Cohesion Checklist

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Cohesion checklist
1) Reference: First, you should decide what type of participant you are dealing with  Presented: is the participant introduced as new to the text?  Presumed: can you retrieve the identity from somewhere in the text? If you are dealing with a presumed participant there are three different contexts from where you can retrieve its identity:  Homophoric reference: can you retrieve the item from the shared context of culture?  Exoforic reference: can you retrieve the item from the immediate context of situation?  Endoforic reference: can you find the identity of the participant in the text itself? There are three main sub - types:  Anaphoric: can you find the referent at an earlier point in the text?  Cataphoric: is the referent provided later in the text?  Esphoric: does the referent appear within the nominal group of the presuming referent item? 2) Lexical cohesion: This has to do with the way in which the writer/speaker uses lexical items and event sequences to relate the text consistently to its field. There are two main types:  Taxonomic relationships: are you dealing with two or more lexical items related to one another? If so, you have to take into account the way in which the items are related:  Classification  Co – hyponymy: are the items members of a class?  Class / Sub – class: are the items related through sub – classification?  Contrast: do the lexical items encode a relationship of antonomy (=contrast)?  Similarity: do the lexical items restate each other? Then there is a relationship through synonymy. Is a lexical item repeated? Then there is repetition of that lexical item.  Composition  Meronymy: do the lexical items have a part – whole relationship (or vice versa)?  Co – meronymy: are the lexical items related by both being parts of a common whole?  Expectancy relationships: are you dealing with the relationship between a nominal element and a verbal element? 3) Conjunctive cohesion This is how the writer creates or expresses logical relationships between the parts of the text  Elaboration: is there a relationship of restatement or clarification between two sentences/clauses? Then you may find the following conjunctions: in other words, what is (to say), I mean (to say), for example, thus, in fact, etc  Extension: is there a relationship of addition or variation between two sentences/clauses? Then you may find conjunctions like and, also, moreover, however, instead, on the contrary, etc  Enhancement: is the sentence developing on the meaning of another in terms of time, comparison, cause, condition or concession? Then you may find conjunctions like then, next, afterwards, likewise, so, yet, despite, still, etc

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