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Learning Outcomes:
At the end of the session the students will be able to:  Define Communication..  Describe the value of effective communication  Discuss the difference between theories in communication skills , interpersonal skills and counseling skills  Understand the importance of correct interpersonal skills as a pharmacy staff in real life situations..

Communication, the process of sharing ideas, information, and messages with others in a particular time and place. Communication includes writing and talking, as well as nonverbal communication (such as facial expressions, body language, or gestures), visual communication (the use of images or pictures, such as painting, photography, video, or film), and electronic communication (telephone calls, electronic mail, cable television, or satellite broadcasts)

Communication is a vital part of personal life and is also important in business, education, and any other situation where people encounter each other

Critical Thinking

Critical thinking is reflective judgment about what to consider or what to do in reaction to experience, verbal, or even arguments. Critical thinking involves determining the meaning of what is observed or expressed.


Communication is a process of transferring information from one thing to another.

The three steps:
thought ; encoding ; decoding
First, information exists in the mind of the sender which is called THOUGHT

Next, a message is sent to a receiver in words or other symbols is called ENCODING

Lastly, the receiver translates the words into an information that he or she can understand and that is called DECODING.

Speaking hints

  

If you are trying to explain something to someone, ask the listeners if they are going to hear you out. Make sure they aren't busy with other things, so they can have your full attention. Always make things clear to the person, so they can understand. Look at the person, see his reaction or anything towards your comment. Make sure your tone goes with the words you are saying and react however you need. Don‟t go too much in detail or you will confuse the person or make the person bored of what you are trying to say.

Nonverbal Behaviors of Communication
To deliver the full impact of a message, use nonverbal behaviors to raise the channel of interpersonal communication:

Eye contact: eye contact helps to control the flow of communication. It makes signals to interest the person and increases the speaker's trustworthiness. People who make eye contact open the flow of communication and convey interest, and trustworthiness. Facial Expressions: facial expressions such as smiling is a transmit to happiness, friendliness, and liking the person. If you smile frequently you will be perceived as more likable, and friendly to the person. The listen will be more comfortable around you and will want to listen more. Gestures: gestures are lively speaking styles that captures the listener's attention. Therefore, you have to make the conversation more interesting.

Nonverbal Behaviors of Communication continued
Posture and body orientation: You communicate with how you move. It can be the way you are standing, leaning or even sitting down. When speaking with your back turned or looking at the floor or ceiling should be avoided because it shows a lack of interest.  Proximity: Look for signals of discomfort caused by a person's space. For example, leg swinging, tapping, and gaze aversion.  Vocal: Vocal can signal nonverbal communication when you include elements like tone, pitch, rhythm, loudness, and inflection.

Truth vs. Validity

Truth is being in an agreement with a particular fact or reality. The body of real things, events, actuality, or fidelity to an original or to a standard.

 

Validity applies to arguments or statements. A logically valid argument is one where the conclusion follows from the location. An invalid argument is where the conclusion does not follow from the location.



Truth vs. Validity
The truth basically means that they agree on any agreements that is made.  The validity means that they agree on any arguments that is made.



The continuum of certainty

In order for one to see the true form of certainty one must first doubt oneself.
Doubt and its certainty is the two aspects of the unique way of certainty logic. A space of line is only defined by two ends then it can define a direction, and because with two end points, there is necessarily a center.

Distinguishing Characteristics

No. of Communicators (One through many) • Physical proximity of the communicators in relation to each other (close or distant) • Immediacy of the exchange, whether it is taking place either (1) live or in apparently real time or(2) on a delayed basis • Number of sensory channels (including visual, auditory, tactile and so on) • The context of the communication (whether face-toface or mediated)


• • •

Intrapersonal Communication Interpersonal Communication Group Communication Mass Communication

Intrapersonal Communication
• •

It takes place within a person. The individual becomes his or her own sender and receiver providing feedback in an ongoing internal process.

The purpose is to clarify ideas or analyzing a situation.
Intrapersonal Communication includes –
• • • •

Day – dreaming Speaking aloud (talking to oneself) Writing one‟s thoughts or observations Making gestures while thinking

Interpersonal Communication

Interpersonal Communication involves a face-to-face relationship between the sender and receiver. • Strong feedback Component. • Most persuasive and influential than all types. • It involves not only words but the various elements of nonverbal communication.

Interpersonal Communication....

The three stages of Interpersonal Communication
• The Phatic stage – Initial exploratory stage of Hi/hello,

handshake, smile, etc. determines the direction conversation will take place.
• The Personal Stage – Called the personal stage,

introduces a personal element into the conversation. Here we generally lower the social guards a little.
• The Intimate stage- Reserved for friends and relatives,

degree of intimacy depends on the closeness of relationship. A stage in communication where social barriers fall.

Group Communication
• • •

• •

Shares all qualities of Interpersonal Communication though in less measures. The larger the group, the less personal and intimate is the possibility of exchange. As the group grows in size, the communication becomes more of monologue. It is more complex than Interpersonal Comm. The level of mutual participation and understanding among the members suffers as a result in group communication. Feedback is the keyword in group comm.

Group Communication….

Feedback is difficult to measure here, also it is more time consuming. • The art of public speaking is more necessary at group communication level. • Acting is associated with group communication. • Theaters, dance performances, Ram lila, Folk Dances are examples of group communication.

Mass Communication

Messages distributed by the institutions such as media have the potential to reach very large and anonymous audience in a process called Mass Communication. • Involves sharing ideas across a large audience either at a given point or extended time frame and usually involves a professional communicator. • Media include newspapers, magazines, books, films, TV, radio & now internet. • The fact is, it is the group communication which is extended by the mass media tools.

Interactive Communication

Communication via the „new‟ media as video, cable, teletext, video-on-demand, teleshopping, computers, internet, mobile telepnony is termed as interactive comm. • Mobile, phones, e-mails are forms of interactive media – are point to point communication systems and communication through them is like interpersonal comm. • Communication through teleconference, video conference is like group communication. • WWW communication i.e. internet communication is mass communication.

Interactive Communication

The major characteristics of interactive communication is „asynchronicity‟, the ability of sending and receiving the message at one‟s convenience rather than like radio and TV. Video recordings, internet, SMS, email etc. can be sent and accessed at times convenient to consumers.

Importance of Communication

    

Interpersonal communication skills are important for pharmacists to master patients allied health care members (e.g. MDs, nurses) one another! general public government & organizations Communication skills are not only verbal, but also written and non-verbal (e.g. body language, eye contact); they also include your ability to understand what others are trying to tell you

Importance of communication in Pharmaceutical Care
The first step in PC is to establish the pharmacist-patient relationship  Whenever medication is prescribed and subsequently dispensed, there is a unique opportunity for enhancing quality of patient care  By taking a few moments with the patient, the pharmacist can increase likelihood of adherence, reduce possibility for medication error, detect  ADRs etc…

Communication Styles

     

Pharmacist must have a broad range of communication “tools” to draw upon to adapt to different scenarios, such as: angry patient uncooperative physician busy nurse children, elderly visually or hearing impaired Similarly, they must have the ability to identify when a change in approach is required!

Communication Styles
Passive 1. Avoid conflict at all cost 2. Will not say what they really think for fear others may not agree 3. Wait for others to initiate conversation 4. Place needs/wants of others above their own 5. Worry about how others respond to them and have high need for approval 6. See themselves subject to manipulation of others Aggressive 1. Seek to win in conflict situations by dominating or intimidating others 2. Promote their own interests or points but are indifferent or hostile to those of others 3. Reinforced by short-term successes (others back down) 4. See themselves constantly in threatening situations 5. Low tolerance for frustration/easily angered

Non-Verbal Listening Skills
Non-verbal communication contributes significantly to the meaning of messages between pharmacists and others 1. space 2. posture 3. eye contact 4. mannerisms 5. Responses Observers tend to believe the nonverbal message

Verbal Listening Skills
  

 1. 2. 3.

You can actually listen to others by speaking! This is called active listening technique and uses different forms of verbal feedback Allows for the pharmacist to clear up any misunderstandings and makes the patient have a sense of control in the interview Different active listening techniques exist: paraphrasing; summarizing; echoing

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