Day care

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Day care
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Child care or day care is care of a child during the day by a person other than the child's legal guardians, typically performed by someone outside the child's immediate family. Day care is typically an ongoing service during specific periods, such as the parents' time at work. The service is known as child care in the United ingdom and !ustralia and child care or day care in "orth !merica #although child care also has a broader meaning$. %hild care is provided in nurseries or cr&ches or by a nanny or family child care provider caring for children in their own homes. 't can also take on a more formal structure, with education, child development, discipline and even preschool education falling into the fold of services. (ome child)minders care for children from several families at the same time, either in their own home #commonly known as *family day care* in !ustralia$ or in a speciali+ed child care facility. (ome employers provide nursery provision for their employees at or near the place of employment. %hild care in the child's own home is traditionally provided by a nanny or au pair, or by e,tended family members including grandparents, aunts and uncles.


! worker drops off her child at day care.

Day care appeared in France about 0123, and the (oci4t4 des %r&ches was recogni+ed by the French government in 0156. 7riginating in 8urope in the late 01th and early 06th century, day cares were established in the United (tates by private charities in the 0193s, the first being the "ew :ork Day "ursery in 0192.

The day care industry is a continuum from personal parental care to large, regulated institutions. The vast ma<ority of childcare is still performed by the parents, in house nanny or through informal arrangements with relatives, neighbors or friends. For e,ample, in %anada, among two parent families with at least one working parent, 5=> of parents handle the childcare themselves, ?=> have other in)home care #nannies, relatives, neighbours or friends$ and only 5.9> use a formal day care center. -0. /owever for)profit day care corporations often e,ist where the market is sufficiently large or there are government subsidies. For instance, in "orth !merica, inder%are @earning %enters, one of the largest of such companies, has appro,imately 0,533 centers located in ?6 states and the District of %olumbia. -=. ;right


/ori+ons Family (olutions another of the largest has over 533 daycare centers.-?.(imilarly the !ustralian government's childcare subsidy has allowed the creation of a large private)sector industry in that country.

!;% @earning %entres is a publicly traded company running about 0,333 daycare centres in !ustralia and

"ew Aealand and another 933 in the U(!. !nother factor favoring large corporate day cares is the e,istence of childcare facilities in the workplace. @arge corporations will not handle this employee benefit directly themselves and will seek out large corporate providers to manage their corporate daycares. Bost smaller, for)profit day cares operate out of a single location. 'n general, the geographic limitations and the diversity in type of daycare providers make child daycare a highly fragmented industry. The largest providers own only a very small share of the market. This leads to frustration for parents who are attempting to find Cuality child daycare, with 1D> of them describing the traditional search for child daycare as *difficult and frustrating*.-citation needed.



*%onsiderable research has accumulated showing that not)for)profits are much more likely to produce the high Cuality environments in which children thrive.* -9.

 

"on)profit day cares have some structural advantages over for)profit operationsE They may receive preferential treatment in rents especially if they are affiliated with a church that is otherwise unoccupied during the week, or with a school that has surplus space.

@ocation within a school may further bring the advantage of coordinated programs with the school and the advantage of a single location for parents who have older school)age children as well.

Farents are typically the legal owners of the non)profit day care and will routinely provide consulting services #for e,ample accounting, legal, human resource$ for free. #There are some non) profits not operated by parents, but by a board of directors made up of community representatives who <ust want what is good for children.$

"on)profits have an advantage in fund)raising as most people will not donate to a for)profit organi+ation.

"on)profits, however, are typically limited in si+e to a single location as the parent)owners have no motivation to manage other locations where their children are not present.

They may suffer from succession issues as children grow and parents leave the management of the day care to others.


@ocal governments, often municipalities, may operate non)profit day care centers. 'n non)profits, the title of the most senior supervisor is typically *e,ecutive director*, following the convention of most non)profit organi+ations.



Family day cares can be operated by a single individual out of their home. There may be occasions when more than one individual cares for children in a family childcare home. This can be a stay)at)home parent who seeks supplemental income while caring for their own child. There are also many family childcare providers who have chosen this field as a profession. @ocal legislation will regulate the number and ages of children allowed per family child care home. (ome localities have very stringent Cuality standards that reCuire licensure for family child care homes while others reCuire little or no regulations for childcare in individual's homes. (ome home day cares operate illegally with respect to ta, legislation where the care provider does not report fees as income and the parent does not receive a receipt to Cualify for childcare ta, deductions. /owever, it is beneficiary for Day %are providers to be licensed so that they can have access to financial benefits from their state government, or the federal government. 8,amples of such benefits areE Free Training and Frofessional Development %ourses, %hild !nd !dult %are Food Frogram #which allows eligible Daycare providers to claim a portion of costs relating to nutritious meals served to children$,and moreG. -5. Family childcare may be less e,pensive than center based care because of the lower overhead in family childcare. Bany family childcare providers may be certified with the same credentials as center based staff. Franchising of home day care facilities attempts to bring economies of scale to home day care. ! central operator handles marketing, administration and perhaps some central purchasing while the actual care occurs in individual homes. The central operator may provide training to the individual care providers. (ome providers even offer enrichment programs to take the daycare e,perience to a more educational level.

For all providers, the largest e,pense is labour. 'n a 0666 %anadian survey of formal child care centres, labour accounted for 5?> of costs and the industry had an average profit of 9.?>. -D. Hiven the labour)intensive nature of the industry, it is not surprising that the same survey showed littleeconomies of scale between larger and smaller operators. @ocal legislation may regulate the operation of day care centres, affecting staffing reCuirements. @aws may mandate staffing ratios #for e,ample 0E? for under 01 months, 0E9 for 01I?3 months, 0E1 for over ?3 months, and even higher ratios for older children$. @egislation may mandate Cualifications of supervisors. (taff typically do not reCuire any Cualifications but staff under the age of eighteen may reCuire supervision. Typically, once the child reaches the age of twelve, they are no longer covered by day care legislation and programs for older children may not be regulated.


'n %anada, the workforce is predominantly female #69>$ and low paid, averaging only 53> of average workforce wage.-D. Bany employees are at local minimum wage and are typically paid by the hour rather than salaried. 'n the United (tates, *child care worker* is the fifth most female)dominated occupation #69.9> female in 0666$.-1. 'n the U(, staffing reCuirements vary from state to state.


and reCuirements

(ome <urisdictions reCuire licensing or certification. Farents may also turn to independent rating services, or rely on recommendations and referrals. (ome places develop voluntary Cuality networks, for e,ample in !ustralia most childcare services are part of a national Juality !ssurance system. Bost countries have laws relating to childcare, which seek to prevent and punish child abuse. (uch laws may add cost and comple,ity to childcare provision and may provide tools to help ensure Cuality childcare. !dditionally, legislation typically defines what constitutes daycare #e.g., so as to not regulate individual babysitters$. 't may specify details of the physical facilities #washroom, eating, sleeping, lighting levels, etc.$. The minimum window space may be such that it precludes day cares from being in a basement. 't may specify the minimum floor space per child #for e,ample =.1 sCuare metres$ and the ma,imum number of children per room #for e,ample =2$. 't may mandate minimum outdoor time #for e,ample = hours for programs 5 hours or longer$. @egislation may mandate Cualifications of supervisors. (taff typically do not reCuire any Cualifications but staff under the age of eighteen may reCuire supervision. (ome legislation also establishes rating systems, the number and condition of various toys, and documents to be maintained. -6. Typically-citation needed., once the child reaches the age of twelve, they are no longer covered by day care legislation and programs for older children may not be regulated. @egislation may mandate staffing ratios #for e,ample 0E? for under 05I01 months, 0E9 for 01I?3 months, 0E1 for over ?3 months, and even higher ratios for older children$. The carer to child ratio is one factor indicating of Cuality of care. Katios vary greatly by location and by day care center. Fotential conseCuences of a carerEchild ratio which is too high could be serious-citation needed.. /owever, many states allow a higher numbers of toddlers to care givers and some centers do not comply consistently. For e,ample, within the U(E Fennsylvania, ages 0I?, 0 teacher to 9 childrenG-03.BissouriE age =, 0 teacher to 1 childrenG-00. "orth %arolinaE 0 teacher to 03 children.-6. Bany organi+ations #in the developed world$ campaign for free or subsidi+ed childcare for all. 7thers campaign for ta, breaks or allowances to allow parents a non)finance driven choice. Bany of the free or subsidi+ed childcare programs in the United (tates are also %hild Development programs, or after school programs which hire certified teachers to teach the children while they are in their care. There are often local industry associations that lobby governments on childcare policy, promote the industry to the public -0=. or help parents choose the right daycare provider.-0?.


For instance, in the United (tates, childcare in regulated commercial or family childcare home setting is administered or led by teachers who may have a %hild Development !ssociate or higher credentials. These higher credentials include !ssociate, ;achelor, and even Baster degrees in the field of 8arly %hildhood 8ducation #8%8$. !lthough %hildcare professionals may obtain a degree, many states reCuire that they attend workshops yearly to better their knowledge and skill levels in the childcare field.

-edit.Worldwide -edit.Australia


!ustralia has a large child care industry, -02. however in many locations #especially in inner)city suburbs of large cities and in rural areas$ the availability is limited and, at the worst, the waiting periods can be up to several years.-09. The !ustralian government's %hild %are benefit-05. scheme provides very limited assistance with the comparatively high child care costs ) the median weekly cost of centre)based long day care in =331 was appro,imately !UL=59-0D. which puts it out of the reach of lower income earners.-01. Kegulation is under the auspices of the "%!%. -06. Katios are 0E2 for infants, and 0E03 for pre)schoolers. !ll childcare workers must have the minimum *%ertificate ''' in %hildren's (ervices* in order to work in a centre.

%anada offers both private and subsidi+ed daycare centres. !ccording to provinces and cities some shortages of subsidi+ed openings can lengthen the time needed to find a suitable childcare provider. To counter this governments or private enterprise sometimes enable parents to look for available spaces online. -=3.-=0.



See also: Government Day Care in the United States (tate legislation may regulate the number and ages of children allowed before the home is considered an official day care program and sub<ect to more stringent safety regulations. 7ften the nationally recogni+ed %hild Development !ssociate credential is the minimum standard for the individual leading this home care program.
-citation needed.

8ach state has different regulations for teacher reCuirements. 'n some states,for teaching in a Day

%are center Teachers must have an !ssociates Degree in child Development. (tates with Cuality standards built into their licensing programs may have higher reCuirements for support staff such as teacher assistants. !nd for /ead (tart Teachers by =30= all @ead teachers must have a ;achelors Degree in 8arly %hildhood 8ducation. (tates vary in the standards set for daycare providers, such as teacher to child ratios. Family childcare can also be nationally accredited by the "ational !ssociation of Family %hildcare if the provider chooses to go through the process. "ational accreditation is only awarded to those programs who demonstrate the Cuality standards set forth by the "!F%%.




The U has a wide range of childcare offered, including childminders, day nurseries, playgroups and can also include pre)school education at school. 't is regulated by 7F(T8D #%(('W in Wales$, which operates the application and inspection process for the sector. %hildcare is primarily funded by parents, however the (ingle Funding Formula #pre)school funding$ can be used at some day nurseries, playgroups and schools for a ma,imum of 9 sessions per week, the term after a child reaches ? years. The government introduced a childcare allowance #vouchers$ by which employers could make payments for childcare, prior to ta,, on employees wages. Bedian rates #=300$ are appro,imately M2.93 per hour for childminders, MDE9)M03 net per hour for nannies, M53) 033 per week for au pairs and M?9)M93 per day for day nurseries.

'n Be,ico, the Fresident Felipe %alderon /ino<osa has created a (ocial Frogram named *Frograma de 8stancias 'nfantiles* that included more than 1,333 Day %are (paces for children between 0 and ?.00 years old. This program subsides Bothers that Work and (tudy and also (ingles Fathers in a vulnerable situation. 't has a great success having more than 0=9,333 children over the country. This is regulated by the (ocial Development Binister #(ecretarNa de Desarrollo (ocial$.-=.

'n Hermany there is a variety of possibilities for young children. ! famous e,ample is the 'T! #deE indertagesstOtte$. 'n =336, under the leadership of family minister Ursula von der @eyen in the %DU government of!ngela Berkel, a plan to triple to D93,333 the number of day)care places is proceeding. /owever, there are a number of conflicts between the goal of easing the challenges of raising a family and pursuing a career, on one hand, and the goal of easing child)generated noise pollution. ! report highlights an appeal pending before the %onstitutional %ourt against the (ternipark center, brought by its /amburg neighbors in an already rather noisy location on a thoroughfare between 7thmarschenand ;lankenese. The report also reviews the issue as it has arisen around the Federal Kepublic, with its aging, non)self)regenerating population.-==.-=?.

Bost children in "orway start day care between 03 months and ? years. Funded parental leave for working parents is either 22 weeks full pay, or 92 weeks with 13> pay #both up to a certain level only$. The government guarantees kindergarten for all children that are 0 year old at 0. !ugust

. %overage is still not 033>, but most

regions are getting close #=300$. There's a ma,imum price to enable all families to afford it.



(pain provides paid maternity leave of 05 weeks with ?3)93> of mothers returning to work #most full)time$ after this-citation needed., thus babies of 2 months age tend to be placed in day care centers. !dult)infant ratios are about 0ED)1 first year and 0E05)01 second year. -citation needed. Fublic pre)school education is provided for most children aged ?I9 years in *'nfantil* schools also providing primary school education.-citation needed.



Main article: Child development 'ndependent studies suggest that good day care for non)infants is not harmful. -=9. (ome advocate that day care is inherently inferior to parental care.-=5. 'n some cases, good daycare can provide different e,periences than parental care does, especially when children reach two and are ready to interact with other children. ;ad day care puts the child at physical, emotional and attachment risk. /igher Cuality care was associated with better outcomes. %hildren in higher Cuality child care had somewhat better language and cognitive development during the first 2P years of life than those in lower Cuality care. They were also somewhat more cooperative than those who e,perienced lower Cuality care during the first ? years of life. The "ational 'nstitute of /ealth released a study in Barch, =33D after following a group of children through early childhood to the 5th grade.-=D. The study found that the children who received a higher Cuality of child care scored higher on 9th grade vocabulary tests than the children who had attended child care of a lower Cuality. The study also reported that teachers found children from child care to be *disobedient*, fight more freCuently, and more argumentative. The study reported the increases in both aggression and vocabulary were small. *The researchers emphasi+ed that the childrenQs behavior was within the normal range and were not considered clinically disordered.* !s a matter of social policy, consistent, good daycare, may ensure adeCuate early childhood education for children of less skilled parents. From a parental perspective, good daycare can complement good parenting. ! =330 report showed that children in high)Cuality care scored higher on tests of language, memory and other skills than did children of stay)at)home mothers or children in lower)Cuality day care. -=1. ! study appearing in Child Development in RulyS!ugust =33? found that the amount of time spent in day care before four)and)a)half tended to correspond with the child's tendency to be less likely to get along with others, to be disobedient, and to be aggressive, although still within the normal range. -=6.-?3.

-edit.(ee   


!dult daycare center !fter)school activity Day care se,ual abuse hysteria


@adies' Deborah and %hild's Frotectory

0. =. ?. 2. 9. The Fraser 'nstitute httpESSwww.bookroomreviews.comStagSkindercare)learning)centersS ;right /ori+ons for ;right /ori+ons'!SchildcareSLFileSchildcare.pdf Friendly, BarthaG Bc%ain, Bargaret #Barch D, =331$. *%hild care must serve kids not corporate shareholders*. The Star #Toronto$. Ketrieved Bay 0, =303.


httpESSwww.daycareunitedstates.comS U a b "o23)V';)pages 0)2 *8vidence From %ensus =333 !bout 8arnings by Detailed 7ccupation for Ben and Women. %ensus =333 (pecial Keports, Bay =332.* #FDF$. Ketrieved =335)36)3=.


6. 03. 00. 0=. 0?. 02. 09. 05. 0D. 01.

U a b httpESSwww.pacode.comSsecureSdataS399Schapter?=D3Ss?=D3.90.html httpESSwww.daycare.comSmissouriS !bout !D%7 ) !D%7 EE The !ssociation of Day %are 7perators of 7ntario EE %hildcare Today httpESSwww.daycarematch.comSassociations.asp* !bout This (ite X The !ustralian %hildcare 'nde, *Hovt 'misleading parents on childcare'*. The Sydney Morning Herald. Ranuary 2, =33D.,YidZD0D?6509)5bef)2003) bb15)?Dd=163612Da


"ational %hildcare !ccreditation %ouncil


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%hildcare establishment locator [ BF! %ity of TorontoE %hild %are Finder *(turm und Drang !bout Fint)(i+e "eighbors* by %arter Dougherty, The New York Times, 0)=1) 36, p. !5 ": edition. Ketrieved 0)=1)36.

=?. =2. =9.

(ternipark /ome page, translated. Ketrieved 0)=6)36. -0. 8rel 7, 7berman :, :irmiya " #=333$. *Baternal versus nonmaternal care and seven domains of children's development*. sychol !"ll !"# #9$E D=DI2D. doiE03.03?DS33??)=636.0=5.9.D=D.FB'D 036165=0.

=5. =D. =1. =6.

Daycare ) Daycares Don't %are, /ow %an a Daycare @oveY httpESSwww.nih.govSnewsSprSmar=33DSnichd)=5.htm /ow the Bedia Ferpetuate Women's Fears of ;eing a ;ad Bother in !lter"et Bay 0=, =33D. %hild %are @inked To !ssertive, "oncompliant, and !ggressive ;ehaviors Tast Ba<ority of %hildren Within "ormal Kange

?3. !bstract$

;lackwell (ynergy ) %hild Development, Tolume D2 'ssue 2 Fage 6D5)0339, Ruly =33? #!rticle


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