Comprehension Passages

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Obsessive-compulsive Disorder  Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCR) is clinically diagnosed as an anxiety anxiety disorder  disorder and affects up to 4 percent of adults and children. People ho suffer from this debilitating disorder have distressing and obsessive thoughts! hich usually cause them to perform repetitive repetitive behaviors  behaviors such as counting silently or  ashing their hands. "hough OCR sufferers understand that their obsessions are unrealistic! they find it stressful to put these intrusive thoughts out of their minds. "hose ho suffer from obsessive-compulsive disorder develop strict behavioral patterns that become extremely time-consuming and begin to interfere ith daily routines. #any people ith OCR delay see$ing treatment because they are ashamed of their  on thoughts and behavior. OC% sufferers experience orries that are both unreasonable and excessive and that act as a constant source of internal stress. &ear of dirt and contamination are very common obsessive thoughts. thoughts. "he obsession obses sion ith order orderlines liness s and symm symmetry etry is also common. 'n other cases! persistent persistent thoughts are centered on doubts! such as hether or not a door is loc$ed or a stove is turned off. 'mpulses! such as the urge to sear in public or to pull a fire alarm! are other types of OCR symptoms. to order to be diagnosed ith OCR! a sufferer must exhibit obsessions andor compulsions that ta$e up a considerable amount of time (at least one hour per day). "o combat excessive thoughts and impulses! most OCR sufferers perform certain repetitive rituals that they believe ill relieve relieve thei  theirr anxi anxiety ety.. "hese compu compulsion lsions s can be eith either er menta mentall or behav behavioral ioral in natur nature. e. Common rituals include excessive chec$ing! ashing! counting! and praying. Over time! OCR sufferers attach strict rules to their compulsions. &or example! a oman ho is obsessed ith cleanliness might ash her hands three times before having a meal in order to get the thought of the dirty dishes or  silverare out of her mind. oever! in many cases! the compulsions aren*t related to the obsession at all. + man obsessed ith the image of dead animals might count silently up to , or touch a specific chair over and over in order to bloc$ the images. olding olding onto  onto obects that ould normally be discarded! such as nespapers and empty containers! is another common compulsion. OCR symptoms generally begin beteen the age of / and 04 and continue indefinitely until a person see$s treatment. + child*s child*s upbringing does not n ot seem to be b e part of the cause of the disorder! though stress can ma$e the symptoms stronger. "he underlying causes of OCR have been researched greatly and point to a number of different genetic factors. 1hile studies sho that OCR and its related anxiety disorders are often passed don through families! the specific symptoms for each family member are rarely the same. &or example! a mother ho is obsessed ith order may have a son ho can*t stop thin$ing about a single ord or number. Research on OCR sufferers has found certain physiological trends. 'n particular! many studies sho an overactivity of blood circulation in certain areas of the brain. +s a result of this increase in blood flo! the serotoninergic system! hich regulates emotions! is unable to function effectively. 2tudies have also shon that OCR sufferers have less serotonin than the average person. "his type of abnormality is also observed in "ourette "ourette syndrome and +ttenti +ttention on Reficit yperactive %isorder. People ho developed tics as children are found to be more susceptible to OCR as ell. #any reports of OCR point to infections that can trigger the disorder! namely streptococcal infections. 't is believed that a case of childhood strep throat can elicit a response from the immune system that produces certain neuropsychiatric disorders! such as OCR.

 

3ecause OCR sufferers tend to be so secretive about their symptoms! they often put off treatment for  many years. "he average OCR sufferer aits about / years before receiving medical attention. +s ith many anxiety disorders! early diagnosis and proper medication can lessen many of the symptoms and allo people to live fairly normal lives. #ost treatment plans for OCR involve a combination of medication and psychotherapy psychotherapy.. 3oth cognitive cognitive and behavioral behavioral thera therapies pies are used to teac teach h pati patients ents about thei their  r  disorder and or$ through the anxiety. 2erotonin reupta$e inhibitors are prescribed to increase the brain*s concentration of serotonin. "his medication successfully reduces the symptoms in many OCR sufferers in a short amount of time. &or cases hen OCR is lin$ed to streptococcal infection! antibiotic therapy is therapy is sometimes all that is needed. 56

Questions 9-16 %o the folloing statements agree ith the information in the reading passage7 In boxes 9-16  on  on your answer sheet, write TRUE 

FALSE 

NOT GIVEN 

if the statement is true according to the passage

if the statement is false according to the  passage

if the information is not given in the passage

9) 9) OCR  OCR often results from the ay a child is raised. False Paragraph 4 states8 9+ child*s child*s upbringing does not seem to be part of the cause of the disorder though stress can ma$e the symptoms stronger. "he "he underlying causes of OCR have been researched greatly! and point to a number of different genetic factors.9

10) 2tress 10)  2tress can have an effect on OCR. True Paragraph 4 states8 9+ child*s child*s upbringing does not seem to be part of the cause of the disorder though stress can ma$e the symptoms stronger.9

11) OCR 11)  OCR sufferers are deficient in serotonin. True Paragraph , states8 92tudies have also shon that OCR sufferers have less seeotonin than average person.9

 

 Obsessive-compulsive disorder usually usually begins after the age of /. False 12) Obsessive-compulsive 12) Paragraph 4 states8 9OCR symptoms generally begin beteen the age of / and 04 and continue indefinitely until a person see$s treatment.9

13) #any 13)  #any OCR patients patients prefer  prefer psychotherapy to medication. medication. Not iven Paragraph 6 mentions both psychotherapy and medication but does not discuss hich o patients prefer.

1!) OCR 1!)  OCR is very difficult to treat. False Paragraph 6 discusses different treatment options! and states that! 9early diagnosis and pro medication can lessen many of the symptoms and allo people to live fairly normal lives.9

1") #any 1")  #any OCR sufferers $eep their problem a secret. True Paragraph 6 begins ith this sentence8 93ecause OCR sufferers tend to be so secretive a their symptoms! they often put off treatment foe many years.9

16) +ntibiotics 16)  +ntibiotics can be used to treat OCR. True "he final sentence in Paragraph 6 indicates that antibiotics can be used in special cases of OC% 9&oe cases hen OCR is lin$ed to streptococcal infection! antibiotic antibiotic therapy is sometimes all that needed.9

2ho +nser  - ide  - ide +nser 

#a$ing time for science Chronobiology might sound a little futuristic : li$e something from a science fiction novel! perhaps : but it;s actually a field of study that concerns one of the oldest processes life on this planet has ever $non8 short-term rhythms of time and their effect on flora and fauna. "his can ta$e many forms. #arine life! for exam example! ple! is infl influenced uenced by tida tidall patterns. +nimals +nimals tend to be active or inactive depending on the position of the sun or moon. <umerous creatures! humans included! are largely diurnal : that is! they li$e to come out during the hours of sunlight. <octurnal animals! such as bats and possums! prefer to forage by night night.. + third group are $no $non n as crepuscular8 crepuscular8 they thrive in the lo-light of dan and dus$ and remain inactive at other hours. 1hen it comes to humans! chronobiologists are interested in hat is $non as the circadian rhythm. "his is the complete cycle our bodies are naturally geared to undergo ithin the passage of a tenty-four hour  day. +side from sleeping at night and a$ing during the day! each cycle involves many other factors such as changes in blood pressure and body temperature. <ot everyone has an identical circadian rhythm.

 

=<ight people;! for example! often describe ho they find it very hard to operate during the morning! but become alert and focused by evening. "his is a benign variation ithin circadian rhythms $non as a chronotype. 2cientists have limited abilities to create durable modifications of chronobiological demands. Recent therapeutic developments for humans such as artificial light machines and melatonin administration can reset our circadian rhythms! for example! but our bodies can tell the difference and health suffers hen e breach these natural rhythms for extended periods of time. Plants appear no more malleable in this respect> studies demonstrate that vegetables gron in season and ripened on the tree are far higher in essential nutrients than those gron in greenhouses and ripened by laser. ?noledge of chronobiological patterns can have many pragmatic implications for our day-to-day lives. 1hile contemporary living can sometimes appear to subugate biology : after all! ho needs circadian rhythms hen e have caffeine pills! energy drin$s! shift or$ and cities that never sleep7 : $eeping in synch ith our body cloc$ is important. "he average urban resident! for example! rouses at the eye-blearing time of 6.4 a.m.! hich researchers believe to be far too early. One One study found that even e ven rising at . a.m. has deleterious effects on health unless exercise is performed for 5 minutes afterard. "he optimum moment has been hittled don to .00 a.m.> muscle aches! headaches and moodiness ere reported to be loest by participants in the study ho ao$e then. Once you;re up and ready to go! hat then7 'f you;re trying to shed some extra pounds! dieticians are adamant8 never s$ip brea$fast. "his disorients your circadian rhythm and puts your body in starvation mode. "he recommended course of action is to follo an intense or$out ith a carbohydrate-rich brea$fast> the other ay round and eight loss results are not as pronounced. #orning is also great for brea$ing out the vitamins. 2upplement absorption by the body is not temporaldependent! but naturopath Pam 2tone notes that the extra boost at brea$fast helps us get energised for  the day ahead. &or improved absorption! 2tone suggests pairing supplements ith a food in hich they are soluble and steering clear of caffeinated beverages. &inally! 2tone arns to ta$e care ith storage> high potency is best for absorption! and armth and humidity are $non to deplete the potency of a supplement.  +fter-dinner espressos are becoming more of a tradition : e have the 'talians to than$ for that : but to prepare for a good night;s sleep e are better off putting the bra$es on caffeine consumption as early as 5 p.m. 1ith a seven hour half-life! a cup of coffee containing @ mg of caffeine ta$en at this hour could still leave 4, mg of caffeine in your nervous system at ten o;cloc$ that evening. 't is essential that! by the time you are ready to sleep! your body is rid of all traces. Avenings are important for inding don before sleep> hoever! h oever! dietician dietician Beraldine Beorgeou arns that an after-five carbohydrate-fast is more cultural myth than chronobiological demand. "his ill deprive your  body of vital energy needs. Overloading your gut could lead to indigestion! though. Our digestive tracts do

 

not shut don for the night entirely! but their or$ slos to a cral as our bodies prepare for sleep. Consuming a modest snac$ should be entirely sufficient. uestions /: %o the folloing statements agree ith the information given in Reading passage /7  +nser "rue! "rue! &alse &alse or <ot given to to Duestions /:. "rue "r ue

if the sta statem tement ent agr agrees ees i ith th the inf inform ormati ation on

&alse &al se

if the the statem statement ent contr contradi adicts cts the the inform informati ation on

<ot given

if there is is no no inf info ormation on on thi his s

uestions /) Chronobiology is the study of ho living things have evolved over time. 0) "he rise and fall of sea levels affects ho sea creatures behave. 5) #ost animals are active during the daytime. 4) Circadian rhythms identify ho e do different things on different days. ,) + =night person; can still have a healthy circadian rhythm. 6) <e therapies can permanently change circadian rhythms ithout causing harm. ) <aturally-produced vegetables have more nutritional value. uestions E:/5 Choose the correct letter! +! 3! C or %. uestions E) 1hat did researchers identify as the ideal time to a$e up in the morning7  +) 6.4 3) . C) .00 %) .5 @) 'n order to lose eight! e should  +) avoid eating eating brea$fast 3) eat a lo carbohydrate brea$fast

C) exercise before brea$fast

 

%) exercise after brea$fast /) 1hich is <O" mentioned as a ay to improve supplement absorption7  +) avoiding drin$s drin$s containing caffeine caffeine hile ta$ing ta$ing supplements

3) ta$ing supplements at brea$fast C) ta$ing supplements ith foods that can dissolve them %) storing supplements in a cool! dry environment //)) "he best time to stop drin$ing coffee is //  +) mid-afternoon mid-afternoon 3) / p.m. C) only hen feeling anxious %) after dinner  /0) 'n the evening! e should  +) stay aay from carbohydrates 3) stop exercising C) eat as much as possible %) eat a light meal /5) 1hich of the folloing phrases best describes the main aim of Reading Passage /7  +) to suggest healthier healthier ays of eating! eating! sleeping and exercising 3) to describe ho modern life has made chronobiology largely irrelevant C) to introduce chronobiology and describe some practical applications %) to plan a daily schedule that can alter our natural chronobiological rhythms

 

'ntroducing dung/ beetles into a pasture is a simple process8 approximately /!, beetles are released! a handful at a time! into fresh co pats0 in the co pasture. "he beetles immediately disappear beneath the pats digging and tunnelling and! if they successfully adapt to their ne environment! soon become a permanent! self-sustaining part of the local ecology. 'n time they multiply and ithin three or four years the benefits to the pasture are obvious. %ung beetles or$ from the inside of the pat so they are sheltered from predators such as birds and foxes. #ost species burro into the soil and bury dung in tunnels directly underneath the pats! hich are holloed ho lloed out from ithin. 2ome large species originating from &rance excavate tunnels to a depth of approximately 5 cm belo the dung pat. "hese beetles ma$e sausage-shaped brood chambers along the tunnels. "he shalloest tunnels belong to a much smaller 2panish species that buries dung in chambers that hang li$e fruit from the branches of a pear tree. 2outh +frican beetles dig narro tunnels of approximately 0 cm belo the surface of the pat. 2ome surface-delling beetles! including a 2outh +frican species! cut perfectly-shaped balls from the pat! hich are rolled aay and attached to the bases of plants. &or maximum dung burial in spring! summer and a nd autumn! farmers reDuire a variety of species ith overlapping periods of activity. 'n the cooler environments of the state of Fictoria! the large &rench species (0., cms long)! is matched ith smaller (half this siGe)! temperate-climate temperate-clim ate 2panish species. "he former are slo to recover from the inter cold and produce only one or to generations of offspring from late spring until autumn. "he latter! hich hich multiply rapidly in early spring! produce to to five generations annually. "he 2outh +frican ball-rolling ball-rolling species! being a sub-tropical sub -tropical beetle! prefers the climate of northern and coastal <e 2outh 1ales here it commonly or$s ith the 2outh +frican +frican tunneling species. 'n armer climates! many species are active for longer periods of the year.

 +cademic Reading sample tas$ : 'dentifying 'dentifying information information

 + "here are no over  million million motor vehicles in in the orld - and the number is rising by more than 4 million each year. "he average distance driven by car users is groing too - from E$m a day per person in estern Aurope in /@6, to 0, $m a day d ay in /@@,. "his dependence on motor vehicles has given rise to maor problems! including

 

environmental pollution! depletion of oil resources! traffic congestion and safety. 3 1hile emissions from ne cars are far less harmful than they used to be! city streets and motorays are becoming more croded than ever! often ith older truc$s! buses and taxis hich emit excessive levels of smo$e and fumes. "his concentration of vehicles ma$es air Duality in urban areas unpleasant and sometimes dangerous to breathe. Aven #osco has oined the list of capitals afflicted by congestion and traffic fumes. 'n #exico City! vehicle pollution is a maor health haGard. C Hntil a hundred years ago! most ourneys ere in the 0$m range! the distance conveniently accessible by horse. eavy freight could only be carried by ater or rail. 'nvention of the motor vehicle brought personal mobility to the masses and made rapid freight delivery possible over a much ider area. 'n the Hnited ?ingdom! about @ per cent of inland freight is carried by road. "he orld cannot revert to the horse-dran agon. Can it avoid being loc$ed into congested and polluting ays of transporting people and goods7 % 'n Aurope most cities are still designed for the old modes of transport. +daptation to the motor car has involved adding ring roads! one-ay systems and par$ing lots. 'n the Hnited 2tates! more land is assigned to car use than to housing. Hrban spral means that life ithout a car is next to impossible. #ass use of motor vehicles has also $illed or inured millions of people. Other social effects have been blamed on the car such as alienation and aggressive human behaviour. A + /@@5 study by the Auropean &ederation for "ransport and Anvironment found that car transport is seven times as costly as rail travel in terms of the external social costs it entails - congestion! accidents! pollution! loss of cropland and natural habitats! depletion of oil resources! and so on. Iet cars easily surpass trains or +cademic Reading sample tas$ : 'dentifying information buses as a flexible and convenient mode of personal

 

transport. 't is unrealistic to expect people to give up private cars in favour of mass transit. "echnical "e chnical solutions can reduce the pollution problem and increase the fuelled efficiency of engines. 3ut fuel consumption and exhaust emissions depend on hich cars are preferred by customers and ho they are driven. #any people buy larger cars than they need for daily purposes or aste fuel by driving aggressively. 3esides! global car use is increasing at a faster rate than the improvement in emissions and fuel efficiency hich technology is no ma$ing possible. B 2ome argue that the only long-term solution is to design cities and neighbourhoods so that car ourneys are not necessary - all essential services being located ithin al$ing distance or easily accessible by public transport. <ot only ould this save energy and cut carbon dioxide emissions! it ould also enhance the Duality of community life! putting the emphasis on people instead of cars. Bood local government is already bringing this about in some places. 3ut fe democratic communities are blessed ith the vision : and the capital  : to ma$e such profound profound changes in modern lifestyles. lifestyles.  + more more li$ely scenario seems to be a combination of mass transit systems for travel into and around cities! ith small =lo emission; cars for urban use and larger hybrid or lean burn cars for use elsehere. Alectronically tolled highays might be used to ensure that drivers pay charges geared to actual road use. 3etter integration of transport systems is also highly desirable - and made more feasible by modern computers. 3ut these are solutions for countries hich can afford them. 'n most developing countries! old cars and old technologies continue to predominate

2taff training 2taff training is very beneficial beneficial for  for companies but some staff still remain unconvinced. "his is a difference in beliefs beteen departments about the general effectiveness general effectiveness of training. Our company goal has alays been to integrate consistent training into all our departments because it creates a more favourable environment in hich to or$. 'n fact! e have been rated as the industry;s number five or$ place solely

 

on the basis of our positive and encouraging company culture! much of hich is connected to staff development. #otivation is #otivation  is a common reason for providing training. Our board of directors have alays believed that ob that  ob satisfaction and satisfaction  and happy staff ho enoy their ob should or$ better and more efficiently than unsatisfied employees. Problems of unmotivated or even demotivated staff are common in the current economic climate as many fear redundancy or have no hope of promotion. "herefore! e continue to invest in groth opportunities and internal promotion. "echnology represents another rational behind our staff training. <e computers! "echnology represents computers! netor$s and evolving or$ing habits all need to be explained to ne and existing staff ali$e. <evertheless! time for training seems scarce and as a result certified online courses are being introduced at all levels due to their flexibility. Online language courses have courses have increased in popularity ith employees ho can study online at lunch or after or$. #obile internet access also access also means e can no offer employee training 04 hours a day. <ot all employers employers support  support staff training. "here are valid reasons for a lac$ of staff training departments. departments. R company Buptar associates revealed that a substantial percentage of both in-house and out-house training is actually unproductive. +s an alternative they propose more effective training ith training ith specific measurable goals as opposed to more Dualitative and hard to assess personal improvement aims. "hey additionally point to the need for hole team involvement from the top of the department all the ay don do n to theshop theshop floor . 1e have ta$en this onboard and are devising ne courses to be offered on a larger scale. "raining has become a large mar$et "raining mar$et as  as greater numbers of companies outsource outsource to  to training =experts;. One important fact that remains is that it is still on the bottom of most manager;s priorities! possibly in fear  of highly trained employees trained employees ho have received expensive training resigning and ta$ing their expensive s$ills ith them. "o tac$le both these issues e have started a mentoring system for f or ne staff hich brings larger benefits than external trainers and coupled ith our online training provides a more effective solution ith loer costs. +s a result! e no longer need to tie employees to the company ith set contracts to recover training costs.

Questions 15-21 Choose the correct letter! +! 3 or C.

15. 1hy does the company incorporate training7 incorporate training7  +. 3ecause it ma$es the company better. better. 3.

3eca 3e caus use e it it ma$ ma$es es a bett better er o or$ r$in ing g envi enviro ronm nmen ent. t.

C.

3eca 3e caus use e itit is go good od fo forr th the e env envir iron onme ment nt..

16. o does the company deal deal ith  ith the effects of the economic climate7  +. "hey continue developing. developing. 3. C.

"hey invest invest more  more money in the company. "hey "h ey ex expa pand nd an and d pr prom omot ote e exi exist stin ing g st staf aff. f.

17. 1hat is the main benefit of online courses7  +.

"heir flexibility flexibility..

 

3.

"hey are certified.

C.

"hey are popular ith st staff.

18. 1hat do mobile phones offer employees7  +.

04 hours of training. training.

3.

+ccess to trai ain ning all day.

C.

#obile ph phone tr training

19. 1hat do Buptar associates suggest7  +.

"raining "raini ng for every employee employee hich can be measured. measured.

3.

Personal tr training.

C.

<e co cour urs ses on on a bigger sc scale.

20. 1hy is training unpopular ith managers7  +.

3ecause training is is expensive.

3.

3eca 3e caus use e som some e st staf afff le leav ave e aft after er re rece ceiv ivin ing g tra train inin ing g

C.

3ec ecau aus se st staf afff do do not not en enoy tr trai aini ning ng..

21. 1hat are the benefits of the mentoring mentoring system7  system7  +. 't is effective effective and cheap. 3.

't uses externa nall trainer ers s.

C.

't do does no not re recover co costs.

This part of the test should take 17 -20 minutes What is music? #$ #$ #usic  #usic has probably existed for as long as man has been human! and it certainly predates civiliGation by tens of millenia. I Iet et even today there is no clear definition of exactly hat music is. &or example! birdsong is certainly melodic! but it is not tuneful! and it is not created ith the intention of being musical (in fact it is sometimes meant to sound threatening) - therefore does it count as music7  On the other hand! some modern composers have been challenging the idea that music should be arranged in a pleasant manner %$ %$ On ith the notes falling in an orderly succession. Others! famously the avant guarde composer John Cage have even used silence and called the result music. +s a result there is no one definition of music. Perhaps it should be said that music! li$e beauty! is hat the person ho sees or hears it believes it to be. &$ &$ #usic  #usic is divided in many ays. #usic itself is split into notes! n otes! clefts! Duavers! and semi-demi Duavers. +ncient and medieval musicologists believed that these notes could be arranged *horiGontally* into melody (ma$ing notes that match on the same scale) and *vertically* (going up and don the scales to create harmony). +nother very basic measurement of music is the *pulse*. "his is present in almost all forms of music! and is particularly strong in modern popular music. "he pulse is the regular beat hich runs through a tune.

 

1hen you tap your foot or clap your hands in time to a song! you are beating out the pulse of that song. D$ D$ +nother  +nother ay of dividing music is by genre. Aven a child ho does not $no that (for example) roc$ and roll and classical music are different genres ill be instantly aare that these are very different sounds> though he ill not be aare that one is a percussion-led melody hile the other emphasiGes harmony over rhythm and timbre. Aach genre of music has numerous sub-divisions. Classical music is divided by type - for example symphonies! concertos and operas! and by sub-genre! for example baroDue and Bregorian chant. Just to ma$e it more fun! modern musicians have also been experimenting ith crossover music! so that e get 3eatles tunes played by classical orchestras! and groups li$e ueen using operatic themes in songs such as *3ohemian rhapsody*. '$ '$ +lmost  +lmost all music is a collaboration beteen the composer! and the performer! hile hile song reDuires a lyricist to rite the ords as ell. 2ometimes old tunes are adapted for ne lyrics - for example the song *appy 3irthday* is based on a tune originally o riginally called *ave a nice %ay*. +t other times a performer might produce a song in a manner hich the original composer ould not recogniGe. (+ famous example is the pun$ roc$ band the 2ex Pistols performing the 3ritish national anthem *Bod save the ueen*.) F$ "his F$ "his is because the composer and lyricist have to leave the performer some freedom to perform in the ay that suits him or her best. 1hile many classical compositions have notes stressing ho a piece should be performed (for example a piece played *con brio* should be light and lively) in the end! hat the listener hears is the or$ of the performer. JaGG music has fully accepted this! and aGG performers are not only expected to put their on interpretation on a piece! but are expected to play even the same piece ith some variation every time. $ #any $ #any studies of music do not ta$e into account here the music is to be played and ho the audience ill be. "his is a maor mista$e! as the audience is very muchhile a partaof the musical experience. +ny aGG fan ill tell you that aGG best experienced incomes small smo$y bars some time after midnight! classical fan ill spend time and money ma$ing sure that theismusic on his stereo as close as possible to the sound in a large concert hall. 2ome music! such as dance music! is designed to be interactive! hile other music is designed to remain in the bac$ground! smoothing out harsh sounds and creating a mood. "his is often the case ith cinema music - this poerfully changes the mood of the audience! yet remains so much in the bac$ground that many cinemagoers are unaare that the music is actually playing. ($ ($ #usic  #usic is very much a part of human existence! and e are fortunate today in having music of hatever $ind e choose instantly available at the touch of a button. Ie Iett spare a thought for those ho still cannot ta$e advantage of this bounty. "his includes not only the deaf! but those people ho are someho unable to understand or recogniGe music hen they hear it. + famous example is Hnited President Hlysses Brant! ho famously said *' can recognise to tunes. One is *Ian$ee doodle* and the other one isn*t.* Choose which of these sentences is closest to the meaning in the text.

1.

 Modern composers do not always want their music to sound pleasant  Some modern composers do not want their music to be enjoyable  A modern musical composition should not be orderly

2.

 Crossover music is when classical orchestras play modern tunes  Crossover music moves between musical genres  Crossover music is a modern musical genre

 

3.

 Performers, lyricists and composers each have a seperate  Performers, function  Performers of a song will need to become lyricists  Composers instruct musicians to play their work 'con brio'

Match these groups of words with one of the words in the box opposite - you do not need two of the words.

!$ oc* and roll+ classical music+ ,a #$ &oll &ollab abor orat ator ors s %$ .o/n &a &ae "$ &omposer+ lricist+ perormer &$ &lassical D$ %aroue 6$ 4mp/on+ concerto+ opera

5$ &inemaoer+ .a an+ dancer

'$ #udience F$

enres

The paragraphs are numbered A-. !rite the letter of the paragraph which contains the following information "#ou "#ou can choose a paragraph more than once$.

8. 

People can tell genres of music apart even without musical training.

9. 

Where you hear music can be as important as the skill of the performer.

10. 

Music has been a part of human existence for many thousands of years.

11..  11

 piece of music might have more than one set of words to go with it.

12. 

!ome people cannot tell the difference between classical music and birdsong. ntroduction to '7T4 eadin

1.

Modern Mode rn co comp mpos oser ers s do no nott al alwa ways ys want want th thei eirr mu musi sic c to sound pleasant 2. Cr Cros osso sove verr mu musi sic c mo move ves s be betw twee een n mu musi sica call ge genr nres es

 

3. Perfo erforrme mers rs,, ly lyri rici cist sts s an and d co comp mpos ose ers ea each ch ha have ve a seperate function 4.  5. A 6. C 7. ! 8. " 9. # 10. A 11. ! 12. $

Koo Conservation Programmes One of London London Koo;s  Koo;s recent advertisements caused me some irritation! so patently did it distort reality. reality. eadlined M1ithout Goos you might as ell tell these animals to get stuffedN! it as bordered ith illustrations of severalendangered severalendangered species and species and ent on to extol the myth that ithout Goos li$e London Koo these animals Mill almost certainly disappear foreverN. 1ith the Goo orld;s orld;s rather mediocre record on conservation! one might be forgiven for being slightly s$eptical about such an advertisement.

Koos ere originally created as places of entertainment! and their suggested involvement ith conservation didn;t seriously arise until about 5 years ago! hen the Koological 2ociety of 2ociety of London held the first formal international meeting on the subect. Aight years later! a series of orld conferences too$ place! entitled M"he 3reeding of Andangered 2peciesN! and from this point onards conservation became the Goo community;s buGGord. "his commitment has no been clear defined in "he 1orld Kpo Conservation 2trategy (1KB2! 2trategy (1KB2! 2eptember /@@5)! hich although an important and elcome document does seem to be based on an unrealistic optimism optimism about the nature of the Goo industry.

"he 1KC2 estimates that there are about /! Goos in the orld! of hich around /! represent a core core of  of Duality collections capable of participating in co-ordinated conservation programmes programmes.. "his is probably the document;s first failing! as ' believe that /! is a serious underestimate of the total number of places masDuerading as Goological establishments. Of course it is difficult to get accurate data but! data  but! to put the issue into perspective! ' have found that! in a year of o f or$ing in Aastern Aurope! ' discover fresh Goos on almost a ee$ly basis.

"he second fla in the reasoning of the 1KC2 document is the naive faith it places in its /! core Goos. One ould assume that the calibre of these institutions ould have been carefully examined! but it

 

appears that the criterion for inclusion on this select list might merely be that the Goo is a member of a Goo federation or association. "his might be a good starting point! point! or$ing on the premise that members must meet certain standards! but again the facts don;t support the theory. "he greatly respected +merican respected +merican  +ssociation of  +ssociation  of Koological Par$s and +Duariums (++KP+) (++KP+) has had extremely dubious members! and in the H? the &ederation of Koological Bardens of Breat 3ritain and 'reland has

Occasionally had members that have been roundly censured in the national press. "hese include Robin ill+dventure Par$ on Par$ on the 'sle of 1ight! 1ight! hich many considered the most notorious collection of animals in the country. "his establishment! establishment! hich for years as protected by the 'sle;s local council (hich vieed it as a tourist amenity)! as finally closed don folloing a damning report by a veterinary inspector appointed under the terms of the Koo Licensing +ct /@E/. +s it as alays a collection of dubious repute! one is obliged to reflect upon the standards that the Koo &ederation sets hen granting membership. "he situation is even orse in developing countries here little money is available for redevelopment and it is hard to see a ay of incorporating collections into the overall scheme of the 1KC2.

Aven assuming that the 1KC2; 1 KC2;s s /! core Goos are all of a high standard complete ith scientific staff and research facilities! trained and dedicated $eepers! accommodation that permits normal or natural behaviour! and a policy of co-operating fully ith one another hat might be the potential for conservation7 Colin "udge! author of Last +nimals at the Koo (Oxford Hniversity Press! /@@0)! argues that Mif the orldNs Goos or$ed together in co-operative breeding programmes! then even ithout further expansion they could save around 0! species of endangered land vertebrates;. "his seems an extremely optimistic proposition proposition from a man ho must be aare of the failings and ea$nesses of the Goo industry the man ho! hen a member of the council of London Koo! had to persuade the Goo to devote more of its activities to conservation. #oreover! here are the facts to support such optimism7

"oday "o day approximately /6 species might be said to have been MsavedN by captive breeding programmes! although a number of these can hardly be loo$ed upon as a s resounding successes. 3eyond that! about a further 0 species are being seriously considered for Goo conservation programmes. Biven that the international conference at London Koo as held 5 years ago! this is pretty slo progress! and a long ay off "udge;s target of 0!.

%o the folloing statements agree ith the vies of the riter in Reading Passage 57 'n boxes 1622 rite 22  rite 8    8  8   if the the statement statement agrees ith the riter  riter    N  if the statement statement contradicts the riter  riter    N N if  if it is impossible to say hat the riter thin$s about this

 

/6

London Koo;s advertisements are dishonest.

/

Koos made an insignificant insignificant contribution to conservation conservation up until 5 years ago.

/E

"he 1KC2 document is not $non in Aastern Aurope. Aurope.

/@

Koos in the the 1KC2 1KC2 select list ere carefully inspected.

0

<o-one $ne ho the animals ere ere being treated at Robin ill ill +dventure +dventure Par$. Par$.

0/

Colin "udge "udge as as dissatisfied dissatisfied ith the treatment treatment of animals at London Koo.

00

"he number number of successful Goo conservation conservation programmes programmes is is unsatisfactory. unsatisfactory.

Questions 23-2" Choose the appropriate letters +-% and rite them in boxes 05-0, on your anser sheet.

05 1hat ere the obectives of the 1KC2 document7  

+

to improve the calibre of Goos orld-ide

 

3

to identify Goos suitable for conservation practice

 

C

to provide funds for Goos in underdeveloped countries

 

%

to list the endangered species of the orld

04 1hy does the riter refer to Robin ill +dventure Par$7  

+

to support the 'sle of 1ight local council

 

3

to criticise the /@E/ Koo Licensing +ct

 

C

to illustrate a ea$ness in the 1KC2 document

 

%

to exemplif exemplify y the standard standards s in ++KP+ Goos

0, 1hat ord best describes the riter;s response to Colin "udges; prediction on captive breeding programmes7   +

disbelieving

  3

impartial

  C

preudiced

  %

accepting

Questions 26-2 "he riter mentions a number of factors hich lead him to doubt the value of the 1KC2 document 1hich "RAA of the folloing factors are mentioned7 1rite your ansers (#-F ( #-F)) in boxes 26-2 26-2 on  on your anser sheet.

 

7ist o Factors: # the number of unregistered Goos in the orld % the lac$ of money in developing countries & the actions of the 'sle of 1ight local council D the failure of the 1KC2 to examine the standards of the Mcore GoosN ' the unrealistic aim of the 1KC2 in vie of the number of species MsavedN to date F the policies of 1KC2 Goo managers  

 + 1or$ahol 1or$aholic ic Aconomy &or "he first century or so of the industrial industrial  revolution revolution!! increased productivity led productivity led to decreases in or$ing hours. Amployees ho had been putting in /0-hour days! six days a ee$! found their time on the ob shrin$ing to / hours daily daily!! then! finally! to to eight hours! five days a ee$. Only a generation ago social planners orried about hat people ould do ith all this ne-found free time. 'n the H2! at least! it seems they need not have bothered.  +lthough the output output per  per hour of or$ has more than doubled since /@4,! leisure seems reserved largely for the unemployed and underemployed. "hose ho or$ full-time full-time spend as much time on the ob as they did at the end of 1orld 1ar  ''.  ''. 'n fact! or$ing hours have hours have increased noticeably since /@  perhaps because real ages have stagnated since that year. 3oo$stores no abound ith manuals describing ho to manage time and cope ith stress. stress. "here are several reasons for lost leisure. 2ince /@@! companies have responded to improvements in thebusiness the business climate by climate by having employees or$ overtime rather than by hiring extra personnel! says economist Juliet 3. 2chor of arvard Hniversity. 'ndeed! the current economic recovery has gained a certain amount of notoriety for its MoblessN nature8 increased production p roduction has been almost entirely decoupled from employment. 2ome firms are even donsiGing as their profits climb. M+ll things being eDual! e*d be better off spreading around the or$!; observes labour economist Ronald B. Ahrenberg of Cornell Hniversity. Iet a host host of  of factors pushes employers to hire feer or$ers for more hours and! at the same time! compels or$ers to spend more time on the ob. #ost of those incentives involve hat Ahrenberg calls the structure of compensation8 Duir$s in the ay salaries and benefits are organised that ma$e it more profitable to as$ 4 employees to labour an extra hour each than to hire one more or$er to do the same 4-hour ob. Professional and managerial employees supply the most obvious lesson along these lines. Once people are on salary! their their cost to a firm is the same hether they spend 5, hours a ee$ in the office office or  or . %iminishing returns may eventually set in as overor$ed o veror$ed employees lose efficiency or leave for more

 

arable pastures. 3ut in the short run! the employer;s incentive is clear. Aven hourly employees receive employees receive benefits -such as pension contributions and contributions andmedical medical insurance insurance - that are not tied to the number of hours they or$. "herefore! it is more profitable for employers to or$ their existing employees harder. &or all that employees complain about long hours! hours! they! too! have reasons not to trade money for money for leisure. MPeople ho or$ reduced hours pay a huge penalty in career terms!N 2chor maintains. M't*s ta$en as a negative signal; about their commitment to the firm.; LotteQ 3ailyn of #assachusetts 'nstitute of "echnologyQ "e chnologyQ adds that many corporate managers find it difficult to measure the contribution of their underlings to a firm;s ell-being! ell-being! so they use the number of hours or$ed as a proxy for output. MAmployees $no this!N she says! and they adust their behavior accordingly. M+lthough the image of the good or$er is the one hose life belongs to the company! company!NN 3ailyn says! Mit doesn*t fit the facts.; 2he cites both Duantitative and Dualitative studies that sho increased productivity for part-time or$ers8 they ma$e better use of the time they have! and they are less li$ely to succumb to fatigue in stressful obs. Companies that employ more or$ers for less time also gain from the resulting redundancy! she she asserts. M"he extra people can cover the contingencies that you $no are going to happen! such as hen crises ta$e people aay from the or$place.; Positive Positive experiences ith reduced hours have begun to change the more-is-better culture at some companies! 2chor reports.

Larger firms! in particular! appear to be more illing to experiment ith flexible or$ing arrangements...

't may ta$e even more than changes in the financial and cultural structures of employment for or$ers successfully to trade increased productivity and money money for  for leisure time! 2chor contends. 2he says the H.2. mar$et for goods has become s$eed by the assumption of full-time! to-career  to-career  households.  households.  +utomobile ma$ers ma$ers no longer manufacture manufacture cheap models! and developers developers do not build the the tiny bungalos that served the first postar generation of home buyers. <ot even the humblest household obect is made ithout a microprocessor. +s 2chor notes! the situation is a curious inversion of the Mappropriate technologyN vision that designers have had for developing countries8 H.2. goods are appropriate only for high incomes and long hours.  hours. 

----- ;aul <allu/

Questions 25-32 %o the folloing statements agree ith the vies of the riter in reading passage 47 'n boxes 0-50 on your anser sheet rite8  8'4    8'4

if the statement agrees ith the riter 

NO   NO

if the statement contradicts the riter 

NOT ='N  ='N  if it is impossible to say say hat the riter thin$s about this this   '>ample %uring the industrial revolution people orded harder

#ns?er  <O" B'FA<

 

0

"oday! "o day! employees are facing a reductio reduction n in or$ing hours.

0E

2ocial planners planners have  have been consulted about H2 employment figures.

[email protected]

2alaries have not risen significantly since the /@s.

5

"he economic recovery recovery created  created more obs.

5/

3ailyn;s research shos that part-time employees or$ more more efficiently efficiently..

50

'ncreased leisure time ould benefit to-career households.

Questions 33-3! Choose the appropriate letters #-D #-D and  and rite them in boxes 33 33 and  and 3! 3! on  on your anser sheet. 55 3ailyn argues that it is better for a company to employ more or$ers because  

+

it is easy to ma$e excess staff redundant.

 

3

crises occur if you are under-staffed.

 

C

people are available to substitute for absent staff.

 

%

they can proect a positive image at or$.

54 2chor thin$s it ill be difficult for or$ers in the H2 to reduce their or$ing hours because  

+

they ould not be able to afford cars or homes.

 

3

employers are employers  are offering high incomes for long hours.

 

C

the future is dependent on technological advances.

 

%

they do not ish to return to the humble post-ar era.

Questions 3"-3 "he riter mentions a number of factors that have resulted! in employees or$ing longer hours. 1hich [email protected][email protected] of  of the folloing factors are mentioned7 1rite your ansers (#-( ( #-()) in boxes 3"-3 3"-3 on  on your anser sheet. 7ist o Factors  + 3oo$s are available available to help employees employees cope ith stress. stress. 3 Axtra or$ is offered to existing existing employees. employees. C 'ncreased production has led led to to oblessness. oblessness. % 3enefits and hours spent on the ob are not lin$ed. A Overor$ed employees reDuire reDuire longer to do their or$. or$. &

Longer hours indicate greater commitment to the firm.

B #anagers #anagers estimate  estimate staff productivity in terms of hours or$ed.  Amployees value value a career more than a family family..   Clic$ the button to 2ho ide +nsers

 

#ns?er: 25$ No 2$ Not iven 29$ 8es 30$ No 31$ 8es 32$ Not iven 33$ & 3!$ # 3"$ %$ '>tra ?or* is oered to e>istin e>istin emploees$ emploees$ 36$ D$ %eneits %eneits and /ours spent spent on t/e ,ob are not lin*ed 35$ F$ 7oner /ours indicate reater commitment to t/e irm$ 3$ $ Aanaers estimate sta productivit in terms o /ours ?or*ed$

 +larming   rate of loss loss of tropical rainforests rainforests  +dults and children children are  are freDuently confronted ith statements about the alarming rate of loss of tropical

rainforests.. rainforests

&or example! one graphic illustration to illustration to hich children might readily

relate is the estimate that rainforests are being destroyed at a rate eDuivalent to one thousand football fields every forty minutes : about the duration of a normal classroom period. 'n the face of the freDuent and often vivid media coverage! coverage! it is li$ely that children ill have formed ideas about rainforests : hat and here they are! hy they are important! hat endangers them : independent of any formal tuition. 't is also possible that some of these ideas ill be mista$en. #any studies have shon that children harbour  misconceptions about =pure;! curriculum science. "hese misconceptions do not remain isolated but become incorporated into a multifaceted! but organised! conceptual frameor$! ma$ing it and the component ideas! some of hich are erroneous! more robust but also accessible to modification. "hese ideas may be developed by children absorbing ideas through the popular media. 2ometimes this information may be erroneous. 't seems schools may not be providing an opportunity for children to reexpress their ideas and so have them tested and refined by teachers and their peers.

%espite the extensive coverage in the popular media of the destruction of rainforests rainforests!! little formal information is available about children;s children;s ideas in this area. "he aim of the present study is to start to provide such information! to help teachers design their educational strategies to build upon correct ideas and to displace misconceptions and to plan programmes in environmental studies in their schools.

"he study surveys surveys children;s  children;s scientific $noledge and $noledge and attitudes to rainforests. 2econdary school children ere children  ere as$ed to complete a Duestionnaire containing five open-form Duestions. "he most freDuent responses to the first Duestion ere descriptions hich are self-evident from the term =rainforest;. 2ome children described them as damp! et or hot. "he second Duestion concerned the geographical location of rainforests. "he commonest responses ere continents or countries8 +frica (given by 45 of children)!

 

2outh +merica +merica (5)! 3raGil (0,). 2ome children also gave more general locations! such as being b eing near the ADuator. Responses to Duestion three concerned the importance of rainforests. "he dominant idea! raised by 64 of the pupils! as that rainforests provide animals ith habitats. &eer students students responded  responded that rainforests provide plant habitats! and even feer mentioned the indigenous populations of rainforests. #ore girls () than boys (6) raised the idea of rainforest as animal habitats.

2imilarly! but at a loer level! level! more girls (/5) than boys (,) said that rainforests provided human habitats. "hese observations are generally consistent ith our previous studies of pupils; vies about the use and conservation of rainforests! in hich girls ere shon to be more sympathetic to animals and expressed vies hich seem to place an intrinsic value on non-human animal life.

"he fourth Duestion concerned the causes of the destruction of rainforests. Perhaps encouragingly! more than half of the pupils (,@) identified that it is human activities a ctivities hich are destroying rainforests! some personalising the responsibility by the use of terms such as =e are;. +bout /E of the pupils referred specifically to logging activity activity..

One misconception! expressed by some / of the pupils! as that acid a cid rain is responsible for rainforest destruction> a similar proportion said that pollution is destroying rainforests. ere! children are confusing rainforest destruction ith damage to the forests of 1estern 1 estern Aurope by these factors. 1hile to fifths of the students provided the information that the rainforests provide oxygen! in some cases this response also embraced the misconception that rainforest destruction ould reduce atmospheric oxygen! ma$ing the atmosphere incompatible ith human life on Aarth.

'n anser to the final Duestion about the importance of rainforest conservation! the maority of children simply said that e need rainforests to survive. Only a fe of the pupils (6) mentioned that rainforest destruction may contribute to global arming. "his is surprising considering the high level of media coverage on this issue. 2ome children ch ildren expressed the idea that the conservation of rainforests is not important.

"he results of this study suggest that certain ideas ideas predominate  predominate in the thin$ing of children about rainforests. Pupils; responses indicate some misconceptions in basic scientific $noledge of rainforests; ecosystems such as their ideas about rainforests as habitats for animals! plants and humans and the relationship beteen climatic change and destruction of rainforests.

Pupils did not volunteer ideas that suggested that they appreciated the complexity of causes of rainforest

 

destruction. 'n other ords! they gave no indication of an appreciation of either the range of ays in hich rainforests are important or the complex social! economic and political factors hich drive the activities hich are destroying the rainforests. One encouragement is that the results of similar studies about other environmental issues suggest that older children seem to acDuire the ability to appreciate! value and evaluate conflicting vies. Anvironmental education offers offers an arena in hich these s$ills can be developed! hich is essential for these children as future decision-ma$ers. Questions 1B %o the folloing statements statements agree  agree ith the information given in Reading 2ample 7 2ample 7 'n boxes /:E on your anser sheet rite8 T@'   if the statement agrees with the information T@' F#74'   if the statement contradicts the information F#74' NOT ='N  ='N  if there is no information information on this 1 "he plight of the rainforests has largely been ignored by the media. 2 Children only accept opinions on rainforests that they encounter in their classrooms. 3 't has been suggested that children hold mista$en vies about the =pure; science that they study at school. ! "he fact that children;s ideas about science form part of a larger frameor$ frameor$ of  of ideas means that it is easier to change them. " "he study involved as$ing children a number of yesno Duestions such as =+re there any rainforests in  +frica7; 6 Birls are more li$ely than boys to hold mista$en vies about the rainforests; destruction. 5 "he study reported here follos on from a series of studies that have loo$ed at children;s understanding of rainforests.  + second study has been planned to investigate primary school children;s ideas about rainforests. Questions 9B13 "he box belo gives a list of responses #B; responses  #B; to  to the Duestionnaire discussed in Reading sample .  +nser the folloing folloing Duestions by choosing the correct responses #B; #B;.. 1rite your ansers in boxes 9B13 9B13 on  on your anser sheet. 09 1hat 09  1hat as the children;s most freDuent response hen as$ed here the rainforests ere7 10 1hat 10  1hat as the most common response to the Duestion about the importance of the rainforests7 11 1hat 11  1hat did most children give as the reason for the loss of the rainforests7 12 1hy 12  1hy did most children thin$ it important for the rainforests to be protected7 13 1hich 13  1hich of the responses is cited as unexpectedly uncommon! given the amount of time spent on the issue by the nespapers and television7

 

   + "here is a complicated combination combination of reasons for the loss of the rainforests. 3 "he rainforests rainforests are being destroyed destroyed by the same things things that are destroying destroying the forests of 1estern Aurope. Aurope. C Rainforests are are located near the ADuator. ADuator. % 3raGil is is home to the rainforests. rainforests. A 1ithout rainforests some some animals ould have nohere to live. live. & Rainforests are important important habitats for a lot of plants. B People are responsible responsible for the loss loss of the rainforests. rainforests.  "he rainforests rainforests are a source of oxygen. oxygen. '

Rainforests are of conseDuence for a number of different different reasons.

J +s the rainforests are destroyed! the orld gets armer. armer. ? 1ithout rainforests there there ould not be enough oxygen in the air. air. L "here are are people for hom hom the rainforests are are home. # Rainforests are are found in +frica. +frica. < Rainforests are not really important important to human life. life. O "he destruction of the rainforests rainforests is the direct result of logging activity. activity. P umans depend depend on the the rainforests rainforests for their continuing continuing existence. existence.

Question 1! Choose the correct letter A, B, C,  o! E" !rite your answer in box %& on your answer sheet. !hich of the following is the most suitable title for 'eading sample (assage )* # "he development of a programme in environmental studies ithin studies ithin a science curriculum % Children;s ideas about the rainforests and the implications for course design & "he extent to hich children have been misled by the media concerning the rainforests school children D o to collect! collate and describe the ideas of secondary school children ' "he importance of the rainforests and the reasons for their destruction Clic$ the button to 2ho ide +nsers

2ho ide +nsers

Changing Changi ng %ur &nderstanding &nderst anding of $ealth # "he concept of health holds different meanings for different people and groups. "hese meanings of health have also changed over time. "his change is no more evident evident than  than in 1estern society today! hen

 

notions of health and health promotion are being challenged and expanded in ne ays. ays.

% &or much of recent 1estern 1 estern history! history! health has been vieed in the physical sense only. "hat is! good health has health  has been connected to the smooth mechanical operation of the body! hile ill health has been attributed to a brea$don in this machine. ealth in this sense has been defined as the absence of disease or illness and is seen in medical terms. +ccording to this vie! creating health for people means providing medical care to treat or prevent disease and illness. %uring this period! there as an emphasis on providing clean ater! improved sanitation and housing.

& 'n the late /@4s the 1orld ealth Organisation Organisation challenged  challenged this physically and medically oriented vie of health. "hey stated that *health is a complete state of physical! mental and social ell-being and is not merely the absence of disease* (1O! /@46). ealth and the person ere seen more holistically (mindbodyspirit) (mindbodyspiri t) and not ust in physical terms.

D "he /@s as a time of focusing on the prevention of disease and disease and illness by emphasising the importance of the lifestyle and behaviour of the individual. 2pecific behaviours hich ere seen to increase ris$ of disease! such as smo$ing! lac$ of fitness and unhealthy eating habits! ere targeted. Creating health meant providing not onlymedical only medical health care! care! but health promotion programs and policies hich ould help people maintain healthy behaviours and lifestyles. 1hile this individualistic individualistic healthy lifestyles approach to health or$ed for some (the ealthy members of society)! people experiencing poverty! unemployment! unemployment! underemployment or little control over o ver the conditions of their daily lives benefited little from this approach. "his as largely because both the healthy lifestyles approach and the medical approach to health largely ignored the social and environmental conditions affecting the health of people.

' %uring /@Es and /@@s there has been a groing sing aay from seeing lifestyle lifestyle ris$s as the root cause of poor health. 1hile lifestyle factors still remain important! health is being vieed also in terms of the social! economic and environmental contexts in hich people live. "his broad approach to health is called the socio-ecological vie of health. "he broad socio-ecological vie of health as endorsed at the first 'nternational Conference Conference of  of ealth Promotion held in /@E6! Ottaa! Canada! here people from 5E countries agreed and declared that8 The fundamental conditions and resources for health are a re peace, shelter, education, food, a viable income, a stable eco-system, sustainable resources, social +ustice and euity. Improvement Improvement in health

 

reuires a secure foundation in these basic reuirements. "!, %/0$ . %/0$  .

't is clear from this statement that the creation of health is about much more than encouraging healthy individual behaviours and lifestyles and providing appropriate medical care. "herefore! the creation of health must include addressing issues such as poverty! pollution! pollution! urbanisation! natural resource depletion! social alienation and poor or$ing conditions. "he social! economic and environmental contexts hich contribute to the creation of health do d o not operate separately or independently of each other. Rather! they are interacting and interdependent! and it is the complex interrelationships beteen them hich determine the conditions that promote health. + broad socio-ecological socio-ecological vie of health suggests that the promotion of health must include a strong social! economic and environmental focus.

F  +t the Ottaa Ottaa Conference in /@E6! /@E6! a charter  as  as developed hich outlined ne n e directions for health promotion based on the socio-ecological vie of health. "his charter! $non $non as the Ottaa Charter for ealth Promotion! remains as the bac$bone of health action today. 'n exploring the scope of health promotion it states that8 1ood health is a ma+or resource for social, economic and personal development and an important dimension of uality of life. (olitical, economic, social, cultural, environmental, behavioural and biological factors can all favour health or be harmful to it. "!, %/0$ . "he Ottaa Charter brings practical meaning and action to this broad notion of health promotion. 't presents fundamental strategies and approaches in achieving health for all. "he overall philosophy of health promotion hich guides these fundamental strategies and approaches is one of *enabling people to increase control control over  over and to improve their health* (1O! /@E6).   Questions 19-22 Hsing NO AO' T(#N T('' <OD4 from <OD4 from the passage! anser the folloing Duestions 1rite your ansers in boxes 19-22 19-22 on  on your anser sheet.   /@. 'n hich year did the 1orld ealth OrganiGation define health in terms of mental! physical and social ell-being7 0. 1hich members of society benefited most from the healthy lifestyles approach to health7 0/. <ame the three broad b road areas hich relate to people*s health! according to the socio-ecological vie of

 

health. 00. %uring hich decade ere lifestyle ris$s seen as the maor contributors to poor health7   Questions 23-25 %o the folloing statements agree ith the information in Reading Passage E7 'n boxes 05-0 on your anser sheet rite  

 8'4    8'4

if the statement agrees ith the information.

 

NO  NO 

if the statement contradicts the information.

 

NOT ='N  ='N  if there is no information on this this in the passage.

05 %octors have been instrumental in improving living standards in 1estern society. 04 "he approach to health during the /@s included the introduction of health aareness programs. 0, "he socio-ecological vie of health recognises that lifestyle habits and the provision of adeDuate health care are critical factors governing health. 06 "he principles of the Ottaa Charter are considered to be out of date in the /@@s. 0 'n recent years a number of additional additional countries have subscribed to the Ottaa Ottaa Charter. Charter.

Clic$ the button to 2ho ide +nsers #ns?er: /4. viii /,. ii /6. iv /. ix /E. vii /@. /@46 0. (the) ealthy (members) (of) (society) 0/. social! economic! environmental 00. (the) /@s 05. <O" B'FA< 04. IA2 0,. <O 06. <O 0. <O" B'FA<

 

#issing Out on Learning  +.%.%. - #issing 2tudy reDuires a student*s undivided attention. 't is impossible to acDuire a complex s$ill or absorb information about a subect in class unless one learns to concentrate ithout undue stress for long

periods o periods  off time.

2tudentsith 2tudents ith +ttention  +ttention %eficit %eficit %isorder  (+.%.%.)   (+.%.%.) are

particularly deficient in this respect for reasons hich are no n o $non to be microbiological and not behavioral! as as once believed. Of course! cou rse! being unable to concentrate! and incapable of pleasing the teacher and oneself in the process! Duic$ly leads to despondence and lo self-esteem. "his ill naturally induce behavioral problems. 't is estimated that 5 - ,  of all children suffer from +ttention +ttention %eficit %isorder. "here are three main types of +ttention %eficit %isorder8 +.%.%. ithout yperactivity! +.%.%. ith yperactivity (+.%..% (+.%..%.)! .)! and Hndifferenti Hndifferentiated ated +.%.%. "he characteristics of a person ith +.%.%. are as follos8 S has difficulty paying attention S does not appear to listen S is unable to carry out given instructions S avoids or disli$es tas$s hich reDuire sustained mental effort

 

S has difficulty ith organiGation S is easily distracted S often loses things S is forgetful in daily activities Children ith +.%..%. also exhibit exhibit excessive  excessive and inappropriate physical activity! activity! such as constant fidgeting and running about the room. "his boisterousness often interferes ith the educational development of development  of others. Hndifferentiated +.%.%. +.%.%. sufferers exhibit some! but not all! of the symptoms of each category category.. 't is important to base base remedial  remedial action on an accurate diagnosis. 2ince +.%.%. is a physiological disorder  caused  caused by some structural or chemically-based neurotransmitter problem in the nervous system! system! it responds especially ell to certain psycho stimulant drugs! such as Ritalin. 'n use u se since /@,5! the drug enhances the ability to structure and complete a thought ithout being overhelmed by non-related and distracting thought processes. Psycho stimulants are the most idely used medications medications for  for persons ith +.%.%. and +.%..%. Recent findings have validated the use of stimulant medications! hich or$ in about  - E of  +..%.%. children and adults(1ilens adults(1ilens and 3iederman! /@@). 'n fact! up to @ of destructibility in +.%.%. sufferers can be removed by medication. "he specific dose of medicine varies for each child! but such drugs are not ithout side effects! hich include reduction in appetite! loss of eight! eight ! and problems ith falling asleep. <ot all students ho are inattentive in class have +ttention %eficit %isorder . #any are simply unilling un illing to commit themselves to the tas$ at hand. Others might have a specific learning disability (2.L.%.). disability (2.L.%.). oever! those ith +.%.%. +.%.%. have difficulty performing in school not usually because they have trouble learning / ! but because of poor organiGation! inattention! inattention! compulsion and impulsiveness. "his is brought about by an incompletely understood phenomenon! in hich the individual is! perhaps! best described as *tuning out* for short to long periods of time. "he effect is analogous to the sitching of channels on a television set. "he difference is that an +.%.%. sufferer is not *in charge of the remote control*. "he child ith +.%.%. +.%.%. is unavailable to learn - something else has involuntarily captured his or her hole attention. 't is commonly thought that +.%.%. only affects children! and that they gro out of the condition once they reach adolescence. 't is no $non that this is often not the case. Left undiagnosed or untreated! children ith all forms of +.%.%. ris$ a lifetime of failure to relate effectively to others at home! school! college and at or$. "his brings significant emotional disturbances into play! and is very li$ely to negatively affect selfesteem. &ortunately! &ortunately! early identification of the problem! together ith appropriate treatment! ma$es it possible for many victims to overcome the substantial obstacles that +.%.%. +.%.%. places in the ay of successful learning.

/ approximately /, of +.%..%. +.%..%. children do! hoever! have learning disabilities

 

#lternative Treatments or #$D$D$ •

  • •

• • •





'valuation

AAB 3iofeedbac$ %ietary intervention (removal ( removal of food additives -preservatives, colorings etc.) etc.) 2ugar reduction reduction (in  (in +.%..%.) Correction of (supposed) inner-ear disturbance Correction of (supposed) yeast infection (Candida albicans) Fitaminmineral Fitaminmi neral regimen for (supposed) genetic abnormality 3ody manipulations for (supposed) misalignment of to bones in the s$ull



• • •

• • • • • • • •

expensive trials flaed - (sample groups small! no control groups) ineffective numerous studies disprove lin$ slightly percentage ofeffective children)(but only for small  undocumented! unscientific studies  inconsistent ith current theory  lac$ of evidence  inconsistent ith current theory  lac$ of evidence  theory disproved in the /@s  lac$ of evidence  inconsistent ith current theory

&igure /. Avaluations of Controversial "reatments for +.%.%. Questions 25-29 Iou Io u are advised a dvised to spend about , minutes on uestions 0[email protected] Refer to Reading Reading Passage  Passage /5 9+.%.%. - #issing #issing Out On Learning9! and decide hich hich of the ansers best completes the folloing sentences. 1rite your ansers in boxes 25 - 29 on 29 on your +nser 2heet. "he first one has been done for you as a s an example. Axample8 "he number of main types of +.%.%. is8 Axample8 "he a) / b) 0 c) 5 d) 4 . 0. +ttention %eficit %isorder8 a) is a cause of behavioural problems b) is very common in children c) has difficulty difficulty paying paying attention attention d) none of the above . 0E. 1ilens and 3iederman have shon that8 a) stimulant medications are useful b) psychostimulants do not alays or$ c) hyperactive persons respond ell to psychostimulants d) all of the above . [email protected] Children ith +.%.%.8 a) have a specific learning disability b) should not be given medication as a treatment c) be improve slightly affected by become sugar inta$e d) may usually once they teenagers

 

Questions 30-35 Iou Io u are advised a dvised to spend about / /  minutes on uestions 30 - 35. 35. "he folloing is a summary of Reading Passage /5. Complete each gap in the text by choosing 30 - 35 on 35 on your +nser 2heet. 1rite your ansers in boxes. <ote that there are more choices in the box than gaps. Iou Io u ill not need to use all the choices given! but you may use a ord! or phrase more than once.  +ttention %eficit %eficit %isorder is a neurobiological neurobiological problem that affects affects 5 - , of all .....(Ax8). .....(Ax8). ...... ...... 2ymptoms include inattentiveness and having difficulty getting (30 (30)) ! as ell as easily becoming distracted. 2ometimes! +.%.%. +.%.%. is accompanied by (31 31)) 'n these cases! the sufferer exhibits excessive physical activity.. Psychostimulant drugs can be given to +.%.%. sufferers activity sufferers to  to assist them ith the (32 ( 32)) of desired thought processes processes!! although they might cause (33 ( 33)) Current theory states that medication is the only (3! ( 3!)) that has a sound scientific basis. "his action should only be ta$en after an accurate diagnosis is made. Children ith +.%.%. +.%.%. do not necessarily have trouble learning> their problem is that they involuntarily (3" ( 3")) their attention elsehere. 't is not only (36 ( 36)) that are affected by this condition. &ailure to treat +.%.%. +.%.%. can lead to lifelong emotional and behavioral problems. problems. Aarly diagnosis and treatment! hoever! are the $ey to (35 (35)) overcoming learning difficulties associated ith +.%.%. side effects  effects 

successfully

completion

medicine

sitch

drug

hyperactivity

organiGed

children

attention

losing eight

remedial action

adults Ritalin

+.%..%. +.%. .%.

paying

 

Questions 3 - !0 Iou Io u are advised a dvised to spend about , minutes on uestions 5E - 4. Refer to Reading Passage /5! and decide hich of the folloing pieces of advice is best suited for child listed in the table belo.

1rite your ansers in boxes 3 - !0 on your +nser 2heet.

 A23IC45  +

current treatment treatment ineffective ineffective - suggest increased dosage dosage of Ritalin. Ritalin.

3

supplement diet ith large amounts of vitamins and minerals.

C

probably not suffering from +.%.% +.%.%.. - suggest behavioral counseling.

%

bone manipulation to realign bones in the s$ull.

A

AAB 3iofeedbac$ to self-regulate the child*s behavior.

&

daily dose of Ritalin in place of expensive unproven treatment.

 

CI62 %

;roblems

 



CI62 7

does not listen to



excessively active



unable to pay attention

sleeps in class



disli$es mental effort



disturbs other students



disturbs other students



none



diet contains no food additive



lo dose of Ritalin



given instructions

&urrent

CI62 8

often forgets to do homeor$



loses interest easily



cannot complete tas$s



Duiet and ithdran



AAB &eedbac$

 



 

Treatment %est #dvice

C3)$

C39)

C!0)$$

Clic$ the button to 2ho ide +nsers

!(!A)$ )$! CA(%P*   1. "he world#s tropical rainforests rainforests comprise  comprise some $% of the &arth#s land area and contain more

 plants than half of all known life forms' or a conservative estimate of about 3( million species of of plants and animals. animals. !ome experts estimate there could be two or even three times as many species

 

hidden within these complex and fast) disappearing ecosystems* scientists will probably never know for certain' so vast is the amount of study re+uired. 2. "ime is running out for biological for biological research research.. ,ommercial development development is  is responsible for the

loss of about 1- million hectares of virgin rainforest each year ) a figure approximating 1% of what remains of the world#s rainforests. 3. "he current devastation of once impenetrable rainforest is of particular concern because'

although new tree treegrowth growth may in time repopulate felled areas' the biologically diverse storehouse of flora and fauna is fauna is gone forever. osing this bountiful inheritance' which took millions of years to reach its present highly evolved state' would be an unparalleled act of human stupidity. 4. ,hemical compounds that compounds that might be extracted from yet)to)be)discovered species hidden

 beneath the tree canopy could assist in the treatment of disease disease or  or help to control fertility. ,onservationists point out that important medical discoveries have already been made from material found in tropical rainforests. "he drug aspirin' now synthesised' was originally found in the bark of a rainforest tree. "wo of the most potent anti) cancer drugs derive from the rosy  periwinkle discovered in the 1/0(s in the tropical rainforests of Madagascar. Madagascar. 5. "he rewards of "imber)rich rich rewards of discovery are potentially enormous' yet the outlook is bleak. "imber)

countries mired countries  mired in debt' view potential financial gain decades into the future as less attractive than short)term profit from logging. ,ataloguing species and analysing newly)found substances takes time and money' both of which are in short supply.  6. "he developed world takes every opportunity to lecture countries lecture countries which are the guardians of

rainforest . ich nations exhort them to preserve and care for what is left' ignoring the fact that world. their wealth was in large part due to the exploitation of exploitation of their own natural world. 7. t is often forgotten that forests once covered most of &urope. arge tracts of forest were

rainforests are  are now being destroyed over the centuries for the same reason that the remaining rainforests felled ) timber. s s well as providing material for housing' it enabled wealthy nations to build large navies and shipping fleets with which to continue their plunder of the world#s resources. 8. esides' it is not clear that developing countries countries would  would necessarily benefit financially from

extended bioprospecting of their rainforests. Pharmaceutical companies make huge profits from the sale of drugs with little return to the country in which an original discovery was made. 9. lso' cataloguing tropical biodiversity involves much more than a search for medically useful

and therefore commercially viable drugs. Painstaking biological fieldwork helps to build immense databases of genetic' chemical and behavioural information that will be of benefit only to those countries developed enough to use them. 10. eckless logging itself is not the only danger to rainforests. 4ires lit to clear land for further logging and for housing and agricultural development played havoc in the late 1//(s in the

 

forests of orneo. Massive clouds of smoke from burning forest fires swept across the southernmost countries of !outh)&ast sia sia choking cities and reminding even the most resolute advocates of rainforest clearing of the swiftness of nature#s retribution. 11 11.. 5or are the dangers entirely to the rainforests themselves. 6ntil very recently' so)called 7lost7

tribes ) indigenous peoples who have had no contact with the outside world ) still existed deep within certain rainforests. t is now unlikely that there are any more truly lost tribes. ,ontact with the modern world inevitably brings with it exploitation' loss of traditional culture' and' in an alarming number of instances' complete obliteration. 12. 4orest)dwellers who have managed to live in harmony with their environment have much to

teach us of life beneath the  beneath the tree canopy canopy.. f we do not listen' the impact will be on the entire human race. oss of biodiversity' coupled with climate change and ecological destruction will have profound and lasting conse+uences. Questions 16 - 20

8ou 8o u are advised to spend about 9 minutes on :uestions 1$)2(. efer to eading Passage eading Passage 10 7eneath the ,anopy7 and answer the following +uestions. "he left)hand column contains +uotations taken directly from the reading passage. "he right)hand column contains explanations of those +uotations. Match each uotation with the correct e!planation. !elect from the choices " - # below and write your answers in boxes 16 20 on your nswer !heet.

 Example: # # a conservative estimate#  Example:  

......$...... Quotation

Ex: 'a conservative estimate' para!rap" 1#

Explanation ,. *it" man% trees $ut e* +nancial resources +nancial  resources -. purposel% lo* an& cautious reconin!

16. '$iolo!icall% &iverse store"ouse o (ora an& auna' para!rap" 3#

/. lar!e)scale use o plant an& *il&lie

debt'' 17. 'tim$er)ric" countries mire& in debt para!rap" 5#

. pro+t rom pro+t rom an anal%sis o t"e plant an& animal lie

18. 'exploitation o t"eir o*n natural n atural *orl&' para!rap" 6#

E. *ealt" o plants an& animals

19. '$ene+t +nanciall% rom exten&e& $ioprospectin! o t"eir rainorests'   para!rap" 8# 20. 'loss o $io&iversit%'

para!rap" 12#

. $ein! less ric" in natural *ealt"

 

Questions 21 - 23

8ou 8o u are advised to spend about 0 minutes on :uestions 21-23.efer to eading Passage 2' and look at :uestions 21)23 below. Write Write your answers in boxes 21 ) 23 on your nswer !heet. :21. ;ow many medical drug discoveries does the article mention< :22. What two shortages are given as the reason for the writer#s pessimistic outlook< :23. Who will most likely benefit from the bioprospecting of developing countries# rainforests< Questions 24 - 26

8ou 8o u are advised to spend about - minutes on :uestions 2= ) 2$. efer to eading Passage 10' 1 0' and decide which of the answers best completes the sentences. Write Wr ite your answers in boxes 24 - 2$ on your nswer !heet. :2=. "he amount of rainforest destroyed annually is> a? approximately $% of the &arth#s land area  b? such that it will only take 1(( years to lose all the forests c? increasing at an alarming rate d? responsible for for commercial commercial development :20. n orneo in the late 1//(s> a? burning forest fires caused air pollution problems aass far away as &urope  b? reckless logging resulted from burning forest fi fires res c? fires were lit to play the game of havoc d? none of the above :2$. Many so)called 7lost7 tribes of certain rainforests> a? have been destroyed by contact with the modern world  b? do not know how to exploit the rainforest without causing harm to the environment c? are still lost inside the rainforest d? must listen or they they will impact on the the entire human race.

 "he %anger of AC2"+2I  

Hse of the illegal drug named drug named Acstasy (#%#+) has increased alarmingly in 3ritain over the last fe

years! and in /@@0 the 3ritish #edical Journal claimed Journal claimed that at least seven deaths and many s!evere adverse reactions have folloed its use as a dance drug. /4 deaths have so far been attributed to the drug in 3ritain! although it is possible that other drugs contributed to some of those deaths. 1hile it is true that all drugs by their very nature change the ay in hich the body reacts to its environment and are therefore potentially dangerous! it is still unclear hether casual use of Acstasy is as dangerous as

 

authorities believe. 1hat is certain is that the drug causes distinct changes to the body hich! unless understood! may lead to fatal complications in certain circumstances.  

'n almost all cases of #%#+-relate #%#+-related d deaths in 3ritain! overheating of the body and inadeDuate

replacement of fluids have been noted as the primary causes of death. Iet Iet in the Hnited 2tates! 2tates! studies appear to implicate other causes since no deaths from overheating have yet been reported. 't seems that normal healthy people are unli$ely to die as a result of ta$ing #%#+! but people ith pre-existing conditions such as a ea$ heart or asthma may react in extreme ays and are ell-advised not to ta$e it.  

<ot all physical problems associated ith the drug are immediate. #edium term and long term

effects have effects  have been reported hich are Duite disturbing! yet not all are conclusively lin$ed to the drug*s use. #edium term effects include the possibility of contracting the liver disease hepatitis! hepatitis! or ris$ing damage to the $idneys. oever! animal studies sho no such damage (although it is readily admitted by researchers that animal studies are far from conclusive since humans react in different ays than rats and mon$eys to the drug)! and cases of human liver or $idney damage have so far only been reported in 3ritain. <onetheless! evidence to date suggests that alcohol and Acstasy ta$en at the same time may result in lasting harm to bodily organs.  

Avidence that #%#+ causes long term cellular  damage damage to  to the brain has! until recently! been based on

experiments ith animals alone> the most common method of detection is to cut out a section of the brain! and measure the level of the chemical serotonin. "his is performed ee$s or  months after use of a suspect drug. 'f the serotonin level! level! hich is loered as a result of the use of many drugs! fails to return to normal! then it is probable that the drug in Duestion has caused damage to the cells of that part of the brain. Acstasy has been implicated in causing brain damage in damage in this ay! but in most cases the serotonin level returns to normal! albeit after a long time.  

Aarly experiments ith mon$eys! in hich they ere found to have permanent permanent brain  brain damage as a

result of being administered #%#+! ere ere used to lin$ brain damage in humans to Acstasy Acstasy use.  use.

"hese early concerns concerns led  led to the drug being classified as extremely dangerous! and although the results of the research ere doubted by some and criticised as invalid! no attempt as made to change the classification. oever! the latest available data regarding permanent brain damage in humans ho have ta$en Acstasy regularly over many years (as little as once a ee$ for four years) seem to ustify the cautious approach ta$en in the past. "he psychological effects of ta$ing Acstasy are also a maor cause for concern. 't is clear that the mind is more readily damaged by the drug than is the body. 't 't is not difficult to find occasional or regular users of the drug ho ill admit to suffering mental damage as

 

a result. Paranoia! depression! motivation and desire! bouts of mania - all are common! and not depression! loss of motivation unusual side effects of the drug.  

"o be fair to those ho claim that Acstasy Acstasy frees the personality personality by removing one*s defenses against against

psychological attac$! it is true that the drug can be liberating for some users. Hnfortunately! the the experience is li$ely to be short-lived! and there is alays the danger  is  is that one*s normal life might seem dull by comparison. .T  

Perhaps the most damning evidence urging against the use of Acstasy is that it is undoubtedly an

addictive substance! but one that Duic$ly loses its ability to transport the mind! hile it increases its effect upon the body. Iet! Iet! unli$e the classic addictive drugs! heroin! opium! morphine and so on! Acstasy does not produce physical ithdraal symptoms. 'n fact! because one becomes Duic$ly tolerant of its effect on the mind! it is necessary to forgo its use for a hile in order to experience again its full effect. +ny substance hich produces such a strong effect on the user should be treated ith appropriate respect and caution.

Iou Io u are advised a dvised to spend about / /  minutes on uestions 32 - 3". 3". Refer to Reading Reading Passage  Passage 15 15 9  9T/e T/e Daners o 'cstas9! 'cstas9! and decide hich of the ansers best completes the folloing sentences. 1rite your ansers in boxes 32 - 3" on 3" on your +nser 2heet. "he first one has been done for you as an example. E#$%&'e( 'n recent years! use of the illegal drug Acstasy in 3ritain8

 

a) has a)  has increased b) has decreased alarmingly

 

c) has decreased

 

d) has increased a little

Q)2" It is not 9nown whether5   a) drugs change the ay the body reacts

  b) the 3ritish #edical Journal has Journal has reported seven deaths caused Acstasy   c) Acstasy Acstasy alone as responsible responsible for for the /4 deaths in 3ritain 3ritain   d) Acstasy causes changes to the body Q))" The use of 4cstasy5

  a) is usually fatal   b) is less dangerous than the authorities believe   c) is harmless hen used as a dance drug   d) none of the above Q)*" 2eaths from 4cstasy are sometimes caused by5

  a) people ith pre-existing conditions

 

  b) too much fluid in the body   c) overheating of the body   d) all of the above Q)5" M2MA studies conducted on animals5

  a) sho damage to the $idneys   b) cannot provide absolute proof proof of the effect effect of the drug on humans   c) are cruel and have been discontinued   d) have yet to indicate long term brain damage Questions 36 - !0 Hsing information from Reading Passage /! complete the folloing sentences using NO using  NO AO' T(#N T('' <OD4$ 1rite your ansers in boxes 36 - !0 on !0 on your +nser 2heet. Q36$ Permanent Q36$  Permanent damage to the body may result if Acstasy is ta$en simultaneously ith Q35$ Cellular Q35$  Cellular damage to the brain is detected by measuring the amount of  Q3$ "he serotonin level of Acstasy users ta$es a long time to Q39$ One Q39$  One of the positive effects of ta$ing Acstasy is that it can Q!0$ Acstacy Q!0$  Acstacy produces no ithdraal symptoms even though it is Clic$ the button to 2ho ide +nsers

Creating Arti+cial eefs %n the coastal waters of waters of the 6!' a nation#s leftovers have been discarded. @erelict ships' concrete

 blocks'' scrapped cars' army tanks' tyres filled with concrete and redundant planes litter the sea  blocks disposal'' but part of a coordinated' state)run programme. "o floor. ;owever' ;owever' this is notwaste notwaste disposal recently arrived fish' plants and other sea organisms' these artificial reefs are reefs are an ideal home' offering food and shelter.

 

&ea)dumping incites widespread condemnation. widespread condemnation. ittle surprise

when oceans are seen as #convenient# dumping grounds for the rubbish we have created but would rather forget. ;owever' scientific evidence suggests that if we dump the right things' sea life can actually be enhanced. nd more recently' purpose)built structures of steel or concrete apartment blocks )principally to increase fish have been employed ) employed ) some the siAe of small apartment blocks harvests. &trong currents' for example' the choice of design and materials for an artificial reef depends on

where it is going to be placed. n areas of a solid concrete structure will be more appropriate than  ballasted tyres. t also depends on what species are to be attracted. t is pointless pointless creating high) rise structures for fish that prefer flat or low)relief habitat. ut the most important consideration is the purpose of the reef. %n the 6!' where there is a national reef plan using cleaned up cleaned up rigs and tanks' artificial reefs have

mainly been used to attract fish for recreational fishing or fishing or sport)diving. ut there are many other ways in which they can be used to manage the marine habitat habitat.. 4or as well as protecting existing habitat' providing purpose)built accommodation for commercial species Bsuch as lobsters and octupi? and acting as sea defences' they can be an effective way of improving fish harvests. 'apan' for example' has created vast areas of artificial habitat ) rather than isolated reefs ) to

increase its fishstocks fishstocks.. n fact' the cultural and historical importance of seafood in Capan is reflected by the fact that it is a world leader  in  in reef technology* what#s more' those who construct and deploy reefs have sole rights to the harvest. %n &urope' artificial reefs have been mainly employed to protect to protect habitat habitat.. Particularly so in the

Mediterranean where reefs have been sunk as physical obstacles to stop illegal trawling' which is destroying sea grass beds grass beds and the marine life that depends on them. f you want to protect areas

 

of the seabed' you need something that will stop trawlers dead in their tracks'# says @r ntony Censen of the !outhampton Dceanography ,entre. %taly boasts considerable artificial reef activity. activity. t deployed its first scientifically planned reef

using concrete cubes assembled in pyramid forms in 1/-= 1 /-= to enhance fisheries and stop trawling. nd !pain has built nearly 0( reefs in its waters' mainly to discourage trawling and enhance the  productivity of fisheries. Meanwhile' ritain established ritain established its first +uarried rock artificial reef in 1/9= off the !cottish coast' to assess its potential for attracting commercialspecies. commercialspecies. $ut while the scientific study study of  of these structures is a little over a +uarter of a century old'

artificial reefs made out of readily available materials such as bamboo and coconuts have been b een used by fishermen for centuries. nd the benefits have been enormous. y placing reefs close to home' fishermen can save time and fuel. ut unless they are carefully managed' these areas can  become over) fished. n the Philippines' for example' where artificial artificial reef programmes have been instigated in response to declining fish populations' catches are often allowed to exceed the maximum potential new production of the artificial a rtificial reef because there is no proper management control. There is no doubt that artificial reefs have lots to offer. nd nd while purpose)built structures are

effective' the real challenge now is to develop environmentally safe ways of using recycled waste to increase marine diversity. "his will re+uire more scientific research. 4or example' the leachates from one of the most commonly used reef materials' tyres' could potentially be harmful to the creatures and plants that they are supposed to attract. 8et few extensive studies have been undertaken into the long) term effects of disposing of tyres at sea. nd at the moment' there is little consensus about what is environmentally acceptable to dump at sea' especially when it comes to oil and gas rigs. ,learly' the challenge is to develop environmentally en vironmentally acceptable ways of disposing of our rubbish while enhancing marine life too. What we must never be allowed to do is have an excuse for dumping anything we like at sea. Questions 1-3 "he list below gives some of the factors that must be taken into account when deciding how to construct an artificial reef. Which T()** of these factors are mentioned by the writer of the article< Write Write the appropriate letters "-# in boxes 1)3 on your answer sheet. A

)he +shing activity in the area

-

)he intended location of the reef 

.

)he e/isting reef structures

"

)he type of marine life being targeted

!

)he function of the reef 

 



)he cultural importance of the area

Questions 4-8 ,omplete the table below. ,hoose NO MORE THAN T  from the passage for THREE HREE W WORDS  ORDS  from

each answer. Write Write your answers in boxes =)9 on your answer sheet. ,rea/oun tr%

%pe o ee

&S

Made using old .4#.

 0apan

urpose

 )o  )o attract +s +sh h for leisu leisure re activ activities ities

orms orms large area of arti+cial habitat

to improve improve .5#.

!urope

lies deep down to form 6#.

to act as a sea defence

1taly

Consists of pyramid shapes of .7#.. to prevent trawling

ritain

made of rock

to encourage .8#. .8#. ish  ish species

Questions 9-12

6sing +, ,)* T("+ T()** ,)/&' complete the following sentences. Write your answers in boxes /)12 on your answer sheet. n .....9.....' people who build reefs are legally entitled to all the fish they attract. "rawling inhibits the development of marine life because it damages d amages the .....10......  n the past' both . ..... 11......were used to make reefs. "o ensure that reefs are not over)fished' good ......12.....  is

re+uired. Question 13

,hoose the appropriate letter )@ and write it in box 13 on your answer sheet. 13 ccording to the writer' the next step in the creation of artificial reefs is  



to produce an international agreement.

 

E

to expand their use in the marine environment.

 

F

to examine their dangers to marine life.

 

@

to improve on purpose)built structures.

,lick the button to !howG ;ide nswers

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