1. Arrhythmia- a condition in which the heart beats with an irregular or abnormal rhythm. Antiarrhythmic- a drug used to treat an abnormal heart rhythm. Catecholamine’s- In the human body, the most abundant catecholamine’s are epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and dopamine, all of which are produced from phenylalanine and tyrosine. Release of the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla of the adrenal glands is part of the fightor-flight response. Chronotropic- Chronotropic drugs may change the heart rate by affecting the nerves controlling the heart, or by changing the rhythm produced by the sinoatrial node. Positive chronotropes increase heart rate; negative chronotropes decrease heart rate. Inotrope- An inotrope is an agent that alters the force or energy of muscular contractions. Negatively inotropic agents weaken the force of muscular contractions. Positively inotropic agents increase the strength of muscular contraction. Vasopressor-a drug causing the constriction of blood vessels. 2. BP is dependent on what characteristics? Cardiac function, vascular tone, and vascular volume. 3. Trace the electrical activity of the heart from start to finish.
4. Draw and ECG rhythm and label it appropriately.
5. Epiniphrine- Its actions are to increase peripheral resistance and to increase cardiac output. Cardiac Arrest: 1 mg every 3-5 minutes Post Cardiac Arrest: 0.1-0.5 Mcg/kg per min Bradycardia w/ pulse: 2-10 mcg per min 6. Vasopressin- Vasopressin is believed to possess vasoconstrictive properties (which serve to bring peripheral blood volume to the central compartment), without some of the adverse effects of epinephrine. Cardiac Arrest: 40 units can replace first or second dose of Epinephrine 7. Amiodarone- is an antiarrhythmic that is used to treat both supraventricular arrhythmias and ventricular arrhythmias. Cardiac Arrest: First dose 300 mg bolus Second dose 150 mg Tachycardia: First does 150 mg over 10 minutes. Repeat as needed if VT recurs. Followed by maintenance infusion of 1 mg/min for first 6 hours 8. Atropine Sulfate- blocks the action of the vagus nerve, a part of the parasympathetic system of the heart whose main action is to decrease heart rate. Therefore, its primary function in this circumstance is to increase the heart rate. Bradycardia w/ pulse: First does 0.5 mg bolus Repeat every 3-5 minutes Maximum 3 mg 9. Dopamine- Second-line drug for symptomatic bradycardia and hypotension with signs and symptoms of shock. Post cardiac arrest- 5-10 mcg/kg per min Bradycardia w/ pulse: 2-10 mcg/kg per minute 10. Norepinephrine- not required to know (used as a third line drug and you will not need to know this for acls)
11. Lidocaine- Would be used as an alternative to amiodarone in VF/VT arrest, stable monomorphic VT, malignant PVC’s, can be used if Torsades is suspected. Cardiac Arrest- Initial dose is 1-1.5 mg/kg Refractory VF 0.5-0.75 mg/kg in 5-10 min. Max 3 mg/kg Endotracheal dose 2-4 mg/kg Maintenance does 1-4 mg/min 12. Magnesium Sulfate- Would be used if Torsades is suspected in cardiac arrest and lifethreatening ventricular dysrhythmias in digitalis OD 13. List the drugs that can be given via ETT: N-Norepinephrine A-Atropine Sulfate V-Vasopressin E-Epinephrine L-Lidocaine