Counselling

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UNIT 2 UNDERSTANDING COUNSELLING
Structure
2.1 2.2 2.3 Introduction Objectives The Meaning of Counselling
2.3.1 2.3.2 Definitions of Counselling Counselling and Related Fields

2.4 2.5 2.6

Principles of Counselling The Goals of Counselling The Major Approaches to Counselling
2.6.1 2.6.2 2.6.3 The Directive Approach The Non-directive Approach The Eclectic Approach

2.7

Counselling Process
2.7.1 2.7.2 Concepts Stages

2.8 2.9

Characteristics of An Effective Counsellor Group Counselling
2.9.1 2.9.2 2.9.3 2.9.4 2.9.5 The Meaning of Group Counselling The Assumptions of Group Counselling Structuring of Groups The Process of Group Counselling Advantages and Limitations of Group Counselling

2.1 0 Specialised Areas in Counselling
2.1 0.1 Family Counselling 2.1 0.2 Career C:ounselling 2.10.3 Counsell~ng Drug Addicts and Alcoholics

2.11 Evaluation of Counselling 2.12 Let Us Sum Up 2.13 IJnit-end Exercises

2.1

INTRODUCTION

You have already studied the unit one titled Understanding Guidance and it will help you to understand the concept of Counselling better. In fact, Counselling is considered the central and most important part of the whole Guidance Programme in the school. All other activities and services of a School Guida~lce Programme leads to and help in the counselling process. And it is through counselling that the individual is ultimately helped. Therefore, it is very essential to understand the concept of Counselling clearly. The meaning of Counselling in the professional sense differ very much from the popular understanding of the term. For the layman it means a piece of advice, a suggestion, recomrnendatioli or providing some information. But professionally, Coullsellillg is the scientific process of helping the individual to understand himlherself better in relation to liislher environment so that helshe becomes self-dependent, sclf-directed and selfsufficient and is able to lead a better and meaningful life. Coullselli~lg aimed at helping is the individual in solving problems that are already present, preventing the occurrence of probleins in future and also enhancing personal, social, emotional, educational and vocational development. Thus, Counselling has remedial, preventive and develop~ne~ltal aspects.

Introduction to Guidance and Cou~lselling

In this /unit, we will provide you with a clear understanding of the concept and meaning of Counselling. Later on we will discuss the Priilciples and Goals of Counselling, theoretical orientations, techniques and the process of Counselling in detail. Then we will examine the qualities and characteristics of an Effective Counselling. Since Group Counselling is emerging as a separate field in recent time, we will also discuss it . We will also discuss briefly the special areas in counselling as well as the importance of Evaluation of Counselling Services. You should remember that the purpose of this unit is not merely creating an awareness but alsb, you should be able to make practical applications.

2.2 OBJECTIVES
After going through this unit, you will be able to: explain the term counselling and its relation to various fields; state the goals of counselling; describe the principles of counselling; compare the various approaches to counselling; describe and discuss the process of counselling; differentiate various areas of counselling; list the characteristics of an Effective Counsellor; identify cases requiring help through counselling; and select the appropriate approach(es) and technique(s) for dealing with a given case.

2.3 THE MEANING OF COUNSELLING
2.3.1 Definitions of Counselling
We have already stated that counselling is the most important part of the Guidance Progradme. We have also seen that the meaning of counselling in the professional sense differ from the popular understanding of the term. Now let us examine the meaning of counselling more closely. For this purpose we shall analyze the various definitions of cou~lselling. will help us clarify the concept. It Rogers (1952) describes counselling as " The process by which the structure of the self is relaxed in the safety of the clients relationship with the therapist and previously desired experiedces are perceived and then integrated into an altered self'. Accordiilg to Halm and Mcheall (1955) "Counselling is a one to one relationship between an individual trouhled by problems with which he cannot cope alone and a professional worker hhose training and experience have qualified him to help others reach solutions to various types of personal difficulties". Smith (1955) defines "Counselling is a process in which the counsellor assists the counsell~ingto make interpretations of facts relating to a choice plan or adjustments which h$ needs to make". Pepisky and Pepisky (1954) deiined "Counselling as that interactio~lwhich occurs between two iildividuals called counsellor and client, takes place in a professional setting and is injtiated and maintained to facilitate changes in the behaviour of a client". Accordi~g Stefflre (1970) "Counselliog is a learning-teaching process". to Gustad (1953) stated that " Counselling is a learning oriented process carried in a simple one to ople social environ~nent which the counsellor, professionally competent in in relevant psychological skills and knowledge seeks to assist the client by methods appropribte to the latter's needs and within the context of the total personnel programme, to learn bow to put such understa~lding into effect in relation to morq clearly perceived, 20
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realistically defined goals to the end that the client may become a happier and more productive member of society". From the several definitions given above it call be seen that "Counselling involves a relationship. It involves a relationship hetween a professionally trained, competent counsellor and an individual seeking help. This relationship is not casual, matter of fact or business like. It is characterized by warmth, understanding, acceptance and trust".

2.3.2 Counselling and Related Fields
For a better understanding of counselling it is necessary to study its relationship with some other fields.
Counselling and Psychotherapy

Psychotherapy is the treatment of problems of an emotional nature by psychological means. The fields of counselling and psychotherapy are having a lot of similarities as well as differences. Rogers help the view that counselli~lg psychotherapy are exactly and the same. However it is not totally true. We can distinguish both on the basis of individuals receiving help, persons giving help, severity of the problems covered, etc. In psychotherapy the person receiving help is generally collect a patient who is suffering from some kind of a mental illness. But in counselling the person receiving help is generally a normal person facing some difficulties of adjustment or developmental problems. Secondly, the person(s) who is giving psychotherapy is called psychiatrist who has a basic medical background where as the counselling do not have ally medical background but has extensive training on tho field of psychology. Moreover, in psychotherapy the aiin is to cure a certain ailment. But in counselling the aim is to help in self-understanding. It is more of a learning process. Inspite of the distinctions mentioned above, it is very difficult to separate these two fields. There is more overlap than differences. In both the aim is to assist the person to lead a more adjusted and satisfying life. In both counselling and psychotherapy the relationship between the client and the therapist/counsellor is of vital importance. Moreover while handling emotional problem of a deep nature, counselling approaches psychotherapy very closely.
Guidance and Counselling

Guidance and counselling terms have been in use interchangeably. Laymen and sometimes even counsellors use these terms as if they are synonymous. But it is not correct. Both counselling and guidance are mutually related processes but not the same. Guidance is a more comprehensive process which includes counselling. Guidance services includes many other services apart from counselling. We may say that counselling is the most specialized and most important service in the whole guidance programme.
Instruction and Counselling

Another term closely related to counselling is instruction. There are soine basic differences between instruction and counselling. Instruction is usually obligatory to be followed hy the person who receives it where as in the case of counselling the counselee is not obliged to act according to anything said by the counsellor. Actually nothing is told to be done in counselling. Similarly although the ultimate aim of instruction is the development of the individual. The immediate aim is the learning of a subject, skill, etc. But this is not so in the case of counselling. Moreover, the instructional programme is time bound and structured but counselling on the other hand is not structured and no time limit is also fixed in the case of counselling.
Advice and Counselling

Counselling is sometimes confused with advice giving. It is necessary to dispel this confusion. Advice is sought with lhe conviction of being told what to do and advice is given with the expectation that what is told will be done. The persoil seeking advice is not really responsible for the course of action and the consequence there 01'. It is not always necessary for the individual to understand all factors related to hislher action. In counselling on the other hand the very understanding of all related factors is the crucial matter. Moreover, in advice giving the advisor is making decisions for the individual where as in counsellin$, decision making is wholly the responsibility of the counselee.

Introd~ictiorr Giiidarice ;ind to
Courisellilig

Therefore, the counsellor is fully responsible for hislher actions too. ~ d v ~ giving may ce be an incident and will be over i n n brief meeting. But counsellin,o, as we h;~vi:seen, is a

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nselling is based on n number of principles. These principles are: Counselling is a process. It is necessary for the counsellor to understand that cotinselling is a process and a slow process. Failure lo understand this will result in annoyance ant1 disappoint~nent. Counselli~ig for all. Especially in the school situation counselling is rneanr for all is the students and not only far those who art: Ihcing prohlems or other cxceplional studrnts. As we have already discusscd in the school situation cou~iselling more is

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Counselling is based on certain fundamental assumptions. a) b) every individual in this world is capable of taking responsibilities for Iii~ntherself. every individual has a right to clioose histher own path, based on the principles of democracy.

4.

Counsellor does not deprive the right of self-choice but simply l'acilitalcs choice. Tht: counsellor should give due respect to the individual and accept hi~ntheras hetshe is. Counselling is not advice giving. Counselling is not thinking for the client, but thinking with the client. Counselling is for enabling the client to do judicious thinking. Counselling is not proble~iisolving. The counselior simply assist the person to find solution on histher own. Counselling is not interviewing but co~)versingwith the client in orclcr to help himtlier develop self-understanding, The counsellor sliould determine individual differences and provide for them.

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10. The courlsellor has to prepare the client to open to criticism including self-criticism.

I I . The counsellor acts as a facilitator or catalyst only. Hc creates an atmosphere which i s perniiss~veand non-threatening, through his war111 and accepting relationship with the client which lielps [he client to cxplore himselftlierself and i~ndcrstantl hiniselftherself better.

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2.5 THE GOALS OF COUNSELLING
Many consider counselling a panacea for all ills, which is not true. Individuals have wide ranging ant1 many a time unrealistic expectations regarding counselling. 'This in turn lead to disappoiiltment. The reason for this state of affairs is lack 01' proper understanding as to what exactly are the goals of counselling. Sorne of thc mii,jor goals of counselling generally accepted by counscllor are given below:

I ~ i t r u d u c t i oto ~ ~ Guidance and Cu~~~isclli~ig

1.

Achievement of positive mental henlth An individual is said to have positive mental health when he is able to relate Qenningfully with others and lead a fulfilling life. He is able to love and be loved. One goal oi'counselling is to help the intlividual to attain this state.

2.

Probleiii resolution gnother goal of counselling is to help the individual to come out of a dii'ticult situation or problem. It must be remembered that the individual is only ass~sted and he himself find solution for lhe problems.

3.

~ o u n s e l l i n g decision-ninlting for Ability to ~riakeright and timely decisiorls is crucial for success In life. One major goal of counselling is to make individual capable of making independent decisions. or Counsellor may assist the individual by providing necessary inforn~at~on clar~fying the counselee's goals, etc. but the decision should be taken by the counselee hrrnselfl herself.

4.

Iniproving personal effectiveness As effective person is one who is able to control impulses, think in creative ways aind has the competence to recognize, define and solve problems. It can bc seen that these diil'erent goals are not exclusive. These are all interdependent and ovcrlapping.

5.

Help change For development, change is always necessary. Counselling helps individual to niake changes i n their attitudes, ~)crccplions personality. or

Another aim oi' counselling is to help I n ~ n o d i f y ~ n g behaviour. Rc~novalof des~rnble behav~our undesirable behaviour or sell-defcctrng behaviour and leani~ng iS consiclcred necessary for atta~ningeffectiveness and good acijustment. The behaviourally oriented counsellors :ire the chiei proponents of this vlew. Cherlc Your I'rogress Notes : a ) U'rric j our aliswcr.\ 111 illc >p;icc glvcn bclo\v.
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2.6 THE MA JOK APPROACHES TO COUNSELLING
Thc procticc of any profession is basctl on a system of beliefs and assumptions, generally callecl a theory. Counselling is no cxccptlon. In the casc of cou~~selling, though Inany elabotate tlreories have been proposed, no s ~ n g l etheory explains all aspects of the couns~lling. Therefore, the term approach is generally preferred because i t is n more cornptehensive tery. An aplproach provides a coherent definition for the counselling process, :I clear statement ol'co~nselling goals, :I rationale for selection OF a particular counselling techoiques. etc.

There are three major approaches to counselling. The directive approach, the non-directive approach and the eclectic approach.

Understanding Counselling

2.6.1 The Directive Approach
As the name itself implies this approach envisages a more active role for the counsellor. The counsellor employs varying degrees of direction to help the counselee to reach sound solutions. Also, through his own specialised knowledge and experience in scientific diagnosis and interpretation of data, counselees are helped to reach earlier solutions for their problems. According to Frederick Thorne, the proponent of this approach, the need for direction by the counsellor is inversely proportional to the individual counselee's potentialities for self-regulation. Though the basic responsibility for reaching the solution is primarily with the counsellor as the counselling proceeds. Counselees are encouraged more and more to take up increased responsibility for self-direction. This approach presupposes a more personalised relation with the counselee where the counsellor strives to identify psychologically with the counselee so that he can be understood better. Counselling Steps Directive counselling involves six stages. They are as follows:

a) Analysis
This involves collecting from various sources the data needed for an adequate understanding of the client. This include administration of psychological tests, etc. However, such testing and form filling should not come between the counsellor and counselee and its importance should be limited to the extend that it gives a better idea about the counselee. b) Synthesis This refers to summarising and organising the data so obtained, as to reveal the assets, liabilities, adjustments and maladjustments of the counselee. This includes of the data obtained through psychological testing also. c) Diagnosis This stage is concerned with formulating conclusions regarding the nature and the course of the problems exhibited by the student. Drawing conclusions from the results of psychological testing, administration of questionnaires etc. are done here. d) Prognosis This refers to predicting the future course of development of the counselee's problem in the light of conclusions as made earlier. e) Counselling This is the most important and time consuining step in the whole process. This is where the expertise of the counsellor is needed most. It is a highly persoi~alised teaching and learning process. It may be direct teaching through explicit explanations, assistance in searching for relevant aptitudes, interests, etc. that illuminate the counselee's problems and so on. Sometimes the counsellor listens in a friendlytencouraging way. It may also involve practice sessions where with the warm support of the counsellor the counselee acts out the way hetshe should. Thus hetshe becomes histher own teacher to the extend histher capabilities and circumstancespermits. Success thus achieved reinforces and retains those successful behaviours which in turn establishes an adjusted way of life. Thus counselling involves (a) assisting the student in self-appraisal, i. e. identifying hisher interests motives and capabilities (b) helping himther to plan a course of action which utilizes the capabilities and potentialities so identified and (c) finally in establishing an adaptive life style. To help the counselee appraise himtherself two types of data are needed - self perceived data and data from external appraisal. The counselee himself is the best

Introduction to Guidance and Cou~~selling

saurce of certain type of infonnatioo. However the counsellors should also cqmmunicate those information obtained through ailalysis and diagnosis. However, helshe should be cautious enough not to make the counselee think that both of them are in the sane state of ignorance. Couilsellor doesiiot enumerate in detail the steps of hislher analysisldiagnosis, etc. But the couilselee is given an overall idea. HeIShe should avoid a dogmatic position but through hislher theoretical knowledge, eNperience and judgment, assist the counselee. The counsellor should not at any time appear indecisive because it can cause loss of confidence in himther. He should maintain a varied and running discussion of the case-data taking clue from the caunselee changing facial and verbal expressions. Thus the counsellor co-operate with the counselee to reach a valid interpretation of the case and an effective prlogramme of adaptive behaviour changes.

2.6.2 Non-directive Counselling
In this approach, the counsellor provides an atmosphere in which the client can fully explore hislher own thoughts and feelings freely without any fear or pressure. This by mikin$ the counselee understand hislher potentialities the counsellor acts as a catalytic agent. Here tile source of data is the client himlherself and the responsibility for change rests with the counselee rather than the counsellor. The counsellor should not be as passive as trying to keep out clients way nor should be as active as to shift the focus from client to counsellor.
Centrdl Hypothesis

Czirl RBgers, the chief proponent of the client centered approach has formulated a central hypothesis as follows: a) The individual has within himlherself the capacity latent if not evident to understand those aspects of himlherself and of hislher life which are causing himlher di$satisfaction anxiety or pain and the capacity and the tendency to reorganise him1 herself and hisfher relationship to life in the direction of self-actualization and maturity in such a way as to bring a greater degree of internal comfort. THis capacity will he realised when the therapist can create a psychological climate chbracterised by genuine acceptance of the client as a person of unconditional worth, a continuing sensitive attempt to understand the existing feelings and communications of the client as a person of unconditional worth, a continuing sensitive attempt to understand the existing feelings and communications of the client and a continuing attempt to convey this empathetic understanding to the client.

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b)

1 C) It 1sfurther hypothesized that in such an acceptant understanding and non-threatening amosphere the client will reorganise lliinlherself.
d) This adjusted way of life as achieved in the therapeutic relation with the counsellor will be generalized to real life situations as a whole. Thus the whole idea of the theory is that the clients are capable of correcting misperceptions or incongruencies between self and experience, in the accepting enviro+ent of a counselling situation. If the counsellor possess some personal qualities like codgruency (counsellor being a genuine and integrated person), unconditional positive regard {non evaluative attitude of the counsellor whereby client's thoughts, feelings or behaviour are accepted without judging them as good or bad) and empathy (counsellor's ability to know the client's world as helshe does and to convey this understanding). However, this theory underestimates the need for the counsellor to be an expert in behavipur dynamics, problem solving techniques or developmental processes, etc. Moreover, Rogers rejects the use of diagnosis testing and other such techniques saying that they hinder the client's natural growth. Instead helshe stresses listening, paraphrasing, reflecting client's comments rather than interpreting direct questioning, etc.

2.6.3 Eclectic Approach
Here thk counsellor bases hislher counselliilg on concepts taken from various available viewpoints. Helshe owes on specific theoretical allegiance. Instead, incorporates those procedures and techniques which helshe believes to be most effective in the case of that particular counselee, without any prejudice or bias to any particular school of thought.

According to Thorne, eclecticism is the most practicable and apt approach to counselling. Because no two people are able and as such no single theory of personality could explain the various behavioural pattern exhibited by individuals. So also each problem is unique in its content and intensity and a technique or approach suitable in one case need not even he effective in the second case. These suggests an approach which is tailor made to handle individual cases and eclecticism advocates this neopant. Thorne has coined the word 'Integrated psychology' to express his eclectic view. .Its theoretical foundations are based on the following postulates:
Counselling

i)

All psychological conditions are examples of disorders of integrations and the goal of psychological counselling is to strengthen this integrative process, thus fostering high levels of self-actualization. The focus is therefore, the person in the present situation. The therapist has to assess whether [he client has the necessary resources to take on the responsibilities of life.

ii)

iii) If the therapist is satisfied, he gives the client the responsibility of taking on some routine tasks to start with. iv) Therapy involves the training and reduction of the client in acquiring the controls necessary for self-regulation. Thorne uses tlle term psychological case handling instead of psychotherapy. Steps involved in psycholo~icalcase handling are: a) b)
C)

Systematic diagnosis lo ohtain a complete picture of the clients prohlem. Understanding thc various counselling methods in term of their strengths and limitations. Concentrating on the underlying causes rather than symptoms. Choosing a specific method suited to the needs of the client. Evaluating the method on the basis of the results obtained. Scientifically analyzing the data and evaluating the result.

d) e) f)

'Multimodal therapy' originated by Arnold Lazarus is yet another exilmple of cclectic approach. He explains seven major areas of personality function ( I ) behaviour (observable action), (2) affective (emotional), (3) sensation (feelings), (4) images (imagination), (5) cognition's (thought process), (6) interpersonal relationsliips (socii\l) and (7) drugs/ hiological (physical). He uses the acronym BASIC ID to encompass ill1 these modalities. An important feature of this approach is the insistance that every individual is unique with his own BASIC ID. Maladaptive behaviours are assumed to result frorn faulty learning and the goal of counselling is to bring about client desired changes that will be enduring and to acconlplish this is an efficient and humane way.

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COUNSELLING PROCESS
Counsielling starts with i'illing out u l i l t history questionnaire where the effective in the case o/f that particular counselee. It includes reinforcement procedures, assertiveness trainitig, tlesensitization, feedback and cognitive restructuring especially i n hehaviours, cffeclikc and cognitive modes. In physical ant1 imagery modes, he uses Gestall and holistic tcchni~qucssuch as empty chair of role reverse dialogue, confronlation. abtlominal b r c a ~ b i n g ,positive usual imagery and focussing. Self-management, instruction in pal.enclnp and social skills arc used in ~nterpersoncil ~nodes. drugs and biologic:ll mode, In this iq for the use of appropriate medicines and curtailing inappropriate individual behavbour are assulned to result from faulty social learning In the b a s ~ c . The tqrm counsell~ng the professional sense is always concerned wtth helping others in irresppct~ve f t h e contcxt i n which i t is used. Here. i t is all the more so, since the person o as a Gholc is our I'ocus of attention rather than a specific problem. CounSelling can best be described as a process. It means that counselling involves a seque~nce identifiable cvents s]>re;~d of over a period of lime. The time taken, tlie sequence oi'cvgnts and dynalnlcs involved, the nature and extent of exploration, ctc. differ from individual to ~ndtvidual. Howcver there are certain basic stages which Ibrm tlie part and parceb of each of such counsclling processes. But hcfore going into Ihe details of i t we will qcquaint ourselves with some of the related concepts.

2.7.1 Concepts

Clicljts broadly hll under two broad categories, the first consisting of those who seeks assistance volul~tarilyand thc second comprises those referred. Whatever the case be coungelling presupposes a desire on the part of the counselee, that makes the client comq for assistance. This tlesirc is referred to as 'readiness'.

Counter Will
Often people cxpcrience difficulty i n asking for help and accepting i t as well. Because i n sqme cases, they are reluctant to fi~cethc consequences of change and for some receilviny help means an admission ol'i~~adequacy failure. Some feel that they need no of assisltance or cannot be helpetl at all. 'This negative feeling that holds back one from seeking help is refel-red to as 'counter w ~ l l ' . Case History

This 1s a tcrlli very often used i n this l'icld. A case history can he defined as a systematic collqc~ion facts about thc c l ~ e n present and past life. However, tlie focus of attention of i varids with the tlieorellcal oricn~ations orthc counsellor like a psycho:u~~a~lytlcally oriented couqscllor looking for relev:uit cliiltlhootl cxpericnces, etc.

Rapport
The importance of rapport in counselling cannot be overen~phasized. is a warm friendly It and understanding atmosphere created by the counsellor which is catalytical i n the formation oS an effective counselling relationship. Warmth of relationship, comniunication of this warmth to the counsel'ee and feeling oftrust which grows out of unconditional acceptance are all important factors contributing to the establishrncnt of rapport. Moving out to receive the client, greeting him warmly, putting him at ease and directing his attention away from the prohlem initially, are some of the techniques th:~t can be used.

Understanding C o ~ ~ n s e l l i n g

Transference
It refers to the client transi'erring to the therapist emotions originally felt toward significant others in early life. This is quite natural in counselling situation because the clicnt trusts counsellor and is encouraged to express histher feelings and emotions freely. As a i counsellor, one should acknowledge these feelings and should be handled in : therape~~tic wily lest tlie relation sho~rld break down.

Counter Transference
This pheno~nenonis said to occur when therapists project their s in resolved conflicts with the client or experience upon the client. When counsellors feel ~~ncoml'ortable irrational feelings of anger, resentment, etc. or when they tend to i'oster tlepentlence on clients or become overemotionally involved. We can infer that counter transference has set i n persistence of such i'eelings is not healthy and the counsellor himself should seek professional help if reasoning out by self does not i~nprove condition. his

Resistance
It refers to clients inclination to oppose the counsellors attempt to work towartls set goals. Recent trend is to view this as an expected part of counselling and is found to influence counselling outcolne positively. Resistance ranges frorn open hostility to passively resistant behaviour like heing late for an appointment etc.

2.7.2 Stages
Thc process of counsclling passes through certain stages which can be broad1y classified as follows: I.

Initial stage : Client self-exploration
Here, the clients are encouraged in self-exploration and their concern are clarified. General counselling goals are set and thc working alliance is cstablishetl. Also by gathering ~nfbnnation observing the cl~ent, counsellor :\wive at some tentative and the hypothesis regarding the nature and complexity of thc problem. To help III these decisions assessment devices like psycl~ologicaltests, questionnaires, inventories, etc. are widely used.

The initial stage is sub-divided into (a) first interview and (b) initial counselling sessions.
a)

First interview: It's prirnary objective is to set the foundation i'or an effective working relationship. This is the most challenging stage. Client's appro;~chesthe counsellor with a feeling of uncertainty and ambivalence. Counsellors tliro~~gh their words, facial expressions and overall behaviour conveys his ~~ndcrstanding and acceptance of tlie client and his sincere interest in his probte~n. Silnplc courtesies like seating the clients comfortably, avoiding interrupting phone calls are very important in the development of rapport. During this interview tlie counsellor needs to make a tentative decision whether the task at hand is within his expertise. If not, it is necessary to refer the client to an appropriate proltssional agency. Clients should be made aware of what can be expected out of counselling and what they arc hoping for. Confidentiality, rights of privacy, other ethical and legal considerations need to be clarified. Discussion about the lensth of sessions, payment ol' fees, arrangement of mutually appropriate meeting times, etc. are also done now. Initial counselling sessions: Here, the counsellor mostly listen to the client's concerns arid encourages the expression of feelings, witlio~11 ~ n d u c ~ cluestion:iing.

b)

Introduction to Guidance and Counselling

Thus information is gathered by active listening, attending to client's self talk, ahserving his body behaviour and other reactions, to be used later in deeper e8plorations. If client's have difficulty in expressing, non-threatening questions can Help.

2.

Middle stage :Deeper expioratio~l and analysis This stage is marked by a shift of counsellor attention from clients exrernal problem tb his internal problems from primarily cognitive level to elnotional level. Thus, the cllientsdisclose his feelings increasingly. Counsellors explore more intensively with c~lients,confronts him with contradictions, stronger interpretations of client's aomments, etc. At this poin~, some counsellors use more tests to further explore ieto the clients intellectual or personality functioning. Thus as the clients move to increased disclosure and awareness, counsellors and clients begin to dcvelop qmotional interactions like transference, counter transference, resistance, etc. Though rooted in psychoanalysis experts are of the opinion that these are universal flhenomena in all coul~selling relationships.

3.

Binal stage: Implementatio~l goals through action of

l#y this stage, clients would have started acting upon reality. They become more dFlf aware, assertive and genuine and start generalising these to everyday life. This is a working through phase in which understanding is put into constructive action. amphasis is on making changes in behaviour, attitudes and skills, specified as goals ih the initial stages. For those who delay decision-making, specific strategies like role playing behaviour, rehearsal, assertiveness training, etc. are used.
4.
Termination

If the goals as set in the beginning are met termination follows. If the counsellor
believes the problem has been solved, he rnay raise the issue directly. Or if the olient is sure to have recovered he rnay bring up the idea. If the counsellor agrees, termination proceeds. However, the counsellor must be alert to the possibility that sffort to termination arise due to lack of progress. Also he should be aware that clients signalling termination is a sign of resistance and should be handled carefully.

If termination is reasonable, counsellor must use last few sessions to wean the clients. They often feel a renewal of symptoms, grieving, sadness or separation, anxiety. when counsellor manages tern~inationsuccessfully he maximises counselling qutcome as well as maintains new learning in later life situations.
Clneclc Your Progress

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Notes : a) Write your iinsw~11> the in

SPLIC~ given

helow. -.

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b) Co1np;u.e you1 ans\4c1\ w ~ t h tilose prven at the c11d of the block

1 1 . Siate whcthc~- followrng ~ ~ n t e m e narc truc or kilsc thc i\

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i)
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Counselling is r.cl'cl.re<lt o as a process bcca~~st.makes use 01' psyclloiogical it
ICStS.

I t is quite okay I'or the ccunsellor lo hccvmc emotionally involved o~.deprndcnt o n thc client during cclunsell~ng.

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i i i j The nlail~purpose of the first in~crvicw eslablishmcnt ol' rapporl. is

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pill i n the blanks.
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-1 he negntivc feeling that holds back n person f r o m sccl\ln:+: help from a

counsellor 1s called ...................................

13. i )

Whiil

1 5 res~stalrct' In

thc context of counscll~ng?

ii) What is counter transferrence?

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k

CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EFFECTIVE COUNSELLOR
There have been many attempts at identification of the characteristics of an effective counsellor.

,

I.

General Characteristics The National Vocational Guidance Association of USA has listed such characteristics as interest in people, patience, sensitiveness. emotional stability and objectivity as important. Harrnin and Paulsen (1950) listed understanding, sympathetic attitude. friendliness, sense of humour, stability. patience, objectivity, sincerity, tact, fairness, tolerance, neatness, calmness, broad, mindedness, kindness, pleasantness, social intelligence and poise. According to Howrer (1951) personal niaturity is the most important desirable characteristics to be an effective counsellor. Association for counsellor education and supervision holds that there are six basic qualities viz. belief in each individual, commitment to individual human values, alertness to the world, open mindedness, understanding of self and professional commitment. Variables likes age, sex, experience also to a certain extent are found to affect counselling process. Clients were found to be confident in the ability of younger counsellors. Experience increases with age and counsellor improves with experience. Generally, female clients prefer to discuss emotionally loaded problems with female counsellors. Sex of the counsellor is importance depending on the clients ease or difficulty with which they can discuss their problem to the same or opposite sex. Personality Clraracteristies Several studies have been conducted to identify the personality characteristics basic to effective counselling. Weitz (1957), Snyder and Snyder (1961) and Styler (1961) have suggested the following traits: a) Interest in helping people If the counsellor has a basic interest i n helping others, the clients will feel more comfortable in their presence and this will increase the effectiveness. Counsellors should perceive and understand the Perceptual sensitivity thoughts and feelings of the clients as well as the clues given by him. Personal adjustment Counsellor should be a well adjusted person if he should be effective in solving other's problems. Personal security Weitz (1957) suggests that the feeling of sccurity i n the role of a counsellor is a very important factor in effective counselling even though insecurities outside this area and other life situations is rather not that important as far as effectiveness is concerned. Rogers (1958) suggests that counsellors should be able to Genuineness establish a genuine relationship with the client to achieve thc counselling goals to the best.

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b) c) d)

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-

-

e)

-

Counsellors Attitudes and Beliefs This is important because it determines the nature of the counselling relationships formed. These are as follows:

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Ucliefs: Counsellor s h o ~ ~ l t l bcl~evcn 11-eatingthe clicnts with tlrgn~ty, i ecluality rind inclividu~~lity, should believe i n the worth of ant1 v a l ~ ~ c He ol'thc counselec and i n his need for Frectloni and Ithcrty. Hcre liberty Inearls the power to strive for goals without external co~\straint\. Values: Willia~nson 1958) points out that counsellors cannot bc irldifl'ercnt to ( social rrnd inoral standrirds and 1101.sl~oultL thcy be neutral. Salmcr ( l0hO) states that counsellors SI~OLIICI be fully uwirrc ol' social values ant1 expose it also, hcca~rsc, change i n value constitute a n i~nportont a counselling foal.

hj

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Acceptance: Rogers (I 96 I) tlefincs i t us :I warn1 reg:trd lor the client as a p c r s o ~ ~ of unconcLitiona1 self-wortll ant1 of value, no matter what his condition liis bchaviour or his feeling rrrc. It inlplics a respect rind liking I'or tlie client as a person. Tyler ( I 9 6 l ) iclcnlil'ies two basic components o f acceptance ( i ) willingness to set indivitlur~ls differ from one nothe her i n their bclla~iour and (ii) realization that experience of cacli person comprises a complcx pailern of striving, thinking ant1 feeling. Thus the counsellor should have a nonj~~ilgc~ncntal attitude and this implies helping r n individual and not controlling u him.

d ) ! Underst:~riding: Tyler (1961) defines understanding as tlie abilily LO grasp ; clearly and conipletcly the meaning 11le client is trying to convey. Cou~isellors h o ~ ~ be able to participate co~npletclyi n the clients cornmunicatio~ls ld and liis conllncnts S I I ~ L I I C I Ii:~r~liorlize \villi wllr~tthe client is trying to co~ivcy.

IV. Cobrisullor Skills
Rapporl, attentiveness r ~ n t lcrnpalhy arc tlic three skills necdecl to Fl\crlitate co~lnselling. 'These are closely rclutcd to acceptance and understantling. R17&~ort refers to tliat atmospliese created by the counsellor iit the initial stage of the(counsellingprocess by which a conilbrtable and ~~nconditional relation with the coulnselec is established. ~ t g n t i v e n e s s :7'0 cst;iblisIi rapport tlie cou~iscllorhas to take into consideration the ,needs, moods and conl'licts ol' the counselee into consitler:ition and For this a frie/itlly nntl attentive attitude on tllc ptirt of the counsellor is necessary. Enlpnthy refers to "feelinp into". Dy~ilond(1949) dcscribcs empntlty ns the imabinative of onesell' into the ~hinkinp.fceling ant1 acting of anothcr and so strutturing the world as lie does. This is a significant factor in counselling S o far we had bcen discussing various cliaractcrstics which are reeded to be an effective c o u n s e l l ~ in the view points of dil'fcre~rt r perwns over a period of t ~ m eNow to sumnlarise . we can say that by looking a1 thrce factors, \4/e can distinguish an effective counsellor.

i)

Espbrience: Wcll trained arid cl'fcctivc counsellor5 agree with each other on various coumsell~ngconcepts a n d ol'ler more e ~ n p a l h yand are iiiore succes\ful in cornlnunirating with their clrcnrs.

ii)

Tbe rounselling relationship: I L is cliarac~erisedby a better understanding of their clietits, thcy can mainta~nan appropriate emotional dista~icc and divest tliemselves
of status concerns.

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i ~ i ) Nonrintellective f a c t o r s : This include tolerance for a ~ l i b i g u ~ t y , ~ l i t yof ab untlerst:ind~ng of the client. maturity and ability to establish gootl social ~clationship with all. Also they arc found to be rnorc anxlous. scnsitrve to tlie expectations of otheqs ant1 society, patient ant1 noo-aggressive I n i~~terpersonal relntionslrrps and showbd appropriate sell-con11.01.

C'lkeck YO*~- f'rogrcss
\i?:ICc yivc~l belo\\,. Nolcs : ;I) Write your alls\\cl- 111 t l ~ c

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I 14. \i11.it!: 3lli)rt ;ln.;wcrs 01' the 1i)llowing.

Undcrst;ulding Counselling

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i i i ) \bllla~ i s acccl~li~~:cc'!

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2.9

GROUP COUNSELLING

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Now you know what is counsclling, whi11 are thc principles governing it, the different npproaches to counselling and the aclual process involved. As you have alreurly seen from tlie definitions, counselling has generally been considered as LI one to one process. However, due to various reasons, this concept has undergone change. Now. tlie concept of 'group counselling' has gained wide acceptancc. One main reason for this is cconomic. There is shortage o f resources i n terms o f nioncy as well as trained personnel. Therefore, if n group o1'individuals c;ili be helped at the sunie time, i t is a great advantage. 'Sliere are other benefits also. In a group setting, the individual tends to loosc his identity and therefore resl~oods Inore nat,urally. Moreover group interaction llelps to cli;lnge some attitudes, beliefs, feelings, needs, elc. Group co~lnselling can be 01' great atlvantagc to persons who are shy or aggressive i n their interpersonal interactions. who are anxious or uncomfortable i n groups or who are untluely resistant o f overconforming to social expectations. Also special groups like alcoholics, bused and other groiIps can prollt Inore ~'rorng r o ~ ~ p counselling.

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2.9.1 The Meaning of Group Counselli~lg
Group c o u n s c l l i n ~is an extension o f individual counselling. I n group counselling a number o f rndividuals work together with a professional counsellor to Icrun to resolvc ~~ersonal interpersonal concerns. Thc primary goal o f group counsclling is the creation and of an interpersonal climate which helps each i n d ~ v ~ t l utol develop ~ I I a insight Into himsell'. I t is a process i n which free communication among members is encouraged and lnaintained. leading to an understanding and evaluation o f each other's point o f view. I t iu a means o f helping to resolve proble~nsby enjoying the social process o f g r o i ~ p dynaniics and social facilitation. I t is calculated to attain rapid a~ncliorationn personality i o and behnv~our f individual members througli specifictl and controlled group interaction. I n group counselling individuals explore and analyse their problems together so thiit they liiay understand them better, learn to cope witli them and learn to makc valid cho~ces and decisions. The group experience helps them to feel closer to olhers to l'ind i w d give emotional support and to understand and accept thelnselvcs and others. Feelings o f cOmmon direction and purpose develop, as group cohesiveness increases. Group counselling has all the three dimensions o f inclividual counselli~lg viz. remedial, preventive and developmental. However i n the school situation, emphasis is given to tlie lireventive ant1 dcvelopmcntal aspects because schools are meant to be institutions for l:'licrcfore, providing instruction and guidance to.students, majority o f whom arc ~iortnal. i n schools tlie ninin cotlcerns ol'group counscllirlg is to prevent problems froln becoming tlisturhing or incapacitating and also to aid harmonious development.

I~ltrnductio~l Guida~lcenntl to Cou~~selling

2.9.2 The Assumptions of Group Counselling
Group counselling is based on certain assmnptions. The first assumptio~l that individuals is possass the necessary talent capacity to trust and to be trusted by other group members. They should exhibit a basic concern for others in the group. This encourages group cohesion and provides an atmosphere of support and security for each members of the L group to experience and share iildividual problems. The second assumption is that each individual has the potential to take respo~isibility for self change. On the other hand the individual feels that his life is controlled by others, he but will not be left with any alternat~ves take recourse to disruptive behaviour. The third assumptiori is that group lllelnberh can learn and understand froin the objectives and methodology of group process. The objective is to reform the members and not to make them confonn.

2.9.3 Structuring of Groups
1. S~electionand induction of members: The most frequently used procedure for selectio~i i~iduction meinhers for group counselling is a personal interview, and of prior to assignments to group. The initial interview gives the counsellor an opportunity L establish identification with the member so that feelings of respect, o acccptdnce and assurance is experienced from the beginning. To help the individual decide whether lie wishes to join the counselling group the counsellor briefs him of tlle nature of the work, how it can benefit him, what can be expected and the rules cCtlcerning confidentiality, etc. This interview helps the counsellor to decide whether an individual will be helped by group couiiselliiig and also whether a particular gtoup will project or lose by one being a member. 2.
Size of the group: For group cou~lselling size of the group should berelatively the sqall. Altliougli it is difticult to recommend a specific nuinber,-as-a rulf of' thumb, about hix to ten members could be there in a group. Big groups become ull~ma~iagcable. too small groups are also not desirahlc because thc group But resources will he too liinited and thc tension too gets great due to the pressure to pgt'ticipatc. Moreover, in too small a group, where onc or more members ;Ire absent by chance. 'l'he functioning becomes almost impossible. Composition of the group: There is controversy regarding the composition of groups for counselling. Opinions differ as to whether the group should be homogeneous or heterogeneous with respect to problems, education, intelligence, afle, sex and so on. Hinckeley and Herman recommend heterogeneous groups made ulj of members with ‘various' complai~lts and symptoms. IJershenson and Pewer ( l t ) 8 7 - ~ . ~ advocate grouping clie~its .~.) with similar concerns and similar purposes ibr group counselli~ig because, the similarity facilitates a working bond and a more co/hesivegroup relationship in the session. Gazda (1976) argues that grouping In a si~milau range permits thc group to focus on develop~nental agc concerns appropriate for all members. Sometimes, a balance of males and females increases opportunities fot women and met1 to share views ilhout each others behnviour ilnd attitudes. Al~though opinions differ, almost all agrees that extreme differences are undesirable. Sifnilarly it is not desirable to iuclude extremely hostile and aggressive iildividual hecause he makes it very dil'ficult to crcatc the at~nosphcre acceptance a11d freedom if from thrci~lthal ib essent~alo r group counselling. 'The chronic, monopolist is also f usually cxcluded from group cou~iselli~lg his problem call be worked through until suficie~itly through individuill counselling. Care should be Laken to have a balanced group. The out going aggressive individuals should be inhibited passive despondent members. Frequency and duration of meetings: Various recom~ne~idations been made have regarding the frequency of meetings. The population and the sittings in which group coeilselli~lg occurs determine the frequency and duration of meetings. Weekly and twice weekly meetings me reco~nmended most often. hl a comlnunity agency, colIege or jn private practice two hour weekly sessions arc optional. But in the school settings sli~rter durations, twice a week may he more suitable because of thc shorter altention span of younger students. Moreover, they will miss less class periods. hi scllools grdups usually run from I1 co 15 weeks. 11is more convenient and at the samc time it trlisures a reasonable amount of time I'or the group to attain its goals.

3.

4.

5. Physical setting: Physical setting is less important in comparison with emotional
atmosphere and the skill of the counsellor. A skillful coui~sellor and the group obviously will function inore effectively on a poor physical setting than an inept one and his group in an ideal setting. However, privacy and freedom from interruptions are of course important. The room should be small rather than large. Seating should be flexible and varied. A circular seating arrangement with each member sitting where he pleases is to be preferred to a formal arrangeinents and permanent seat assignments.

Understanding Counselling

2.9.4 The Process of Group Counselling
The process of group counselling can be divided into different stages. The stages are:
Initial exploratory stage: In tlie beginning sessions group lnembers are often strangers. They may be rcsistant to talk or only be able to bring up superficial topics for discussion. They may be shy or fearful of sounding stupid. They tend to focus on themselves and not on others. The counsellor has to explain his role and also the roles of the group members. He has to set up facilitative conditions to help develop trust. The counselIor can accomplish this by modelling genuineness, warmth, nonjudgemental attitudes to group members and by listening carefully. Members are encouraged to share their ideas and feelings frankly and freely. The counsellor sets up 'hcilitative and comlnunicative attitudes and skills ainong participants by demonstrating and modelling these themselves. When the group members notice the non-judgemental manner in which the counsellor reacts to positive as well as negative feedbacks from the members, they also readily accept the feedback in a healthy way. *ansition stage: As the group moves from the initial exploratory stage to the next stage, group members are confronted with tlie need to explore more deeply to selfdisclose (letting others know more about oneselt] Inore intensively and to interact more actively with others if they are to progress. Although soine trust has been established by this time, the feeling to still tentative and the group ineinbers are anxious, ambivalent aiid defensive as they realize that they are expected to explore more deeply the emotions and feelings that are painful. Some fear the group will reject them if they reveal too much. Some are even suspicious that the other ~nelnbers or the counsellor himself inay ridicule them. This stage is also charactesised by conflict or rebellion resulting from a struggle for power, control or doini~iance among the members and with the counsellor. The group members tend to criticise each other frequently. They inay even express doubts about the leadership of tlie counsellor.

All these behaviours represent the resistance to exploring painful feelings. Resista~ice is a sign that members are getting closer to the care of their problems. Resistance may manifest in various other forms also like missing sessions, not participating, criticizing others or simply talking with no mention of feelings. When resistance arise, counsellors should encourage group members to work through conilicts and move toward more authentic self-explorations.
Working stage: In this stage, the members feel more close to each other and morc aware of others problems. Since trust has increased, they are more willirig to take risks in sharing feelings and Lhouglits and to give construclive feedback to each other. They are more supportive and cooperative aiid hence have more confidence in each other. But at this stage, there is a danger of this group intimacy leading to a false cohesiveness in which members protect each other and suppressing negative emotions.

Counsellors at this stage should confront the group members with their behaviours and insist that they challenge each other to convert insights, they have gained in the group into action. For exainple, a group can confront a member who says he recognises the need to assert himself but rcinains passive in the group and his interactiuns outside the group.
#

Slowly the group becomes productive and committed to going deeply into significant problems and to giving attention to interchanges in the group. There is less dependence on the counsellor and the group begins to focus on working towards specified individual goals and group goals. The group members feel free to confront
15

h~trodrrctionto ~11idsncc and Counselling

each other and arc more willing to acccpt coilfrontations as a constructive means to change. As the group interactions bring about attitudial and behavioural changes in the group, members accept challenges atnong them to reform their everyday life. Counselling uses a variety of techniques in accordance with their theoretical orientations. Role playing, psycho-drama, assertiveness training, etc. are frequently u$ed techniques.
Consolidation and Termination: Termination is not simply the 'stopping'. In fact, it is an integral stag6 of the process of "group counselling". It is usual in group counselling to fix a tennination date in advance. It is always wise to start discussion about the tennination, three or four sessions before the final one. It gives adequate tikne for haildlii~g psychological or emotional upsets associated with weaning, to work toward transferring new experiences to outside world, to work through any untiaished problems, to review tlle experiences of individual members and work out how each can build on these changes, once the termination is over, suggestions for future help can also he made when necessary. Specific suggestions of how to build on new learning by joining a support group or other more advance groups by reading or by attending workshops, etc. may also be provided.

2.9.5 Advantages and Limitations of Group Counselling
Advahtages

a) b)
c)

It is economical in maby ways. In group counselling a large number of individuals are helped at the same time by a counsellor. This saves time and money.

It helps individuals to socialize their attitudes, habits and judgements.
It provides multiple stimuli for each inember to work through and approximates their thoughts and feelings real life situation. By frankly and honestly sl~aring members develop a feeling of group cohesiveness and singleness of purpose that of helps them to progress. Discussioi~s matters of common concern help the members to appraise the adequacy of their interpersonal relations. The group gives them a practice tield in which to learn new more tlexible and more satisfying ways of relating to others. Moreover the group helps the individual appraise his values and come to an increased appreciation of the imporlance of good human relations in his value system.

Some individuals who cannot be reached through individual counselling can be reached through group counselling. In a group counselling situation feelings of depression, isolation are reduced and talking made easy. Apart from these, group counselling gives the counsellor an opportunity to study persons in an initial group setting.
Limitations
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Group counselling is not suitable for all individuals. Some individual finds the group situation too threatening. Moreover some individuals have a very low level of tolerance and \Nil1 not be able to adopt their behaviour to the demands of the group. Similarly very persdnal and private problems cannot be discussed in the group siluation. Apart from these the counsellor has less control over the situation in group counselling. As a result the counsellor may sometimes tilid himself seriously impeded in establishing good working relationship with members. 'rllercefore, the counsellor has to take into consideration all these factors and decide whether group counselling is suitable for particular individuals and type of problem.
Individual versus Group Counselling

There are differences as well as similarities between illdividual counselling and group coungelling.

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Similarities

a)

The aims of hot11 are the sane viz helping the counselee achieve self-understanding and become an integrated self-dependent, self-directed and responsible person.

b)

The technique used are also similar, like clarification of feelings, restatement of contents, etc. Confidentiality and privacy are maintained.

Understauding Counselling

c)

d) The most important thing is the climate diat is accepting, permissive and nonthreatening. e) The i~idividuals who receive help in both are normal individuals who are trying to cope with stresses, frustrations, anxieties or other developmental problems.

. Differences

a)

Individual counselling is a one to one, face-to-face relationship where the counsellor interacts interacts with only one counselee. But in group counselling the cou~isellor with number of individuals at the same time. In individual counselli~igthe counselee only receives lielp whereas in group counselling, the counselee also gives help to others. In group counselling, the principles. of group dynamics find a lot of application. But in individual counselling it is the relationship of the counselee with the caunsellor that is important.

b)

c)

Ch,eck Your Progress
Notes :

r ) Write your answers in the spack giver) below.
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('ompart: your answers with tliose given at the end ot the block.

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15. State whetl~er following statements are true or Filse. the

i) ii)

( :

'ounselling can be tfonc only in a one-to-one situation.

group uou~i*elling;I group of professional pool Lhe~r erpcrtirc h~ liulp Lllc ( c:l~ent.

iii) liroup cou~iselling\ appropriate tor alcoholics, i

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iv) Irlg groups ;ire suitable t i s group coussull~~ig. v) I-xtremely hostile and aggressive pcrsons are he\t liclped tl~rouglig,roup counsell~ng.

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vi) i'hysical s e t t i ~ ~ g more importa~itthan tlre skill oi the counsellor i n lrroup is c:ounselling.
16. Writcb short athwers of the g ~ v equestions. ~i
i)

htenrion two advantages of group counselling.

iij

%'hat are the limitations of group counselling.

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iii)

ate two dift'erences between i~idividual coubselli~~p group csunsi:liing. and

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ivj What are thc assumptions of group counselling.

Inirudeciion l o Guidance and Counseiling

2.10 SPECIALISED AREAS IN COUNSELLING
So far we had been discussing counselling in general with regard to its various aspects and related concepts. R u t some areas in counselling are such that they call for special expertise and techniques on the part of the counsellor. These are recognised as special areas in counselling.

2.10.1 Family Counselling
Family counselling involves an interaction between professional counsellor and a family, in which family inembers are helped to improve their communication and relationships so as to increase the individual growth of each family member while achieving balance among family members. and healthy il~teractions of Family counselling passes through four specific stages. Initial stage coi~sists developing a rellationship and assessing the problem, In the middle stage family members develop an etnotional understanding of the reasons behind their problem. Ending shge is helping the iamily learn alternative ways of behaving thus transforming the family system. Terqination stage is the weaning period where the family is taught to function productively without the help of the counsellor. In the initial sessions counsellors try to establish rapport, contidence and trust. Each member is treated as important and insist that members should speak for themselves. Members are prompted to speak out what they think as their problem and also to discuss their expectations of the family. Counsellors observe fainily dynamics, power structure in tile family, coinmunication patterns, and positive resources of the family, etc. Members are helped to perceive themselves as a social unit. Family history, interaction with extehded family members are also explored if need be. Once the problem has been refocussed, goals-are set and commitment of each family members claritied. Whether to involve all meinbers in one session or to hold separate sessions will also be decided. In the middle stage, members are helped to 'arrive at an emotional understanding of the problem. Counsellor becomes more confrontative leading to emotionally charged disclosures. Expression of unresolved grief like death of loved one, divorce, loss of childhood, etc. is encouraged at this stage. Here members begin to realise that relationships can be changed for the better. With this, roles become less rigid and communications become direct and constructive. In tHe ending stage, members are encouraged to generalise these changes to interactions of home and in the tenninatioil stage the fainily is weaned and helped to function productively without therapists help. Review of what happcned, discussion of potential problems ahead and how they intend to handle the matter, etc. are helpful here.

2.10.2 Career Counselling
Career counselling refers to that professional relationship where the clients are helped to select, prepare for enter and function effectively in an occupation. According to E.G. Williainson (1939) client problems could be classified into four categories viz. no choice, uncertain choice, unwise choice and discrepancy between interests and aptitudes. Process of counselling in these contexts is very much similar to that in general counselling because the development choice and establishment of a career are closely related to social and environlne~ltal intluences and personality development. Cli&ntproblems are identified and claritied through establishment of rapport and on the basis of information so gathered, the cou~~sellor forms a tentative hypothesis. Client problem resolution is then accolnplished wilh the help of the counsellor followed by evaluation. 'The major difference beiug that i s career counselling additional information is gathered in occupational areas. Occupational history is reviewed, resort occupational testing if need be and exploration of occupation and training possibilities are made. Finally decisions about career choice or development are vdken. Ca*er counselling though primarily contined to education ir! Ldia, it has wide scope in codmunity agencies and business for employee counselling and assistance programmes. Alsu specialised counsellors do placement work and vocational rehabilitation counselling
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to help disadvantaged or handicapped persons with respect to jobs. Considerable research gone into this field shows that career counselling is generally beneficial.

2,10.3 Counselling Drug Addicts and Alcoholics
Drug addiction has reached epidemic proportions in our country. The ill effects of substance abuse are so many. These substances are psychoactive in the sense that they alter the mood, perceptions and behaviour. The so called stiinulants tamper appetite leading to nutritional deficiencies and serious physical ailments. Drug abuse also leads to serious interpersonal problems like domestic violence, child abuse, sexual dysfuunction's etc. These substances induce physical and psychological dependency which makes it nearly impossible for the victim to get rid of the habit. Street crimes involving drug addicts are on the rise and reveals attempts made by them to get money to pay drug dealers.

Drug abuse counsellors emphasize in patient residential treatment programines in highly structured and protected environment. This is because it is important to protect them initially from bad environmental influences. Moreover inedication is advisable in many cases to help addicts to wilhdraw from dependency that they have developed.
The drug abuse counsellors after ruling out the need for hospitalization inducts the client into the counselling programme. They insist that the client abstain from taking drugs, as the first step. Because without that, proper rapport or communication is impossible. l'amily members are also counselled and make aware of there faulty roles, dysfunctional communication, etc. which have caused or perpetuated the problem. Rot11 the client and family members receive help to develop feelings of self worth and responsibility for their behaviours. They learn to express their needs more direct1y. Through exploration of childhood experience they become aware of repressed negative emotions that are affecting their present behaviour. They also lean] new ways of dealing with stress. Drug addicts should receive group counselling because they often lack social skills. Auxiliary services like recreational or occupational therapy helps them to cultivate new interests. Nutritional guidance helps them to cultivate healthy eating habits. Counselling ensures their successful return to the society thus alienating the problem once for all.

1Y fr - ol

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iBl~grtis~

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I Notes :

;r!

Write yol~r ;irlswers in the spiicc give^^ bclow.

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~~~~~~~~~~c your aohwcrs with those given ill the end of thc !>lock.
17. S1;itc v~hclhcr Collowing statclneill are true or false: the
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1 .!inily couasull~ng rcfers to the psychological help the c~ourracllor picsvitics to I l r , own fulillly ~nc.n~hclb rcl;llivcs. and

ii)

A.l:trriage counsrlling and family counsrlling lur one ;uitl the s;unc.

iii) Ir is ncwssary to counsel the kimily mcmhcrs of drug iiddicts.

18. What

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!he dil'fercace between a sex Lhcrapisl and n marriagc i:ou~rsellor'!

EVALUATION OF COUNSELLING
The term evaluation refers to judging the effectiveness with which the objectives of a programme are achieved in relation to specified standAards. It may be improved adjustmenl, a sensible vocational choice, realistic self-concept or a belter grade in school. So, in the context of counselling, evaluation means, determining whelller these goals were achieved or not and if 'yes', to what extent. It is also the business here to see the effectiveiless of

I~~lroduction Guidance and to Counselling

various counselling approaches as well as the situations in which counselling can be used at its best. Probllems in Evaluation 1. Selection of criteria: As any other evaluation programme, evaluatioqof counselling also presupposes a criterion, to be used as a yardstick to measure the counselling olutcomes. A good criterion is one, that is relevant to the problem which is to be studied and at the same time is measurable also. It may be easy to find a criterion . relevant to a particular situation, but many a times, they are so vague and abstract that it is difficult to quantify them. If we propose to choose a subjective criterion viz. the clients own judgement about the effectivenessof the counsellors judgement, chances are that at times, they become too subjective to be reliable. Objective criterion, like the judgement given by a third pwty or a score in a psychological test q e usually found to be predictable and the best means of evaluation. But they also have their limitations like, if we take "feeling of inferiority" as the criterion they dannot be observed by an outside agency. Psychological tests can be used here as an alternative. But at present only a few psychological tests are established to he valid. In fact, no test is valid for all situations and persons.
2.

Complexity of the goal to Ile evaluated: The goals of counselling, many a times are to secure self-direction and self-dependence. With such goals evaluation is not going to be a simple process because they are unique, complex and dynamic. This especially happens in case of personal counselling rather than academic counselling where the goals are mainly concerned with obtaining a better score in school, improving memory skills, study habits, etc. t a c k of adequate data regarding the pre-counselling status for comparison with best counselling status thus making meaningful evaluation impractical.

3.

4. Evaluation in the context of co"nse1ling is a time consuming process.
5.

Lack of trained personnel well versed with the techniques of evaluation.

Not withstanding the difficulties and practical problems, we cannot do away with evalgalion of counselling programmes. Reasons are many. One reason is that the appropriateness and usel'ulness of a particular programme cannot he judged without evaluating it. Secondly it brings to light the limitatio~is a programme thus ensuring of remedial measures and thereby improving the quality of the services rendered. Finally for the clie~~ts theinselves evaluation provides a feedback motivating them towards better results. Now that we have seen the need for evaluation and the problems faced hy researchers in this tield. We will go to see the different ways in which evaluation is done.
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a

Survey Approach

It is a very simple method. Here data are collected by surveys conducted 011the scunple selected for the purpose and hence the name. This approach consists of identifying the population, obtaining a representative sample from it, collecting information, emplqying suitable evaluative schedule and finally interpreting the results in terms of pre-determined critqria. I-Iere the clients are asked questions directly or made to fill up questionnaires as how they feel about the usefulness of counselling, whetller they have benefitted from i t eic. They are also asked to highlight 2 n flaws observed irnd suggestitlns regarding possible 1y solultio~ls ~neans improvement are also solicited. and of This method is a very useful approach since a large umber of data call be [email protected] within a reasonable time which makes the conclusions more valid. Some drawbilcks of this approach are unreliability of the subjects answers since they tend to give socially desirable answers, lack of experimental validation and possibility of sampling errors leading to biased conclusions.
2. ' Case Study Approach
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Thib approach focusses attention on individual cases handled by counsellors. Each case is analysed in depth to assess the effectiveness of the counselling programme ilttended

by the client. Evaluation again is made using a subjective criterion like the clients judgements or clienls own judgement regarding his progress. Objective criteria as described earlier may also be used, subject to their own limitations. Advantage of this approach lies ip its emphasis given to individual cases. A big drawback of this approach is that it is a time consuming process. Also, since each individual is unique it is improper to make generalizations based on such data. To counteract this if we miss data pertaining to different individuals it may miss the unique features of individual approach.
3.
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~ l ~ d e r s i i l n d iCounselling n~

Experimental Approach

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The basic requirements of this approach are (a) determining the objectives or setting of agoal for the study undertaken (formulation of the hypothesis), (b) choosing appropriate method or design of the experiment, (c) selecting two or more groups as the case may be, which are comparable to each other, (d) application of such counsellillg techniques the outcome of which can be measured objectively and (e) Analysing the data and interpreting the results. The vital step in this approach is the selection of comparable groups. In scholastic fields as in counselling for improving study skills, comprehension, memory, reading ability, etc. progress can be assessed easily through this method. Where as in areas like vocational choice and personnel counselling client satisfaction often is a complex phenomena which is not easily amenable to objective assessment.
Usefulness of Counselling

Now, we will summarise the conclusions arrived at through evaluation studies of cou~iselling programmes. Follow up studies have indicated that counselled students are inore successful at school and after having also, than those without any exposure to counselling even after controlling the motivation dift'erence between the.two groups, significant differences in success rate has been observed. Counselling does not work equally well in all cases. Vocational counsellillg is found to improve vocational adjustment. Studies have proved that it is not thelheoretical orientation of the counsellor but hislher expertise is that which matters.

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Check Your l'rogress
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Motes :

Write your is~swcrs thc space giscn below. in ('ompare your answcrs wit11 those given a1 the end of tl~c hlock.

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1Y.

Siiitc wl~cthcr I'ollowing statel~lc~lts true or Ii~lse: the ;Ire
i)

i ' l i c ~ ~ l s Judgement ;thout the el'fcctiveness of counselling is a 1 objective own 1 ~:rilcrionli)r ev:~luation.

ii) 'J'lle scores 011 a psychologiwl test is ;I subjective crilcrion i\)r evi~laiilion.
iii) i:valurtius of cou~~scllisg the clients ;~lss. helps
iv)

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qurvey method is ihe ciisiest way lo cv;iIuate counscllinp progr:untnc.

2.12

LET US SUM UP

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Different authors have defined counselling with differing emphasis on various aspects. However, most of them agree that counselling is a process and involves a relationship between professionally trained counsellor and an individual in need to help. Psychotherapy, Guidance, Instruction and Advice giving are some lields closely related

Introductio~~ G u i d a ~ ~ c e LO aud Cou~~selli~~g

to cbunselling. Although these fields arc closely related to counselling and there are s o m similarities in their functions, they are different from counselling. Coulnselling as a scientific technique is based on a set of principles and assumptions. Couinselling assumes that every individual is capable of taking histher own decisions and d s o that helshe has a right to choose hislher path. The counsellor does not give him/ her ~ d v i c e solves problems for himlher but only facilitates judicial thinking and or decision-making . Lack of proper understanding as to what exactly are the goals of counselling win lead to unraistic expectations and resultant disappointment. (1) achievement of positive mental health, (2) problem resolution, (3) decision-making, (4) improving personal effectiveness, (5) help change, and (6) behaviour modification are the major goals of counselling. The$e are three main approaches : (1) Directive (2) Non-directive, and (3) Eclectic. Irrespective of the approach used, couilselling generally pass through four stages viz. initial stage, middle stage, final stage and termination. The effectiveness of counselling to a great extent is dependent on the personality and other characteristics of counselling. The Foncept of group counselling is gaining increasing popularity and main reason for this Is economic.

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Certain areas in counselling requires special expertise such areas are family counselling, career counselling and counselling of drug addicts and alcoholics. As ill the case of any other services, evaluation is essential for counselling services also. Evalbalion helps in judging the effectiveness of the programme.
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2.13
1.

UNIT-END EXERCISES

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Identify a student requiring help through counselling in your school. Select an hppropriate counselling approach. Describe the techniques you will use to help the $tudent. State the reasons for selecting the particular approach and the techniques. Understanding of the term. Discuss.

2. The meaning of counselling in the professional sense differ from the popular
3.
Critically evaluate the advantages and limitations of group couilselling.

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