Conservation For Big Cats

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Conservation For Big Cats Protect land where big cats live (habitats) Make laws against poaching, poisoning, trapping, inbreeding, private ownership (any country) Fund animal sanctuaries (large acreage for big cats to roam) Write state legislators to pass laws protecting big cats Keep counts (survey) of animals with GPS/collars Identify and monitor high priority animal populations on which immediate conservation efforts should be focused Regional planning of animal reserves to foster ecological connectivity between protective areas through restorative inputs with integrated land-use planning Make and sign petitions regarding big cat conservation Ban tourism to the reserves to give lions and tigers chances of survival Have law enforcement, wildlife monitoring, and community involvement Government set up a task force to tackle rampant wildlife crime and stamp out poaching and cross-border encroachment Wildlife conservation groups and big cat specialists need adequate resources to monitor reserves and enforce anti-poaching laws Increase crackdown on illegal poaching Increase protection and guarding of reserves including a reduction in illegal fires, logging, hunting of the big cats’ prey species Create more reserves, including the joining together of existing reserves

Bio-diversity - A Crisis Everyday bio-diversity is being lost at up to 1,000 times the natural rate. Some of the threats for this crisis are; extinction of individual species, habitat destruction, land conversion for agriculture and development, climate change, pollution and the spread of invasive species. Some of the most threatening invasive species can happen deliberately or unintentionally, for example, by organisms “hitch-hiking” in containers, ships, cars or soil. Habitat loss and degradation affects 86% of all threatened birds, 86% of the threatened mammals assessed and 88% of the threatened amphibians. The abundance of all species declined by 40% between 1970-2000. Over the past decade alone, nearly 60 million hectares (231,661 sq. mi.) of primary forest (including old-growth trees that provide the basis of many forest ecosystems) have been lost. “We humans continue to drive species extinct at up to 1,000 times the natural rate, which is undermining the stability of ecosystems across the planet and thereby threatening our own well-being. 13 million hectares (50,193 sq. mi.) of the world’s forests are lost due to deforestation each year. To reduce the direct pressures on bio-diversity/promote sustainable use the goal is either halving or bringing close to zero the rate of loss, degradation and fragmentation of natural habitats.

August 11 2010 WCS (Wildlife Conservation Society) conducted Uganda’s first ever carnivore survey. The country’s lions have declined by almost 40 percent in less than a decade. Only 415 of the big cats remain in the network of national parks. In the largest of them all, Murchison Falls N.P., just 132 remain. ICUN Red List of Threatened Species - Wild cat species are gradually becoming extinct! Lion-Vulnerable, Tiger-Endangered (Cites Appen I), Sumatran Tiger-Critical, Leopard-Near Threatened (Cites Appen I), Jaguar-Near Threatened (Cites Appen I), Cheetah-Vulnerable (Cites Appen I-Asia only) Appendix I lists species that are the most endangered among CITES-listed animals and plants They are threatened with extinction and CITES prohibits international trade in specimens of these species except when the purpose of the import is not commercial, for instance for scientific research. In these exceptional cases, trade may take place provided it is authorized by the granting of both an import permit and an export permit (or re-export certificate).

Threats To Big Cats Uncontrolled human population growth in those countries where the majority of wild cat species live erodes wild cat habitat. We should not live side by side with wild cats. It is a totally impractical arrangement with no solution. A great threat to wild cat species particularly the tiger is Chinese medicine. The ingredients for it are actual body parts of tigers and other rare animals. Substitutes are available but not always used. The Bengal tiger is endangered and protected under CITES Convention (a ban of body parts), but there is a lack of commitment to enforcement. Tiger and lion bones being used to make wine in China. Brewers are importing lion bones from South Africa as a legally obtainable and cheaper substitute for tiger bones. Merchants are mostly getting their supplies under government permit from hunting farms on which captive-bred lions are released to be shot as trophies. February 2 2010 World’s top predators have been gunned down, poisoned, speared, and decimated across their habitats. Even where large areas of habitat are protected, top predators are often missing. Predators are vital to ecosystems, control pops of prey animals, control smaller predators, protect river banks from erosion and provide nutrient hot spots. Top predators are indispensable to a working ecosystem and sit at an apex of an ecosystem’s food chain. Tigers are on the edge of extinction, classified as Endangered by IUCN Red List. Two of the six surviving subspecies of tiger are considered Critically Endangered. Tiger populations are dropping in both India and Russia. Other top predators on the edge of extinction: The Amur leopard, the Indo Chinese tiger, the Arabian leopard, the Javan leopard, and the Asiatic cheetah could all vanish during this century. In some parts of the world, populations of large mammalian carnivores have dropped a staggering 95-99 percent! The decline in surviving trees and the loss of particular species of plants due to predator loss can have varied impacts on the ecosystem, affecting everything from erosion to fire.

Conservation For Amur Leopard There are only a few Amur leopards remaining in the wild due to logging, farming, building and poaching. 20-30 in Russia, 10 in China. Amur leopard suffers daily risks from: poaching (and poaching of their prey, like deer), forest-fires which reduce their habitat, enraged farmers when livestock killed by tigers and leopards. There still exist large tracts of forest which are ideal leopard habitat. If these areas are protected from logging companies there is a chance to increase wild leopard numbers. However, the Amur leopard lost 80% of its range in the 13 years from 1970-1983 and logging isn’t the only threat to the Amur leopard habitat.

Conservation For Leopards and Cheetahs AfriCat Foundation runs the largest cheetah and leopard rescue-and-release program in the world. In the last 17 years over 1000 of these predators have been rescued with over 85% being released back into the wild. Namibia is situated along the South West coast of Africa and covers an area of 321,500 sq. mi. All regions of Namibia are populated with wildlife, including large carnivores, although population numbers vary dramatically in different parts of the country. Namibia is home to approximately 25% of the world's cheetah population of which 90% live on farmland. Namibia's other large carnivores, namely, leopards, lions, wild dogs and brown and spotted hyenas, are not believed to consist of such large percentages of the world's population. AfriCat is active throughout Namibia. The organization operates from 2 locations, one on Okonjima in central Namibia, near the town of Otjiwarongo and the second, known as AfriCat North, from Kaross, bordering Etosha National Park.

Conservation For Cheetahs Cheetahs are more numerous in Namibia than anywhere else. This could change as 95% of them are found outside of protected reserves on commercial livestock farmlands. In Namibia, wildlife belong to the landowner. The goal is to secure the long-term survival of the cheetah and its ecosystem through multidisciplined, integrated programs in research, conservation and education. This research aims are to provide the baseline data and long-term studies necessary to understand factors affecting the cheetah’s survival on these farmlands and to develop policies and programs to sustain Namibian cheetah populations.

Conservation For Lions September 3, 2009 - Wildlife Direct and Born Free Foundation joined in the official launch of the Pride of Kenya campaign at the Nairobi Natl Pk. To this campaign Wildlife Direct’s call is to have all carbofurans-especially Furadan, a lethal agricultural pesticide that is behind the death of 75 lions in the last 4 years-banned in Kenya. 2,100 lions remaining in Kenya. Kenya’s lion population is declining at an alarming pace and climate change, habitat destruction and conflict with humans have been the key drivers for this precipitous fall in numbers. August 17, 2009 - Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) says Kenya’s lion population has been declining by an average 100 animals per year in the last 7 years and now stands at a little over 2,000 individuals. In the 1970s there were about 30,000 lions in Kenya. This decline rate means lions will become extinct in Kenya in just 2 decades. Africa has lost 180,000 lions in the past 30 years alone due to habitat loss, hunting and killing using poisons. That is a decline of 90% of the lion population. Hunting Farms Around The Country During June and July every year, an international event in South Africa offers football fans the opportunity to bag wild animals on many of the game ranches for two decades. Ranch owners and hunting operators are pocketing from trophy hunting, especially of lions. They are gaining foreign currency, especially U.S. dollars. Some cases it comes down to canned hunting the practice whereby animals bred in captivity get released into enclosed areas of a limited size where their trust of humans makes them easy targets. Some hunters use bows and arrows to kill their prey. In some cases the animals are drugged, making them sitting targets to the naive hunters who are urged to “shoot shoot!” as the helpless creatures are about to escape. In this way the hunters are assured of satisfaction and the operators of their money. The Growing Trade Of Lion Bones Merchants are mostly getting their supplies under government permit from hunting farms on which captive-bred lions are released to be shot as trophies (see hunting farms above). As the trade grows, it could lead to already endangered lion populations in the wild getting poached for their bones. Another worry is that it could serve as further encouragement to the commercial lionbreeding industry which the government is trying to curb because of the bad image it creates of a country that has tourism, particularly nature tourism, as its fastest growing industry. This trend added with animal species in South Africa being under threat from poachers cashing in on enduring, primitive beliefs that the physical attributes of animals can be acquired by ingesting their body parts.

Taking Action To Save The Lion There are 20,000 lions. Lions have been shot, speared, trapped, and poisoned. Their habitats have been chopped up, introduced diseases. Humans are swamping them by our sheer numbers. The 20,000 lions cling to the last remaining habitat our 7 billion people have not yet got to. This tragic loss of lions is an emergency and need to TAKE ACTION NOW!!!! Otherwise we will tragically witness the extinction of wild lions by 2020. This extinction of lions will cause a cascade of ecological impacts. The first impact would be an increase in some of the lion's prey, such as wildebeest and buffalo, which will also become less alert and less active in the absence of a fearsome predator. These larger, more stagnant populations of herbivores could overgraze their habitat, leading to soil erosion that in turn causes poor water quality downstream and aids the invasion of weeds and exotic plant species. Finally the bloated populations of prey could collapse as the degraded habitat can no longer support them. There would be economic and social costs to people too. In Ghana, for example, when fish stocks declined and men turned to meat poaching to feed their families, they wiped out the competition for game, lions, and started chipping away at wildlife populations. As a result of the disappearance of predators, baboons got bolder and their numbers exploded. In turn, these bolder and more numerous baboons started raiding crop farms and attacking farmers. Research indicates that if big cats were no longer featured on that dream safari, far fewer people would come to Africa. Without the $80 billion annual revenue stream communities and some governments would start failing and poverty would increase. The biggest task we have is convincing people that those killer cats are lovable and important. This is especially difficult convincing people living on the edge in lion country who understandably find it difficult to be tolerant of 400-pound predators that burst out at a herd of buffalo, or cattle, at 35 mph and collide with a bone-breaking force. It is hard for these people to enjoy lions the way others do. It is like telling them you need to lose the odd family member, cow or forfiet your livelihood. Trophy hunting needs to be banned, especially when the target is one of the last 4,500 male lions on Earth with high-powered rifles merely to serve the pleasure of ego, sport, and power. Each year an average of about 500 lion trophies or skins enter the United States from trophy hunting in Africa. This is not sustainable. Because male lions operate in coalitions of 2 or 3, each male lion that is shot leaves the remaining male outmatched in the next territorial fight, and he is expelled. There is no future for expelled lions. So one licence effectively kills 2 males. At the same time his 8 females (on average) and their 24 cubs are left without defenders. The new alpha males are genetically wired to kill all cubs and start the breeding again with their genes. So one license is really cleaning out between 20 and 30 lions each time – example: 500 licenses effectively kill lions at an enormous rate!

Conservation For Asiatic Lions 359 left in wild (Gir Natl Pk) April 2010 A five yearly concensus at April 2010 will show there is a population of 400 in the park ICUN Red List of threatened species - there are approximately 175 mature individuals. 34 animals were reported killed in 2007 (Jackson 2008) 72 have died in the past 2 years. Asiatic lions occupies the Gir Forest sanctuary in north east India, in the state of Gujarat. The Saurashtra region of Gujarat is the only abode of Asiatic lions today. Red List - this isolated population extends beyond the boundaries of the sanctuary (617 sq mi in area 1,986 mi ). This area is a dry teak forest. With the entire wild population of Asiatic lions confined to just one area, that population is highly vulnerable to any kind of biological, climactic or man-made catastrophe. A major disaster within the Gir PA could wipe out the entire subspecies at a stroke. Likewise a disease outbreak could decimate the lion population. Without the possibility of translocation the Gir lion population is at risk.

Conservation For Tigers 1990s, 3,500 tiger population. However their numbers have dropped 90% in the past hundred years. 2008 census held by Government of India revealed that the tiger population dropped to 1,411. At the turn of the 19th century, the tiger population in India about 45,000. 1972, only 1,827. Fewer than 3,500 tigers remain in the wild, of which only about 1,000 are breeding females. There are about 42 tiger source sites, which are sites that contain breeding populations of tigers and have the potential to seed the recovery of tigers across wider landscapes. India is the most important country for tigers with 18 source sites. Sumatra, 8 source sites, Russia Far East, 6 source sites. These sites have law enforcement, wildlife monitoring, community involvement, and other factors. Much of these are provided by range state governments, supplemented by international support. About $35 million is needed to intensify proven methods of protection and monitoring on the ground. A key goal for us is to help identify the most efficient path forward so countries can achieve their global bio-diversity conservation objectives. In spite of decades of effort by conservationist, tigers continue to be threatened by over hunting of both tigers and their prey, and by loss and fragmentation of habitat. Much of the decline is being driven by the demand for tiger body parts used in traditional medicines. Wildlife conservation and habitat protection are the key to the endangered tiger’s survival. Economical and political circumstances within many of the tiger countries also require attention and international support. One of the most threat to tigers is the damand and market for tiger parts in traditional Chinese medicine. Also, tiger farms are another drastic threat to tigers. Global Tiger Forum of Range States brings together representatives from 14 remaining tiger range-countries to develop regional strategies to save the tiger. Their vital efforts are to reduce the demand for tiger parts and strengthen protected-area laws for wildlife conservation and protection which remains at the heart of the strategy to save the tiger in the wild! Strategy Identify and monitor high priority tiger populations on which immediate conservation efforts should be focused. Tiger to survive in the wild: large area of habitat with sufficient water to drink, animals to eat, vegetative cover for hunting. Optimal tiger habitat includes a core area of at least 386 sq. mi. that is free from most human activities. Scientists can locate key tiger populations by surveying habitats that meet the long-term ecological requirements of tigers. Specialists must also improve research methods of gathering vital information on tiger behavior and ecology for the development of long-term solutions.

Conservation For Tigers Contd Strategy Contd Manage key tiger habitat for the protection of tigers. On-the-ground protection is essential to protect tigers from poachers seeking tiger parts for the profitable market in traditional Chinese medicine. Enforcement officers, park guards, and staff need to be hired, funded, organized, trained, equipped and legally en-powered to protect the tiger from illegal hunters, day and night. Develop community-based sustainable development and conservation programs. Individual rural households whose livelihoods depend on use of the forests where tigers live, is essential to sustain an effective tiger conservation strategy. Educational conservation programs are needed to inform, empower and inspire local communities to participate in the protection of the tiger. Educate consumers around the world that conservation efforts at home help reduce the demand for natural resources abroad. Captive Breeding Conservation groups and tiger specialists are researching tiger nutrition, health, and reproduction and zoo facilities and management so that zoo tigers will breed future generations of healthy cubs. Captive-breeding programs such as GASP (Global Animal Survival Plan) are a part of making sure there is captive-breeding to maintain a reservoir of genetic material on tigers. Zoos provide insurance against such long-term threats as genetic deterioration that could affect the small populations of tigers left in fragmented reserves. Wildlife conservation groups and tiger specialists need adequate resources to monitor reserves and enforce anti-poaching laws. Preservationist Approach For Tigers Regional planning of Tiger Reserves to foster ecological connectivity between protective areas through restorative inputs with integrated land-use planning. The management plan of a Tiger Reserve needs to be integrated in larger regional maintenance plans.

September 20, 2010 Tigers In Bhutan Wild tigers have been filmed in the mountains of Bhutan. A high-altitude sanctuary could provide a refuge for the endangered tiger and act as a wildlife “corridor”.

With hidden cameras, a BBC Natural history team recorded in several months, a male and female at 2.49 miles above sea level. A height previously thought to be too high for the jungle animals to inhabit. This film was the first evidence the tigers could live and breed in mountains. Footage shows the female tiger lactating while the male appears to be marking its territory. This suggests the tigers are not just passing through the area. The tigers’ behavior suggests they are breeding and that there must now be cubs somewhere on this mountain. Villagers told BBC team that tiger tracks have been seen in the area. Earlier this year, a WWF survey team found a 4.2 inch-wide tiger print, suggesting a male tiger weighing more than 440 pounds and about 9.8 feet in length. Conservationists believe this sparsely populated, high-altitude habitat is relatively unthreatened by human development and could provide a “tiger corridor” that would link animals in other parts of Asia. There is pressure on tigers’ habitats from all sides. Yet we now know they can live and breed at this altitude which is a safer habitat for them. Bhutan was the missing link in this “tiger corridor”. There still is a long way to go to save the tiger. Bhutan has a tiger population of about 120150 animals. We need to study and save wildlife by creating a series of ecological corridors. Putting An End To Tiger Poaching WWF is working with TRAFFIC to curb the trade in tiger parts and products, so that this trade is no longer driving poaching and threatening wild tigers. Our longer-term strategic activities include: - Closing markets for tiger parts and products both in and outside tiger range countries, focusing on trade-routes, processors, and consumers - Closing all existing tiger farms, especially in China, Vietnam, Indonesia and Thailand - Preventing any legal commercialization of dead tiger body parts - Ensuring all tiger range countries have fully CITES-compliant national legislation and fully implement such legislation as well as other CITES Resolutions and Decisions on tigers and Asian big cats

Putting An End To Tiger Poaching contd - Establishing trans-boundary customs posts to foster international cooperation and liaison, focusing on the Russia/China, China/Vietnam, India/Myanmar, Bangladesh/Myanmar and India/Bangladesh borders - Establishing and coordinating intelligence networks and ensuring intelligence-based law enforcement in strategic locations, including Southeast Asia (particularly Malaysia and Thailand), Sumatran landscapes, and the Greater Mekong Landscape (Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam) - Developing the first phase of a Global Tiger Trade Information System for overall enhanced enforcement effectiveness through better trade-route hot spot detection. Conserving Tiger Habitats WWF is working to restore tiger populations and distributions to at least 20% of their former range in 13 priority landscapes. This involves: - Recovering tiger and prey populations through better management of protected areas and engaging a wider range of local stake holders in anti-poaching measures - Managing tiger habitat, including restoration and management of corridors between core areas through land-uses compatible with tiger conservation - Creating additional or expanding existing protected areas to support viable, breeding tiger populations, and link them with habitat corridors - Engaging business, industry, and development groups to support tiger conservation and adopt environmentally sensitive approaches that avoid negative impacts on habitat and tiger populations - Performing economic valuations of the ecological services and sustainable use of natural resources derived from tiger landscapes to mainstream tigers and tiger conservationrelated values into development planning process and policy formulation - Strengthening community engagement in: habitat management and tiger conservation by providing economic incentives; multi-stakeholder forums to discuss, mediate, and resolve conservation issues such as land and natural resource management; revenue sharing; community-led anti-poaching strategies; and human wildlife conflict - Using innovative wildlife research and monitoring techniques to learn more about the tiger and prey biology in order to improve tiger conservation approaches, reduce conflict, and prioritize interventions - Establishing sustainable funding mechanisms to support tiger conservation, including from philanthropic funding, carbon financing, and government grants Making Tigers A Political Priority WWF is working to mainstream tiger conservation into national and regional economic and development plans. We are working with a number of influential groups in tiger range states – including governments, regional coalition, and international and multilateral institutions – to: - Integrate tiger habitats into land-use plans as a legitimate category so that project and development processes will treat them as conservation areas during project planning, and employ the World Bank's 'tiger filter' - Ensure ongoing discussions on tiger conservation into strategic engagements and developmental dialogues with governments at national, regional and local levels - Get endorsement of trans-boundary agreements at highest levels of governments to address tiger landscape conservation, anti-poaching, and international trade of tiger parts - Help to develop and capitalize a region-wide Trust Fund for tiger conservation

Conservation For Tigers Color Codes For The Future Prospects For Tigers In Each Landscape: GREEN The prospects for tigers are good; numbers are stable or increasing; conservation efforts are succeeding. YELLOW Prospects for tigers are fair; numbers are stable but are increasingly threatened; significant conservation challenges lie ahead. RED Prospects for tigers are poor; Tiger numbers are declining; major threats are growing and, if not addressed, will continue to drive tiger numbers down. Western Ghats There are around 200 tigers in the Western Ghats. The tigers habitat is mountainous forests. There are also Asian elephants, sloth bears, lion-tailed macaques, and langur monkeys. Many of the big cats move between territories in the Western Ghats, making interconnected habitats key to their survival. The area is also rich in tiger prey such as deer, wild pigs, and wild cattle. The Western Ghats offers one of the best hopes for conserving this endangered species, because of such a relatively large population of tigers in one spot. In 2009, the WCS (Wildlife Conservation Society)-India program helped to develop a new software program allowing researchers to quickly identify an individual tiger from its unique stripe pattern and may also locate the origin of tigers from skins confiscated from poachers. Techniques like these can be used to survey tiger populations across their remaining range in Asia. The software that converts camera photographs into 3-D models based on each tiger’s unique stripe pattern is enabling scientists to quickly identify individual tigers. WCS conservationists keep tabs on tigers by employing a new fecal DNA sampling technique. Tiger scat is collected and provides researchers with unique DNA signatures allowing them to accurately and non-invasively identify individual tigers, and estimate tiger populations. With 30 million people living in the region, habitat loss and fragmentation pose the most serious danger and threat to tigers, as farmland and roads expand across the wilderness, and livestock compete with tigers for space. In Western Ghats, tigers are benefiting from increased support from the Government of India, and the State Governments, sustained conservation measures, local advocacy, and a continuing WCS commitment to securing their future in the wild. As a result, the outlook for tigers in this landscape look good.

Russia and China - Sikhote-Alin and Changbaishan Trans-boundary Landscapes Together, these landscapes cover 164,093 sq. mi., represent the most biologically diverse ecosystems in Northern Asia, and are home to the last populations of wild Siberian Tigers. Recent data indicates numbers are declining, and in some places, potentially sharply. Tigers regularly cross from Russia into China, where they are heavily impacted by poaching of prey and other threats. WCS’s 17-year long Siberian Tiger Project across the Russian landscape has enabled conservationists to plan and manage the landscape for tigers inside and outside of protected areas and build local ecosystem understanding. WCS launched efforts to recover viable tiger populations in China and engage in discussions to establish trans-boundary reserves that connect tiger populations in Russia and China. Unfortunately, despite numerous successes, recent signs show that Siberian Tigers are once again under increased threat. Policy changes in Russia have decreased enforcement, and poaching of both tigers and their prey appear to be increasing.

Change In Forest Cover Of China Map

Conservation For Tigers Cambodia - Eastern Plains Landscape This landscape is 5,792 sq. mi. mix of semi-evergreen and deciduous forest. Years of war and strife in the region have decimated what once was a thriving wildlife population. Tigers have suffered from the loss of their prey and targeted poaching. They are likely down to fewer than 10 individuals. After 10 years of the Royal Government of Cambodia and WCS collaborating, recently they culminated in the designation of the Seima Protection Forest (SPF), which covers more than 11,000 sq. mi. of Cambodia’s eastern border shared with Vietnam. Seima, a former logging concession the size of Yosemite National Park, protects not only tigers but also threatened primates and elephants. The long-term prospects for tigers in the Eastern Plains are dire because of their low numbers. Yet large areas of habitat remain, prey is recovering and if breeding tigers still exist, a long-term recovery for the population may still be possible. WCS is working with the Cambodian government on enforcement and land-use planning at the community and provincial levels.

Tiger landscapes in the Greater Mekong The Eastern Plains still has very high forest cover, and the nature of the Dry Forests habitat makes it ideal for large ungulate and other prey species populations such as wild cattle, deer, and pig. An adult tiger needs about 50 medium-sized animals each year to survive, so large populations of prey are needed to supply enough food to ensure the tiger population can recover. This is exactly what the Cambodian government and WWF are focusing on now in the protected areas.

Conservation For Tigers Number Of Tigers in Palamau Tiger Reserve in Jharkhand The number of big cats in the Maoist-infested Palamau Tiger Reserve in Jharkhand has declined from 17 to 6, confirmed by research carried out through scat analysis. The scat analysis by the Hyderabad-based Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology has confirmed the presence of 6 tigers only in the tiger reserve. Scat analysis is an examination of the faeces of animals done in order to determine their biological and genetic details. Census in 2007 confirmed the presence of 17 tigers in the reserve spread over an area of 1,026 sq. km. In Jharkhand's Palamau district (described by the National Tiger Conservation Authority as a low-density tiger reserve). The actual number of big cats might be more since the analysis had not been done on the basis of exhaustive samples. They had sent about 15 to 20 scat samples apart from general observation data from areas in different ranges in the reserve to the Dehradun-based Wildlife Institute of India. The presence of Maoists in the area posed problems for free movement of forest personnel due to which proper monitoring could not be carried out in the interiors of the reserve. 90 percent of the field staff consists of local people who somehow manage to visit the interior ranges. The Palamau tiger reserve has 7 ranges – Betla, Garu east and west, Chhipadohar east and west, Baresnar and Kutku, while Mahuadar is outside its area.

Conservation For Tigers

The St. Petersburg Tiger Summit of World Leaders
A Challenge and an Opportunity to Save Wildlife for Human Well Being
Hosted by Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin and actively promoted by World Bank Group President Robert Zoellick, world leaders will assemble in St. Petersburg, Russia, to forge national and international commitments to double the number of tigers in the next 12 years. At the same time, global supporters and financiers will commit to providing the incremental resources to support this critical, urgent program.

Asia’s most iconic animal faces imminent extinction in the wild. In the past century, tiger numbers plummeted from 100,000 to about 3,500, and continue to fall. Tiger habitat has declined by 40 percent in the last ten years alone. In an egregious illegal wildlife trade, criminals earn huge profits selling tiger parts, taking advantage of poor people living around tiger reserves to recruit poachers. People hunt the prey tigers need to survive. Adverse human activities, including infrastructure development without concern for wildlife and nature, has fragmented the tiger’s habitat and threatens to take it all. We must “stop the bleeding” now before the wild tiger’s extinction become inevitable.

Conservation For Tigers

The St. Petersburg Tiger Summit of World Leaders
A Challenge and an Opportunity to Save Wildlife for Human Well Being
Wild tigers give a face to the larger crisis of biodiversity loss in Asia and around the world— a crisis that threatens human well being as much as it does declining wildlife and wild lands. Tiger landscapes are pockets of deep poverty, and the poor have the most to lose when they are destroyed. These landscapes provide vast and undervalued ecological services such as watershed protection and the genetic base for food security and pharmaceuticals, as well as carbon sequestration, helping to mitigate climate change. To address this looming crisis, the World Bank, the Global Environmental Facility, the Smithsonian Institution, and other partners launched the Global Tiger Initiative (GTI) 1 in June 2008. The World Bank led this effort because it is committed to balancing economic development with nature conservation and environmental protection, and tigers are at the very heart of the matter in many parts of Asia. The World Bank is also using its convening power to strengthen political will for tiger conservation and influence public policy in support of strong national leadership on this agenda. Since then, the GTI has become an alliance of governments, including all 13 tiger range countries (TRCs)2, international organizations, and civil society. The alliance was deepened at a global workshop in Nepal in October 2009, which led to the First Asian Ministerial Conference on Tiger Conservation in Thailand in January 2010 and is now taking us to the Tiger Summit. These milestones are a result of all 13 TRCs and the international community working together for the first time on a cooperative platform, sharing knowledge and experience and developing a collaborative program. What must be done to save tigers? The Global Tiger Recovery Program (GTRP) being developed for launch at the Tiger Summit will support two type of actions: (i) scaling up practices already proven effective in one or more TRC that need wider policy support and, usually, resources; and (ii) new transnational actions that enhance the effectiveness of individual TRCs’ actions. Taken together, the GTRP will aim to achieve the agreed global goal of doubling wild tiger populations by 2022, the next Year of the Tiger. The GTRP will be built from a foundation of robust National Tiger Recovery Programs that will selectively aim to scale up, as appropriate for each TRC, proven practices grouped in four themes: • Landscape Management: The most critical essential remaining tiger habitat—areas where wild tigers breed—will be made inviolate to human activities. Core areas will be connected by green corridors and surrounded by well managed buffer zones. Principles of “Smart Green Infrastructure” will be applied to make infrastructure development outside of core areas tiger friendly. • Technology for Wildlife: Technology-backed management monitoring systems and forensic science capabilities, as well as performance incentives ,will be introduced into tiger reserve management to control poaching of tigers and prey and reduce encroachment on tiger habitat. • Community Engagement: Alternative livelihood programs, such as community-managed ecotourism, will be introduced in communities around tiger reserves as incentives for turning poachers into protectors and gaining widespread local support for tiger conservation. Systems to fairly compensate people for injury and economic loss from wild tigers will be implemented, along with education programs to give people the tools necessary to minimize tiger depredations. • Cooperative Management of International Landscapes: A special focus on critical tiger landscapes that cross borders will be introduced. Promising trans-boundary landscapes are those between India and Nepal, China and the Russian Far East, and Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam. 1 See Global Tiger Initiative

Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Russian Federation, Thailand, and Vietnam.

Conservation For Tigers

The St. Petersburg Tiger Summit of World Leaders
A Challenge and an Opportunity to Save Wildlife for Human Well Being
In addition, the GTRP will support global action on new frontiers in a bid to fundamentally change the current dynamic threatening the extinction of the wild tiger. Key among these are: • Create an effective and technologically savvy institutional architecture to help TRCs eliminate the huge illegal wildlife trade, focusing on effective interdiction and on wildlife law enforcement capacity building. The GTRP will support the International Consortium to Combat Wildlife Crime being formed by INTERPOL, UN Office on Drugs and Crime, World Customs Organization, CITES Secretariat, and the World Bank. • Persuade people to stop consuming tigers through a well designed, hard-hitting global awareness campaign to stigmatize using tiger parts and products as medicine, food, and adornment. • Enhance the professional capacity of policy makers and practitioners for effective tiger and wildlife conservation in TRCs, building on the foundation laid by the recently established Smithsonian Institution- and World Bank-led Global Conservation and Development Network. • Develop sustainable long-term financing mechanisms for conservation, including schemes for payment for ecosystem services, biodiversity offsets from infrastructure development, resources from REDD+ carbon markets, and creation of a new market platform to recognize and monetize the value of wildlife.

Conservation For Tigers Logic Framework For Tigers

Conservation For Tigers Tiger Habitats

Conservation For Amur (Siberian) Tiger In the early 20th century, the Amur tiger was almost driven to extinction, as expanding human settlements, habitat loss and poaching wiped out this biggest of cats from over 90% of its range. By the 1940s just 20 to 30 individuals survived in the wild. A ban on hunting and remarkable conservation effort slowly helped the Amur tiger recover. Today, up to 500 are thought to survive in the wild, while 421 cats are kept in captivity. Nuclear DNA that was sampled within the scat samples of an estimated 95 individuals found throughout the Amur tiger’s range, likely constituting up to 20% of the remaining population. The study sampled the amount of variation with the DNA from more tigers, across a broader geographic than any previous research. Census population size of Amur tigers is closer to 500 individuals, but the population is behaving like a size of 27 to 35 individuals. That’s the lowest genetic diversity ever recorded for a population of tigers. The effective population size is lower than the census size. The remaining Amur tigers are segregated into two populations that rarely intermingle. Some of the tigers cross the divide of which two groups are separated by a development corridor between Vladivostok and Ussurisk. This reduces the effective size of the wild population further. There is little sharing of genes across the development corridor. It seems Amur tigers are residing in two fairly independent populations on either side of the development corridor, further lowering the effective size for each from 26 to 28 for Sikhote-Alin and 2.8 to 11 for Southwest Primorye. More work needs to be done to open up this barrier segregating the tigers. If this does’nt happen the smallest group will continue to dwindle. The captive program has done a good job of preserving the genetic diversity of the subspecies. Since it is known which individuals possess which gen variants, managers will be able to selectively breed to help preserve the unique and rare gene variants. This variation may be used to re-infuse the wild population sometime in the future if reintroduction strategies are deemed warranted. The Amur Tiger Programme (TATP) Amur Tiger Programme to research the Amur tiger in Russia's Far East is an independent project carried out as part of the Russian Academy of Sciences' ongoing expedition to study animals that have been placed on Russia's Red List of Threatened Species and other particularly important species of animals in Russia. TATP aims to develop a scientific platform for the conservation of the Amur tiger living in Russia's Far East. TATP Programme Objectives for Amur Tiger: Study distribution range of populations; the number and migration routes and the way these big cats use their reproductive biology, habitat, feeding patterns and food resources, the distribution and dynamics of the populations of the main prey species and the tiger's relationships with rival predators. To gain a more detailed insight into the tigers' ability to adapt to the ever-changing conditions of the modern environment, scientist need to research their habitat structure and analyze the long-term trends prevalent in Russia's Far East forest ecosystems. Scientists also need to simulate tiger habitats by using geo-information technologies to predict the Amur tigers' distribution ranges. The programme focuses on the study of the structural and functional organization of the populations of the main prey species (wild boars, roe deer, Manchurian deer and sika deer) and those of the main rival predators (brown bears, Asiatic black bears, wolves); it also aims to research the specifics and the implications of inter-populations' interaction between 2 species of big cats, namely, the Amur tiger and the Far Eastern leopard.

Conservation For Amur (Siberian) Tiger The Amur Tiger Programme (TATP) contd The existing method of counting tiger populations needs to be revised. Ex: the issue of creating a state-run information center to store all the information obtained about the condition of tiger populations and other rare species of animals. TATP addresses popular science, educational and social issues. Raise awareness among the people living in the areas near Russia's rare species of animals about the environment and the animals' behavior. Tools To Research Amur Tigers Photo-traps (the Lif River/Reconix models) These are cameras used for making observations at a distance. They are located in the tiaga at fixed intervals along the tigers' likely routes. Each tiger has a unique coat pattern (like each person's fingerprints). A photo-trap has a special flash card. Based on data supplied by photo-traps (similar to fingerprint analysis), scientists make individual cards to enter information on each tiger living in the area. Photo-traps are installed in order to photograph animals simultaneously from both sides as this is the only way to make an individual portrait of each predator. Special Loops In order to attract a tiger, a special mark is left on a tree under which the loop is installed. Like all cats, tigers are attracted by the smell of valerian. The trap is carefully concealed so that the tiger does not detect anything suspicious. It is important that the tiger's front paw gets caught in the loop, so the tiger won't have a chance to break free from the trap because it does not have enough room to leap. When the tiger gets caught in the loop, a transmitter connected to the loop by a special string changes its signal. The snare cable is attached to an anchor cable through a swivel that allows the captured animal to rotate freely. This swivel is critical to prevent injury. To avoid injuries, a slide stop is added to the cable to prevent loop from closing too tightly, and cutting off circulation in the foot. Air Rifles To Immobilize Tigers Scientists use air rifles with telescopic sights from the Dan-Inject company to immobilize tigers that get caught in the loops so that they can carry out research. The special injection rifle is intended to shoot syringe darts. Gas pressure is adjusted with the help of a special pressure gauge depending on the shooting distance. It can shoot at an animal at a distance of up to 40 meters (131 feet). Zoletil and Medetomidin are the drugs which are currently being used to immobilize all large predators, including tigers. The dose depends on the animal's weight. The drugs cause the animal to sleep for 30 to 40 minutes. All procedures relating to immobilization and veterinary checkups of tigers are conducted by expert veterinarians. The chief veterinarian of the Moscow Zoo, Mikhail Alshinetsky, takes part in the research. First, veterinarians perform ultrasounds of all captured animals and take blood tests. Then, they fasten a satellite-tracked collar around the animal's neck. Satellite-tracked Collars Information about the position of the tiger will be transmitted to a computer in real time. Tigers quickly get used to wearing the transmitter, which is relatively light. The GPS collar's battery life is about 18 months, after which the collar will automatically unfasten. Molecular and Genetic Methods These methods are based on the analysis of the microsatellite parts of nuclear DNA (an animal's blood and feces are used for this purpose). The structure of these parts of DNA is unique for each animal. The microsatellite parts of DNA that are used to identify an animal have different numbers of di- tri- and tetranucleotide (relative mutation-rates of microsatellite loci) sequences and consequently different lengths.

Conservation For Amur (Siberian) Tigers The Amur Tiger Programme (TATP) contd Amur Tiger Research In The Ussuri Nature Reserve Scientists take samples of blood, hair and feces from each captured tiger for further molecular, genetic and hormone analysis. In addition, all animals get ear marks and start wearing GPS-Argos collars. August 31, 2008 – A satellite was fastened around a tigress neck, who they named Serga, and she was let go. A couple of months on in November, Serga got trapped again. One photo of Serga, showed a syringe dart with tranquilizer that hit the tigress' ear. October 20, 2009 – Serga was captured again. Scientists unfastened the collar, which functioned for exactly 12 months and replaced it with a new one. Serga's cubs had bitten the satellite antenna off the old collar and the scientists could only track the tigress with the help of a USW transmitter. The tigress was measured again, her biological samples were taken and the old collar was replaced with fresh batteries. The old collar's data on Serga's wanderings through the year: 1,222 locations, 16,500 active periods and 6 full 24-hour periods (when she has no sleep, no food, no rest, nothing). Data from the collar provided detailed information about the tigress' migration routes throughout the past year. Serga ranged in the area covering 900 sq. km. (559 miles). 56% of all locations were within the aUssuri National Reserve. The tigress also often wandered into territories in close proximity to human communities, such as villages of Kamenushka and Mnogoudobnoye. On October 26, 2009, another tiger was captured in the Ussuri National Reserve. It was given the name Boxer. The tiger was about 18 months old and weighed 120kg. (264 lbs.). Scientists suggested that it was one of Serga's 3 cubs. Subsequent genetic tests conducted at the institute's laboratory have supported the idea that Boxer was Serga's son. Spring 2009 – a weak 18 month old cub, left along after its mother's death, was captured in the reserve. It was named Oleg. After a course of rehabilitative therapy in captivity, the cub was released into the wild on September 16, 2009. It was the first time in recorded history that an experiment was carried out to release a tiger back into the wild after a period in captivity. End of May 2009 – the cub, which weighed 60 kg. (132 lbs.), was taken for rehabilitation to a spacious enclosure in the forest, where it could regularly chase after sika deer to acquire hunting skills. Mid-September – the tiger's mild teeth had been replaced with permanent ones; the tiger had gained 30 kg. (66 lbs.) and had learnt to effectively hunt hoofed animals. Today, scientists are already observing a whole group of tigers of different ages wearing satellite collars. The results of tiger identification by use of photographs from photo-traps, the results of molecular, genetic and hormone analysis and the traces of the tigers' life activities are entered into a database compiled by the scientists.


Ussuri National Reserve – Situated near Ussurisk city and about 150 km (93 miles) far from Vladivostok.

Conservation For Amur (Siberian) Tigers The Amur Tiger Programme (TATP) contd

Ussuri National Reserve, which has been carrying out a program to protect the Amur tiger.

Wildlife Conservation Important Elements In Wildlife Protection And Control - Mapping and plotting the relative spatial abundance of wild animals - Identification of risk factors - Proximity to risk factors - Sensitivity categorization - Crime mapping and immediate action for apprehending the offenders based on effective networking and communication Wildlife Habitat And Population Evaluation System - Mapping, data acquisition and GIS modeling - Field data collection and validation − Data maintenance, Dissemination and Use











Resource Sites Bio-Diversity A Crisis Tiger Bones For Chinese medicine/Tiger And Lion Bones To Make Wine In China Conservation For Amur Leopard Conservation For Leopards and Cheetahs
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