Crash Course in Journalism

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CRASH COURSE IN JOURNALISM GOLDEN PEN AWARDS 2011 July 1-2, 2012; Iloilo National High School and Robinsons¶ Place Iloilo, Iloilo City CRASH COURSE IN JOURNALISM WHAT¶S INSIDE? NEWSWRITING FEATURE WRITING EDITORIAL WRITING SPORTS WRITING COPYREADING AND HEADLINE WRITING EDITORIAL CARTOONING NEWSWRITING ³Any event, idea, or opinion that is timely, that interests and affects a large number of persons in the community, and that is capable of being understood by them.´ ³News is an oral or written report of an event that happened, is happening, will happen in the North, East, West, or South that is of interest to the reader and which should be reported.´ But what is interesting to one is not always interesting to another. Elements of the News Conflict, Immediacy or Timeliness, Proximity or Nearness, Prominence, Significance, Names, Drama, Oddity and Unusualness, Romance and Adventure, Sex, Progress, Animals, Number, Emotion Basic Rule (ABC) in Writing News: ACCURACY, BREVITY, CLARITY. Different forms of writing an incident Situation: A fire broke out and four persons made their separate essays on what happened. For a 10-year-old grade school pupil, ³I saw a fire. It was a big red fire. It burned a house. There were many people around. Some men put water on the fire.´ For a romantic high school student, ³Fearful scarlet tongues arose to the star-studded heaven and licked greedily at the doomed edifice while the stout-hearted firefighters risked their all to quench the terrible conflagration.´ For a lady bystander, ³You know, Mare, there was a fire in our community. I think it cost the owner a great deal of money. The date was August 8. August is the eighth month. So I bet in the lottery, 8-16-24-32-40-48.´ For a news writer, ³A fire of undetermined origin razed to the ground a two-storey apartment owned by lawyer Herman Lagon of 80 Lopez Jaena St., Jaro Iloilo City, last night. Four trucks from the Jaro Fire Station subdued the fire within an hour. The damage estimated by the police at PhP 500,000.00 was covered by insurance.´ (Here, note the 5W¶s and 1H in the lead) The combination of simple, vivid and dignified articles produces a copy simple enough for Mr. Average Reader to understand. We call it news article. Structure of news: Inverted Pyramid (from climax to less important) Sample News Headline (ulo ng balita) Dog dies saving blind master Lead (pamatnubay)± Most important facts A FOUR-YEAR-OLD dog saved the life of his blind master, Thursday night, but the canine¶s loyalty cost the trusty animal his life. Bridge²Elaboration of lead In serious condition today in Doctor¶s Hospital is Erland Escobanez, 71, a street sweeper. Escobanez of SSS Building, Rizal St., Iloilo City was found early this morning unconscious on a sidewalk near the Aglipayan Church in the Iloilo Terminal Market. Less important facts Police theorized that Escobanez was knocked unconscious when he fell, his head hitting a stone. Potpot, his dog, apparently tried to shield its master from the cold and the rain by draping itself over the fallen man. When discovered this morning by the Police Patrol, Escobanez was still out cold. The dog lay near, dead.

Relatives of Escobanez who is still a bachelor, told authorities that he always took nightly strolls at about 11 p.m. with his dog. Minor facts According to doctors, only the warmth from the dog¶s body saved Escobanez from certain death. Escobanez told police that he remembers nothing of the incident. A wallet containing PhP 500.00 was still in his pocket leading the authorities to rule out robbery. How to write a lead? Lead It is a single word, a phrase, a clause, a brief sentence, an entire paragraph or a series of paragraphs. The main function of the lead, aside from introducing the news story, are to tell the story in capsule form and to answer right away the questions the reader would naturally ask. A good lead answers all the important questions of the reader, indicates thefacts if they are all important, and arouses the readers¶ interest to continue reading the story. In Filipino news, a good lead starts with a verb like ³Nilamon ng«´ Conventional or summary lead This kind of lead used in straight news, answers right away all or any of the 5 W¶s (Who, What, When, Where, Why) and/or the H (How). It may be one of the following: 1. WHO lead PRESIDENT Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo addressed, April 20, the PMA graduates in Baguio City. 2. WHAT lead AN ENTRANCE examination will be given Nov. 24 to all graduating high school students desiring to enroll in the fouryear college course. 3. WHERE lead TRAPICHE, Oton, Iloilo will be the site of the next International Film Festival. 4. WHEN lead TODAY, almost to the hour, the Revolutionary Government was proclaimed by former President Corazon Aquino. 5. WHY lead BECAUSE of poverty, around a hundred students dropped from school last year. This was learned from Ateneo de Iloilo principal Aurora dela Cruz. 6. HOW lead BY APPEALING to the school board, the University of Iloilo was able to construct a 30-storey, concrete building. Do¶s and Don¶ts in writing a news story 1. Write the story immediately. 2. Play up the dominant points. 3. Be accurate and truthful. 4. Avoid opinions called editorializing. 5. Use adjectives sparingly. 6. Avoid libelous, seditious and rebellious matters, prejudice and bad taste. 7. Give source (attribution) of the news. Use quotes! 8. Write names in full when these are mentioned for the first time. 9. Identify the names mentioned. 10. Avoid redundancy. 11. Watch out for errors in fact, grammar, structure, and style. 12. Observe the guidelines for clear effective writing (unity, coherence, emphasis, brevity, clarity, etc.) 13. Adopt a paper stylesheet or stylebook for consistency and professionalism (in Ripples, we officially adopt the Daily Inquirer Stylebook) Guidelines in writing a news story 1. Give your lead sentence a ³punch´ to catch the interest of the readers. 2. Starts with the most important event or idea. 3. Use the rule or proximity and explain how the news affects the people in the locality or the students in school. 4. If your story has something unusual or novel to tell, bank on that for the lead. It¶s hot copy. 5. Make your sentences concise and clear so that they could be easily understood. Long tedious sentences will likely ³kill´ the readers¶ interest. Besides, they usually ³lose´ the readers along the way. News stories are not ³luxury´ or ´pleasure´ reading. They have the basic function to inform.

6. Use simple words. Using highfalutin words does not prove anything but pedantry and literary pretentions. Even literary writers try as much as possible to use simple words. 7. Never be afraid of breaking the rules if it will prove helpful in making a good copy. FEATURE WRITING What is a feature article (lathalain)? It is hard to define a feature article because it can take so many forms and can cover so many subjects. However, a reader may easily distinguish feature stories from news stories through its different characteristics. A feature article is an essay based on fact. It¶s a virtual drop bag. It is never fictitious. This makes it different from ordinary essay you study in your literature class. Like an editorial, a feature article is hung on a newspeg. Feature stories, like news stories, are written to inform but they enlarge news in a leisurely and entertaining way. They are written to add life to the paper and therefore their style lends more to the creativity of a writer. The main objective of news is to inform while that of a feature article is toentertain. But feature articles may also instruct, advise, influence, inform, and entertain at the same time. The matrix below compares and contrasts news, feature and editorial articles. COMPARISON NEWS EDITORIAL FEATURE 1. Definition Report an event Interpretation of an event/issue An essay based on facts 2. Main Purpose To inform To interpret To entertain using present human interest stories 3. Timeliness Timely Timely Timely 4. Length Short Around 300 words (2000 computer characters) Depends upon the needs 5. Use of words Simple precise, concrete Simple, forceful, direct May be descriptive, flowery, colorful 6. Use of sentences Short, simple, 15-25 words average May be longer May be longer 7. Paragraph No topic sentence, one idea, one paragraph With topic sentence, longer With topic sentence, longer 8. Use of literary devices Journalistic, direct to the point, no idioms, figures of speech Journalistic, direct to the point, may use idioms, figures of speech if properly handled Literary, can be journalistic; idioms, figures of speech used freely 9. Use of adjectives/opinion Uses adjectives sparingly; opinion, never Adjectives used freely; primarily opinion As much as desired

10. Parts Lead, (Bridge), Body Introduction (newspeg, reaction), body, conclusion (clincher) Introduction, body, ending 11. Style Follows style-sheet newspaper style Follows style-sheet, newspaper style Composition style or newspaper style 12. Structure Inverted pyramid Hypothesis, arguments/stand on issue, conclusion Suspended interest or pyramid structure 13. Title/Headline Short (subject-verb; telegraphic sentence form) Shorter (at most three words) Any length as long as it is appealing to the reader/topic 14. Kinds (Refer to the syllabus) Note: Sports News is not included since this special news article combines News, Feature and Editorial precepts. Imagine this « You are a reporter of a newspaper covering a beat in the Iloilo Port Terminal. While going home for work, you notice an old man ferrying people across a narrow waterway that divides the passenger bancas from the wharf. You have passed by him hundreds of times before without a second thought, but suddenly you get off your motorcycle press and grab your notepad. You have just spotted a feature story. You take a candid shot of the old man and start asking him questions about himself, his family, his job, his odd experience with the endless stream of humanity that he ferries daily across the small brook. At home, you sit down and focus your thoughts on the old gnarled ferryman and study the odds and ends about him on your notepad. You organize your material and determine your focus of interest. Then, you begin to write your story: REGIE Zabalacheng has the loneliest job in town. Each day, he ferries hundreds of people across the Iloilo stream, but no one bothers to say ³hello,´ or even give a friendly wave. Sabalacheng, 68, of 70 Lopez Jaena Street, Iloilo City, has been at his job for 40 solitary years. ³Nobody ever pays attention to me except to give me the two peso-fare after I get them safely across the river. I know them all by face because I see them every day but I don¶t know their names,´ Zabalacheng said with a cynical grin, ³I guess they don¶t know mine either.´ ³It¶s not a bad job, but it sure gets lonely.´ The story continues with more quotes from Zabalacheng, a description of his appearance and mannerisms, anecdotes from his 40-year career, and his family. You¶ve got a feature story. The Wall Street Journal Formula Here is a structure for features that the Wall Street Journal has used successfully for many years. Beginning (introduction)²Start with an anecdote or an illustration of the theme (1st to 2nd paragraphs). Theme²Shortly after the beginning, state the point of the piece (3rd to 6thparagraphs). Body²Provide details that elaborate on that theme. Tell the reader what is happening and why and what¶s being done about the situation. This serves rather than conclude on a secondary piece of information as to most news stories, a feature may have what is called a kicker, a punch at the end that drives home the theme and that the reader must always remember. (5th to 7th paragraphs) Topics for Feature Stories 1. Personalities 2. Experience and adventure 3. Description 4. Narratives 5. Backgrounders 6. Developmental feature articles

7. ³What to do´ and ³How to´ articles How to introduce (begin) the Feature article? Unlike straight news, a feature article may begin in any form and in any style. It depends on the topic or purpose of the writer. Most features, however, may be introduced by any of the following: 1. Rhetorical question WHO says that age is an obstacle to education? Take it from Procopio Dimakulangan of San Miguel, Iloilo who stopped going to school 50 years ago after finishing the elementary grades. This year, he enrolled as a first year evening student at Andres Bonifacio High, Ateneo de Iloilo¶s adopted school. 2. Startling statement ³HINDI pa kami laos!´ Ito ang pahayag ng mga ³young once´²mga guro, pinuno ng paaralan at mga magulang²nang kanilang ipinagdiwang ang Araw ng Ateneo, Agosto 17, at lumahok sila sa iba¶t ibang palatuntunan at paligsahan upang bigyang-buhay at kasanayan ang pagdiriwang. 3. Narrative statement MRS. NELIA Marie Pradas, a fourth year evening student sends herself and her six children to school, acting as mother and father at the same time. Every day, Mrs. Pradas takes her tentative place between the half-time tinderatending her sarisari store during the day and the half-time student studying at night. 4. Quoted remarks ³I EARN while I learn.´ He smiled at me as the interview reeled off. ³How can you work, have a part-time job as an exotic dancer, and at the same time go to school?´ I asked. ³Well, it is easy, she explained. ³I don¶t do all of these at the same time.´ 5. An old maxim, an aphorism or a ³salawikain ³TUBIG, tubig sa lahat ng dako, ngunit kahit isang patak ay walang maiinom.´ Itong siniping sabi ni Samuel Coleridge sa tulang ³The Ancient Mariner´ na wala nang bisa ngayon. Kahit na tubig na galing sa baha ay maiinom na. Paano? Ganito ang paraan. 6. History or background of the subject ISLAMS throughout the world, including our Filipino Muslim brothers observe the holy month of Ramadan, starting Sept. 17. Ramadan is the ninth lunar month of the Muslim calendar. It is observed by Muslims as the Lenten Season is commemorated by Christians. 7. Problems to be discussed in the article of fact to be established THIS IS the answer to the rising cost of vegetables: raise your own. Ending the Feature article 1. A summary of the whole article MAKINIG ka sa dalubhasa: ang paninigarilyo ay lubhang masama sa kalusugan. Maaring maturingan kang tunay na lalaki dahil sa paninigarilyo mo, subalit hindi tatagal ang buhay mo upang mapatunayan mo ang iyong pagkalalaki. 2. An announcement of the main point for the first time THEREFORE, a major part of the development communications effort should be directed at strengthening the character of the people and developing in them moral values, particularly by self-discipline, self-reliance, strength of character, and fortitude. 3. A question left in the reader¶s mind ANG KAMAY ng makabagong Pilipino ay handang marumihan. Pinaiikoit niya ang gulong ng pangkaunlaran. Iwinawagayway niya ang bandila ng kalayaan²kalayaan laban sa paghihikahos, at kalayaan sa kamangmangan. 4. Suggested results or significance LET US conserve our forests now if we want to save the future of our country and of our children. 5. A forecast or prophecy IN SIX-AND-A-HALF centuries from now, if population explosion would not be checked, there would be one person standing on every square foot of land on earth. By that time, people would be devouring one another for there would be no more space for plants to grow. 6. A repetition of the introduction ASKED if he had formal training in photography, Lovely Sepe finally answered, ³Ah, it is now the reverse. It is here where I learn as I earn, not earn as I learn.´ (the lead of the feature article is, ³I learn while I earn).

7. A repetition of a sentence or slogan, or a reference to the title AFTER four years of working as a houseboy, working during the day and going to school at night, Jose Bonifacio will soon graduate as a first honor student. Now, who says that poverty is a hindrance to education? (The title of the feature article is ³Poverty, not a hindrance.´) 8. An appropriate quotation NESTOR claims that he is poor. But when asked why he gave his last centavo to the old man, he answered: ³It is not what we give, but what we share For the gift, without the giver is bare, Who gives himself with his alms feeds three Himself, his hungering neighbor and me.´ A good feature writer should possess the following: 1. a keen observation 2. an intellectual curiosity 3. ability to find features in everyday happenings 4. cupboards of descriptive words (using all senses)and everyday idioms 5. the skill to weave words into interesting sentences and paragraphs 6. the ability to write effectively 7. the attitude to ³think first before writing´ and to ³show (suggest), not tell, things´ Feature Example Topic: Abortion COME TO me, Mama. Come, touch me and feel my pain. Don¶t be afraid now, Mama. You weren¶t when you killed me. Here, touch this« can you feel it now, Mama? The excruciating pain that consumed my helpless body? You inflicted that, remember? Look at my body, now a mass of rotting flesh and coagulated blood. The dregs of what was a tiny human body. A body that was soft with a tiny head matted with a sheen of baby hair. A tiny body with a tiny heart that pulsated in time with yours. These were my fingers and ohh!... Here¶s my thumb which I sucked while snugly tucked inside you. You see, I had long lashes just like Dad¶s. My sensitive mouth was just like yours. And here are my ears that heard your quickening heartbeat when you¶re afraid. I could have been a wonderful child if you¶ve let me live. I could have been baby boy, just what Daddy wanted. A strong, healthy and bubbly bundle in your arms. My hypersensitiveness would have exasperated you. Daddy? Hmmm« He could have coached me in playing basketball. He¶ll be the passer and I am the shooter. I could have grown into a writer. You would be proud of me coz I¶m gonna join contests. Mama, see I was alive but not anymore. So, please let baby brother live. He could also be as wonderful as me. His life wouldn¶t be like mine. A life that never was. EDITORIAL WRITING What is an Editorial? It is the official stand of the publication on a relevant development or issue. It is a concerted commentary written by any member of the editorial staff who comments or gives the newspaper¶s or staff¶s opinion on an issue which is of interest and importance to the public. The editorial is considered the soul of the newspaper for it stirs the conscience of the readers to action; it influence and molds public opinion. It is usually written in formal language, expressing the stand of the paper on controversial issues of the day. It has no byline. It is the expression of the people¶s conscience, cause, and convictions.²Joseph Pulitzer Characteristics of a good editorial 1. Must have clearness of style 2. Moral purpose 3. Sound reasoning 4. The power to influence public opinion 5. Lead logically to a conclusion 6. Present only one idea

7. Avoid wordiness 8. Present facts not mere opinion 9. Concise, around 250-300 words or 2,000-2,500 computer characters (at most 6 paragraphs) 10. Must be decisive and bias Types of editorial 1. Editorial of information 2. Editorial of interpretation 3. Editorial of criticism 4. Editorial of commendation, appreciation, or tribute 5. Editorial of argumentation 6. Editorial of entertainment 7. Mood editorial 8. Pooled editorial How to write an editorial? In writing editorial, select only one specific idea to develop. Be sure the topic is of interest to the reader. Organize your editorial in three parts: 1. Introduction Contains the newspeg with the reaction. It is usually one short paragraph.(A newspeg is a brief statement about the news event upon which the editorial is based or an existing issue that needs to be solved right away) 2. Body It may take two to four short paragraphs that support or justify the reaction. Cite reasons, statistics, interviews, or figures. 3. Ending The ending, sometimes called the clincher, summarizes the editorial¶s stand. It must be crispy and difficult to forget. Example of an introduction (reaction is italicized; newspeg is in regular font) The new office policy of requiring tardy students to study their lessons in the literary while they wait for the next period is both timely and wise. It is a source of great pride and inspiration for our school to come out second in the NSAT regionwide. Our general PTA is really generous and concerned for the student¶s welfare. They will donate labor and materials to improve the school gym. Titles Like in feature articles, the editorial has also a head or title which should be brief (preferably less than four words), forceful and interesting. In writing editorials, there is no room for ³balimbings.´ Though the writer must present both sides, he/she must, in the end, take a concrete stand on the issue. To perfect this, one must keep on toes on the different issues swarming the society from the most complicated to the most mundane topics. Pointers in writing editorial 1. Make the editorial interesting enough to read. 2. Develop it from one specific, limited idea, phrased in one sentence and expanded into the body of the editorial. 3. Have a purpose well in mind that should be accomplished with sufficient data. 4. Organize all data into well-reasoned arguments, with each argument leading up to the conclusion. 5. Peg the lead sentence on recent, relevant news for its impact value. 6. Present both sides of an issue and clarify tricky aspects with a widely understood analogy or with an illustration that makes for easier understanding. 7. Direct the editorial towards the establishment of a consensus. 8. Article must be simple, direct, clear, and forceful. 9. No double meanings. 10. It must reflect clear, logical thinking. 11. Subject matter must be significant to the readers. 12. Sentences and paragraphs must be comparatively short. Do¶s and Don¶ts in writing an editorial

1. Win the reader¶s interest with an impelling lead paragraph. 2. Avoid generalities by using plenty of facts and by telling what these facts mean. 3. Keep your editorials short; around 300 words (2,500 computer characters) only. 4. Do not preach, scold or moralize. 5. Relate editorials directly to the lives of the reader. 6. Avoid the first person, ³I.´ Use the editorial ³We.´ 7. Write simply. 8. Develop editorial from only one specific, limited idea, phrased in one sentence and expanded into the body. 9. Sentences and paragraphs should be relatively short. 10. Accomplish your purpose.

Editorial beginnings An editorial may start with: 1. A simple statement that gives enough of the situation, problem or news to be discussed. 2. A question that calls attention to, give an idea about the problem or point out the logical development of the topic. 3. A striking statement that jolts the imagination and arouses the interest of the reader. 4. A quotation relevant to the subject under discussion. 5. A narrative illustrating the problem or situation. Example: Vandals ATENEO de Iloilo¶s walls have a new coat of paint and are presently clean. Whether they retain their present state of cleanliness depends almost entirely on the students. The first spots appeared as a result of negligent student leaning against the walls and scraping the soles of their shoes on them. Some students have also taken a peculiar delight in making long pencil scrawls on the walls as they go to classes. According to an observant parent, Ateneans, more than any other group of students, abuse their buildings. This report, whether true or otherwise, should serve as a challenge. Will the walls remain clean? SPORTS WRITING What is Sports Reporting? Sports writing has become one of the most popular forms of modern journalistic writing. More and more Atenean readers are now turning to the sports section before looking at the more prosaic news of the time. But while may talk about sports, there are only few who can write a sports story. Even experienced reporters get lost covering games and writing about them because it takes more than just answering the 5 W¶s and 1 H to be able to come up with a comprehensive sports news story. Example ILAGAN, Isabela²Isabela National High School, behind the remarkable performances of Florante Carreon and Paul Gonzales, took all the Roxas National High School could offer before hacking out a close 60-59 win in an exhibition game held at St. Ferdinand College Court here, Tuesday. Carreon scored 21 points to lead Isabela and Gonzales 13 points but delivered this on the crucial part of the game including the winning free throw. The game started in a roller-coaster encounter and the first half ended 28-27 with Isabela on the lead. The second half was still close and Roxas took the lead with two minutes to go, but Gonzales displayed a big heart as he connected a three-pointer to give Isabela the lead, 54-53. Rolly Menor carried Roxas on that decisive moment and tied the game at 59-all with 15 seconds to go. Gonzales fished a foul with 10 seconds left and split his charity for the lead, 60-59. Herman Menor refused to give up but his last desperate jumpshot went in-and-out of the ring. ³Faith carried us through this game, it¶s a good game,´ said Gonzales after the game. Box scores: INHS (60)²Carreon 21, Gonzales, 13, Magusib, 12, Mercado 6, Aguinaldo 4, Martinez 2, Cabanlong 2, Ong 0, Lim 0, Gumaru 0. RNHS (59)²Menor 22, Balagan 18, Malaca 12, Soriano 7, Allavigan 0, gonzaga 0, Advincula 0, Limbauan 0, Galapon 0. Sports News Structure Like any other news story, a sports story has a lead and a body. The sports lead is the attention-getter and the body is the news in a-nut-shell.

The classic 5 W¶s and 1 H appear in the sports lead as: 1. Who won? 2. How did they win? 3. Against whom? 4. By what score? 5. Where? and 6. When? The Torres High School Quintet (1) poured 10 baskets in the last three minutes (2) to edge out the Osmenians (3) 65-63 (4) at the opponents homeground (5) yesterday afternoon (6). This kind of summary lead may vary. The lead can also highlight other elements like: 1. The key play LAKANDULA, Iloilo²The visiting Soliman High School sluggers bombed the Lakandula batters with six runs in the third inning to subdue a nerve-frazzling Lakandula rally, 14-12, as they clinched the invitational game here, in connection with the celebration of the school¶s Foundation Day. 2. The outstanding player EDWARD Ong of Ateneo de Iloilo, after almost four hours of battle over the chessboard, copped the most coveted YMCA trophy after outwitting Philippine Science High School chesser William Santos in 27 moves of a Sicilian defense. 3. Analytical approach RIDING high on sizzling spikes and tricky placing, the spitfire Ateneo Blue Dragons blasted the Ateneo Blue Eagles killers in the crucial third set to won 15-10, 11-15, 15-7 in the Jesuit Athletics Meet (JAM), Sept. 21, at the Sacred HeartSchool in Cebu yesterday The body After the lead, the other elements follow in descending order. These will include: 1. Team and/or individual standing 2. Decisive plays 3. Best scores for the day 4. Play-by-play 5. Quotations Elements that make up a good sports article: 1. Personalities 2. Play-by-play description 3. Statistics and comparisons 4. Quotes by players 5. Quotes by trainers and coaches 6. Background stuff on players 7. The importance or significance of the event 8. Background of the game 9. Weather conditions 10. Crowd and celebration Lingos and Slanguages Basketball (basketbol) Quintet, goal (gol o buslo), dribble (dribol), pivot, rally, rebound (rebaun), technical foul, 15-foot line, hook shot, zone defense, first half (unang kalahati), tip-in, full court, press, box out, slam dunk, man-to-man, trey, full-court press, hook shot, goaltending, baseline, board, layup (leyap), out-of-bounds, dominated the paint Baseball or Softball (beisbol at sopbol) Diamond, pitcher (pitser), catcher (katser), back stop, hit a homerun, rolling ball, short stop, southpaw, pegged at third, fast ball, playoff (n, adj), play off (v.), slugger, wild pitch, bullpen Boxing (boksing) Southpaw, slugger, rabbit punch, kidney punch, referee stopped contest (RSC), technical knockout, featherweight, Chess Checkmate, rook, queenside, Sicilian opening, Ruy Lopez defense, Queen¶s gambit, knight, white, black, fast pawn, en passé, castle, pin, open check, blunder, Philidor¶s defense Volleyball Spike (spaik), placing (pleysing), change court, kill (kil), Chinese kill, block, net ball, wallop (wallop), jump serve, spiker (spay-ker), server (serber)

Soccer or Football Soccerites, goalie, corner kick, penalty kick, full back, defenders, booters, kick off (v.), kickoff (adj) Track Pass on the baton, breasted the tape, clock a new record, photo finish, distance runner, century run Tennis and Badminton Best of three matches, love set, backhand, drive, doubles, racket, forehand, smash cut Swimming Tanker, aquabelle, breast stroke, plunge, springboard, tank, dive, summersault µ COPY READING AND HEADLINE WRITING Copyreading is much like the work of a communication arts teacher correcting compositions, except that he uses different symbols. A copy may be a news item, an editorial, a feature story or any literary article. Duties of a copyreader: 1. Straighten out ungrammatical construction. 2. Shorten sentences and tighten paragraphs. 3. See that the paper¶s style requirements are strictly followed. Check names, addresses, title, designations, identifications, figures, etc. 4. Rewrite the story completely if it is poorly written. 5. Rewrite the lead or the first few paragraphs whenever necessary, but must never tamper with the facts unless he is sure of his corrections. 6. Delete all opinion, speculations and statements on news which are without attribution or sources. 7. Watch out for slanting or any attempt to present the story in a subtly biased way. 8. Watch for libelous statements. 9. Recheck figures and totals. 10. Cross-out adjectives in news which tend to make a story sound over-written. 11. Cut a story to size or to the required length if necessary. 12. Check attributions and see to it that they are properly identified. 13. Challenge facts, claims, or reports when they sound anomalous, illogical and incredible. 14. Check sluglines and paging sequences 15. Write headlines What to copyread? 1. Errors in fact 2. Errors in grammar 3. Errors in structure 4. Errors in style 5. Libelous and derogatory statements 6. Seditious and rebellious matter 7. Expressions contrary to law and good taste 8. Opinion and editorializing statements 9. Verbal deadwood, redundancy 10. Technical terms, slang, jargons Copy-reading symbols Punctuation Marks Symbols Meaning Outcome The Bionic Woman Emphasize quotes ³The Bionic Woman´ Dr Arthur Cruz Jr Emphasize periods Dr. Arthur Cruz Jr. said ³I must go.´ Emphasize comma said, ³I must go.´ Numbers and Abbreviations in Nov. Spell out in November Doctor Arthur Cruz Abbreviate Dr. Arthur Cruz

twenty boys Use numeral 20 boys 2 girls were« Spell out Two girls were« Special form of type Manila, philippines Capitalize MANILA, Philippines Letter and word changes meet on Saturday Bridge over meet Saturday those b oys Close up space those boys Fe Cruz Principal Transpose Principal Fe Cruz recieve Transpose receive pamplet Insert letter pamphlet went market Insert word went to market Manila pAper Lower case Manila paper received free gifts Delete word received gifts judgement Delete letter within judgment develope iskill Delete before/after develop skill the most talented and Kill the principal enthusiastic principal Allright wehave time Insert space All right we have time We were indeed very Run in copy We were indeed very happy because happy because« Others Paco, Manila« Indent for paragraph Paco, Manila« Today he will« Today he will« Welfrido Cruz Spell as written Welfrido Kruz One boy came Restore text; disregard On boy came correction Elected prexy Center subhead Elected prexy the un - Syllabicate the unfinished task finished task The gong Set in boldface the gong She read Les Miserables Set in italics She read Les Miserables 30 or # Story is finished more or ) Story is unfinished Seminar Text continued on the («2) Next page # - folio copy See copy as written Note: To arrange paragraphs just place the number (e.g. #1, #3) of the corresponding paragraphs in the left portion of the copy. SAMPLE COPY TEST Slug line: ________________________ Headline: _____________________________ No. of units: ____________ The PNU elementary school launch the anual cleanliness & beatification contest September 16 at the school social hole. In a mating with Presidents and vice-presidents of each class from Grade III to Gr. Six, Mrs. Alegria Flora Principal explain the prosedures to folow. According to the principal, its class class will be given an areas to cleaned. Ones a week, school officials will vissit the area and chose the cleanest amongst them. Prices will be awarded to the class who¶s area will be pick the cleanest for 3 times. Th This will give insentives to the students explained Mrs. Flores. The handsome and intelligent Mr. Garcia Ramon, vocation al teacher who facilitated the meeting told the studes that thru the contest cooperation will be developed while order and cleanliness be maintained. Congrattulations Mrs. Garcia Headlining It is easy to write the news headline. Just look at the first paragraph called the lead which contains the gist, Just write the gist of that lead. Do¶s and don¶t¶s in writing traditional headlines

1. Make your headline answer as many W¶s as possible. 2. The headline should summarize the news story, but must avoid using all the words used in the lead. It should contain nothing that is not found in the story. 3. Positive heads are preferable to negative ones. School physician allays flu fear is better than Flu epidemic not rampant in city. 4. Out a verb expressed or implied in every deck. 5. Omit articles like a, an, and the, and all forms of the verb to be (is, are, be, etc.), unless needed to make the meaning clear. 6. Use the strongest word in the first line as much as possible. 7. The active verb is better than the passive verb in headlines (Food production drive intensified; RP¶s lost image abroad regained) 8. Use the present tense for past stories and the infinitive form for future stories (Archbishop Sin bats for national reconciliation; Lantern parade to cap Xmas affairs). 9. Write numbers in figures or spell them out depending upon your needs for your unit counts. 10. Avoid heads that carry double meaning. 11. Use only common abbreviations. Punctuating a headline 1. Use a comma in place of the conjuction and 2. Two related thoughts should be separated with a semicolon. 3. The dash may be used in smaller decks but not for headlines in large types. 4. The single quotation marks are used in headlines. 5. Follow the other rules of punctuations. Unit counting in headline ½ unit - jiltf and all punctuations except the em dash (--), and the question mark (?) 1 unit - the question mark, space, all figures, capital JILTF, all lower case letters except jiltf 1 ½ units - the em dash, lower case m and w, and all capital letters except capital M and W and JILTF 2 units - capital M, W Headline vocabulary (Formula: subject-verb-object ala text message) 1. Faculty club strengthened (beefed up) 2. Enrolment decreases (dips) 3. Science examinations announced (quiz bared) 4. Contests highlight Animal Week (cap) 5. Santos urges cooperation (bats for, calls for) 6. DepEd disapproves tuition fee increase (bucks, nixes, axes) 7. Ateneo wins 12 medals in press contest (bags, romp away with; tilt, parley) 8. Principal praises editors humility (lauds, extols) 9. Local staff dominates press tilt (rules, lords over) 10. Local basketball players retain championship (sluggers; crown) 11. US attacks Russ nuclear test (hits) 12. Laurel ends diplomatic tour (winds up) 13. Cops ended syndicate (busted) 14. Slay suspect questioned (grilled, probed) 15. RP sees import hike (eyes) 16. 456 pass bar exams (hurdle) 17. Lim dismisses 5 cops (fires) 18. RP-Malaysia dispute solved (row) 19. Fiscal dismiss rape charge (dismiss; rap) 20. Import talk delayed (snagged) Mga halimbawa Huwag gumamit ng pangalan maliban kung kilala ito Mali²Jaime Diaz, nahalal na pangulo

Tama²Mag-aaral ng Mapa, nahalal na pangulo ng samahan Maging tiyak (specific) Mali²Mag-aaral, nagwagi sa paligsahan Tama²Mag-aaral ng Mapa, nagwagi sa pagsulat ng balita Iwasan ang opinyon sa balita Mali²Paaralang Datu Puti, lumaro ng kahanga-hanga Tama²Paaralang Datu Puti, nanalo ng 3 sa 4 na laban Lagyan ng pandiwa ang bawat ulo Mali²Limang guro sa seminar Tama²Limang guro, dadalo sa seminar Iwasan ang paggamit ng negatibong pandiwa Mali²Paligsahan sa talumpatian, hindi matutuloy Tama²Paligsahan sat al;umpatian, pinagpaliban Gumamit ng makakatawag-pansing pandiwa Mahina²Tinato ng Ateneo ang St. Joseph, 50-36 Malakas²Pinataob ng Ateneo ang St. Joseph, 50-36 Gamitin ang maikli at kilalang salita Masalita²Bayang Pilipinas, sasali sa pandaigdig na palaro Maikli²RP, sasali sa olimpiyada Iwasan ang paggamit ng pantukoy at ng pandiwang pantulong nahango saverb to be Mali²Si Japhet Burgos ay ang napiling punong patnugot ng Ripples Tama²Japhet Burgos, napiling punong patnugot ng Ripples EDITORIAL CARTOONING It is an editorial page illustration expressing opinion and interpretation (a column or opinion in cartoon form). The word cartoon is derived from two words: caricature and lampoon. A caricature is an exaggerated description, generally by sketching. It is a pictorial representation of a person or thing in which a defect or peculiarity is exaggerated so as to produce a ludicrous effect. A lampoon, on the other hand, is a piece of malicious writing, a personal-written satire that attacks and ridicules. A good cartoon appeals to the reader¶s sense of humor in order to persuade him/her to accept an opinion. How to conceptualize? 1. Read/listen²research your facts well. 2. Decide on your point of view or angle of your chosen issue. 3. Make your comment on the issue. 4. Translate your comment into coordinating, representative graphic symbols (e.g. crocodile for corrupt officials and typewriter for press) 5. Take into consideration the paper¶s target readers. 6. Sketch/make doodles. 7. Draw your final cartoon. Ways to present your view 1. Take the issue to a ridiculous situation. 2. Exaggerate the effect of an issue. 3. Use cliché or something contemporary or ³in.´ 4. Juxtapose or put together two events, even unrelated ones. 5. Take quotes literally. Play with words. 6. Consider the occasion. 7. Make an interesting artwork. 8. Caricature a political figure and add a punch line. Tips for cartooning 1. Limit the use of words and labels. 2. Use universal symbols, those which can be understood at once by your intended reader. 3. Have your own style. Do not copy or plagiarize.

4. If your cartoon is about the editorial for the day, it must reinforce the stand stated in the piece. 5. Choose a most interesting issue and express your comment in an arresting way. 6. Do not clutter your cartoon with unnecessary details or complicate your drawing with artistic touches. These will just distract from the impact of the cartoon. Minimal is better. 7. Cover your cartoon with a frame or border. 8. Use shading to make your article more convincing. Steps in Editorial Cartooning Dr. Net Billones, one of the country¶s top cartoonists, suggests the following steps: 1. List down the subjects to choose from. 2. Once the subject is chosen, ask what is the issue? What is the paper¶sopinion about the issue? Example: Issue²Press freedom Opinion²The government is going back to the martial law days as far as press freedom is concerned. 3. Decide the symbols to be used Example: Government²GMA Press freedom²bird (dove) flying, typewriter, school paper Repression²chain, scissors, slingshot, bar 4. Draw the cartoon.

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