Data Mining-Spatial Data Mining

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Spatial Database
 Stores a large amount of space-related data
 Maps
 Remote Sensing
 Medical Imaging
 VLSI chip layout
 Have Topological and distance information
 Require spatial indexing, data access, reasoning
representation techniques
Spatial Data Mining
 Extraction of knowledge, spatial relationships from
spatial databases
 Can be used for understanding spatial data and spatial
 Applications:
 GIS, Geomarketing, Remote Sensing, Image
database exploration, medical imaging, Navigation
 Challenges
 Complexity of spatial data types and access
 Large amounts of data
 Non-spatial Information
 Same as data in traditional data mining
 Numerical, categorical, ordinal, boolean, etc
e.g., city name, city population
 Spatial Information
 Spatial attribute: geographically referenced

 Neighborhood and extent
 Location, e.g., longitude, latitude, elevation

 Spatial data representations

 Raster: gridded space
 Vector: point, line, polygon
 Graph: node, edge, path

Spatial Data Statistical techniques
 Popular approach to analyze spatial data
 Assumes independence among spatial data
 Can be performed only by experts
 Do not work well with symbolic values
Spatial Data Warehousing
 Spatial data warehouse: Integrated, subject-oriented,
time-variant, and nonvolatile spatial data repository.
 It consists of both spatial and non spatial in support
of spatial data mining and spatial-data-related
decision-making processes.
 Spatial data cube: multidimensional spatial database
 Both dimensions and measures may contain spatial
 Challenging issues:
 Spatial data integration: a big issue
 Structure-specific formats (raster- vs. vectorbased, OO vs. relational models, different
storage and indexing, etc.)
 Vendor-specific formats (ESRI, MapInfo,
Intergraph, IDRISI, etc.)
 Realization of Fast and flexible OLAP in spatial
data warehouses.

Dimensions and Measures in Spatial Data Warehouse
 Dimensions
 non-spatial
 e.g. “25-30 degrees” generalizes to“hot” (both
are strings)
 spatial-to-non spatial
 e.g. Seattle generalizes to description “Pacific
Northwest” (as a string)
 spatial-to-spatial
 e.g. Seattle generalizes to Pacific Northwest (as
a spatial region)
 Measures
 numerical (e.g. monthly revenue of a region)
 distributive (e.g. count, sum)
 algebraic (e.g. average)
 holistic (e.g. median, rank)
 spatial
 collection of spatial pointers (e.g. pointers to all
regions with temperature of 25-30 degrees in
Example: British Columbia Weather Pattern Analysis
 Input
 A map with about 3,000 weather probes scattered
in B.C.
 Recording daily data for temperature, precipitation,

wind velocity, etc. for a designated small area and
transmitting signal to a provincial weather station.
 Data warehouse using star schema

 A map that reveals patterns: merged (similar)

 Interactive analysis (drill-down, slice, dice, pivot,
 Fast response time
 Minimizing storage space used
 A merged region may contain hundreds of
“primitive” regions (polygons)

Star Schema of the BC Weather Warehouse
 Spatial data warehouse
 Dimensions
 region_name
 time
 temperature
 precipitation
 Measurements
 region_map
 area
 count
Can we precompute all of the possible spatial merges and
store them in the corresponding cuboid cells of a
spatial data cube?

 Probably not.
 It requires multi-megabytes of storage.
 On-line computation is slow and expensive.

Dynamic Merging of Spatial Objects
Methods for Computing Spatial Data Cubes
 On-line aggregation: collect and store pointers to
spatial objects in a spatial data cube
 expensive and slow, need efficient aggregation
 Precompute and store all the possible combinations
 huge space overhead
 Precompute and store rough approximations in a
spatial data cube
 accuracy trade-off, MBR
 Selective computation: only materialize those which
will be accessed frequently
 a reasonable choice
Mining Spatial Association and Co-location Patterns
 Spatial association rule: A  B [s%, c%]
 A and B are sets of spatial or non-spatial predicates
 Topological relations: intersects, overlaps,
disjoint, etc.
 Spatial orientations: left_of, west_of, under, etc.
 Distance information: close_to, within_distance,
 s% is the support and c% is the confidence of the
 Examples
close_to(x, “Park”)
[7%, 85%]

Progressive Refinement
 Progressive Refinement:
 spatial association mining needs to evaluate
multiple spatial relationships among a large no. of
spatial object – expensive.
 Hierarchy of spatial relationship:
 First search for rough relationship and then
refine it
 Superset coverage property – all the potential
answers should be perserved (i.e.false-positive
 Two-step mining of spatial association:
 Step 1: Rough spatial computation (as a filter)
 Using MBR for rough estimation
 Step2: Detailed spatial algorithm (as refinement)
 Apply only to those objects which have passed
the rough spatial association test (no less than
Spatial co-locations
 Just what one really wants to explore.
 Based on the property of spatial autocorrelation,
interesting features likely coexist in closely located
 Efficient methods - Apriori , progressive
Spatial Cluster Analysis & Spatial Classification
 Analyze spatial objects to derive classification
schemes, such as decision trees, in relevance to certain
spatial properties (district, highway, river, etc.)
 Classifying medium-size families according to

income, region, and infant mortality rates
 Mining for volcanoes on Venus
Employ methods such as:
 Decision-tree
classifier + boosting, neural network, genetic
programming, etc.

Spatial Trend Analysis
 Function
 Detect changes and trends along a spatial
 Study the trend of non-spatial or spatial data
changing with space
 Application examples
 Observe the trend of changes of the climate or
vegetation with increasing distance from an ocean
 Crime rate or unemployment rate change with
regard to city geo-distribution.
 Traffic flows in highways and in cities.
Mining Raster Databases
 Vector data Mining
 Maps
 Graphs
 Molecular chains
 Raster data mining
 Satellite Images
Other Applications
 Spatial data mining is used in
 NASA Earth Observing System (EOS): Earth
science data

National Inst. of Justice: crime mapping
Census Bureau, Dept. of Commerce: census data
Dept. of Transportation (DOT): traffic data
National Inst. of Health(NIH): cancer clusters
Commerce, e.g. Retail Analysis

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