“Consumer Buying Behaviour Towards Hindustan Unilever Ltd Products (Special Reference To Personal Care Products)”
SUBMITTED TO PUNJAB TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, JALANDHAR
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF DEGREE OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (MBA)
This is to certify that the project report entitled “A study on consumer buying behaviour towards Hindustan Unilever Ltd. (special reference to personal care products)”submitted by Mr .naresh is a bonafide piece of work conducted under my direct supervision and guidance. No part of this work has been submitted for any other degree of any other university. The data sources have been duly acknowledged. It may be considered for evaluation in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree of Master of Business Administration.
Project Guide: Dr.S R Taneja
MBA is a stepping-stone to the management carrier and to develop good manager is necessary that the theoretical must be supplement with exposure to the real environment. Theoretical knowledge just provides the base and it’s not sufficient to produce a goon manager that’s why the practical knowledge is needed Therefore the research project is an essential requirement for the students of MBA. This research project not only helps the students to utilize his skills properly and learn field realities but also provides a change to the organization to find out talent among the budding manager is very beginning. In accordance with requirement of MBA course I have done my major project on the topic is “A study on consumer buying behaviour towards Hindustan Unilever Ltd (special reference to personal care products)”. There are many competitors in the FMCG sector so knowing the buying behaviour of the consumers is very important to compete in the Market . This provides insights into the customer behavior.
I would like this opportunity in expressing my deepest gratitude to all those persons who in one way or another helped me in making my endeavours a success. Words are not sufficient to reflect my thankfulness and respect to all those persons for their significant contribution in the completion of my project. I extend my sincere gratitude to my guide Mr. S.R Taneja for his constant encouragement, support and valuable guidance through out the project. I also wish to thank all other faculty members, my friends and all respondents who rendered their precious time for contributing their skills and to fill the questionnaire, which made my project more appealing and attractive.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PARTICULARS Certificate Preface Acknowledgement Introduction • Introduction to Hindustan Unilever Limited • • • Introduction to the Polices of HUL Introduction to Personal Care Products of HUL Consumer behavior
PAGE NO. 1 2 3 5-27
Introduction to study Review of Literature Need ,Scope and Objectives of study Research Methodology Data Analysis and Interpretation Findings Conclusion and Suggestions Questionnaire References 28-31 32-33 34-36 37-56 57-58 59-60 61-63 64-65
Introduction to Hindustan Unilever Limited
Hindustan Unilever Limited (abbreviated to HUL), formerly Hindustan Lever Limited is India's largest consumer products company and was formed in 1933 as Lever Brothers India Limited. It is currently headquartered in Mumbai, India and its 41,000 employees are headed by Harish Manwani, the non-executive chairman of the board. HUL is the market leader in Indian products such as tea, soaps, detergents, as its products have become daily household name in India. The Anglo-Dutch company Unilever owns a majority stake in Hindustan Unilever Limited. The company was renamed in late June 2007 "Hindustan Unilever Limited". In the summer of 1888, visitors to the Kolkata harbour noticed crates full of Sunlight soap bars, embossed with the words "Made in England by Lever Brothers". With it began an era of marketing branded Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG). Soon after followed Lifebuoy in 1895 and other famous brands like Pears, Lux and Vim. Vanaspati was launched in 1918 and the famous Dalda brand came to the market in 1937. In 1931, Unilever set up its first Indian subsidiary, Hindustan Vanaspati Manufacturing Company, followed by Lever Brothers India Limited (1933) and United Traders Limited (1935). These three companies merged to form HUL in November 1956; HUL offered 10% of its equity to the Indian public, being the first among the foreign subsidiaries to do so. Unilever now holds 52.10% equity in the company. The rest of the shareholding is distributed among about 360,675 individual shareholders and financial institutions. The erstwhile Brooke Bond's presence in India dates back to 1900. By 1903, the company had launched Red Label tea in the country. In 1912, Brooke Bond & Co. India Limited was formed. Brooke Bond joined the Unilever fold in 1984 through an international acquisition. The erstwhile Lipton's links with India were forged in 1898. Unilever acquired Lipton in 1972, and in 1977 Lipton Tea (India) Limited was incorporated.
Pond's (India) Limited had been present in India since 1947. It joined the Unilever fold through an international acquisition of Chesebrough Pond's USA in 1986. Since the very early years, HUL has vigorously responded to the stimulus of economic growth. The growth process has been accompanied by judicious diversification, always in line with Indian opinions and aspirations. The liberalisation of the Indian economy, started in 1991, clearly marked an inflexion in HUL's and the Group's growth curve. Removal of the regulatory framework allowed the company to explore every single product and opportunity segment, without any constraints on production capacity. Simultaneously, deregulation permitted alliances, acquisitions and mergers. In one of the most visible and talked about events of India's corporate history, the erstwhile Tata Oil Mills Company (TOMCO) merged with HUL, effective from April 1, 1993. In 1995, HUL and yet another Tata company, Lakme Limited, formed a 50:50 joint venture, Lakme Unilever Limited, to market Lakme's market-leading cosmetics and other appropriate products of both the companies. Subsequently in 1998, Lakme Limited sold its brands to HUL and divested its 50% stake in the joint venture to the company. HUL formed a 50:50 joint venture with the US-based Kimberly Clark Corporation in 1994, Kimberly-Clark Lever Ltd, which markets Huggies Diapers and Kotex Sanitary Pads. HUL has also set up a subsidiary in Nepal, Unilever Nepal Limited (UNL), and its factory represents the largest manufacturing investment in the Himalayan kingdom. The UNL factory manufactures HUL's products like Soaps, Detergents and Personal Products both for the domestic market and exports to India. The 1990s also witnessed a string of crucial mergers, acquisitions and alliances on the Foods and Beverages front. In 1992, the erstwhile Brooke Bond acquired Kothari General Foods, with significant interests in Instant Coffee. In 1993, it acquired the Kissan business from the UB Group and the Dollops Icecream business from Cadbury India. As a measure of backward integration, Tea Estates and Doom Dooma, two plantation companies of Unilever, were merged with Brooke Bond. Then in July 1993, Brooke Bond India and Lipton India merged to form Brooke Bond Lipton India Limited (BBLIL), enabling greater focus and ensuring synergy in the traditional Beverages business. 1994 witnessed BBLIL launching the 6
Wall's range of Frozen Desserts. By the end of the year, the company entered into a strategic alliance with the Kwality Icecream Group families and in 1995 the Milkfood 100% Icecream marketing and distribution rights too were acquired. Finally, BBLIL merged with HUL, with effect from January 1, 1996. The internal restructuring culminated in the merger of Pond's (India) Limited (PIL) with HUL in 1998. The two companies had significant overlaps in Personal Products, Speciality Chemicals and Exports businesses, besides a common distribution system since 1993 for Personal Products. The two also had a common management pool and a technology base. The amalgamation was done to ensure for the Group, benefits from scale economies both in domestic and export markets and enable it to fund investments required for aggressively building new categories. In January 2000, in a historic step, the government decided to award 74 per cent equity in Modern Foods to HUL, thereby beginning the divestment of government equity in public sector undertakings (PSU) to private sector partners. HUL's entry into Bread is a strategic extension of the company's wheat business. In 2002, HUL acquired the government's remaining stake in Modern Foods. In 2003, HUL acquired the Cooked Shrimp and Pasteurised Crabmeat business of the Amalgam Group of Companies, a leader in value added Marine Products exports. Present stature Hindustan Unilever Limited (HUL) is India's largest Fast Moving Consumer Goods Company, touching the lives of two out of three Indians with over 20 distinct categories in Home & Personal Care Products and Foods & Beverages. They endow the company with a scale of combined volumes of about 4 million tonnes and sales of nearly Rs.13718 crores. HUL is also one of the country's largest exporters; it has been recognised as a Golden Super Star Trading House by the Government of India. The mission that inspires HUL's over 15,000 employees, including over 1,300 managers, is to "add vitality to life." HUL meets everyday needs for nutrition, hygiene, and personal care with brands that help people feel good, look good and get more out of life. It is a mission HUL shares with its parent company, Unilever, which holds 52.10% of the equity. The rest of the shareholding is distributed among 360,675 individual shareholders and financial institutions. 7
HUL's brands - like Lifebuoy, Lux, Surf Excel, Rin, Wheel, Fair & Lovely, Pond's, Sunsilk, Clinic Plus, Pepsodent, Close-up, Lakme, Brooke Bond, Kissan, Knorr-Annapurna, Kwality Wall's – are household names across the country and span many categories - soaps, detergents, personal products, tea, coffee, branded staples, ice cream and culinary products. They are manufactured over 40 factories across India. The operations involve over 2,000 suppliers and associates. HUL's distribution network, comprising about 4,000 redistribution stockists, covering 6.3 million retail outlets reaching the entire urban population, and about 250 million rural consumers. HUL has traditionally been a company, which incorporates latest technology in all its operations. The Hindustan Unilever Research Centre (HURC) was set up in 1958, and now has facilities in Mumbai and Bangalore. HURC and the Global Technology Centres in India have over 200 highly qualified scientists and technologists, many with post-doctoral experience acquired in the US and Europe. HUL believes that an organisation's worth is also in the service it renders to the community. HUL is focusing on health & hygiene education, women empowerment, and water management. It is also involved in education and rehabilitation of special or underprivileged children, care for the destitute and HIV-positive, and rural development. HUL has also responded in case of national calamities / adversities and contributes through various welfare measures, most recent being the village built by HUL in earthquake affected Gujarat, and relief & rehabilitation after the Tsunami caused devastation in South India. In 2001, the company embarked on an ambitious programme, Shakti. Through Shakti, HUL is creating micro-enterprise opportunities for rural women, thereby improving their livelihood and the standard of living in rural communities. Shakti also includes health and hygiene education through the Shakti Vani Programme, and creating access to relevant information through the iShakti community portal. The program now covers 15 states in India and has over 45,000 women entrepreneurs in its fold, reaching out to 135,000 villages and directly reaching to 150 million rural consumers. By the end of 2010, Shakti aims to have 100,000 Shakti entrepreneurs covering 500,000 villages, touching the lives of over 600 million people. HUL is also running a rural health programme – Lifebuoy Swasthya Chetana. The programme endeavours to induce adoption of hygienic practices among rural Indians and aims to bring down the incidence of diarrhoea. It has already touched 84.6 million people in 8
approximately 43890 villages of 8 states. The vision is to make a billion Indians feel safe and secure. If Hindustan Unilever straddles the Indian corporate world, it is because of being singleminded in identifying itself with Indian aspirations and needs in every walk of life. ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hindustan_Unilever ) Policies of Hindustan Lever Ltd. Quality is fundamental to HUL Business Success Unilever’s mission is to meet everyday needs for nutrition, hygiene and personal care with brands that help people feel good, look good and get more out of life. And a key requirement is building in the quality expectations of our consumers into our products. To win consumers’ confidence and loyalty, they need to consistently deliver branded products of excellent quality. They understand the different needs of our consumers and customers and strive to develop and deliver superior brands to ensure that they’re the preferred choice. And by applying consistently high standards, they are able to do things right first time, cut waste, reduce costs and drive profitability. Their Quality Policy describes the principles that everyone in Unilever follows, wherever they are in the world, to ensure that they are recognized and trusted for their integrity, the quality of our brands and products, and the high standards we set.
Principles of the Quality Policy :
Putting the safety of our products and our consumers first. They have stringent mandatory quality standards in place against which compliance is verified through regular audits and self assessments. These standards ensure design, manufacture and supply products that are safe, of excellent quality, and conform to the relevant industry and regulatory standards in the countries in which they operate. Comprehensive management procedures are in place to mitigate risks and to protect their consumers and markets. Putting consumers and customers at the heart of our business 9
They actively engage our consumers and customers, translating their needs and requirements into their products and services, thus creating consumer value wherever they position their products. This is at the very heart of our innovation process.
Quality is a shared responsibility Quality and consumer safety is the responsibility of every Unilever employee and Unilever demonstrates visible and consistent leadership to meet this policy. The drive for quality, in all that they do, is a passion reflected in our brand development, manufacturing and customer service processes and is also expected of our business partners. We partner with stakeholders to provide leadership, promote transparency and share best practice. And we’ve forged effective working relationships with suppliers and contract manufacturers. Building and maintaining excellent systems to ensure the quality and safety of our products We’re proactively and continuously developing our systems and processes to ensure quality and safety throughout the whole value chain, and we’re setting a benchmark for the business. We provide appropriate training and resources, and will ensure that we deliver our quality objectives and targets. We regularly measure and improve our performance using both internal and external measures. We actively promote our Quality Policy and have a quality assurance organisation in place to ensure consistency and visibility of quality standards, processes and performance indicators across all Unilever businesses at all levels, and to anticipate and develop future quality capability requirements.( http://www.hul.co.in/ knowus / quality_policy.asp )
Code of business :
Introduction Unilever has earned a reputation for conducting its business with integrity and with respect for the interests of those our activities can affect. This reputation is an asset,just as our people an our brands. 10
Our first priority is to be a successful business and that means investing for growth and balancing short term and long term interests. It also means caring about our consumers, employees and shareholders, our business partners and the world in which we live. To succeed requires the highest standards of behaviour from all of us. The general principles contained in this Code set out those standards. More detailed guidance tailored to the needs of different countries and companies will build on these principles as appropriate, but will not include any standards less rigorous than those contained in this Code. We want this Code to be more than a collection of high sounding statements. It must have practical value in our day to day business and each one of us must follow these principles in the spirit as well as the letter. Standard of Conduct We conduct our operations with honesty, integrity and openness, and with respect for the human rights and interests of our employees. We shall similarly respect the legitimate interests of those with whom we have relationships.
Obeying the Law Unilever companies and our employees are required to comply with the laws and regulations of the countries in which we operate. Employees Unilever is committed to diversity in a working environment where there is mutual trust and respect and where everyone feels responsible for the performance and reputation of our company. We will recruit, employ and promote employees on the sole basis of the qualifications and abilities needed for the work to be performed. We are committed to safe and healthy working conditions for all employees. We will not use any form of forced, compulsory or child labour. We are committed to working with employees to develop and enhance each individual's skills and capabilities. We respect the dignity of the individual and the right of employees to freedom of association.
We will maintain good communications with employees through company based information and consultation procedures. Consumers Unilever is committed to providing branded products and services which consistently offer value in terms of price and quality, and which are safe for their intended use. Products and services will be accurately and properly labelled, advertised and communicated. Shareholders Unilever will conduct its operations in accordance with internationally accepted principles of good corporate governance. We will provide timely, regular and reliable information on our activities, structure, financial situation and performance to all shareholders.
Business Partners Unilever is committed to establishing mutually beneficial relations with our suppliers, customers and business partners. In our business dealings we expect our business partners to adhere to business principles consistent with our own . Public Activities Unilever companies are encouraged to promote and defend their legitimate business interests. Unilever will co-operate with governments and other organisations, both directly and through bodies such as trade associations, in the development of proposed legislation and other regulations which may affect legitimate business interests. Unilever neither supports political parties nor contributes to the funds of groups whose activities are calculated to promote party interests. Community Involvement Unilever strives to be a trusted corporate citizen and, as an integral part of society, to fulfill our responsibilities to the societies and communities in which we operate. The Environment
Unilever is committed to making continuous improvements in the management of our environmental impact and to the longer-term goal of developing a sustainable business. Unilever will work in partnership with others to promote environmental care, increase understanding of environmental issues and disseminate good practice . Innovation In our scientific innovation to meet consumer needs we will respect the concerns of our consumers and of society. We will work on the basis of sound science applying rigorous standards of product safety. Competition Unilever believes in vigorous yet fair competition and supports the development of appropriate competition laws. Unilever companies and employees will conduct their operations in accordance with the principles of fair competition and all applicable regulations. Business Integrity Unilever does not give or receive whether directly or indirectly bribes or other improper advantages for business or financial gain. No employee may offer give or receive any gift or payment which is, or may be construed as being, a bribe. Any demand for, or offer of, a bribe must be rejected immediately and reported to management. Unilever accounting records and supporting documents must accurately describe and reflect the nature of the underlying transactions. No undisclosed or unrecorded account, fund or asset will be established or maintained. Conflicts of Interests All Unilever employees are expected to avoid personal activities and financial interests which positions. Compliance – Monitoring – Reporting Compliance with these principles is an essential element in our business success. The Unilever Board is responsible for ensuring these principles are applied throughout Unilever. 13 could conflict with their responsibilities to the company. Unilever employees must not seek gain for themselves or others through misuse of their
The Group Chief Executive is responsible for implementing these principles and is supported in this by the Corporate Code Committee comprising the General Counsel, the Joint Secretaries, the Chief Auditor, the SVP HR, the SVP Communications and the Corporate Code Officer, who presents quarterly reports to the Unilever Executive. Day to day responsibility is delegated to all senior management of the regions, categories, functions and operating companies. They are responsible for implementing these principles, if necessary through more detailed guidance tailored to local needs, and are supported in this by Regional Code Committees comprising the Regional General Counsel together with representatives from all relevant functions and categories. Assurance of compliance is given and monitored each year. Compliance with the Code is subject to review by the Board supported by the Corporate Responsibility and Reputation Committee and for financial and accounting issues the Audit Committee. Any breaches of the Code must be reported in accordance with the procedures specified by the General Counsel. The Board of Unilever will not criticise management for any loss of business resulting from adherence to these principles and other mandatory policies and instructions. The Board of Unilever expects employees to bring to their attention, or to that of senior management, any breach or suspected breach of these principles. Provision has been made for employees to be able to report in confidence and no employee will suffer as a consequence of doing so. ( http:// www.hul.co.in / knowus /code_bus_principles.asp )
Research & Development And Technology:
A significant source of strength for your Company has been its business culture that recognizes technology-driven innovation as the best foundation for a sustainable business. This recognition, and the consequent commitments, has contributed to create, and deliver to the consumers, superior value. These are reflected in Company’s products, which are clearly differentiated from its competitors’, and its processes that consistently deliver more with less expenditure. This tradition continued through 2002, producing several significant technological contributions from R&D to business.
Overall, significant focus was brought to the creation of scientific and proprietary knowledge, cutting across categories, with rigor and relevance for efficient delivery to business. New “ways of working” processes, which should serve to improve substantially our ability to discover, develop, design and deliver, have been implemented. These measures are expected to contribute discontinuously to the quality and quantity of the output from R&D in 2003 and beyond. ( www.hul_ar_2k3%20.pdf )
Introduction to the Project
Personal Care Products of Hindustan Lever Limited a. Personal Wash b. Skin care c. Hair Care d. Oral Care e. Deodrants f. Ayurvedic Personal and Health Care
Lux Since 1929, Lux in step with the changing trends and evolving beauty needs of the consumers, offers an exciting range of soaps and Body Washes with unique elements to make bathing time more pleasurable. One can choose from a range of skincare benefits like firming, fairness and moisturising. Lux stands for the promise of beauty and glamour as one of India's most trusted personal care brands. Lux Believes in passion for beauty .It continues to be a favourite with generations of users for the experience of a sensuous and luxurious bath. Lux believes that femininity shouldn’t be denied. Since its launch in India in the year 1929, Lux has offered a range of soaps in different sensuous colours and world class fragrances. Lux is a beauty soap of film stars, Lux recognized the need for a compelling message about beauty that would resonate with women of today. 15
Lux has recently launched its two fruit extract variants – New Lux Strawberry & Cream and Lux Peach & Cream contain a blend of succulent fruits & luscious Chantilly cream that melts down into your skin making it soft and smooth. (http:// www.hul.co.in /brands /lux.asp) Lifebuoy Lifebuoy’s vision is, “Making a billion Indians feel safe and secure by meeting all their health and hygiene needs”. True to its vision, the world's largest selling soap, offers a compelling health benefit to the entire family. Launched in 1895, Lifebuoy, for over 100 years, has been synonymous with health and value. The honest & hard working soap, with its distinctive perfume and popular jingle, has carried the Lifebuoy message of health across the length and breadth of the country. The relaunch of the soap in 2002, 2004 & again in 2006 have been turning points in its history. The new mix includes a new formulation and a repositioning to make it more relevant to both new and existing consumers. Lifebuoy is now in a superior formulation offering a new health fragrance and a contemporary shape. The new formulation offers a significantly superior bathing experience and skin feel. This new mix has registered conclusive and clear preference among existing and new users. Apart from Lifebuoy total, it has also strongly built its other core variants like Lifebuoy deofresh – targeted at freshness, Lifebuoy nature – containing all the goodness of nature and Lifebuoy care – for sensitive skin. Lifebuoy also offers specific health benefits through specialised product formats like Lifebuoy HandWash & Lifebuoy Clearskin, which provides treatment and protection against acne. (http:// www.hul.co.in /brands /lifebuoy.asp) Liril For 28 years, freshness has been clearly identified with one name – Liril Liril expressions have always set trends whether it is a bathing beauty in a waterfall or "Oof Yu Maa!" The energy and excitement levels associated with the brand have to be experienced to be believed with changing times. Liril has donned many avatars; Presently, Liril Soft Aloe Vera & Lime, Liril Icy Cool and Liril Orange splash are making waves. (http:// www.hul.co.in /brands /liril.asp) Hamam
Launched in 1934, Hamam has always been a reliable option for consumers over years.The brand has withstood the test of time and has given the consumers the confidence and assurance of being a soap that is safe on skin. Hamam is manufactured in the most modern soap plants world-class quality control system. Hamam contains polyols, which are known to be good moisturizers. Hamam also contains Aloe Vera, Tulsi and Neem extracts. Hamam soap is made from a blend of vegetable oils. The optimum grade of Palm oil and coconut oil is mixed in the right proportion to give a soap that is lasting, gives lather which is stable and can effectively remove oil, dirt from the surface of the skin. ( http:// www.hul.co.in /brands /hamam.asp) Breeze Breeze Scent Magic is the soap which fulfills the aspirations of women of rural India. Breeze has offered them 'beauty at an affordable price', making them look and feel beautiful. Breeze comes in 4 exotic fragrances – Rose, Sandal, Lime and Rajnigandha. All this at a very affordable price for the masses. ( http:// www.hul.co.in /brands /breeze.asp) Dove Dove soap, which was launched by Unilever in 1957, has been available in India since 1995. It provides a refreshingly real alternative for women who recognize that beauty is not simply about how you look, it is about how you feel. The skin's natural pH is slightly acidic 5.5-6. Ordinary soaps tend to be alkaline, with pH higher than 9. Dove is formulated to be pH neutral (pH between 6.5 and 7.5) and to be mild on skin. This makes it suitable for all skin types for all seasons. While Dove soap bar is widely available across the country, Dove Body Wash is available in select outlets. Globally, Dove has been extended to many other countries. Since the 1980s, for example, Unilever has launched a moisturising body-wash, deodorants, body lotions, facial cleansers and shampoos and conditioners, providing a comprehensive range of solutions to bring out true inner beauty. ( http:// www.hul.co.in /brands /dove.asp ) Pears Introduced in India in 1902, Pears soap has no equal. It is gentle enough, even for baby's skin.
Pears is manufactured like any other soap, but unlike in conventional soaps, the glycerine is retained within the soap. That is the cause if its unique transparency.After manufacturing, the soap is mellowed under controlled conditions over weeks. At the end of this maturing process, it is individually polished and packed in cartons. TodayPears is available in three variants - the traditional amber variant, a green variant for oil control and a blue variant for germ protection. ( http:// www.hul.co.in /brands /pears.asp ) Rexona Rexona is one of India's pioneer brands in family soaps. Launched in 1947, it was positioned as a natural skin care soap to give silky, glowing skin. The brand has been constantly improved to keep up with expectation of the consumers. The ingredients of Coconut Oils and the benefit of glowing skin has been heritage of the brand over the years. In 2005, the brand was relaunched with a new modern look and packaging and contains coconut and cucumber. ( http:// www.hul.co.in /brands /rexona.asp )
Fair & Lovely A woman's passion for beauty is universal and catering to this strong need is Fair & Lovely. Based on a revolutionary breakthrough in skin lightening technology, Fair & Lovely was launched in 1978. The Hindustan Lever Research Centre (it is among the largest research establishments in India's private sector, including pharmaceutical companies, with facilities in Mumbai and Bangalore) deployed technology, based on pioneering research in the science of skin lightening to develop Fair & Lovely. The formulation is patented. Its formulation acts safely and gently with the natural renewal process of the skin, making complexion fairer over a period of six weeks. Fair & Lovely is formulated with optimum levels of UV sunscreens and Niacinamide that is known to control dispersion of melanin in the skin. It is a patented and proprietary formulation, which has been in the market for 25 years. Niacinamide (Vitamin B3) is a water-soluble vitamin and is widely distributed in cereals, fruits and vegetables - and its use 18
in cosmetic formulations has been known for various end benefits. The UV components of the formulation are scientifically chosen and used at optimum levels to provide wide spectrum protection against UV rays of the sun. Specifically, this patented formulation offers a high UVA protection, which is more relevant to Asian skin than plain SPF protection creams sold in the West. All the active ingredients in the Fair & Lovely formulation function synergistically to lighten skin colour through a process that is natural, reversible and totally safe. The brand today offers a substantive range of products, including Ayurvedic Fair & Lovely Fairness cream, Fair & Lovely Anti-Marks cream, Fair & Lovely Oil control Fairness Gel, Fair & Lovely for Deep Skin and Fair & Lovely Fairness Soap. The latest has been the Perfect Radiance, a complete range of 12 premium skincare solutions from Fair & Lovely. (http:// www.hul.co.in /brands/fairnlovely.asp )
Pond's Pond's has been synonymous with skin care in India since 1947. The impressive track record of Pond's began when Theron T Pond, a pharmacist from Utica New York, introduced 'Pond's Golden Treasure' in 1846, a witch-hazel based wonder product. In 1914, Pond's Cold Cream and Vanishing Cream marked the brand's evolution to a beauty icon. In 1955 Pond's Extract Company merged with Chesebrough Manufacturing and in 1987 Unilever purchased Chesebrough-Pond's. By this time the Pond's brand had built up a powerful international presence. From one man in a tiny home-made laboratory, to today's state of the art R&D facilities led from Bangkok, Mumbai, New York and Tokyo, the Pond's promise has remained the same across 58 countries - to deliver products that make a real difference to women's skin and the way they live their lives. (http:// www.hul.co.in /brands /ponds.asp ) Vaseline Vaseline is a trusted brand worldwide associated with daily skin care and healthy skin for the entire family. Vaseline has been keeping skin healthy since 1870. The Vaseline philosophy: The need for Vaseline is based on real skin facts. We believe our skin is amazing. It protects us, heals itself, connects us to the world, transmits emotions. And this amazing skin needs to be looked after. We believe nobody knows skin, and how to keep it at its healthy best, better 19
than Vaseline. Which is why we make products that maintain our skin condition at its best and enhance its natural health. Vaseline Petroleum Jelly I.P.: Vaseline Petroleum Jelly is a mixture of Mineral oils, Paraffin and microcrystalline waxes, that when blended together, create something remarkable- it literally melts into body, protecting the skin from your within.Vaseline petroleum Jelly serves
two functions. First it helps keep the outside world out – it protects skin from effects of weather and exposure. Second it acts like a sealant to keep the inside world in, thereby acting as a barrier to the natural water loss from our skin. So Skin that is dry and chapped is protected from drying elements, enabling skin softening moisture to build up naturally from inside the skin itself.
VaselineTotal Moisture Body Lotion: Beneath the surface, your skin is 90% water, enabling it to act as a moisture and nutrient reserve. So keeping your skin well hydrated is critical to your well-being. Unfortunately however, our body tends to lose moisture throughout the day. Bathing, casual contact, washing, sitting in the AC for too long, seasonal changes, all robs the body of its moisture. Vaseline Total Moisture is a fast-absorbing lotion enriched with Soya and Oat protein that are known to nourish the skin from deep inside while Vitamin E feeds your skin with the nutrient that is essential to keep it glowing. Together they result in healthy looking skin. Vaseline Aloe Cool and Fresh Body Lotion: With the goodness of Cucumber and Aloe Vera, this light moisturising body lotion is especially made to meet your skin needs in summer. Cucumber is a surprising beauty secret for the skin with its hydrating, cooling and soothing properties. Aloe Vera on the other hand, is an unparalleled moisturiser and cell rejuvenator which is excellent for dry skin. Together, these two ingredients can keep your skin looking and feeling its healthiest best. (http:// www.hul.co.in /brands /Vaseline.asp )
Launched in 1964, Sunsilk is the largest beauty shampoo brand in the country. Positioned as the 'Hair Expert', Sunsilk has identified different hair needs and offers the consumer a shampoo that gives her the desired results. The benefits are more compelling and relevant since the variants are harmonised in terms of the product mix - fragrance, colour and ingredients are all well linked to cue the overall synergy. The range comes in premium packaging and design. The accent is on "It knows you, and hence knows exactly what your hair needs". (http:// www.hul.co.in /brands /sunsilk.asp )
Clinic Clinic Plus Health shampoo was launched in India in the year 1987. It is India's largest selling shampoo, offering the five most important hair health benefits: strengthens weak hair, prevents hair breakage, softens rough dry hair, shine for thick and healthy hair, and contains anti-dandruff ingredient. The franchise also includes Clinic All Clear Total, first introduced in 1996. It is a dual shampoo – it not only fights the last dandruff flake, but also adds back lost nutrients to make hair healthy and beautiful. Clinic All Clear Total is a dandruff solution for everyday use. (http:// www.hul.co.in /brands /clinicallclear.asp )
Pepsodent Pepsodent, launched in 1993, was the first toothpaste with a unique anti-bacterial agent to address the consumer need of checking germs even hours after brushing. Pepsodent packs included a Germ Indicator in February-May 2002, which allowed consumers to see the efficacy in fighting germs for themselves. As a follow-up, in October 2002, Pepsodent offered Dental Insurance to all its consumers to demonstrate the confidence the company has in the technical superiority of the product. Pepsodent connects directly with kids and their parents. Pepsodent has always worked in the direction of an overall awareness of dental health. The relaunch campaign in October 2003 widened the context to "sweet and sticky" food and leveraged the truth that children do not rinse their mouths every time they eat, demonstrating that this makes their teeth vulnerable to germ attack.
Pepsodent's most recent campaign aims at educating consumers on the need for germ protection through the night. Pepsodent also includes a range of toothbrushes. (http:// www.hul.co.in /brands /pepsodent.asp ) Closeup Closeup is the original youth brand of India. The first brand targeting youth in the oral care market, with an edgy and youthful image which stays relevant till date. Ever since its launch in 1975, Closeup has broken every rule in the book on how toothpastes should behave! Closeup was the first gel toothpaste to be launched in India and has led the gel toothpaste segment ever since. In 2004, Closeup was re-launched with a bang. And this time it was packed with the power of Vitamin Fluoride System – a powerful mix of Vitamins, Fluoride, Mouthwash and Micro whiteners, the perfect combination of ingredients for fresher breath and stronger, whiter teeth. Closeup became the first Gel toothpaste with Fluoride in the Indian Market! The brand umbrella also includes Closeup Lemon Mint, gel toothpaste with the whitening benefits of lemon.The latest entry in the Closeup stable is Closeup Milk Calcium – revolutionary new toothpaste with the goodness of milk calcium in an industry-first core-insheath format, with white milk calcium nutrient on the inside and a refreshing blue gel on the outside.( http:// www.hul.co.in /brands /close_up.asp )
Axe Axe, the deodorant that is considered cool, fashionable and stylish by young men was launched in India in 1999. Available in more than 60 countries around the world, it is a world leader in male toiletries. Axe has a mix that is completely harmonised globally – from its proposition and communication to the product, as available on the shelf. Axe is available in five fragrances: Java, Pulse, Dimension, Voodoo and Phoenix. Axe has become the leading male deodorant brand in India within just one year of its launch. Consumers associate a lifestyle of cool clubs, cool music and cool fashion with Axe. The youth view it as an icon which introduces many 'firsts' to their world of music and dance – like the first "World's Longest Dance Party" and the first ever 'Axe Voodoo Island Party'. (http:// www.hul.co.in /brands /axe_magnet.asp ) Rexona
It is the only deodorant in the Indian market that promises 24 hour protection from Body Odour. Rexona has ingredients that combine body odour protection and cosmetic values which are proven to work in challenging situations. (http:// www.hul.co.in /brands /rexona_deo.asp ).
Ayurvedic Personal and Health Care
Ayush Ayush was launched in 2002. With Ayush HLL brings to you a range of Ayurvedic Health Care & Personal Care Products with a superior sensory experience, scientifically tested and proven functionality and international standards of quality and safety, for a uniquely pleasurable and holistic Ayurvedic experience. For the first time, the eternal truths of Ayurveda and the rigours of modern science have been combined. The Ayurvedic purity of Ayush's formulation is endorsed by Arya Vaidya Pharmacy, Coimbatore. The Ayush range comprises shampoos, hair oil, skin cream, soap and nutritional supplements. The Ayush Therapy Centres provide personalised service and advice in positive health and stress relief, aches and pain relief, skin and hair care and weight loss consultation. ( http:// www.hul.co.in /brands /ayush_range.asp )
Consumer behavior is the study of how people buy, what they buy, when they buy and why they buy. It blends elements from psychology, sociology, sociopsychology, anthropology and economics. It attempts to understand the buyer decision processes/buyer decision making process, both individually and in groups. It studies characteristics of individual consumers such as demographics, psychographics, and behavioural variables in an attempt to understand people's wants. It also tries to assess influences on the consumer from groups such as family, friends, reference groups, and society in general.Belch and Belch define consumer behavior as 'the process and activities people engage in when searching for, selecting, purchasing, using, evaluating, and disposing of products and services so as to satisfy their needs and desires'. Basic model of consumer decision making Table 1.1 : Basic model of consumer decision making Stage Problem recognition Brief description The consumer perceives a need and becomes motivated to solve a problem. Motivation
Information search The consumer searches for information required to Perception 24
make a purchase decision Information evaluation Decision Post-purchase evaluation The consumer compares various brands and products The consumer decides which brand to purchase The consumer evaluates their purchase decision Attitude formation Integration Learning
Source: www.wikepedia.org/consumer behaviour
Problem Recognition : Problem recognition is that result when there is a difference between one's desired state and one's actual state. Consumers are motivated to address this discrepancy and therefore they commence the buying process. Sources of problem recognition include:
• • • • • •
An item is out of stock Dissatisfaction with a current product or service Consumer needs and wants Related products/purchases Marketer-induced New products
The relevant internal psychological process that is associated with problem recognition is motivation. A motive is a factor that compels action. Belch and Belch (2007) provide an explanation of motivation based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Freud's psychoanalytic theory. Information Search Once the consumer has recognised a problem, they search for information on products and services that can solve that problem. Belch and Belch (2007) explain that consumers undertake both an internal (memory) and an external search. Sources of information include:
Personal sources Commercial sources 25
Public sources Personal experience
The relevant internal psychological process that is associated with information search is perception. Perception is defined as 'the process by which an individual receives, selects, organises, and interprets information to create a meaningful picture of the world' The selective perception process Stage Description Selective exposure consumers select which promotional messages they will expose themselves to. Selective attention consumers select which promotional messages they will pay attention to Selective comprehension consumer interpret messages in line with their beliefs, attitudes, motives and experiences Selective retention consumers remember messages that are more meaningful or important to them You should consider the implications of this process on the development of an effective promotional strategy. First, which sources of information are more effective for the brand and second, what type of message and media strategy will increase the likelihood that consumers are exposed to our message, that they will pay attention to the message, that they will understand the message, and remember our message. Information evaluation At this time the consumer compares the brands and products that are in their evoked set. How can the marketing organization increase the likelihood that their brand is part of the consumer's evoked (consideration) set? Consumers evaluate alternatives in terms of the functional and psychological benefits that they offer. The marketing organization needs to understand what benefits consumers are seeking and therefore which attributes are most important in terms of making a decision. The relevant internal psychological process that is associated with the alternative evaluation stage is attitude formation. Belch and Belch (2007, p.117) note that attitudes are 'learned predispositions' towards an object. Attitudes comprise both cognitive and affective elements that is both what you think and how you feel about something. The multi-attribute attitude model explains how consumers evaluate alternatives on a range of attributes. Belch and Belch (2007) identify a number of strategies that can be used to influence the process (attitude change strategies). Finally, there are a range of ways that consumers apply criteria to make decisions. Belch and Belch (2007) explain how information is integrated and how 26
decision rules are made including the use of heuristics. The marketing organisation should know how consumers evaluate alternatives on salient or important attributes and make their buying. Purchase decision Once the alternatives have been evaluated, the consumer is ready to make a purchase decision. Sometimes purchase intention does not result in an actual purchase. The marketing organization must facilitate the consumer to act on their purchase intention. The provision of credit or payment terms may encourage purchase, or a sales promotion such as the opportunity to receive a premium or enter a competition may provide an incentive to buy now. The relevant internal psychological process that is associated with purchase decision is integration. Postpurchase evaluation The EKB model was further developed by Rice (1993) which suggested there should be a feedback loop, Foxall (2005) further suggests the important of the post purchase evaulation and that the post purchase evaluation is key due to its influences on future purchase patterns. Internal influences Consumer behavior is influenced by: demographics, psychographics (lifestyle), personality, motivation, knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and feelings. External influences Consumer behavior is influenced by: culture, ethnicity, family, social class, reference groups, and market mix factors. (http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Consumer_behaviour).
Review of Literature
Reviews are on the consumer behaviour on the various fast moving consumer goods which includes consumer satisfaction, perception, loyalty , buying intention etc. it also revealed that advertisement effect, income effect on the purchase of fast moving consumer goods. Mitchell et. al. (1994), studied the perceived risk in consumer decision-making process Tests this assumption in a study of 180 breakfast cereal shoppers, half of whom were interviewed prior to purchase and half immediately after. The results showed that risk perceptions and risk-reducing strategy usefulness did vary between the two states. The differences were not large, but were sufficient to allow rejection of the proposed null hypothesis and to cast doubt on the assumptions made in many studies. Ataman et.al.(2003),studied the relationship between the sales volume of a firm and its brand image. Consumers self-perception and perception of brand image, with respect to congruency models, have a strong influence on their behavior in the marketplace. Therefore it is expected that the fluctuations in image attributes will explain the fluctuations in sales figures. In order to test this hypothesis, consecutive surveys were carried out from 231 respondents, on a monthly basis to collect image data. Factor analysis was performed on the image attributes over time and three main image factors were attained. To determine the net effect of image attributes on sales, multiple regression analysis was performed, using the time series data, and all three image factors were found to be significant in the model. Shoham et.al.(2003), revealed that consumer compulsive buying is an important area of inquiry in consumer behavior research. The importance of studying compulsive buying, stems, in part, from its nature as a negative aspect of consumer behavior. Specifically, exploring negative consumption phenomena could provide modified or new perspectives for the study of positive consumption behaviors. Moreover, research on negative facets of consumption is useful because it can potentially contribute to society’s wellbeing, an important criterion for usefulness of any research. This paper builds on earlier papers to propose a model of compulsivity antecedents. Gender, consumers’ tendency to make unplanned purchases, and their tendency to buy products not on shopping lists, serve to predict compulsive tendencies in a sample of 435 Israeli consumers. The findings suggest that these antecedents affect compulsive tendencies. 28
Ahmed et. al. (2004), said that In the 1970s, the early marketing activities of HindustanLever in India tended to focus upon the urban middle class and elite. Meanwhile, an Indian entrepreneur produced and marketed a detergent, Nirma, targeting the poor rural sector. By 1977, Nirma was the second largest volume seller in the country. The paper suggests that the common description of the bottom-of-pyramid market segment as the disorganised sector can have a psychological impact on marketing strategy formulation, over and above the real effects of absent infrastructures. The classic Nirma story helps us to re-frame and re-describe prospects for serving this market segment. For example, it can be a base-camp from which an MNC can launch a very effective attack upon all levels of the pyramid. Dupre et. al.(2004), revealed that despite massive efforts of suppliers and retailers in the fast-moving-consumer-goods (FMCG) channel to adopt the efficient consumer response (ECR) practices, many of the expected benefits have not been realized. This study examines the history and implementation practices of ECR in the USA and in Germany and presents conceptual models that compare the likely outcomes when ECR-based category management practices are initiated either by the supplier or by the retailer channel partner. A series of interviews conducted with 43 industry experts. The study found that how a strategic competitive advantage can be realized through the combination of both supplier and retailer views and expertise in category management practices. suggests ways to overcome barriers to implementation of category management plan. Fandos et.al.(2006), examine the influence of the perceived quality of a protected designation of origin (PDO) product on consumer loyalty and buying intentions. It examines the relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic quality attributes, loyalty and buying intention. Information was obtained from an initial qualitative approach based on a group dynamic to allow the development of scales to quantify the different concepts. Personal interviews were then conducted with 251 consumers based on a structured questionnaire. The study reveals the existence of a positive and significant relationship between the extrinsic attributes of a traditional food product and loyalty expressed by consumers. It also shows that the perceived quality associated with the intrinsic attributes of the product has a positive and significant influence on buying intentions Teng et al. (2007), conducted research to show how the dual mediation model has been used to explain consumer responses toward an ad and a brand. This study attempts to incorporate 29
ad affect and competition into the framework and examine the effects of advertising on consumers' attitudes and purchase intentions in multiple-ad and multiple-brand environments. A total of 165 usable data (54 percent female, mean age=36.2) were collected from an experiment conducted in North America. The findings revealed that the higher level of affective responses to a focal ad significantly leads to a higher evaluation of that ad. It also indicated that information about a competing ad and brand is processed comparatively and that evaluations of the competing ad and brand negatively influence evaluations of a focal ad and brand. The study says that an ad affect is an important determinant in the formation of ad attitude and it can be incorporated into the dual mediation model to explain the effects of advertising on consumer behavior Celebi (2007), conducted a research to examine the credibility of advertising including a promotional endorser (APE) and publicity including a promotional endorser (PPE); to compare the credibility of advertising across the different demographic segments; and to explore the important factors affecting consumers' shopping considerations of new fast moving consumer goods (FMCGs) in Turkey. The data was gathered by a telephone survey from a sample of 717 of which 348 respondents wanted to participate from three of Turkey's largest cities, Istanbul, Ankara, and Izmir. The systematic sampling was exercised to select the sample. Chi-square and t-tests were computed and the results of them were significant at 0.05 level. It found that advertising was more credible by the participants with higher income. Respondents' shopping decisions of new FMCGs were affected by price and quality more than the other factors. Consumers tended to rely on publicity more than advertising; more than APE; and more than PPE. They also tended to count PPE more credible than APE. The findings suggest that it would be appropriate for advertising managers, who wish to market to Turkey, to consider recipients' income levels in regard to the credibility of advertising for new FMCGs. It is also important to note for international companies that price and quality play a major role on Turkish consumers' shopping decisions of new FMCGs among the other factors including experiments, organizational trust, and word-of-mouth. Sehrawet et.al.(2007), conducted a study which aims to establish whether the residential background of consumers has a varying influence on their buying decisions. A survey of 1090 urban and rural respondents was carried out of which 523 were rural and 567 were urban. The gathered data were analysed by applying counts, percentages, means, and analysis of variance. Rural residents found that packaging is more helpful in buying, that better 30
packaging contains a better product and that they are more influenced by the ease of storing a package than their urban counterparts. Ease of carriage, package weight, simplicity, transparency and similarity of packaging have comparatively less impact on purchase decisions of rural consumers than urban ones. However, rural consumers are more critical about packaging as they strongly consider that it contributes to misleading buyers and is also an environmental hazard Zokaei et al (2007), studied to further define and explore the demarcation between supply chain effectiveness and supply chain efficiency. A case-study research method is adopted to discuss an approach for the improvement of supply chain effectiveness, i.e. Supply Chain Kano-QFD. “Supply Chain Kano-QFD” is an integrative method which helps drive effectiveness by focusing on how the various supply chain members might jointly develop innovative solutions to create unique, individualized sources of consumer value. It proposed that “Supply Chain Kano-QFD” technique can be deployed to engage the capabilities and enthusiasm of the firms along the chain to enhance the value of the final consumable. Hlavinka et. al. (2007), examined how consumer packaged goods (CPG) companies are
harnessing the power of loyalty marketing to improve their sales and branding effectiveness. The paper cites examples of CPG loyalty efforts from Procter & Gamble, Tazo Tea, Huggies diapers, Moet Hennessey, Maker's Mark, Purina dog food and others, it outlines two primary models that CPG marketers are pursuing, each with their own approaches, levels of investment and possible outcomes. The paper explores the many obstacles CPG marketers must overcome if they desire to shift from mass advertising to a more customer-centric marketing model and cites examples of successes and failures from a variety of organizations. It suggest specific ideas for improving the effectiveness of their private label credit card program. Majority of the researches revealed on the consumer buying behaviour which includes consumer satisfaction, perception, loyalty , buying intention of the fast moving consumer goods as a whole and on the marketing strategies of the products of Hindustan unilever ltd. No research have been conducted on the consumer behaviour towards the Hindustan Unilever Ltd. and no research have been conducted on the personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd.
NEED AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY
NEED Research gap has been identified that previous researches only done on the brand loyalty, consumer behaviour of various products or on the marketing strategies of the products of Hindustan unilever ltd. Basic researches are found on the marketing strategies of Hindustan unilever ltd .Hindustan unilever ltd has variety of products, so need is to identify the consumer buying behaviour which include consumer preference, consumer satisfaction, brand loyalty regarding personal care products of Hindustan unilever ltd. SCOPE Data analysis of the study represents the analysis and interpretation of various questions asked by consumer who purchase personal care products of Hindustan Unilever ltd. The scope of the study is limited to consumer in Bathinda city only.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
To check the preference of consumer regarding Hindustan unilever products (personal care products ). To check the factors responsible for preferring Hindustan unilever products. To study the media through which consumers get awareness about Hindustan unilever products. To identify the frequency of purchase of personal care products of Hindustan unilever products. To identify the satisfaction level regarding Hindustan unilever products (personal care products). To check the brand loyalty of the consumer of personal care products of Hindustan unilever products.
Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. The research methodology includes the various methods and techniques for conducting a research. Defining the Research Problem and Objectives: It is said, “A problem well defined is “Half solved”. The first step in research methodology is to define the problem and deciding the research objective. The objective of my study is to know the consumer buying behaviour of personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. 1. Research Design: Research Design is a blueprint or framework for conducting marketing research project. It specifies the details of the procedures necessary for obtaining the information needed to structure and solve marketing research problem. The research design used in this study is descriptive research. 2. Sampling design: Sampling can be defined as the section of some part of an aggregate or totality on the basis of which judgment or an inference about aggregate or totality is made. The steps involved in sampling design are as follows: • Universe: Ltd all over the world. Accessible universe: Consumers of personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd in India. • Sampling Frame: The sources of information are retailers, friends and relatives. • Sampling unit: Sampling unit of this study was individuals who are using the personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. including students, housewives, businessmen and professional. • • Sampling size: Sampling size is the total number of units which covered in our study. The sample size of this study is 200 restricted to the Bathinda city. Sampling Technique: Sampling Technique used in this study is Non-Probabilistic Convenient Sampling. It is that type of sampling where the researcher selects the sample according to his or her convenience.
Theoretical universe: Consumers of personal care products of Hindustan Unilever
3. Data Collection and Analysis: Data can be collected in two ways: a) Data collection: Primary data: Primary data are those, which are collected a fresh and for the first time and thus happen to be original in character. It is the backbone of any study. Primary data was obtained from personal interview of respondents with the help of widely used and well-known method of survey, through a well-structured questionnaire. Secondary data: Secondary data are those which have already been collected by someone else and which have already been passed through the statistical process. In this case one is not confronted with the problems that are usually associated with the collection of original data. Secondary data either be published data or unpublished data. Secondary data was collect from the internet only. Research instrument: Research instrument is that with the help of which we collect the data from respondents. The questionnaire of this research consists of multiple choices, close ended and questions. b) Tools of Presentation and analysis: Tools of Presentation: The tool of presentation is tables and figures for present the data. Tools of Analysis: The tools of analysis which is used for analysis the data is percentage
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The paucity of time and resources was the major constraints. The sample size was limited. The sample was taken from the population residing in Bathinda only, so the results are not applicable to whole of India. Non co-operation of some respondents has also affected the research results. Being an opinion survey a lot of subjectivity is involved in the study. The possibility of respondents being biased cannot be ruled out. The limited knowledge of the respondents regarding the topic may hamper the true conclusion of the study.
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Demographic Table
Table 5.1: Demographic Table of the respondents Particulars Age Less than 20 20-30 30-40 Above 40 Income Less than 1.5 lakhs 1.5 lakhs – 2.5 lakhs 2.5 lakhs – 3.5 lakhs Above 3.5 lakhs Occupation Student Housewives Professional Businessmen No. of respondents 12 84 69 35 89 37 57 17 59 30 47 64 Percentage 6 42 34.5 17.5 44.5 18.5 28.5 8.5 29.5 15 23.5 32
1. Usage of the catagories of personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. Table 5.2: Usage of the catagories of personal care products Categories Soaps Skin care Oral care Hair care Deodorant Total No. of respondents 190 183 155 146 102 776 Percentage 24 24 20 19 13 100
Figure 5.1: Usage of the categories of personal care products
Soaps Skin care Oral care Hair care Deodorant
Analysis and interpretation: It is clear from the above data that 24% of the respondents used the soaps, 24% used the skin care products, 20% use oral care products, 19% use the hair care products and 13 % use the deodorant of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. It is analyzed that most of the respondents used the soaps and skin care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd.
2). Preference of consumer regarding various categories of personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. 38
A. Preference of consumer regarding Soaps Table 5.3: Preference of consumer regarding Soaps Soaps Lux Lifebuoy Dove Pears Breeze Liril Rexona Hamam None Total No. of respondant 171 105 72 69 23 17 13 10 10 490 Percentage 35 21 15 14 5 3 3 2 2 100
Figure 5.2 Preference of consumer regarding Soaps
3% 2%2% 5% 3% 14%
P ears B reez e Liril
Rex ona Ham am None
Analysis and interpretation: It is clear from the above data that 35% of the respondents preferred Lux, 21% of the respondents preferred Lifebuoy, 15% of the respondents preferred Dove, 14% of the respondents preferred Pears, 5% of the respondents preferred Breeze, 3% of the respondents preferred Liril, 3% of the respondents preferred Rexona, 2% of the respondents preferred Hamam, 2% of the respondents preferred none from all the soaps of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. It is analyzed that most of the respondents preferred Lux and Lifebuoy of Hindustan Unilever Ltd.
B. Preference of consumer regarding Skin care products Table 5.4: Preference of consumer regarding Skin care products 40
Skin care products Vaseline Ponds Fair and Lovely None Total
No. of respondant 125 103 66 17 311
Percentage 41 33 21 5 100
Figure 5.3: Preference of consumer regarding Skin care product
Vaseline Ponds Fair and Lovely None
Analysis and interpretation: It is clear from the above data that 41% of the respondents preferred Vaseline regarding Skin care products, 33% of the respondents preferred Ponds regarding Skin care products, 21% of the respondents preferred Fair and Lovely regarding Skin care products, 5% of the respondents preferred None from all the Skin care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. It is analyzed that most of the respondents preferred Vaseline and Ponds regarding Skin care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. C. Preference of consumer regarding Hair care products Table 5.5: Preference of consumer regarding Hair care products 41
Hair care products Sunsilk Clinic Dove None Total
No. of respondents 141 79 27 54 301
Percentage 47 26 18 9 100
Figure 5.4: Preference of consumer regarding Hair care products
18% 9% 47%
Sunsilk Clinic Dove None
Analysis and interpretation: It is clear from the above data that 47% of the respondents preferred Sunsilk regarding Hair care products, 26% of the respondents preferred Clinic regarding Hair care products, 18% of the respondents preferred Dove regarding Hair care products and 9 % of the respondents preferred None from all the Hair care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. It is analyzed that most of the respondents preferred Sunsilk regarding Hair care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd.
D. Preference of consumer regarding Oral care products Table 5.6: Preference of consumer regarding Oral care products Oral care products No. of respondents 42 Percentage
Pepsodent Closeup None Total
131 72 45 248
53 29 18 100
Figure 5.5: Preference of consumer regarding Oral care products
18% Pepsodent 29% 53% Closeup None
Analysis and interpretation: It is clear from the above data that 53% of the respondents preferred Pepsodent regarding Oral care products, 26% of the respondents preferred Closeup regarding Oral care products, 18% of the respondents preferred None from all the Oral care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. It is analyzed that most of the respondents preferred Pepsodent regarding Oral care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd.
E. Preference of consumer regarding Deodrants Table 5.7: Preference of consumer regarding Deodrants Deodrants Rexona No. of respondents 58 43 Percentage 29
Axe None Total
44 98 200
22 49 100
Table 5.6: Preference of consumer regarding Deodrants
Rexona Axe None
Analysis and interpretation: It is clear from the above data that 29 % of the respondents preferred Rexona regarding Deodorant , 22% of the respondents preferred Axe regarding Deodorant and 49% of the respondents preferred None from all the Deodorant of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. It is analyzed that mostly respondents preferred None from all the Deodorant of Hindustan Unilever Ltd.
3). Media through which consumers aware about personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. Table 5.8: Media through which consumers aware about personal care products of HUL Media T.V. Retailers No. of respondents 188 66 44 Percentage 46 16
Newspapers Friends/relatives Magazines Hoardings Total
64 46 28 16 408
16 11 7 4 100
Figure 5.7: Media through which consumers aware about personal care products of HUL
Analysis and interpretation: It is clear from the above data that 46 % of the respondents aware from the T.V., 16 % of the respondents aware from the Retailers, 16 % of the respondents aware from the Newspapers, 11 % of the respondents aware from the Friends/relatives, 7% of the respondents aware from the Magazines, 4 % of the respondents aware from the Hoardings about the personal care product of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. It is analyzed that mostly respondents aware from the T.V. about the personal care product of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. 4). Frequency of the purchase of personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. by consumers. Table 5.9 Frequency of the purchase of personal care products of HUL Frequency of Purchase No. of respondents 45 Percentage
Monthly Weekly Daily Fortnightly Total
94 58 26 22 200
47 29 13 11 100
Figure 5.8 Frequency of the purchase of personal care products of HUL
11% 13% 47%
Monthly Weekly Daily Fortnightly
Analysis and interpretation: It is clear from the above data that 47 % of the respondents purchase monthly, 29% of the respondents purchase weekly, 13% of the respondents purchase daily, 11 % of the respondents purchase Fortnightly the personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd.
5). Factors which affects on the purchase of personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. Table 5.10: Factors affecting on the purchase of personal care products Sr no. 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Quality Variety Availability Advertising Reasonable Particulars 5 Strongly agree 104 98 70 92 58 4 Agree 90 90 110 72 95 3 Neutral 2 10 16 20 26 46 2 Disagree 4 0 4 6 19 1 Strongly disagree 0 2 0 0 2 Summated score 894 882 846 820 788
price Scheme Retailer suggestion for preferred products Discount
Analysis and Interpretation: a) Quality is a factor, which cannot be ignored, and almost all the respondents strongly agreed that they consider this factor on the purchase of personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. b) Variety is a factor where almost all the respondents strongly agreed that they consider this factor on the purchase of personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. c) Availability is a factor where almost all the respondents strongly agreed that they consider this factor on the purchase of personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. d) Advertising is a factor where almost all the respondents strongly agreed that they consider this factor on the purchase of personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. 47
e) Majority agree that personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. are of reasonable price. f) Scheme is a factor where majority of the respondents agreed that they consider this factor while purchasing personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. g) The analysis shows that most of the respondents agree that they consider Retailer suggestion for preferred products while purchasing personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. h) Discount is a factor where majority of the respondents agreed that they consider this factor while purchasing personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd.
6). Place of the purchase of personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. Table 5.11: Place of the purchase of personal care products of HUL Place Kiryana/ Convenient Store Department Store Both Total No. of respondents 24 72 104 200 Percentage 12 36 52 100
Figure 5.9: Place of the purchase of personal care products of HUL
Kiryana Store Department Store 36% Both
Analysis and interpretation: It is clear from the above data that 12 % of the respondents purchase from Kiryana / Convenient Store, 36 % of the respondents purchase from Department Store, 52 % of the respondents purchase from both Kiryana / Convenient Store and Department Store the personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. It is analyzed that mostly respondents purchase from both Kiryana / Convenient Store and Department Store the personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd.
7). Usage of other companies products with products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. Table 5.12: Usage of other companies products with products of HUL Usage Yes No Total No. of respondents 192 8 200 Percentage 96 4 100
Figure 5.10: Usage of other companies products with products of HUL
4% Yes No 96%
Table 5.13: Competitors products purchase by respondents Companies Colgate and Pamolive Proctor and Gamble Dabur ITC Others Total No. of respondents 120 108 40 32 20 320 Percentage 37 34 13 10 6 100
Figure 5.11: Competitors products purchase by respondents
Colgate and Pamolive 10% 13% 6% 37% Proctor and Gamble Dabur ITC Others
Analysis and interpretation: It is clear from above data that 96 % of the respondents are using the personal care products of other companies which includes Colgate and Pamolive 37% , Proctor and Gamble 33%, Dabur 13% , ITC 10%, others 7% and 4% of the respondents are not using the personal care products of other companies, It is analyzed that mostly respondents are using the personal care products of other companies along with the personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd.
8). Reason behind the non-purchase of non-preferred products of products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. Table 5.14: Reason behind the non-purchase of non-preferred products of products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. Reasons High price Non-awareness Low quality Less advertisement Retailer suggestion preferred products Less variety Non-availability No. of respondents 108 61 52 51 for 41 34 24 51 Percentage 30 16 14 14 11 9 6
Figure 5.12: Reason behind the non-purchase of non-preferred products of products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd.
9% 11% 14%
Non-awareness Low quality Less advertisement Retailer suggestion for preferred products Less variety Non-availability
Analysis and interpretation: It is clear from the above data that 30 % of the respondents said High price as a reason behind the non-purchase of non-preferred products of Hindustan Unilever ltd., 16 % of the respondents said Non-awareness , 14 % of the respondents said Low quality , 14 % of the respondents said Less advertisement , 11 % of the respondents said Retailer suggestion for preferred products 9 % of the respondents said Less variety and 6 % of the respondents said Non-availability as a reason behind the non-purchase of non-preferred products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. It is analyzed that mostly respondents said High price as a reason behind the non-purchase of non-preferred products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd.
9). Brand loyalty among the consumers towards the personal care products of Hindustan Uniliver Ltd. Table 5.15: Brand loyalty among the consumers towards the personal care products of Hindustan Uniliver Ltd. Product category Soaps Oral care Skin care Hair care Deodorant Total No. of respondents 179 68 59 54 24 384 Percentage 47 18 15 14 6 100
Figure 5.13: Brand loyalty among the consumers towards the personal care products of Hindustan Uniliver Ltd.
Soaps Oral care Skin care Hair care Deodorant
Analysis and interpretation: It is clear from the above data that 47 % of the respondents are brand loyal towards the soaps, 18 % of the respondents are brand loyal towards the Oral care products, 15 % of the respondents are brand loyal towards the Skin care products, 14 % of the respondents are brand loyal towards the Hair care products, 6 % of the respondents are brand loyal towards the Deodorant of the personal care products of Hindustan Uniliver Ltd.It is analyzed that mostly respondents are brand loyal towards the soaps of the personal care products of Hindustan Uniliver Ltd. 10). Satisfaction on the usage of personal care products of Hindustan Uniliver Ltd. Table 5.16: Satisfaction on the usage of personal care products of HUL Satisfaction Yes No Total No. of respondents 181 19 200 Percentage 90 10 100
Figure 5.14: Satisfaction on the usage of personal care products of HUL
10% Yes No 90%
Analysis and interpretation: It is clear from above data that 90 % of the respondents are satisfied on the usage of personal care products of Hindustan Uniliver Ltd. and 90 % of the respondents are not satisfied on the usage of personal care products of Hindustan Uniliver Ltd. It is analyzed that mostly respondents are satisfied on the usage of personal care products of Hindustan Uniliver Ltd.
11). Shifting to another brand by consumers Table 5.17: Shifting to another brand by consumers Shift Yes No Total No. of respondents 29 171 200 Percentage 15 85 100
Figure 5.15: Shifting to another brand by consumers
15% Yes No 85%
Analysis and interpretation: It is clear from above data that 15 % of the respondents wanted to shift to another brand and 15 % of the respondents did not want to shift to another brand. It is analyzed that mostly respondents did not want to shift to another brand.
FINDINGS OF THE STUDY 1) All of the respondents are the consumer of personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. 2) Mostly respondents used the soaps and skin care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. 3) Most of the respondents preferred Lux and Lifebuoy in Soaps category of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. 4) Respondents preferred Vaseline and Ponds regarding Skin care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. 5) Maximum respondents preferred Sunsilk regarding Hair care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. 6) Pepsodent is the most preferred product regarding Oral care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. 7) Mostly respondents preferred None from all the Deodorant Rexona and Axe of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. 8) Maximum respondents aware from the T.V. about the personal care product of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. 9) Mostly respondents purchase monthly personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. 10) Quality is a factor, which cannot be ignored, and almost all the respondents strongly agreed that they consider this factor on the purchase of personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. 11) Variety is a factor where almost all the respondents strongly agreed that they consider this factor on the purchase of personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. 12) Availability is a factor where almost all the respondents strongly agreed that they consider this factor on the purchase of personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. 13) Advertising is a factor where almost all the respondents strongly agreed that they consider this factor on the purchase of personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. 14) Majority agree that personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. are of reasonable price.
15) Scheme is a factor where majority of the respondents agreed that they consider this factor while purchasing personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. 16) The analysis shows that most of the respondents agree that they consider Retailer suggestion for preferred products while purchasing personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. 17) Discount is a factor where majority of the respondents agreed that they consider this factor while purchasing personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. 18) Mostly respondents purchase from both Kiryana / Convenient Store and Department Store the personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. 19) Mostly respondents are using the personal care products of other companies along with the personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. 20) High price is the main reason behind the non-purchase of non-preferred products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. 21) Mostly respondents are brand loyal towards the soaps of the personal care products of Hindustan Uniliver Ltd. 22) Mostly respondents are satisfied on the usage of personal care products of Hindustan Uniliver Ltd. 23) A high percentage of respondents did not want to shift to another brand.
After studying the consumer buying behaviour regarding the various personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. consumer behaviour is identified. Mostly consumers used the soaps and skin care products which include Lux and Lifebuoy, Vaseline and Ponds respectively. Respondents mostly aware from the T.V. about the personal care products. Quality, Variety, Availability and Advertising are the most preferring factors for purchase the personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. Consumers are brand loyal towards the soaps. The retailer suggestion also affected the purchasing of personal care products. Today low priced competition present in all categories so without studying consumer behaviour we cannot survive. And counterfeit products are available in rural areas so company should take steps so that consumer is aware about all the various personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd.
1. Hindustan Unilever Ltd. should focus on all the brand of personal care products. The main focus is to increase the brand image of products like Breeze, Liril, Hamam and Rexona. 2. Consumers are not fully aware about all the personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. So Hindustan Unilever Ltd. should advertise the less aware products like Rexona soap, Hamam soap, dove shampoo etc. so that consumer should fully aware about all the personal care products. 3. Very less consumer are using products like breeze, clinic so the quality of these products should increase to increase the sales. 4. People also preferred products on the retailer suggestions. So steps should be taken to promote retailers. Retailer should be given more credit time and credit facility. They should be given incentives, gifts on the large sale volume and selling of less aware products. 5. Some products of personal care products like deodorants, dove, pears etc. are not purchased by the consumers due to high price, so price should be reduced of these products by Hindustan Unilever Ltd. 6. Consumers are also using the products of other companies like Colgate and Pamolive, Proctor and Gamble, Dabur etc. so steps should be taken so that consumers become brand loyal to the Hindustan Unilever Ltd. products. 7. Consumer mostly prefer small sachets and product in small size so products like Rexona deodorant, Axe deodorant, Dove soap, Pears soap etc. should be launch in small packages. 8. Innovative strategies are used to increase the sale of the personal care products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. like Vaseline crack cream, sachets, and anti-ageing products. 9. The packaging of the personal care products should be more attractive.
Dear Respondent, I student of CHITKARA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, a student of MBA conducting a survey on “Consumer buying behaviour towards Hindustan Unilever Ltd products (special reference to personal care products)”. Kindly extend your co-operation in filling up this questionnaire and enable me in doing my research successfully. The information provided by you shall be used only for academic purpose. Please fill in the correct information to help us understand the customer preferences. I hereby take this opportunity to seek your valuable opinion to the subject. Personal Details NAME: AGE: INCOME: OCCUPATION: 1) Which of the categories in Hindustan Unilever Ltd are you using? Soaps [ ] Skin care [ ] Hair care [ ] Oral care [ ] Deodrant [ ]
2) What do you prefer regarding HUL (personal care products)? A) Soaps Lux  Breeze [ ] Pears   Lifebuoy [ ] Rexona [ ] Ponds  Dove [ ] None [ ] Vaseline [ ] Liril [ ] Hamam [ ] B) Skin care Fair and lovely None [ ] C) Hair care Sunsilk natural None [ ] D) Deodrant Axe  Rexona [ ] 61 None [ ]  Clinic  Dove shampoo 
E) Oral care Pepsodent F) Others  Close up  None [ ] ____________________________________
3) From where you are aware about the product that it is of HUL? Hoardings [ ] Newspaper [ ] Magazines [ ] T.V. [ ] Retailers [ ] Friends/ Relatives [ ]
4) How frequently you purchase the products of Hindustan Unilever Ltd.? Daily [ ] Weekly [ ] Fortnightly [ ] Monthly [ ]
5) What are the factors that affect on the purchase of HUL (personal care products)?
Factors Reasonable price Quality Availability Scheme Discount Retailer suggestion Advertising Variety Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree
6) Where do you generally purchase from? Kiryana / Convenient store [ ] Both [ ] Department store [ ]
7) Are you using other company’s products along with HUL products? Yes [ ] If yes tick company/companies… 62 No [ ]
Proctor & Gamble Dabur 
Colgate & Pamolive [ ]
ITC Ltd. [ ]
8) What are the reasons behind the non-purchase of non-preferred brands of HUL? Non-awareness [ ] Less advertisement [ ] Low Quality [ ] High price  Non-availability [ ] Less variety 
Retailers suggestion for preferred products [ ] 9) Which of the products of HUL are you brand loyal to? Soaps [ ] Skin care [ ] Hair care [ ] Oral care [ ] Deodrant 
10) Are you satisfied on the usage of HUL (personal care products)? Yes  No  Specify Reasons_____________________________________________ 11) Do you want to shift to another brand? Yes [ ] No [ ] If yes, then reasons for shifting__________________________________ SIGNATURE THANK YOU FOR YOUR VALUABLE TIME.
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