainous areas at Bundoran Farm were removed from the area being considered for the development of homesites.
Blue – Mountain Protection Zone
COMBINE PRESERVATION AREAS
By overlaying the previously outlined elements we were able to determine the areas suitable for development and those that should be preserved. This subtractive approach allowed for the further reﬁnement of the initial analysis of the property and provided the outlines used for the determination of the developable areas. Using this subtractive approach versus the standard by-right development, we were allowing the existing landscape to dictate the location of the developable areas. By mapping the areas containing critical natural resources of all kinds, the team was able to determine those areas of the landscape with the highest cultural and ecological value and those that were suitable for further analysis and reﬁnement for the creation of homesites.
Red - Existing Roadways Yellow – Areas Visible from Public Roads during non-winter months Light Blue - Stream Corridors & Wetlands Light Yellow – Pasture/Cattle Operations Orange – Under Orchard Leases Principal public viewsheds Green - Forest/Wildlife Habitat Blue – Mountain Protection Zone
POTENTIAL DEVELOPABLE AREAS
HOMESITE SELECTION & REFINEMENT
After the project team identiﬁed and overlaid all of these resources on a map, what was left was the area to be considered for development. A pattern of “seams” began to appear, between forest and ﬁeld, between wetland and upland. Within this initial “developable area,” homesites were deﬁned, paying close attention to the location to minimize intrusion on the natural landscape. As these site selections were continually reﬁned over many months both in the ofﬁce and in the ﬁeld, functional elements like roads, driveways, and septic systems were considered. Lot lines were drawn after the fact to accommodate zoning and to delineate areas of oversight and easement for each homesite. The result is a selection of homesites, at a very low overall density, each of which share common recreation areas, viewsheds, and resources in a way that makes each homesite part of a larger whole. Each lot is also connected to many miles of trail and common resources which, in a more typical development, would require ownership of a much larger parcel.
HOMESITE SELECTION CRITERIA
-Areas between and beyond zones targeted for preservation. -Beyond public viewshed -Leaving contiguous productive farmland -Removed from prime habitat -Far from water/stream corridors.
Yellow – Potential Developable Areas Remaining After Overlay of all Analysis Layers
HOMESITE AREAS REFINED
After appropriate areas for homesites were identiﬁed outside of the preservation zones, the selections were further reﬁned by walking the land. Key selection criteria for individual homesites included views, privacy, access, and ease of building. Options were further reduced to accommodate landscape features, farm activity, road access, and environmentally sensitive zones.
Yellow – Reﬁned Homesite Locations
Slope plays a considerable role in determining land use. In terms of the envisioned programming for Bundoran Farm, agricultural ﬁelds require gently sloped areas while housing, trail, and wildlife habitat may best be situated on steeper zones. For analysis purposes, site slopes fall into one of four distinct gradient ranges; 0 – 15% slope, 15 – 25% slope, 25 – 40% slope, 40 - 50% slope, and greater than 50% slope. The vast majority of the open land is in 0 – 15% and 15 – 25% slopes. There are some wooded areas where these modest slopes are found, but they consist of small pockets of a few acres here and there on upland knobs and low boggy areas in the center of one or more ravines. While some areas within the wooded ravines have rather gentle slopes, they typically contain grades in the 25 – 40%, 40 - 50%, or 50% + range. For a property of this size, a very low percentage of the terrain is in critical slopes of 25% or greater. These steep slopes occur mainly in the mountainous forested areas. A small portion of the critical slopes are man-made; created as a by-product of roadway construction performed over the years. With the exception of the farm lanes, the site remains largely in its natural topographic state.
Aspect refers to the direction in which terrain is oriented in relation to the solar position. This determines vegetative plant growth, plant species, and microclimatic conditions throughout the day and year. This positioning also helps us understand the most useful and valuable places to locate buildings. Solar analyses, according to the slope aspect, were developed for the property on four different days (corresponding to winter and summer solstice and the spring and fall equinoxes), and at three different times of day. JUNE 21 (summer solstice) 8 a.m. | 12 p.m. | 5 p.m. MARCH/SEPT. 21 (spring/fall equinox) 8 a.m. | 12 p.m. | 5 p.m. DECEMBER 21 (winter solstice) 8 a.m. | 12 p.m. | 5 p.m
E V E N I N G
M O R N I N G
JUNE 21 (SUMMER SOLSTICE)
MARCH/SEPT. 21 (SPRING/FALL EQUINOX)
DECEMBER 21 (WINTER SOLSTICE)
SITE DESIGN ELEMENTS
The magniﬁcence of Bundoran Farm is representative of the distinct landscape of Albemarle County. The challenge of designing on such a spectacular piece of property was overcome by not only ensuring that the overall master planning placed the development areas lightly on the land but also that the design and planning occurred at various scales. By moving from a coarser master planning scale to a ﬁner site design scale, it allowed us to capture the overarching character of Bundoran Farm at every level of development. The impacts of development were alleviated by both the community design process (in the form of sensitive roads and maintenance of rural character in all common features) and by vigorous enforcement and promotion of standards for sustainability in construction, landscaping, and use of both individual and easement land. The various elements that were planned and designed fall into one of two levels of development: OVERALL MASTER PLANNING: elements that emphasize the Bundoran Farm property as a whole, allowing for the preservation of the unique Piedmont working farm landscape character. SITE DESIGN: elements that speciﬁcally focus on the design and development of a single lot either for a community building such as the sustainability center or an individual homesite. This scale of development enables us to focus in on the small details used to create a unique homesite while maintaining the overarching goals of preservation and active use of the land.
SUSTAINABILITY CENTER PROCESS
SUSTAINABILITY CENTER DESIGN
CROSS EASEMENTS & RESTRICTIVE PROVISIONS OVERVIEW
Preservation Development integrates a small number of homes positioned strategically within an operating farm, pasture, and/or timberland. The farmland is protected permanently by a deeded easement system. This “farmbelt” easement not only protects the farmland from other uses, it explicitly grants farmers the right to farm the ground as they reasonably see ﬁt. The remaining land is then examined to determine what parts should be permanently conserved in their natural state. Lots suitable for development are ﬁnally located within these “seams.” Within these lots are relatively small, strategically located homesites that combine attractiveness of location and view with compatibility with farm activities and conservation. Each is associated with a larger greenbelt area, the steward’s “lot.” Each steward purchases a speciﬁc area for a homesite, along with a larger portion of greenbelt, and a share of the farmbelt as well. While the homesite and lot remain for the steward’s sole use, the majority of the conservation lands is given over to the community for passive recreation. Each of the owners holds easements over the other areas and together endorse the farm operations. This arrangement provides capital and incentives for proﬁtable, productive use of the land. The considerable value added to each homesite by the design and protection of the community permits lower density while maintaining a satisfactory ﬁnancial return. This density cannot be too low, however, or the critical mass that makes a “community” and supports it ﬁnancially is lost. The development at Bundoran Farm employed the following three types of easements. PUBLIC GREENBELT The most prominent features of Bundoran Farm are the nearly 1,000 acres of mature hardwood forest, and the 1,100 acres of high-quality open pastures. Together these zones account for over 90% of the land area of the property, and their preservation and ongoing management are the essential goal of all plans related to the development. The great majority of these lands are designated as “Public Greenbelt,” meaning that all members of the community have access to these areas--to the extent that access will not impinge on agricultural work-but the management of these lands is in professional hands, guided by a committee of developer and homeowners. These easement areas are deﬁned irrespective of individual parcel boundaries, and every lot in the community includes acreage (usually the majority of lot acreage) under common management. As a result, these areas may not be built upon by owners, although driveways and subgrade utilities may be introduced with permission. Each owners’ “Public Greenbelt” acreage is agglomerated with their neighbors’ land into large contiguous areas of well-managed land, where cattle may graze, grapes or apples may be grown, or where ecological reserves such as wetlands restorations may take place. PRIVATE GREENBELT At a smaller scale, each lot contains an area of approximately two acres designated “Private Greenbelt.” These areas, which surround the intended home site, are not part of the Public Greenbelt, in that only the lot owner has access. The use of the land in this area is controlled by the homeowner, but construction is not permitted. The intention is to give the owner a private landscape, some “elbow room” in their forest or ﬁeld landscape. In this area more intensive landscape work, such as walls, fences and gardens are permitted. HOMESITE At the other end of the spectrum is the “Homesite,” typically 1/2 to 1 acre on each of Bundoran Farm’s 108 potential lots. These areas are carefully located for minimal impact on the visual character and agricultural operations of the farm. While these zones are speciﬁcally exempted from the easement restrictions on the Public and Private Greenbelts, building activity is still regulated. Within the Homesite envelope, a “Development Zone” is deﬁned where home construction is anticipated, and any construction must comply with design guidelines. These guidelines are deﬁned by the “Bundoran Farm Pattern Book,” a survey of architectural and landscape approaches suitable to the farm landscape, and by the “Bundoran Farm Sustainability Guide,” which outlines minimum standards and opportunities for ecologically sensitive and resource-efﬁcient design. Critically, the applicability of speciﬁc elements of these guidelines is deﬁned at the level of every individual lot in a “Lot Portfolio.” This two-page summary of each lot at Bundoran Farm reviews speciﬁc characteristics of the location, hydrology, solar orientation and agricultural operations on the lot, and ﬁne tunes the development patterns of the farm to these characteristics.
CROSS EASEMENTS & RESTRICTIVE PROVISIONS
Each owner has right to passively use the entirety of the property (own 5 acres, experience 2,300 acres); Each owner has right to protection of all greenbelt/farmbelt land; Penalties are large and lienable; Property Owners’ Association (POA): has speciﬁc dues and responsibilities, such as maintaining the forest and trail system and renewing and plowing roads; All owners look out for environment and act individually or through the Farm Management Committee; and Design Committee facilitates development consistent with established vision.
ROAD LAYOUT IN THE FIELD
The result of roadways designed with deference to the landscape and with the siting of homes means more linear footage of road. The project team has attempted to mitigate this impact by designing very low-impact roads and by integrating stormwater management into the agricultural functions of the land. The country roads have been designed to be as narrow as possible to retain the natural contours and water ﬂow of the landscape. Roadways are private as allowed by special permit in Albemarle County. The design team was able to provide narrower roads of 14 feet in width which are more in keeping with the farm roads that were present on the site prior to development. Realizing it may be difﬁcult for two vehicles to pass on such a road, grass shoulders were designed to handle this scenario as well as blend into grass swales designed for stormwater attenuation. The standards for private roads (as opposed to those of the Virginia Department of Transpiration) allow not only for narrower road widths but also steeper grades and tighter turning radii which, aside from keeping with the aesthetic of the existing farm roads, also reduce the overall cost of road infrastructure. In the case of Bundoran Farm, approximately $800,000 was saved in earthwork alone, not to mention the cost savings from not having to construct curb-and-gutter and roads with more sub-base and pavement surface.
sr STATE ROADS
p PAVED/TREATED ROADS
PHASED DEVELOPMENT TO MEET MARKET DEMAND AND REDUCE INITIAL TAX BURDEN The Bundoran farm property is zoned Rural Area, the tax rate for which is considerably less than that for residential use. Due to the size of the project and anticipated market demand, the conservation community was developed and platted in two phases to reduce the initial real estate tax to only that for roughly half the number of total residential lots that would ultimately be recorded.
PROPOSED MASTER PLAN
96 Total Lots 12 “Dependencies”: Additional Restricted Development Right Attached to Primary Lots Homesites arranged to minimize disturbance Lot lines conﬁgured to allow large contiguous cross-easements
Every lot and every home at Bundoran is unique; but just as every farm building in history has responded to the climate, topography, resources, and traditions, the homes and community buildings on Bundoran Farm will reﬂect the values of the area’s agrarian legacy, respond to environmental changes, and be rooted in their cultural heritage. To fully address the variety of issues related to designing a sustainability center based around an agricultural development, the design team took cues from both the property and from historical settlement patterns. By researching historical agrarian development patterns the team was able to better understand the relationship between the development and the agricultural landscape. Additionally, much as with the overall master planning process, a subtractive process was used along with a thorough analysis of solar orientation, wind, slopes, soils, vegetation, and wildlife to determine the layout of the sustainability center. Based on these considerations, a pattern began to emerge that remained throughout the design process and ultimately informed the design of the sustainabilty center. This pattern can be seen in the way the center is placed along the ridgeline creating a curved pattern similar to that of an amphitheater. Indeed, according to A History of the Valley of Virginia, Farms in the western parts of Pennsylvania and Virginia bear a striking resemblance to an amphitheater. The buildings occupy a low situation and the tops of the surrounding hills are the boundaries of the tract… everything comes to the house down hill.”
INITIAL SKETCH OF CENTER LAYOUT
REVISED LAYOUT CONCEPT
FURTHER REFINED LAYOUT
The Sustainability Center, formally known as the Baldwin Center for Preservation Development, is the nucleus for farm operations, environmental monitoring and education, and homeowner interaction at Bundoran Farm. It demonstrates how buildings, landscape, and people interact in a sustainable manner; exemplifying the governing ideas of the larger farm at a smaller scale. At the broadest scale, the Center will serve as the social and informational hub for Bundoran Farm. As the headquarters for the Baldwin Center for Preservation Development, a non-proﬁt foundation whose mission is to showcase innovative practices in agricultural preservation, environmental stewardship, and sustainable ground, the building houses members of the Bundoran Farm development, management, and real estate sales teams. In addition to hosting the Inaugural Baldwin Center Symposium, “Residential Development and the Working Landscape” (attended by over ﬁfty participants from across the country), a number of groups with missions and goals consistent with the Baldwin Center’s have enjoyed gathering here. Equally important is how this new facility along Edge Valley Road has become the place to ﬁnd all there is to know about Bundoran Farm and how to become a part of it. The Center serves: Residents – as training, orientation and education, a source of design and builder information, and as a gathering place on Bundoran Farm Farmer/operations – as a source of best practices, recommendations and research for this Farm Developers – as a “proof of concept” for Preservation Development, and a source of information, tools, and advice. Neighbors and the general public – As an education center, a gathering place for local and farm-related concerns; to enlighten, encourage, and inform regarding Preservation Development and the practical side of sustainability, environmental action, and the role of the farm in modern life.
SHADE TOLERANT NATIVE PLANT NURSERY DEMONSTRATION SHED WITH PHOTO-VOLTAIC ROOF PANELS MAINTENANCE BARN WITH RAINWATER CISTERN “BARN YARD” SUSTAINABILITY CENTER + CONFERENCE BUILDING LOG CABIN (WOOF WORKING DEMONSTRATION BUILDING) SUSTAINABLE HARVESTED HARDWOOD NURSERY VEGETABLE + HERB GARDEN FARM OPERATIONS OFFICE
MAIL DEPOT + COMMUNITY RECYCLING CENTER
THE BALDWIN CENTER FOR PRESERVATION DEVELOPMENT
EVOLUTION OVER TIME
Bundoran Farm houses will be designed to ﬁt into and work with the existing landscape. The traditional and cherished houses of the region exhibit a subtle sense of existing within the landscape. Care and responsiveness to the use, slope, and character of the land are fundamental principles guiding the placement of buildings, the locations of drives, and the deﬁnitions of yards. Throughout Albemarle County, there is a rich history of patterns that grew out of an intuitive understanding of the relationship between the house and the land. Homes will be built in carefully chosen development zones that sit in strategically located homesites within larger property boundaries, (greenbelt/ farmbelt) ranging in size from 2 to 200 acres, with an average size of 20 acres. The lots themselves have been so chosen to ensure that the diverse activities of this working farm and managed forest are not in any way compromised, so that the land, under cultivation already for centuries, can remain productive in perpetuity. Historically, many houses have evolved over time, some starting as a rough hewn log structure or a wood frame cottage. Later, a more reﬁned and larger main house is constructed that may have had rooms added as the family grew. Outbuildings that served utilitarian needs of the rural household created yet another quality recognized as part of the physical and cultural fabric of Albemarle County. Home owners at Bundoran Farm are encouraged to build and design in much the same way – thoughtfully, carefully, and incrementally – responding to a family’s needs and an evolving understanding of the land. Houses at Bundoran Farm are designed so they can grow over time; the body of the house is largely linear in form and narrow in depth in order to work with the land and to minimize grading and level changes. Bundoran Farm houses use traditional and familiar proportions, materials, colors, and detailing. The following conventions identify site-speciﬁc development restrictions. (1) Lots and Homesites: Each lot at Bundoran Farm contains a predetermined homesite as shown on the Lot Portfolio. The remainder of each lot contains Farmbelt and Greenbelt easements that are accessible to residents and guests of Bundoran Farm but are managed by others. (2) A Development Zone has been identiﬁed within each homesite. The Development Zone deﬁnes the absolute boundary for any potential disturbance on the site, other than for selective clearing or septic purposes, unless otherwise approved by the Bundoran Farm Design Committee. The intent of the Development Zone is to assure that the most sensitive areas of the site are preserved while allowing ﬂexibility in determining the location of the house. (3) The Selective Clearing Zone encompasses all land within the homesite not occupied by the Development Zone. The Selective Clearing Zone establishes a second tier of preservation for the lot. In general, all vegetation and topography in the Selective Clearing Zone should be preserved with the exception of the establishment of partial views and utility routes.
SELECTIVE CLEARING ZONE
Bundoran Farm homesites are carefully placed so they engage the surrounding environment without compromising it. Each homesite was individually evaluated for its beauty, buildability, privacy, and potential impacts on the overall community. Throughout the property, the homesites generally fall into one of three categories: RIDGE VIEW HOMESITES Homesites providing long views of the ridges of the surrounding Blue Ridge and Ragged Mountains over Bundoran Farm’s pastures and forest. MEADOW VIEW HOMESITES Homesites providing expansive and protected views of meadows, forest, lakes, and streams within Bundoran Farm’s landscape. FOREST PRESERVE HOMESITES Secluded homesites nestled within mature, well-managed stands of native hardwood trees near Bundoran Farm’s extensive trail network. While each homesite throughout the farm is unique, the approaches to designing and building on each homesite are similar. The preservation of the woodlands and wildlife habitat found through much of Bundoran Farm is crucial to sensitive development of the landscape. Development patterns must protect as much of the existing tree stands and existing vegetation as possible through thoughtful house placement, delicate grading, and efﬁcient use of space. A smaller envelope of disturbance may be achieved by organizing the layout of the house and grounds in a linear fashion running with, and parallel to, the contours of the existing slope of the land.
FIRST RESIDENTIAL LOT DEVELOPMENT AT BUNDORAN FARM
The decision to build a home at Bundoran Farm reaches beyond the desire for a new house. This commitment signiﬁes the beginning of a lifestyle and of a meaningful relationship with the land.This environment is not a typical subdivision or estate development. It is a working farm, surrounded by vast managed forests, the whole ecosystem supporting a tremendous variety of important uses, including agriculture, recreation, and wildlife habitat. The quality of this unique landscape as a place for life experiences and an investment depends on decisions we make. These decisions will reverberate in this landscape for generations to come. McKee Carson worked in conjunction with a local builder on the design and development of the ﬁrst residential lot at Bundoran Farm. For individual house sites, careful consideration of solar orientation, prevailing winds, creeks, sloping hillsides, and desired views will help to preserve this delicate environment. This information will help to orient the building to take advantage of natural drainage, daylighting, solar energy, natural ventilation, scenic views, and the ability for surrounding vegetation to offer protection from the winter wind and summer sun. Given the sloping terrain of many sites in Bundoran Farm, it is advantageous to orient the massing of the house and grounds parallel to the contours of the slope. For the design of the plantings surrounding the house the intential was for the plant pallete to blend seemlessly into the Bundoran Farm landscape and incorporate native tree and shrub species, including in many instances those already found on the farm.
BUNDORAN FARM DESIGNATED A CERTIFIED GOLD AUDUBON INTERNATIONAL SIGNATURE SANCTUARY
Audubon International (AI) has been key to the design of this project. An offshoot of the Audubon Society of New York, AI has worked for years with developers to assist in the design of systems that work with, rather than against, the environment. Best known for their work in the certiﬁcation of sustainable golf courses, AI sought to use Bundoran Farm as a model for the application of their new “Signature Sanctuary” program. Supplying knowledgeable and experienced freshwater ecologists, environmental toxicologists, wildlife biologists, and other experts, AI worked with McKee Carson to help shape both the overall development plan, and many speciﬁc elements of the design, from stream crossing strategies to design of interior forest preserves and watercourse buffers. Most importantly, a Natural Resource Manager in residence at Bundoran Farm will implement the Ecological Design and stewardship plans for the community. This work will consist of both mediation between farm operations and the environment, and long-term ecological restoration and preservation projects on the property, as well as education and outreach to help property owners and the community make responsible choices. “The Bundoran Farm project is unique to all other Gold Signature projects that we are involved with around the globe with respect to the commitment made to include working agriculture as an integral part of the development process” said Ronald G. Dodson, President and CEO of Audubon International. “We are proud and excited to be part of the Bundoran Farm project because we believe it will become not only a Certiﬁed Audubon Gold Signature project, but it will be an internationally signiﬁcant demonstration effort in sustainable development” concluded Dodson. The Audubon Gold Signature Program is considered the leading not-forproﬁt environmental education and certiﬁcation program in the world and has garnered praise and awards from international, national, state, and local governmental agencies; other notfor-proﬁt organizations; businesses; universities; and citizens around the globe. Audubon has established a permanent presence at Bundoran Farm. This is the ﬁrst time that they have engaged in a partnership with an agricultural project. From their facilities on the
property, located in the Robert Baldwin Center for Preservation Development, AI will conduct research as well as provide analyses and recommendations that will assist the farm, orchard, and timber managers to protect water quality and prevent topsoil erosion. The goal is to protect, preserve, and enhance the environment of this farm, not merely as an untouched and untouchable piece of landscape, but as a productive venture, one that continues to evolve and improve, contributing meaningfully to our economy, to our wellbeing as a society, and to our global environment. Audubon’s work will be on behalf of the homeowners here as well as the farm operators. Those who make their homes at Bundoran will design and occupy dwellings that ﬁt within their landscape, complement farm life, delight their occupants, and contribute meaningfully to the wise use of the earth’s resources. Those who live here will beneﬁt from the resources of the Baldwin Sustainability Center, which will provide spaces for meetings; resources for education; advice for ventures; and best practices for farmers, homeowners, and developers – not just for those who live here, but for all those who are attracted to the promise of this way of life. Audubon International’s website can be viewed at: http://www.auduboninternational.org/
McKee Carson was tasked with providing a master plan and site designs for Bundoran Farm in Albemarle County, Virginia, that established both an overall design vision and planning recommendations for future use. The proposed recommendations are programmed to function for the enhancement and preservation of rural agriculture and recreation pursuits while allowing for residential development. Interweaving the programmatic elements with the dynamic patterns of the site’s ecological processes recognizes Bundoran Farm as a unique, meaningful, multi-functional agricultural-based conservation community. Speaking for the entire team, we have seen few properties as unique and distinctly Virginian as Bundoran Farm. We are extremely pleased to have been involved with the master planning and site design work, and are honored to have the opportunity to continue our involvement in realizing the vision for Bundoran Farm.
PLANNED IN COLLABORATION WITH: Qroe Farm Preservation Development Robert Baldwin David Hamilton Celebration Associates, LLC Charles Adams Joseph Barnes PHOTO CREDITS: Robert Llewellyn
COPYRIGHT: This document is intended for the sole use of the ofﬁces of McKee Carson and Field Sport Concepts, Ltd. It is to be used for internal design discussions only and should not be reproduced without express consent of McKee Carson, an afﬁliate of Field Sport Concepts, Ltd.
Field Sport Concepts, Ltd
301 East High Street Charlottesville, VA 22902 p: 434 . 977 . 7522 f: 434 . 979 . 1194 www.mckeecarson.com www.ﬁeldsport.com an afﬁliate of
This appendix provides more background into the process and deliverables that resulted in the creation of the planning and design for Bundoran Farm. Items included in this appendix range from the initial identity mapping done for the property to an in-depth vegetation analysis to boards created for determination of alternative types of stream crossing and road types. These elements assisted in the creation of the overall master plan and the site-speciﬁc design of the roadways and homesites.
PROPERTY DEVELOPMENT GOALS
STREAM CROSSING ALTERNATIVES
ROAD TYPE MENU
ROAD ALIGNMENT REVISIONS EXHIBIT
PROPERTY DEVELOPMENT GOALS
W = Wildlife H = Horticulture and Landscaping C = Conservation and Restoration N = Native Species
Minimum Light Requirements S = Full Shade P = Partial Sun F = Full Sun
Moisture Tolerance L = Low Moisture M = Moderate Moisture H = High Moisture
Ferns, Grasses and Vines
Ferns and Fern Allies Adiantum pedatum Maidenhair Fern Athyrium asplenioides Southern Lady Fern Athyrium niponicum Japanese Painted Fern Cyrtomium falcatum Holly Fern Dennstaedtia Hay-scented Fern punctilobula Dryopteris intermedia Evergreen Wood Fern Dryopteris marginalis Marginal Shield Fern Onoclea sensibilis Sensitive Fern Osmunda cinnamomea Cinnamon Fern Osmunda regalis Royal fern Polystichium Christmas Fern acrostichoides Thelypteris normalis Southern Wood Fern Thelypteris palustris Marsh Fern Grasses, Sedges, and Reeds Agrostis alba Bentgrass/Red Top Andropogon gerardii Big Bluestem Andropogon Silver Beard Grass saccharoides Andropogon virginicus Broomsedge Calamagrostis Bluejoint Reedgrass canadensis Carex crinita Fringed Sedge Carex grayi Gray's Sedge Carex lurida Lurid Sedge Carex pennsylvanica Pennsylvania Sedge Carex stricta Tussock Sedge Chasmanthium River Oats latifolium Dulichium Three Way Sedge arundinaceum Elymus virginicus Virginia Wild Rye Festuca rubra Red Fescue Juncus effusus Soft Rush Panicum virgatum Switch Grass Schizachyrium Little Bluestem scoparium Scirpus cyperinus Wool Grass Sorghastrum nutans Indian Grass Tridens flavus Purple Top Tripsacum dactyloides Eastern Gamma Grass Typha latifolia Broadleaf Cattail Groundcovers and Vines Bignonia capreolata Crossvine Celastrus scandens American Bittersweet Clematis virginiana Virgin's Bower Decumaria barbara Climbing Hydrangea Ficus pumila Fig Vine Gelsemium Carolina Jessamine sempervirens Gualtheria procumbens Wintergreen Hypericum calycinum Aaronsbeard Liriope muscari Liriope Lonicera sempervirens Trumpet Honeysuckle Ophiopogon japonicus Pachysandra procumbens Parthenocissus quinquefolia Rosa banksiae Sarcocca hookerana Mondo Grass Allegheny Spurge Virginia Creeper Lady Banks Rose Himalayan Sweetbox
Landscape Value W H C N X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Scientific Name Shrubs Aesculus parviflora Alnus glutinosa Aronia arbutifolia Aronia melanocarpa Azalea sp. Callicarpa americana Calycanthus floridus Camellia sasanqua Castanea pumila Cephalanthus occidentalis Chaenomeles speciosa Chimonanthus praecox Clethra alnifolia Cornus amomum Cornus sericea Forsythia x intermedia Fothergilla gardenii Fothergilla major Gaylussacia baccata Common Name Landscape Value W H C N X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X S Light P F X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X L Moisture M H X X X X X X X X X X
Scientific Name Small trees Acer campestre Acer griseum Aesculus pavia Amalenchier arborea Amalanchier canadensis Amalanchier laevis Asimina triloba Carpinus caroliniana Cercis canadensis Chionanthus virginicus Cornus alternifolia Cornus amomum Cornus florida Cornus kousa Cornus mas Crataegus phaenopyrum Crataegus viridis Franklinia alatamaha Halesia tetraptera Hamamelis virginiana Ilex opaca Magnolia x soulangiana Magnolia stellata Magnolia virginiana Malus sp. Oxydendron arboreum Prunus serotina Rhus glabra Salix nigra Medium to Large Trees Acer rubrum Acer saccharum Aesculus flava Betula alleghaniensis Betula lenta Betula nigra Carpinus betulus Carya cordiformis Carya glabra Carya illinoinensis Carya ovata Carya tomentosa Castanea dentata Celtis laevigata Celtis occidentalis Cladrastis kentukea Diospyros virginiana Fagus grandifolia Fraxinus americana Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. 'Inermis' Ginkgo biloba Gleditsia triacanthos Gymnocladus dioicus Juglans nigra Juniperus virginiana Koelreutaria paniculata Lagerstroemia indica Larix laricina Liquidambar styraciflua Liriodendron tulipifera Magnolia acuminata Magnolia grandiflora Metasequoia glyptostroboides Nyssa sylvatica Ostrya virginiana Maclura pomifera Picea glauca Picea pungens Pinus echinata Pinus rigida Pinus strobus Pinus taeda Pinus virginiana Platanus x acerifolia Platanus occidentalis Quercus accutissima Quercus alba Quercus bicolor Quercus coccinea Quercus falcata Quercus marilandica Quercus michauxii Quercus nigra Quercus palustris Quercus phellos Quercus prinus Quercus rubra Quercus shumardii Quercus stellata Quercus velutina Robinia pseudoacacis Sassafras albidum Taxodium distichum Thuja occidentalis Tilia americana Tilia cordata Tsuga canadensis Tsuga caroliniana Ulmus americana Common Name Landscape Value W H C N X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X S X Light P F X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X L X Moisture M H X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Bottlebrush Buckeye Common Alder Red Chokeberry Black Chokeberry Azalea American Beautyberry Sweetshrub/Carolina Allspice Sasanqua Camellia Allegheny Chinkapin Buttonbush Flowering Quince Wintersweet Summersweet Clethra Silky Dogwood Red Twig Dogwood Forsythia Dwarf Fothergilla Fothergilla Black Huckleberry
X X X
X X X X
X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Hedge/Field Maple Paperbark Maple Red Buckeye Downy Serviceberry Serviceberry Smooth Serviceberry Paw Paw American Hornbeam Redbud Fringetree Alternate-leaf Dogwood Silky Dogwood Flowering Dogwood Kousa Dogwood Corneliancherry Dogwood Washington Hawthorn Green Hawthorn Franklinia Carolina Silverbell Witch hazel American Holly Saucer Magnolia Star Magnolia Sweetbay Magnolia Flowering Crabapple Sourwood Black Cherry Smooth Sumac Black Willow Red Maple Sugar Maple Yellow Buckeye Yellow Birch Sweet Birch River Birch European Hornbeam Bitternut Hickory Pignut Hickory Pecan Shagbark Hickory Mockernut Hickory American Chestnut Sugar Hackberry Common Hackberry American Yellowwood Persimmon American Beech White Ash Green Ash Ginkgo Honey Locust Kentucky Coffeetree Black Walnut Eastern Red Cedar Goldenraintree Common Crapemyrtle Eastern Larch Sweetgum Tulip Poplar Cucumber Magnolia Southern Magnolia Dawn Redwood Black Gum/Black Tupelo American Hophornbeam Osage Orange White Spruce Colorado Spruce Shortleaf Pine Pitch Pine White Pine Loblolly Pine Virginia Pine London Planetree Sycamore Sawtooth Oak White Oak Swamp White Oak Scarlet Oak Southern Red Oak Blackjack Oak Swamp Chestnut Oak Water Oak Pin Oak Willow Oak Chestnut Oak Northern Red Oak Swamp Red Oak Post Oak Black Oak Black Locust Sassafras Bald Cypress Eastern Arborvitae Basswood Littleleaf Linden Eastern Hemlock Carolina Hemlock American Elm
EXISTING STREAM CROSSINGS
Multi-pipe culverts Basic corrugated pipe construction with dirt backfill and minimal headwall reinforcement. Bottom of culverts are flush with stream channel and may inhibit aquatic organisms. Stream section is incised and has little connection to natural floodplain.
POSSIBLE STREAM CROSSINGS
PERENNIAL Bridge Minimal disturbance of stream banks and channel. Minimal opportunity for sedimentation and pollution of stream. Variable materials and construction methods. Piers and spans minimize environmental disturbance. Open-bottom Culvert Can be made of metal, concrete, polyethylene pipes or wood boxes. Disturbance of stream banks, but minimal disturbance of stream channel. Most effective when filled with similar substrate to existing stream channel. Blockage hazard during heavy storm events. Greater opportunity of sedimentation due to backfill around headwalls; requires adequate reinforcement.
Double culvert perennial stream crossing along Edge Valley Road
Triple culvert perennial stream crossing along private farm access road off of Edge Valley Road
INTERMITTENT Culvert Same materials and pollution considerations as open-bottom culvert. Disturbance of stream banks and channel. Can be specified at a larger size than required, sunk below stream channel during construction, and filled with salvaged channel substrate to mimic natural conditions. Ford Stream crossing without structure or culvert; typically constructed with concrete approaches and a large rock base within the stream bed. Useful only where stream banks are low and firm and the stream bed itself is both firm and shallow. Disturbance of stream banks and channel; encourages sedimentation from vehicles during crossings as well as sediment deposition to the stream directly from the road. Albemarle County Code Chapter 17, Section 17-317 Duty to retain or establish stream buffer C. If the development is located within other rural land, stream buffers shall be retained if present and established where they do not exist on any lands subject to this article containing perennial streams, nontidal wetlands contiguous to these streams, and flood plains associated with these streams. The stream buffer shall extend to whichever of the following is wider: (i) one hundred (100) feet on each side of perennial streams and contiguous nontidal wetlands, measured horizontally from the edge of the nontidal wetlands, or the top of the stream bank if no wetlands exist; or (ii) the limits of the flood plain. Section 17-321 Types of development which may be allowed in stream buffer by program authority 5. On a lot which the development in the stream buffer will consist of the construction and maintenance of a driveway or roadway, and the program authority determines that the stream buffer would prohibit access to a portion of the lot which is necessary for the owner to have a reasonable use of the lot. Section 17-322 Mitigation plan if development allowed in stream buffer. No prescribed strategy, but County Water Protection Specialist suggested plans typically include revegetating twice the area disturbed within the buffer with plantings of native riparian hardwoods.