Chemical and Chemical Apparatus

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Task 3.1
Chemical names
Acetic acid

Descriptions
Acetic acid is an organic compound with the chemical
formula CH3COOH. Acetic acid is a colorless liquid in
room temperature and it is included a weak acid. In pure
form, it is called glacial acetic acid, because it is tendency
to crystallize when it cooled. Molecular weight of acetic
acid is 60.05 g/mol. Acetic acid used in the production of
cellulose acetate for photographic film and roughly 3% -

Potassium hydroxide

9% acetic acid by volume for vinegar.
Potassium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the
chemical formula KOH. It is white solid and included
strong base. The molecular weight of potassium hydroxide
is 56.11 g/mol. Potassium hydroxide used in acid-base
titration in analytical chemistry and for made potassium

Hydrofluoric acid

soaps.
Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride in
water. The chemical formula of hydrofluoric acid is HF,
same with hydrogen fluoride. Hydrofluoric acid is colorless
solution and classified as a weak acid because of its lower
dissociation constant compared to the strong acids.
Hydrofluoric acid has molecular weight 20.01 g/mol.
Hydrofluoric acidused to prepare many organoflourine
compound as the fluorine source, including Teflon,
fluoropolymers,

Sodium sulfate

fluorocarbons,

and

refrigerants

such

as freon
Sodium sulfate anhydrous, its a white crystalline solid with
the chemical formula Na2SO4 and when it decahydrate
Na2SO4 10H2O. The molecular weight of sodium sulfate
anhydrous

is

142.04

g/mol

and

322.2 g/mol

for

decahydrate. In the laboratory, anhydrous sodium sulfate is
used as an inert drying agent, for remousing traces of water
Potassium permanganate

from organic solution.
Potassium permanganate is an inorganic compound with the
chemical formula KMnO4. Potassium permanganate is a

dark black crystalline solid and its strong oxidizing agent.
The molecular weight of potassium permanganate is 158.38
g/mol. In laboratory, potassium permanganate used for
redox titrations (permanganometry).

Task 4.1
Apparatus name

Descripsion

Buchner funnel

The name of Buchner funnel is taken from the name of
its inventor, Ernst Wilhelm Buchner. On top of the
funnel part there is a cylinder with a perforated plate.
Buchner funnel are available in several sizes, such as 7
cm, 9 cm, 11cm, 15 cm, 24 cm. Buchner funnel is made
from of porcelain, glass or plastic. Buchner funnel is
used in vacuum filtration. The first, we should placed
filter paper on the plate and the filter paper is moistened
with a solvent to prevent initial leakage. The liquid
needed to be filtered is poured into the cylinder and
flowed through the perforated plate by vacuum suction.
To take care of the buchner funnel, always wash it before
and after using it.
Test tube

Test tube, also known as sample tube and made from
borosilicate glass, so it can withstand temperature
changes and resist reaction with chemicals. Test tube are
available in several sizes, such as 10 x 75 mm, 12 x 75

mm, 13 x 100 mm, 15 x 125 mm, 18 x 150 mm, 25 x
150 mm. The shape of test tube is cylindrical with round
bottom and an opening at the top. Round bottom and
straight sides minimize mass loss when pouring, make
them easier to clean, and allow to monitor the contents.
The long narrow neck slows down the spreading of
vapors and gases to the environment. Test tubes are
widely used to hold, mix, or heat small quantities of
solid or liquid chemicals, especially for qualitative
experiments. To take care the test tube, just wash it
before and after using it. Dispose the hazardous and
corrosive materials before cleaning the beaker. Test tube
should be stored under conditions that do not allow the
occurrence of contamination by dust or other material.
Beaker

Beaker is usually made from borosilicate glass which is
withstand temperature changes and resist reaction with
chemicals (although there is also a plastic beaker).
Beaker is cylindrical in shape, with small spout ("beak")
on the up side of it which is help us to pour the solution.
Beakers are available in a wide range of sizes, from
one millilitre up to several litres. In the laboratory,
beaker is often used as a apparatus to stirring, mixing
and heating liquids or solution. Beaker can be cleaned
with general procedure. The process of cleaning must be
done immediately after using it, wash it before and after
using it. Dispose the hazardous and corrosive materials
before cleaning the beaker. Then, the beaker should be

stored under conditions that do not allow the occurrence
of contamination by dust or other material.
Erlenmeyer flask

Erlenmeyer made from borosilicate glass, so erlenmeyer
can withstand temperature changes and resist reaction
with chemicals. Erlenmeyer flasks have wide bases, with
sides taper upward to a narrow neck. Erlenmeyer are
available in several sizes, such as 50 ml, 125 ml, 250 ml,
500 ml, 1000 ml, 2000 ml. Erlenmeyer are widely used
to boiling liquids, support filter funnels, and mixed by
swirling which is making it suitable for titrations. To take
care erlenmeyer, always wash it before and after using it.
So that equipment is always clean and free of debris.
Dispose the hazardous and corrosive materials before
cleaning the erlenmeyer. Then, stored it under conditions
that do not allow the occurrence of contamination by
dust or other material.

Graduated cylinder

Graduated cylinder used to measure the volume of a
liquid. Graduated cylinders are more accurate and
precise than laboratory flasks and beakers. However, it
are less accurate and precise than volumetric flask or
volumetric pipette. Graduated cylinders usually are made
from borosilicate glass, though there are plastic cylinders
too.

the

largest

of polypropylene for

graduated
excellent

cylinders
chemical

are

made

resistance

or polymethylpentene for its transparency. Volume size
of graduated cylinders are between 5 ml until 2000 ml.
this chemical apparatus is not heat-resistant, so we can’t
measure a liquid when the liquid is in hot conditions. In
measure a liquid, Graduated cylinder must be placed
upright on the table, then the liquid is poured into
graduated cylinder, the eyes should be parallel to the
surface of the liquid. To take care Graduated cylinder,
always wash it before and after using it. So that
equipment is always clean and free of debris. Then,
stored it under conditions that do not allow the
occurrence of contamination by dust or other material.

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