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A complete description about Coffee origin and coffee in india with good images



By, Savannah Schulze
Origins of Coffee
 Coffee drinking first became
popular in Yemen in the 15

 Coffee derives its name from
 Qahwah is the Arabic word for
coffee and Turkish influence
resulted in pronunciation as
 Italian origin? Caffe but is
derived from Turkish, which
derives from Arabic
 Qahwah is the name given to
coffee in Arabic but means

Yemenite Sufi Circles
 Coffee first became popular in
Yemenite Sufi circles who
began to refer to coffee as
wine because like wine it also
dulls the appetite and
therefore was called qahwah
 Coffee became the
replacement for wine and
Sufi‟s transferred the meaning
“wine” to “coffee” and
introduced it further into Cairo
 Coffee was spread to Turkey
through the Sufi‟s who used
the coffee to help keep them
stay awake during devotional
exercises performed all night

Coffee‟s True Origin
 Coffee is not a native
plant to Arabia
 It is a native plant of
Abyssinia (Ethiopia) and
can be found growing
wild and cultivated
 From Ethiopia it was
brought to Arabia and a
variety of legends exist to
how coffee was
Coffee Legends
 Around 800 A.D. coffee was said to be
discovered by an Ethiopian goatherd
whose name was Kaldi
 Kaldi noticed his goats had more energy
and were dancing from shrub to shrub
eating the cherry-red berries that
contained the coffee bean
 He tried the beans himself and soon found
himself frolicking with his flock

The Coffee Plant
 Is a woody perennial evergreen, that
belongs the Rubiaceae family, there are
two main species cultivated today
 Coffee arabica-accounts for 70-80% of the
world’s production
 Coffee canephora- known as Robusta
coffee and is more resilient than Arabica
shrubs, but does not produce the same
taste that is considered inferior to that of
 Coffee bean development-video
Where is Coffee Grown?
 The top ten coffee producers are highlighted in yellow
 Brazil makes up a third of this production and is by far
the largest producer in the coffee producing market
 The Bean Belt- bounded by the Tropics of Cancer and
Capricorn, coffee is grown within the Tropics
 How did coffee get to all these locations?
The Spread of Coffee
 Coffee began to leave Africa via two trade
routes, one located at Masawa, a city in
Ethiopia located on the Red Sea and down
the Blue Nile to Khartoum
 Coffee is not said to have spread outside
of Africa and Arabia until the 1600s and
Arabia was known to make export beans
infertile by boiling them

Coffee in Europe
 There are many
legends to how coffee
spread into Europe
 Arrived strapped to
the belly of an Indian
smuggler who left
Mecca with the seeds
and initiated
agricultural expansion
of the coffee bean into

 For about a half a
century Arabia
supplied Europe with
all coffee consumed
and was considered a
luxury item by British
 Coffee was supplied to
the Europeans by the
old Dutch East India
Company that traded
with the Arabian ports
on the Red Sea
Expansion of Coffee into European
 In 1690, the expansion would
soon reach European colonies and
the Dutch introduced the first
European owned coffee estates on
colonial Java
 From Java it made its way to
Sumatra and the Philippines
 Cultivation of coffee was a success
in these new areas because unlike
wine and tea, coffee can be raised
with little difficulty and required
little help from the Europeans
 Coffee was also grown in Dutch
gardens in Amsterdam, these
plants launched the introduction
of coffee into the Dutch colony of
 Coffee was then introduced into
Jamaica by the British and
Martinique by the French
 Coffee then spread to the rest of
Latin America
 Shift in coffee ideology
Shift in Coffee Ideology
 During early cultivation coffee was restricted to
remote parts of Yemen and was still considered
as a resource for merchants who could profit
and governments who profited through taxes
 Social and political consequences were few and
consisted of:
 Coffee in Islam?
 Concerns with coffee houses as centers for
conspiracy and deception
 However, this changed
with the introduction of
coffee into European
colonies and control of
production by commercial
 The colonists coerced the
peoples of the colonies
into producing coffee or
used African slave labor

Latin America
 Produces more than twice
as much coffee as the
rest of the world
 Before, this time Arabia
produced all of the
world‟s coffee and today
only yields about one
hundred and sixtieth
percent of this
production, but yet
produces more than it
ever had

Coffee Century
 The history of coffee in Latin America begins in the late 18
when the first coffee trees were introduced
 This was followed by the coffee century in Latin America and
entered into a coffee period that was accompanied by a dramatic
increase in the world trade of coffee
 The consumption of coffee in the U.S. increased from 3lbs in 1830
to 10lbs in 1900, and 16lbs in 1960

 With this Expansion we see:
1. Territorial expansion
2. Movement of settlers
3. Expanding world market-strive to increase production and profit
4. The creation of class conflicts and the creation of the coffee elite

The Coffee Elite
 The coffee elite formed in the midst of the
century coffee dynasties and was built
at the expense of much of the rest of the
 Resembles those of the colonial
 Focused in Central America in the
countries of El Salvador, Costa Rica, and

Coffee Elite…
 The coffee elite was made up of aristocratic families
of pure decent and new European immigrants
 Around two or three families control the entire coffee
 How do these families remain in power?
1. Lawless military regimes that make family ties the only
safe way to gain political power
2. Absence of mass parties and effective parliamentary
3. Limited development of higher education, professional
education could only be acquired abroad
Transnational Corporations
 Market is controlled by 4 coffee companies
 Kraft foods, Nestle, Proctor and Gamble,
and Sara lee
 These companies produce the major
coffee brands: Maxwell House, Nescafe,
Folgers, and Douwe Egberts
 Nestlé's instant coffee alone is consumed
at a rate of 3,900 cups of coffee every

Instant Coffee
 Latin American countries are attempting to make
changes to respond to the growing instant coffee market
 Three Latin American countries (Brazil, Columbia, and
Ecuador) have become significant exporters of instant
 Benefits from this change over have been limited
because of transnational corporations
 Local Exporters face many challenges:
 Inability to fund large advertising campaigns
 Compete with brand names
 Distribute to large market
Coffee and the Ecosystem
 Traditionally a shade grown
crop that is grown under a
canopy of trees
 These shade trees provide an
excellent source of biodiversity
 The new modern system
however, emphasizes the use
of pesticides and the increase
in chemical inputs to retain
high yields
 Sun plantations-ultimately
more prone to water and soil
runoff and long term damage
of the soil
Benefits of Shade Grown Coffee
 Deforestation is a constant issue in many
areas of Latin America
 Destroying the habitat of many species
and much biodiversity
 Shade grown coffee plantations provide
refuge for forest biota that has been
displaced due to deforestation

Problems in Coffee Growing
 70% of the world‟s coffee in
grown on farms of less than
ten hectares and the vast
majority is grown on family
plots of between one and five
 Coffee is grown in the wide
tropical and sub-tropical belt
around the Equator, including
some of the countries who
face severe development

Fair Trade-Offers Hope
 Small landholders struggle to feed their families
from the income they make from coffee alone
 Peris Mwihaki coffee grower in Kenya-In recent
years her coffee cherries have brought her no
more than 2-3% of the final selling price of
Kenyan AA coffee on supermarket shelves in the
 “Payments don‟t reach us here in the hills,”
“Peris explained. “The farm is just as hard work
as it ever was, we‟re getting nothing in return”
Fair Trade…
 Commercial businesses that
develop relationships with
farmers and are interested in
improving the lives of those
farmers from which they buy
 Commitment is to pay farmers
a fair price and what they
deserve fro producing that
 The price must cover the costs
of production and must also be
 Fair trade coffee sales are
growing and in 2001 coffee
grew by 12 per cent

The End!

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