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CHAPTER 1 The Problem Over 100 years ago, people worldwide began burning more coal and oil for homes, factories and transportation. Burning these fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. These added greenhouse gases have caused Earth to warm more quickly that it has in the past.1 It is said that those carbon dioxide and other elements helps in the warming of the ozone layer of the Earth. That‟s why there is a progression in climate change. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, February 2007), global warming is a climatic phenomenon caused by too much greenhouse gases in the atmosphere that traps the way out of the sun‟s heat and in turn leads to the melting of polar ice caps and glacial artifacts.2 Global warming was “very likely” caused by mankind and that climate change will continue for centuries to come. Most of us are not aware what climate change will bring to us, especially on how it will affect our health. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (February 2007) concludes that “impacts of climate change will vary regionally but, aggregated and discounted to the present, they are very likely to impose net annual cost which will increase over time as global temperature increases”.3 This means that the extent of climate change effects and whether these effects prove harmful or beneficial, will vary by region, over time and with the ability of different societal and environmental systems to adapt or cope with the change. Human health is faced by many direct and indirect effects that people may suffer as a result of their misdoings particularly to the environment. Climate change will affect

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our health through changing patterns of diseases, availability of food and water. Global warming will increase as temperature rises causing erratic weather conditions that will bring about frequent severe floods, droughts, heat waves and storms reducing water and food supply. This will have severe effect on the lives of billions of people. People in urban areas are particularly vulnerable to climate change, as are people with pre-existing respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Rising temperatures will affect the spread and transmission of diseases. Mosquitoes responsible for malaria will grow more. By 2080, about six billion people will be at risk of contacting dengue fever due to climate change.4 Also most of half of the population of the world could face severe food shortage and this might cause malnutrition to the people. The local government implemented the Albay in Action on Climate Change (A2C2) program, that inculcates to the Bicolanos the ten (10) Commandments on Climate Change Adaptation which includes the following: (1) Thou shalt stop the use of Chloroflourocarbons (CFC‟s), Per Chloroflourocarbons (PCFC‟s) and ozone depleting substances (ODS); (2) Thou shall not smoke cigarettes especially in enclosed spaces and never play around with drugs; (3) Thou shall plant more trees and stop illegal logging and burning of forest; (4) Thou shall protect endangered species, indigenous heritage and defend bio-cultural diversity; (5) Thou shall not resort to destructive methods of fishing and shall rehabilitate damaged corals; (6) Thou shall stop polluting the soil and waterways with garbage and toxic waste, instead, recycle and compost; (7) Thou shall not resort to open pit mining and burning to dispose of garbage especially plastics to avert climate change; (8) Thou shalt stop black smoke emissions that cause mental retardation and diseases especially among children by keeping vehicles and factories in good running

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condition; (9) Thou shalt conserve clean water and energy because the earth has a limited carrying capacity. Keep population in balance with natural resources; and (10) Thou shalt prevent wars. Avoid nuclear and chemical weapons that will destroy our common home. Each of the people may help fighting climate change in a simple or little way to save Mother Earth and prevent a situation that may affect all humanity. The state of the country‟s environment is the direct result of the interaction of a number of factors such as industrialization, government policies, poverty and uncaring attitude towards the environment.5 Therefore community health nursing should include the environment in its health programs. Addressing climate change is not the sole responsibility of government nor can government do it alone. People all are responsible and affected by it. Everyone can make a difference and start by doing simple things such as by conserving the use of electricity. It will reduce greenhouse gas emission and, at the same time, earn more profits. Better still; invest in projects that can generate carbon credits. There are countless number of things that the people can do to mitigate climate change, like joining campaigns, programs, or even workshops. Environmental problems, like climate change can be cured which cannot be alleviated by government alone. But can be cured by all of humanity. People should not only be aware, not only be concerned, but must take action. For only in this way can the people bequeath to their children the earth in a much better shape. The nation only has one earth and it is within an individual‟s choice how our earth will survive. The importance of this study revolves around the study to those students taking science-related courses, its respondents and information‟s regarding the perception about

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the health effects of climate change. The findings of this study can also help different agencies in organizing plans, activities and programs that will lead for the betterment and protection of our environment. Objectives This study aims to investigate information regarding the perception of BUPC students on the effects of climate change on health. Specifically it aimed to: 1. To determine the socio-demographic profile of the respondents in terms of: a. age b. gender c. year level d. course 2. To determine the perception of the students on the effects of climate change towards health by the selected students of Science-related courses of Bicol University Polangui Campus 3. To determine the effects of climate change on health 4. To identify the proposed measures in protecting the environment regarding the health effects of climate change Scope and Limitation This research involves Bicol University Polangui Campus students for the school year 2010-2011 towards the effects of climate change on health. It is limited only to those Science-related courses of BUPC such as one hundred twenty (120) students in Bachelor of Science in Nursing and seventy five (75) students in Bachelor of Science in Food Technology. This includes the respondents‟ demographic profile such as their age,

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gender, year level and course in order for the researchers to determine the respondent‟s own perceptions in this present study. The data of this research would be based on the respondents‟ responses on the distributed questionnaires. This research will not include the whole concept and discussion about climate change but only to the perception of the respondents regarding the effects of climate change on health. Furthermore, the researchers encountered difficulty in locating fourth year students of Bachelor of Secondary Education (BSED) Major in Biology that is why the researchers did not include the BSED students, although the said course is Sciencerelated. Significance of the Study The findings of this study may serve as a tool for further research work. This will open views on the root cause of one of the biggest problem facing man, which is climate change that may affect the health of the people. Factual information will be gathered from the questionnaires and personal interactions with the study subjects will lead to the understanding of the health effects of climate change. The result of this study would be of great value to the following beneficiaries: Students. This study will allow students to be aware of what will be the effect to the health and guide them what will be the best ways to prevent the progression of climate change. Community/General Public. The result of this study would serve as a reference that the health of individuals is influenced by the community environment where the people interact among themselves and this study will also further enhance their

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knowledge and help them become more aware about the effects of climate change on health. Administration and Faculty. This study will serve as a guide for them to make some actions towards the problem, educate their students and to be aware about some ways to preserve our own nature. Local Government Unit. This study will aid as additional information for them to make programs and seminars that will serve as an instrument for the public to be more aware regarding climate change. Department of Environment and Natural Resources. This study will serve as a reference for those officials in order for them to make an absolute policy, rule and regulations towards environmental security. Department of Health. This study may help the health personnel to plan activities focusing on the health effects regarding climate change and this study will serve as a reference in helping to prevent the further deterioration of our environment. Researchers. This study will provide additional knowledge to us, this also serve as a guide towards concern on our welfare, and to give better opinion and recommendation to this study. This study will provide other future researchers the additional help and ideas.

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NOTES
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http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/climate/cli_effects.html (December 30,

2010)
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The Inditers, 1st semester 2008, pp. 14-15 http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/effects/index.html (December 30, 2010) http://www.inquirer.net (December 30, 2010) Maglaya, Araceli S., Nursing Practice in the Community 4th edition.

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CHAPTER 2 Review of Related Literature and Studies This part of the study will be dealing with the related studies and literature done locally and foreign, renewed for the purpose of finding clues on the practicality of the study. It will seek to secure the study from duplicating other works as well. It is very relevant that it includes the pinpointing of the similarities and differences encountered from the reading. The relevancy to the present study to these foreign literature and studies is that, both are concerned on the effects on the health of the people. Related Literature In recent usage, especially in the context of environmental policy, climate change usually refers to changes in modern climate. It may be qualified as anthropogenic climate change, more generally known as global warming. In an article written by Beth Duff-Brown entitled: Global Warming: Up close and very personal, the impact of global warming in the ice caps of Arctic region was described. As scientists work to establish the impact of global warming, explorers and hunters slogging across Northern Canada and the Arctic ice cap on sled and foot are describing the realities they see on the ground. One of them is Will Steger, a 62-year old Minnesotan who has been travelling the region for 43 years and has witnessed the impact of warming on the 155,000 indigenous people of the Arctic.1 Some people experienced the global impact of climate change all over the world.

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One of the primary advocacies of the former United States Vice President Al Gore, in his documentary DVD, An Inconvenient Truth, Gore is the narrator and the global warrior in his fight against global warming, and presents his case scientifically and patiently. It also goes without saying that the world‟s richest country is also the biggest polluter. He blames the Americans for emitting one-fourth of the world‟s greenhouse gases which scientists say are very likely to cause the warming.2 It is true that some people were not convinced with Al Gore‟s prophet business and some are laughing, saying that warming is a natural phenomenon occurring in every generation. The more the population is the greater the pollution will be and likely to be affected. But then, some do not believe on what might happen. In the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4), published in 2007, the IPCC projects that, without further action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the global average surface temperature is likely to rise by a further 1.8 – 4.0◦C this century, and by up to 6.4◦C in the worst case scenario.3 These may cause dehydration and heat stroke to the people, and cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses such as asthma, emphysema, chronic bronchitis and allergy problems. Furthermore, the United States Environmental Protection Agency has produced the Excessive Heat Events Guidebook with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Department of Homeland Security. The guidebook is designed to help plan and respond to excessive heat events that may directly affect human health through increases in average temperature. The particular segments of the population such as those with heart problems, asthma, the elderly, the very young and the homeless can be especially

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vulnerable to extreme heat.4 This will be the health effects that may be acquired by the people, especially when the community does not do anything to prevent the incidence of climate change. Moreover, a major meeting on health and climate, the Conference on Human Health and Global Climate Change, was held at the National Academy of Sciences was organized and conducted collaboratively by the Institute of Medicine, the National Academy of Sciences, and the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC).5 These concerns about the potential risks to human health from changes in global climate raised at the conference led to several interagency discussions. The World Health Organization (WHO), an agency of the United Nations, was founded in 1948. The mission of WHO is to give worldwide guidance in the field of health, to set global standards for health, to cooperate with governments in strengthening national health programs, to develop and transfer appropriate health technology, information and standards. The Project on Climate Change, Stratospheric Ozone Depletion, and Health was established within WHO in 1997. 6This project worked to bring together and make available scientific knowledge on the health effects of climate change or variability and stratospheric ozone depletion, facilitates and disseminates information on preventive policies, cooperate with countries to address specific climatehealth problems and increase local capacity. Moreover, the project brought about to facilitate the coordination of research to answer the key questions on climate and health. Some of WHO‟s major areas of concern and effort include the establishment of an interagency network to effectively communicate among parties, development of a system for monitoring health effects and

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for conducting assessments of national health impacts, and development and implementation of methods for adaptation and mitigation. These major areas of concern incorporate specific concerns, such as the growing threat of spreading antibiotic resistance (malaria, for example, has become immune to antibiotics in some countries). The Department of Health in the Philippines has a program regarding the environmental health which is concerned in preventing illness through managing the environment and by changing people's behavior to reduce exposure to biological and non-biological agents of disease and injury. It is concerned primarily with effects of the environment to the health of the people.7 The programs and activities are focused on environmental sanitation, environmental health impact assessment, and occupational health through inter-agency collaboration. In addition, an Inter-Agency Committee on Environmental Health was created by virtue of E.O. 489 to facilitate and improve coordination among concerned agencies. The Committee has five sectoral task forces on water, solid waste, air, toxic and chemical substances and occupational health. The goal of the program is to reduce the environmental and occupational related diseases, disabilities and deaths through health promotion and mitigation of hazards and risks in the environment and work places. The local government in Albay implemented the Albay in Action on Climate Change (A2C2) program that inculcates to the mind of Bicolanos the 10 Commandments on Climate Change Adaptation which includes the abundance of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), use of prohibited drugs, smoking, cutting down of trees, hunting of endangered species, improper disposal of garbage, open composting, hazardous emissions of gases from industrial establishments, illegal fishing and destruction of coral reefs, and

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development of nuclear weapons and other accounts of mass destruction. 8 This will help in informing the people especially those adolescents on what all of us can do to prevent the occurrence of climate change. At least, in this little way people become aware of it. One of the marching orders of President Aquino for the Department of Environment and Natural Resources is to clean the air not only in Metro Manila but in all other urban centers in the country. This is understandable because if go by the report of the Department of Health that 60 percent to 70 percent of medicines sold in the market are for bronchitis, asthma and other respiratory illnesses.9 Air pollution is really already taking its toll on us. The Department of Environment and Natural Resources is aiming for a reduction by 30 percent of pollution load by 2011. And since 80 percent of pollution load is contributed by mobile sources or vehicles, much of remedial measures will target motor vehicles through strengthened anti-smoke belching vehicles by local government units and strict implementation of emission test prior to registration by the Land Transportation Office. Under the patronage of the Government of the Philippines, the United Nations held a meeting at Mandarin Oriental Hotel Manila in Makati City from September 28 to 30 concerning adaptation to climate change. The meeting reviewed the outcomes of the UN-sponsored Nairobi work programme on impacts, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change. It is being organized by the Secretariat of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) together with the Environmental Management Bureau (EMB) of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

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The Nairobi work program, as mandated by the Parties to the Climate Change Convention, aims to assist all countries to improve their understanding and assessment of impacts and vulnerability to climate change and to make informed decisions on practical adaptation actions. The program serves a critical need of countries in their endeavors to address the expected climate change impacts, which include decreased water availability, decreased crop productivity in many parts of the world, increased frequency and intensity of storms, and loss of biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. Even under the most ambitious greenhouse-gas mitigation scenarios, adapting to the adverse effects and increased risk of climate change is a necessity for all countries.10 The Republic of the Philippines is faced with a variety of climate change impacts which could seriously hold back efforts towards sustainable development. Philippine government implemented provision of Republic Act 8749 or the Clean Air Act which outlines the government‟s measure to reduce air pollution and incorporate environmental protection into its developmental plans. One of the marching orders of President Aquino is to clean the air not only in Metro Manila but in all other urban areas in the country. This is understandable because by the report of the Department of Health that 60 percent to 70 percent of medicines sold in the market are for bronchitis, asthma and other respiratory illnesses, the sector concluded that air pollution is already taking its toll on the people.11 Proper implementation of measures would lead to effectiveness in reducing problems in our environment. Provision of Republic Act 9275 or the Clean Water Act, is an act providing for a comprehensive water quality management and for other purposes.12 Canals, rivers and

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tributaries should be free-flowing and clean. Avoidance of dumping ground for garbages should be properly emphasized. Government should appropriately instigate actions regarding this legislation. Republic Act 9003, Waste Management Act, an act providing for an ecological solid waste management program, creating the necessary institutional mechanisms and incentives, declaring certain acts prohibited and providing penalties, appropriating funds therefore, and for other purposes.13 Solid waste disposal is one of the biggest threats to environmental security in the country. This problem is very unsafe because of its hazardous effects to the people such as floods and other social problems as well. According to the Department of Environmental and Natural Resources (DENR), Philippines is a country that is vulnerable to the effects of climate change. The country lies in the pacific typhoon belt and is visited by an average of 20 cyclones every year. The three (3) typhoons (Paeng, Queenie and Reming) are all super typhoons. The rugged nature of the landscape makes the Philippine community very vulnerable to landslides, mud flows and other disasters. Since many of the areas in the country are also at or below sea level. This makes the country very vulnerable to flooding and, worst, inundation with the rise in sea levels. The Philippines is still primarily an agricultural and fishing economy. Disruptions in agriculture and fishery production and destruction of our ecosystems will have devastating effects. More urgently, the government is accelerating adaptation measures to prevent or minimize the destructive effects of climate change. The geo-hazard mapping project intends to identify and determine the area‟s most vulnerable to landslides, so that communities can be forewarned of potential danger, especially during strong typhoons.

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The department completed the geo-hazard mapping of 27 provinces.14 Most are in the eastern seaboard of the country, like Bicol, Samar, Leyte and Davao, which are most frequented and vulnerable to typhoons. Om February 20, 2007, the President signed Administrative Order No. 171 which created the Presidential Task Force on Climate Change (PTFCC).15 The task force is tasked to act with resolve and urgency in addressing the issue of climate change, mitigate its impact and adapt to its effects. It is composed of the DENR Secretary as chair, with the secretaries of energy, science and technology, agriculture and interior and local government, with two (2) representatives from the private sector or civil society, as members. Among its functions are: (1) To conduct rapid assessment on the impact of climate change to the Philippine setting; (2) ensure strict compliance to air emission standards and act with urgency to combat deforestation and environmental degradation; (3) initiate strategic approaches and measures to prevent or reduce greenhouse gas emissions; (4) conduct nationwide massive and comprehensive public information and awareness campaign; (5) design concrete risk reduction and mitigation measures and adaptation responses; (6) collaborate with international partners at the bilateral, regional and multilateral levels to support to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions; and (7) integrate and mainstream climate risk management into development policies, plans and programs of government. Related Studies A study was developed within the National Research Council‟s Committee on Climate, Ecosystems, Infectious Diseases, and Human Health (CEIDH). The CEIDH released its report, Under the Weather: Climate, Ecosystems, and Infectious Disease in

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April 2001.16 The report found that many infectious diseases may be influenced by weather fluctuations and seasonal-to-interannual climate variability, affecting their evolution and emergence through complex, sometimes causal, often not fully understood relationships. National Institutes of Health (NIH) considered the following descriptions of research areas that could be related to climate change and associated environmental conditions: 17 National Cancer Institute is conducting research in two major areas: (1) increased health risks associated with excessive exposure to sunlight, including skin cancers and suppression of immune systems; and (2) possible interactions of

environmental conditions (such as temperature and solar intensity) and pesticides and other environmental toxicants (such as polychlorinated biphenyls). In addition, the National Eye Institute is studying exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and cataracts, and the use of antioxidants to protect eyes from UV damage (regardless of the source or cause of the UV radiation). Also the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences is conducting research on the interactions of indoor and outdoor air pollutants and respiratory disease (including ozone, acid aerosols, particulate matter, and asthma), causes (including genetic) of differential susceptibility to air pollutants, health consequences of increased UV radiation, impacts on health of changes in the ranges of insect and parasitic disease vectors, and health effects of damage to the water supply. The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases as well is conducting research on the effects of UV radiation on skin and skin diseases,

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regardless of its source or cause.17 These related studies helped as references regarding the effects of climate change on health. By surveys existing and future costs associated with climate change and the growing potential for abrupt, widespread impacts, the Center for Health and the Global Environment at Harvard Medical School, along with co-sponsors Swiss Re, a leading global reinsurance company and the United Nations Development Programme, released a study showing that climate change will significantly affect the health of humans and ecosystems and these impacts will have economic consequences. The study entitled “Climate Change Futures: Health, Ecological and Economic Dimensions”, reports that the insurance industry will be at the center of this issue, absorbing risk and helping society and business to adapt and reduce new risks. There are 10 case studies within the report, written by scientific experts, that outline current effects of climate change with regard to infectious diseases such as malaria, West Nile virus, Lyme disease and asthma; extreme weather events such as heat waves and floods; and ecosystems such as forests, agriculture, marine habitat and water. Economic implications as well as possible near-future impacts are projected for each case. The study shows that warming and extreme weather affects the breeding and range of disease vectors such as mosquitoes responsible for malaria. Lyme disease, the most widespread vector-borne disease, is currently increasing in North America as winters warm and ticks proliferate. The study notes that the area suitable for tick habitat will increase by 213% by the 2080s.18 The report also finds that ragweed pollen growth, stimulated by increasing levels of carbon dioxide, may be contributing to the rising incidence of asthma.

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Furthermore, Michael Simpson, a specialist in Life Sciences Resources, Science, and Industry Division conducted a study entitled, “Global Climate Change: Federal Research on Possible Human Health Effects”.19 The research includes possible human health effects of atmospheric change generally, including health effects of stratospheric ozone depletion that allows greater exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. According to Simpson‟s study the changing global climate will impact the complicated interrelated web of plant and animal life, viruses, water, air, and land. The magnitude and beneficial or adverse direction of the impact will depend on specific locations and economic, political, social, and environmental conditions. In addition to that, studies on the subject have produced myriad conclusions. Only very basic conclusions find wide agreement at present: The infirm, the elderly, and the poor may be disproportionately and negatively impacted should climate change result in more severe or more frequent episodes of heat waves and air pollution. The risks of vector- and water-borne diseases may increase with global warming, but countries and regions with adequate sanitation, surveillance, and public health systems may not see significant increases in disease incidence or distribution. Further research is needed to better understand the complex linkages among climate and health. Regional Impacts of Climate Change, Four Case Studies in the United States: The Heat is On: Climate Change & Heat waves in the Midwest by Kristie L. Ebi of ESS and Gerald A. Meehl of the National Center for Atmospheric Research; The Importance of Climate Change for Future Wildfire Scenarios in the Western United States by Dominique Bachelet of Oregon State University, and James M. Lenihan and Ronald P. Neilson of the U.S. Forest Service; Gulf Coast Wetland Sustainability in a Changing

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Climate by Robert R. Twilley of Louisiana State University; and Ramifications of Climate Change for Chesapeake Bay Hypoxia by Donald F. Boesch, Victoria J. Coles, David G. Kimmel and W. David Miller of the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science.20 Each case study focuses on a specific type of impact that is of particular concern for a region, but is not unique to that region. Each study considers non-climatic factors, such as development and management practices that are likely to interact with climate change. A key theme emerges from these four case studies, such as pre-existing problems caused by human activities are exacerbated by climate change, itself mostly a human-induced phenomenon. Fortunately, manmade problems are amenable to manmade solutions. Moser and Tribbia conducted a study entitled, “ More Than Info: What California‟s Coastal Managers Need to Do, For Climate Change, Public Interest Energy Research”,21 the study explored the information needs of California‟s coastal managers who confront the growing risks from climate change. It examined the challenges managers face presently, what information they use to perform their responsibilities and what additional information and other knowledge resources they may need to begin planning for climate change. Based on extensive interview and survey research in the state, researchers found that managers prefer certain types of information and information sources and would benefit from various learning opportunities to better use the available climate change information. Coastal managers are highly concerned about climate change and willing to address it in their work but they require financial and technical assistance from other agencies at the state and federal level to do so. Study revealed a strong need for individuals or organization to play an intermediary role between science and practice.

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A study conducted by Peter Saundry of the Congressional Climate Research in United States (US). “Climate Change: Current Issues and Policy Tools in the United States”22 assessed the environmental policies being implemented in the US and its appropriateness in response to the emerging effects of climate change in the general public. Study also touched on the assessment of the current understandings and controversies concerning the science, economics, international cooperation, and other aspects of the climate change policy problem; status of domestic and international policies; and policy toolbox seen as being available to policy makers to address the challenge as they define the merging legislative agenda. Christine Rogers, a research associate in environmental science and engineering in Harvard University. In her study stated that, “Allergies are getting worse due to global warming.”23 Sea levels are rising, polar ice caps are sneezing more. The rapid rise in occurrence of allergic symptoms over the past decades may be due to environmental changes such as mounting carbon dioxide and a warmer atmosphere. Locally, Dr. Leoncio Amadore, one of the Philippine‟s foremost meteorologists, made a study in 2005 entitled “Crisis or Opportunity: Climate Change Impacts in the Philippines.”24 Study says that many of biological organisms linked to the spread of diseases are especially influenced by fluctuations in climate variables. Still according to Amadore‟s study, combination of strong typhoons, excessive precipitation and landslides has caused a great deal of death and destruction in the Philippines. Leon Valencia Pangilinan, “The Disaster Management Program of the Local Government Unit in Bicol Region.”25 Pangilinan stressed that the disaster preparedness

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plans of the Philippine Disaster Coordinating Council were made to meet any contingency that may fall upon its inhabitants in order to save lives and properties to prevent needless sufferings and to minimize damages of such calamities. A study made by Pastor M. Vibar entitled “The Performance of Developed Health Services in the Selected Municipalities of Albay: An Assessment,”26 centered in the said study was the performance on the developed services in the selected municipalities in the province of Albay. Maternal child, malnutrition program, family planning, communicable disease and non-communicable disease control which includes: a) control of communicable disease and non-communicable disease, b) access to secondary and tertiary health services, and c) purchase of medicines and medical supplies and equipment and were the health services assessed. The administrative support given: a) organization and personnel, b) facilities, equipment and supplies, c) legislative support, d) budgetary allocation, and e) people‟s participation were included in the appraisal. Almost all of the services and its implementation had a very satisfactory rating. In the study of Ida & Perez made a study entitled, “Field Disaster Program in the Province of Albay: An Assessment,”27 revealed that the implementation programs were less effective. It suggested that massive media campaign be conducted and that Albay Philippine National Police (PNP) be provided with additional equipment to more effective emergency response. Moreover, Aldin Segismundo conducted a study conveying that the attitudes of the respondents towards Clean and Green Act such as beautification of surroundings, tree planting, street sweeping and gardening are moderately supported.28 If only people were more benevolent and keen in helping to reduce problems in our environment, through

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this, the brisk changing of our climate which may cause harmful effects in our health may be prevented. Jerry H. Pasano conducted also a study concluding that there is not much aggressiveness in the implementation of the Ecological Solid Waste Management in the three pilot barangays of Legazpi City: attitudes and logistical problems are reciprocal. The persistence of wrong habits in waste disposal could be aggravated by negative impression about the capacity of the government to sustain an effective solid waste management. On the other hand, the inadequacies in logistic could be aggravated by the persistence of wrong habits.29 Improper waste disposal is an immense factor in our environment. Burning of waste products and inappropriate waste disposal like throwing garbages in rivers, streams, and canals might be the reason for pollutions that affects our surroundings. This causes ill-effects not only to the environment but also to humanity. Governments should implement campaigns or seminars about proper waste management so that wrong habits of the people would be amended properly and negative impressions would be eased. Synthesis of Reviewed Literature and Studies and Gap Bridged by the Study

The different studies cited are related to climate change and other environmental circumstances attempts to explore areas, which were not covered by the previous study. The National Institutes of Health was correlated to the present study due to its concern with climate change and associated environmental conditions. The study of Michael Simpson includes the possible human health effects of climate change specifically the change in temperature; the follow-up study developed by

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the National Research Council‟s Committee on Climate, Ecosystems, Infectious Diseases and Human Health due to weather fluctuations and seasonal to interannual climate variability and is associated with different environmental circumstances. Moser and Tribbia emphasized on the information needs of California‟s coastal managers who confront the growing risks from climate change. Because of the challenges managers face presently, they were asked about any information to perform responsibilities and what additional knowledge resources may be needed to begin planning for climate change. Pastor M. Vibar focused on the performance of developed health services in the selected municipalities of Albay: an assessment. The study tackled about maternal child, malnutrition program, family planning, communicable disease and non-communicable disease control. Because of continuing economic problems, quantity and quality of the water and food may lead to improper environmental sanitation that may cause a dreadful natural environment. This research was designed to fill up the gap of this study in accordance with the cooperation of concerned persons and its data gathering procedure to accomplish this study in a systematic way. From the review conducted by the researchers most of the studies focused on the effects of climate change. The researchers believed that this study is not a duplication of any of those works presented. However, those studies mentioned above will serve as a helpful guide and references of the present study. In addition, the focus of this study will be more on the perception of the students on the effects of climate change towards health.

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As a whole, there was no any study done in the Bicol University about the effects of climate change on health. This is the gap which this research would like to bridge. Theoretical Framework The theoretical framework of this study is based on Cognitive development theories, Behavioral Theory, and Florence Nightingale‟s Environmental Theory. Through the perception of an individual, behavior, mental processes, and the environment are interrelated. There is a progressive development and changes in thinking, reasoning, and the way people perceive things. And its role is to create an environment that is conducive for all. Behavior can be described and explained without making reference to mental events or to internal psychological processes. The sources of behavior are external (in the environment), not internal (in the mind). The study of the mind by analysis of one's own thought processes. It was in reaction to this trend that behaviorism arose, claiming that the causes of behavior need not be sought in the depths of the mind but could be observed in the immediate environment, in stimuli that elicited, reinforced, and punished certain responses. The explanation, in other words, lay in learning, the process whereby behavior changes in response to the environment. This implies that how a person thinks affects their behavior or how he manages or cares. In some ways, because of its multiple perspectives, provides the best concrete example of what lay people refer to as personality. The personality of an individual person is based on the attitudes and behaviors that they convey to others in various situations. Some attitudes and behaviors will only become apparent in certain situations,

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while others will be fairly obvious at all times. because of external conditions it also affects the health of every individual especially when the environment is not safe. As what Florence Nightingale reflected that a healthy environment is important for proper nursing care. Moreover, one of the nursing goals according to Nightingale should be toward assisting persons in retaining their powers in meeting the needs of their environment. By doing so, she worked in educating the populace regarding health measures prevention in an effort to eliminate widespread diseases resulting from poor conditions. And she believed that prevention and in nursing the whole person to make sure those individuals always had good water, proper medications, fresh air and knowledge on how to care for them in the future. The key point in the diagram is centered on the perception, behavior, cognition, and the environment. It should be determined that within these components we should know how to diminish the occurrence of climate change in a way we can also be able to prevent the widespread of diseases which could affect to health of an individual.

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Perception

Figure 1.0 Theoretical Paradigm

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Conceptual Framework The conceptual framework of this study demonstrates the conceptual paradigm which is presented using the input-process-output model derived from the System Approach. The input of the study consists of the socio-demographic profile of the respondents as to age, gender, year level and course and the perception of the selected Bicol University Polangui Campus students on the effects of climate change on health. In addition, the signs of climate change are also included and are categorized into three (3): a) land, b) water, and c) air. As for the effects of climate change which is also included in the input, it was categorized into five (5) such as respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, skin diseases, and the „others‟ as the last category. The process involved is the analysis and interpretation of the data in which it comprises the questionnaire-checklist survey, guided interview on the respondents, the collection of data, and the statistical treatment utilized. The output contains the proposed measures in protecting the environment. Figure 2.0 illustrates the paradigm of this study.

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INPUT I. Socio-demographic profile of
the respondents a. b. c. d. Age Gender Year level Course

PROCESS

OUTPUT

II. Perception of selected BUPC students on the effects of climate change on health III. Manifestations of Climate Change a. Land b. Water c. Air IV. Effects a. b. c. d. Respiratory diseases Cardiovascular diseases Skin diseases Others

Analysis and Interpretation of Data

Proposed Measures in Protecting the Environment

Figure 2.0 Conceptual Paradigm

29

Definition of Terms The following terminologies were defined and explained with reference and arranged alphabetically for the readers to have a clearer understanding of the study. Climate. This refers to the sum of the prevailing weather conditions of a place over a period of time.30 Climate change. A change in the statistical distribution of weather over periods of time that range from decades to millions of years; more generally known as global warming. A wholly natural phenomenon in which climate varies over centuries and millennium through the influence of various factors, such as solar cycles, the change of relative humidity in the atmosphere, and changing levels of so-called greenhouse gases. This phrase is often used in place of the term global warming.31 As used in this study, this refers as the main variable. Effects. It is a result or influence.32 In this study, this refers to the result produced by the effects of climate change on health. Environment. Refers to the surroundings of an object.33 In this study, this refers to the setting of the subject matter. Greenhouse effect. The phenomenon whereby the earth‟s atmosphere traps solar radiation, caused by the presence in the atmosphere of gases such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, and methane that allow incoming sunlight to pass through but absorb heat radiated back from the earth‟s surface.34 In this study, this refers to be the cause of climate change.

30

Behavior. Refers to the actions of a system or organism, usually in relation to its environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the physical environment. Health. Defined as a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.35 This refers to the major problem or concern as used in this study. Perception. The act of perceiving or the ability to perceive especially to understand.36 As used in the study, it refers to the ability of the respondents to understand the effects of climate change on health. Students (BSN and BSFT). Refer to the respondents taking a science-related course.

31

NOTES
1

The Inditers, 1st semester 2008, pp. 14-15 The Inditers, 1st semester 2008, pp. 14-15 www.epa.gov (January 2, 2010) http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/effects/health.html (January 2, 2010) http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/effects/health.html (January 2, 2010) “Global Climate Change: Federal Research on Possible Human Health Effects, Michael

2

3

4

5

6

Simpson, Specializing in Life Sciences, Resources, Science, and Industry Division.
7

www.epa.gov (January 2, 2010) The Inditers, 1st semester 2008, pp. 14-15 www.denr.gov.ph (January 2, 2010) “Global Climate Change: Federal Research on Possible Human Health Effects, Michael

8

9

10

Simpson, Specializing in Life Sciences, Resources, Science, and Industry Division.
11

www.denr.gov.ph (January 2, 2010) www.denr.gov.ph (January 2, 2010) www.denr.gov.ph (January 2, 2010) www.denr.gov.ph (January 2, 2010) "Climate change: Global Challenge for survival.(Opinion & Editorial)." Manila

12

13

14

15

Bulletin. Manila Bulletin Publishing Corp. 2007. http://www.highbeam.com (November 13, 2010)
16

“Global Climate Change: Federal Research on Possible Human Health Effects, Michael

Simpson, Specializing in Life Sciences, Resources, Science, and Industry Division.

32
17

“Global Climate Change: Federal Research on Possible Human Health Effects, Michael

Simpson, Specializing in Life Sciences, Resources, Science, and Industry Division.
18

http://www.sciencedaily.com (January 2, 2010) “Global Climate Change: Federal Research on Possible Human Health Effects, Michael

19

Simpson, Specializing in Life Sciences, Resources, Science, and Industry Division.
20

Pew Center on Global Climate Change. Regional-Impacts.pdf/www.pewclimate.org

21

21

Moser & Tribbia, “More Than Info: What California‟s Coastal Managers Need to Do,

For Climate Change, Public Interest Energy Research” National Center for Atmospheric Research, Copyright 2007, p. 31. p. 33
22

http://www.eoearth.org/article/Climate_Change_:_Current_Issues_and_Policy_Tools_i

n _the_United_States (December 12, 2010)
23

Rogers, Christine, “Allergies are getting worse due to Global Warming” Amadore, Dr. Leoncio, “Crisis or Opportunity: Climate Change Impacts in the

24

Philippines” 2005
25

Pangilinan, Leon Valencia, “The Disaster Management Program of the Local Government Unit in Bicol Region.” Graduate School Thesis, Bicol University, 2002.
26

Vibar, Pastor M. “The Performance of Developed Health Services in the Selected Municipalities of Albay: An Assessment,” Unpublished Masteral Thesis, March 2009.
27

Ida & Perez, Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis, 2006 entitled, “Field Disaster Program in the Province of Albay: An Assessment”
28

Segismundo, Aldin, “Participation in Clean and Green Act of the Residents of

Bagumbayan, Daraga, Albay.” Legazpi City. March 2003
29

Pasano, Jerry, “Ecological Solid Waste Management System in the Pilot Barangays of

Legazpi City,” Graduate School Bicol University, Legazpi City. May 2005.
30

www.projects.wri.org/sd-pams-database/Philippines/clean-air-act (January 2, 2010)

33
31

www.ecosan.ph/index.php (January 2, 2010) www.wikisource.org/wiki/Republict_Act_No.9003 (January 3, 2010) The New Lexicon Webster‟s Encyclopedic Dictionary of the English Language, Deluxe

32

33

Edition (Lexicon Publications, Inc.)
34

www.coal.ca/content/index.php (January 3, 2010) Webster‟s Student Dictionary (Barner‟s and Noble Inc.) http://www.thefreedictionary.com (January 3, 2010)

35

36

34

CHAPTER 3 Research Design and Methodology This chapter contains the design and method that used in the study, the sources of data, research instruments, the data gathering procedures as well as the statistical treatments used by the researcher. Research Method To be able to achieve the basic purpose, the researcher used the descriptive survey method which involved collecting numerical data to answer questions concerning current status which is then conducted either through self-reports collected through questionnaires or interviews, or through observations. This type of descriptive method is appropriate when the researcher is interested to know to what extent the subjects of the study obtain among themselves. A survey is useful to (1) prove the value of facts, and (2) focus attention on the most important things to be reported. Also interaction with the respondents is also needed in order to answer the thesis problem. The frequency count and percentage scoring was used as statistical tools in computing the data gathered. Data Sources The researcher gathered the data by means of a questionnaire. A dry run was conducted by the researchers to validate the data wherein the researchers used only ten (10) students who were randomly selected taking up Bachelor of Science in Nursing. The primary sources of these data will come from the respondent‟s responses from the distributed questionnaires and the secondary sources were from books, school publication paper and the internet as well. The respondents that were chosen were the Science-related courses of Bicol University Polangui Campus students as to seventy five (75) for the

35

Bachelor of Science in Food Technology and one hundred twenty (120) for the Bachelor of Science in Nursing having a total of one hundred ninety five (195) students. Research Instrument The researchers used a questionnaire-checklist in gathering the data. The questionnaires were in two (2) parts. The socio-demographic profile such as age, gender, year level and course of the respondents were on the first part in which this served as the guide for the researchers to distinguish the different perceptions or insights. The second part was the respondents‟ perception on the effects of climate change towards health. The respondents answered four (4) questions. Their answer in each item helped the researchers for them to formulate the findings of the study. Data Gathering Process Before the study was conducted, the researchers made a questionnaire-checklist which was verified by the thesis adviser and the chairman of the panel. Upon the approval, the researchers will come across to the study subjects to gather the data needed in determining the respondents perception on the effects of climate change on health. The sources of these data will come from the Science-related courses of Bicol University Polangui Campus students. Using the Slovin‟s formula and stratified sampling, the researchers obtained the respondents of seventy five (75) for the Bachelor of Science in Food Technology and one hundred twenty (120) for the Bachelor of Science in Nursing and were given questionnaires to be answered where a guided interview was made simultaneously. Subsequently, the data was gathered and was interpreted with the help of the statistical tools.

36

Analytical Plan To get the total number of population per course, Slovin‟s formula was used. n is equal to N divided by 1 plus Ne2, where n is the sample size, N is the total population size, and e is the margin of error (0.05). To get the number of respondents per year level, this formula was used: number of respondents is equal to number of students per year level divided by the population size multiplied by the sample size. The researchers used frequency count, percent and mode. To get the percentage, this formula is used: P is equal to F divided by N multiplied by 100 %, where p is the percentage, f is the frequency, n is the total number of respondents, and 100 as the constant number A. Frequency distribution The organized score of measure will facilitate in statistical result for the analysis and interpretation.1 To determine the exact number of respondents. B. Percentage To describe the data and to determine percentage over the total number of respondents.2 Dividing each class frequency by the total number of items group and then multiplied by the total number of items and then multiplied by one hundred. C. Stratified Sampling Obtained by independently selecting a separate simple random sample from each population stratum.3 A population can be divided into different groups may be based on some characteristic or variable. These groups are referred to as strata. Then one can randomly select from each stratum a given number of units which may be based on proportion.

37

D. Slovin‟s Formula Allows a researcher to sample the population with a desired degree of accuracy.4 Gives the researcher an idea of how large his sample size needs to be to ensure a reasonable accuracy of results.

38

NOTES
1

http://www.britannica.com http://dictionary.reference.com http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki http://www.scribd.com

2

3

4

39

CHAPTER 4 Data Analysis and Interpretation This chapter presents the analysis of the data obtained from the respondents‟ responses in the questionnaire. Data gathered is presented in the table for appropriate interpretation and analysis. Figure 1.0 Socio-demographic Profile in terms of Age of the Respondents
1% 1% 0% 48% 50% 16 - 18 19 - 21 22 - 24 25 - 17 28 and above

The figure presents the socio-demographic profile of the respondents regarding on the age. This shows that majority of the respondents ranging from the age of nineteen (19) to twenty-one (21) years old with a percentage score of 50.25%. Followed by sixteen (16) to eighteen (18) years old having the percentage of 47.69%. Subsequently, twentytwo (22) to twenty-four (26) years old having 1.03% with a frequency count of two (2). Both twenty-five (25) to twenty-seven (27) years old and twenty-eight (28) years old and above got a percentage of 0.51%. This simply implies that most of the respondents were in the young adult stage. Different age group has different thinking ability, understanding, awareness and in perception of ideas.

40

Figure 1.0a Socio-demographic Profile in terms of Gender of the Respondents

47% 53% Male Female

Figure 1.0a presents the socio-demographic profile concerning the gender of the respondents. This shows that the majority or one hundred four (104) out of one hundred ninety five (195) students were females having a percentage of 53.33% while ninety one (91) or 46.66% were males. This only entails that still majority of the population represents females. Many researchers emphasize that there are more similarities than differences between the cognitive abilities of males and females, as effect sizes that do demonstrate differences, though statistically significant, tend to be rather small. But then, it is said to be that females are more open-minded and is more advantageous in verbal skills. Figure 1.0b Socio-demographic Profile in terms of Year Level of the Respondents

26% 29%

24% 21%

1st year 2nd year 3rd year 4th year

41

Figure 1.0b presents the socio-demographic profile concerning the year level of the respondents. This shows that level three has 29.23% followed by level four having 25.64%, next is level one with 23.58%, lastly, level two with 21.53%. This indicates that the largest part of the subjects and the data obtained regarding the perceptions of the effects of climate change on health came from those of the level three students. Figure 1.0c Socio-demographic Profile in terms of Course of the Respondents

38% 62% BSN BSFT

Figure 1.0c illustrates the socio-demographic profile pertaining to the courses of the respondents. Having the total population of two hundred thirty four (234) students of Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN), this imparts the immense component of gathering the data and has a percentage of 61.53% with a frequency count of one hundred twenty (120) respondents. Subsequently, the Bachelor of Science in Food Technology (BSFT) with one hundred forty seven (147) total number of population with a frequency count of seventy five (75) students encompasses a percentage of 38.46%. This implies that among the two selected courses, BSN covers the substantial data on the given questionnaires and the researchers concludes that BSN are more aware and has more knowledge regarding health effects.

42

Figure 2.0 Perceptions about Climate Change

60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% a change in the statistical distribution of weather over periods of time

a change in the statistical distribution of weather over periods of time a climate phenomenon caused by too much greenhouse gases in the atmosphere it is due to natural causes and mostly of man's activities

it is just a change in climate (0%) a climate it is due to natural it is just a change in phenomenon causes and mostly climate (0%) caused by too much of man's activities greenhouse gases in the atmosphere

Figure 2.0 illustrates the perceptive definition of the respondents about climate change. This explains that majority of the subjects with a percentage of 48.71% conveyed that climate change is due to the natural causes and mostly of man‟s activities or it is a gradual change in climate. Next is the climate phenomenon caused by too much greenhouse gases in the atmosphere which has a percentage of 35.38% with a frequency count of sixty-nine (69), followed by the perceptive definition of a change in the statistical distribution of weather over periods of time with a percentage of 15.89%. And lastly, no one chose the definition that it is just a change in climate or with a zero percentage.

43

Figure 2.1 Observation Regarding Manifestations of Climate Change

LAND
36.41%

19.48% 12.82%

17.43%

13.84%

Figure 2.1a

As shown above the figure, it indicates that most of the respondents recognized landslide as one of the most observed manifestation regarding climate change. As one of the implications, according to Amadore‟s study, a combination of strong typhoons, excessive precipitation and landslides has caused a great deal of death and destruction in the Philippines.1 Next, most of the respondents selected volcanic eruption in which became the second manifestation since Mayon Volcano here in Albay wherein the community is at risk. Probably only few respondents chosen severe drought, soil erosion and wildfire or forest fire are less observed in the Philippines.

44

35.89%

WATER
26.66% 25.64%

7.69% 4.10%

heavy rainfall

floods

typhoon tsunami hurricane

Figure 2.1b The figure shows that the majority of the study subjects chose floods as one of the manifestations of climate change since it is more noticeable here in the Philippines.

AIR

62.56%

24.61% 12.82%

tornadoes

monsoon

sandstorm

45

Figure 2.1c For the manifestations of climate change which are observed by the respondents which is shown on figure 2.1 there are three classifications involved: the Land, Water, and Air. Having the highest percentage, landslide with 36.41%, floods with 35.89%, and monsoon which has 62.56% respectively. These are the top three among those manifestations stated on the questionnaire. Next are volcanic eruption, heavy rainfall and tornadoes comprising a percentage of 19.48%, 26.66%, and 24.61% correspondingly. The third one are wildfire or forest fire (17.43%), typhoon (25.64%), and sandstorm (12.82%). After which, are soil erosion and tsunami with a percentage of 13.84% and 7.69%. And lastly, severe drought and hurricane got a percentage of 12.82% and 4.10%. The researchers concluded that landslide, floods and monsoon are the top most observed by the study subjects especially here in the Philippines in which the people are experiencing this signs recently.

46

Figure 3.0 Frequency Effects of Climate Change that Affects Health

27.69%

14.35% 12.30% 7.69% 4.10% 3.07% 4.61% 2.56% 11.79% 11.79%

3.0a Respiratory Diseases In Figure 3.0 demonstrates that the most common respiratory disease is colds also known as viral rhinitis which has 23.17% with a frequency count of fifty four (54). Common cold is the most frequent viral infection in the general

47

population. In the United States, colds are more frequent during the late fall and winter seasons,1 while in the Philippines it is more often during rainy seasons. This implies that seasonal changes may affect the prevalence of colds. Next on the rank are the asthma having a percentage of 14.16%, the most common chronic disease of the childhood and can occur at any age. The risk factors for exacerbations of asthma are the allergens, respiratory infections, exercise and hyperventilation, weather changes, exposure to sulfur dioxides, food, additives, and medications.2 Climate changes (particularly cold air) and air pollution are primarily associated with asthma, flu (13.40%), pneumonia and cough with 12.87% - are the most common causes of death from infectious diseases in the United States. They account nearly 60,000 deaths annually and rank as the 8th leading causes of death together with influenza illness.3 People who are immunecompromised and are exposed to those with pneumonia can acquire the disease. Cough may also indicate serious pulmonary disease or a variety of other problems4 such as bronchial asthma, obstruction and further irritation. Tuberculosis and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD) with 6.43% as a worldwide public health problem that is closely associated with poverty, malnutrition, overcrowding and inadequate health care.5 Same as with pneumonia, people who are immune-compromised can easily acquire the said disease. Under those COPD may include the diseases such as emphysema, and chronic bronchitis or any combination of these diseases. Risk factors for COPD include environmental exposures (cigarette smoking, air pollution) and post factors. Last three (3) on the rank are the sinusitis (4.29%), bronchitis (3.86%) and emphysema

48

(2.57%). Because of climate change all these diseases people may experience. It will all start as a first clinical symptom and all other which are complications. Most of these respiratory diseases the risk factors are the environmental conditions such as air pollution, and this can affect the health of the people at different ages.

27.17%

18.97% 14.35% 9.74% 4.61% 2.56% 6.15% 7.17% 4.61% 4.61%

3.0b Cardiovascular Diseases For the cardiovascular diseases which is shown in the figure, the top three (3) diseases are the following: hypertension has the largest part chosen by the study subjects comprising of 27.17% and having a frequency count of fifty three (53), stroke having 18.97% or a mode of thirty-seven (37), and heart attack which has a frequency count of twenty eight (28) and a percentage of 14.35%. Followed by cardiac arrest which has nineteen (19) as the mode and a percentage of 9.74%, congestive heart failure obtains a percentage of 7.17% and angina pectoris with 6.15%. Also aortic aneurysm. myocardial

49

infarction and dysrythmia got a percentage of 4.61%. And having the least percentage which has 2.56% is the myocarditis. As for the cardiovascular diseases, the study subjects chose hypertension to be the common symptom and as the proponents analyzed, the respondents chose what they thought people were experiencing these days and was influenced by the different factors.

27.17%

14.87% 9.74% 6% 6%

14.87%

8.20%

5.12% 4.10% 4.61%

3.0c Skin Diseases The third category is the about the skin diseases, from the figure shown rashes is the most common skin disease chosen by the respondents which has a percentage of 27.17%, it is the first symptom to experience having a skin condition. Followed by skin allergies and skin itching with (14.87%), skin cancer which is rarer among Filipinos having 9.74%, exposure to the sun can or too much heat might be related to these disease and also in change in lifestyles.6 Chicken pox which is very prevalent seasonally in particular on school-aged children having a percentage of 8.20%, measles and athletes

50

foot which both of them received a percentage of 6%, .psoriasis (5.12%), dermatitis (4.61% ) brought about or caused by physical, chemical, and biological agents7and lastly impetigo which has 4.10% which is seen in people of all ages and in children having poor hygienic conditions8.

18.97% 15.89% 10.76% 7.17% 4.61% 2.86% 10.76% 7.17% 7.17% 14.87%

3.0d Others

The last figure on the effects of climate change on health is shown above; headache (18.97%), which could be due to physical exertion, stress, and most people do not realize how much the environment can have an effect on their headache pain. heat stroke with 15.89%, diarrhea got a percentage score of 14.87%, dehydration and

epistaxis (10.76%), malnutrition, malaria and dengue has 7.17%, filariasis 4.61% and least is the muscle cramps having the slightest with 2.86%.

51

Figure 4.0 Measures in Protecting the Environment

Yes
Avoidance of throwing garbage in bodies of… Avoidance of using chemicals that may cause… Prevention of open pit mining system Avoidance of dynamite fishing Endangered species protection Drug prevention Avoidance of cigarette smoking Kaingin activities Environmental awareness Tree planting Energy and water conservation Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Proper waste segregation Burning of waste products Avoidance of using products containing CFC's 11.79% 75.89% 8.71% 70.76% 91.28% 94.35% 99.48% 98.97% 100% 98.97% 88.20% 86.66% 99.48% 95.89% 92.82%

0.00% 20.00% 40.00% 60.00% 80.00% 100.00%120.00% Yes

52

Figure 4.1 illustrates the preferred ways or measures in protecting the environment. Pasano conducted a study concluding that there is not much aggressiveness in the implementation of the Ecological Solid Waste Management in the three pilot barangays of Legazpi City,in contrary which is shown in the figure, most of the respondents avoid throwing garbage in the bodies of water with a percentage of 100%, followed by the “reduce, reuse, recycle” method and endangered species protection having a percentage score of 99.48%, proper waste segregation and avoidance of using chemicals that may cause diseases with 98.97%. Most of the respondents prevent the use of drugs with a percentage of 95.89%. As for energy and water prevention a percentage of 94.35% is distinguished. Avoidance of cigarette smoking has a percentage of 92.82%, tree planting with 91.28%, and prevention of using open pit mining system got 88.20% as the percentage score. Avoidance of using dynamite in fishing got a percentage of 86.66%. Consequently, avoidance of using products containing chlorofluorocarbons attained a percentage of 75.89%, and 70.76% for the environmental awareness. Most of the respondents do not burn waste products such as plastics and do not engage in Kaingin activities obtaining a percentage score of 88.20% and 91.28% as shown in the figure.

53

NOTES
1

Smeltzer, Suzanne, et. al., “Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Brunner and

Suddarths” Volume 1, 12th Edition. pp. 520-521
2

Smeltzer, Suzanne, et. al., “Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Brunner and

Suddarths” Volume 1, 12th Edition. pp. 620-621
3

Smeltzer, Suzanne, et. al., “Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Brunner and

Suddarths” Volume 1, 12th Edition. p. 554
4

Smeltzer, Suzanne, et. al., “Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Brunner and

Suddarths” Volume 1, 12th Edition. p. 496
5

Smeltzer, Suzanne, et. al., “Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Brunner and

Suddarths” Volume 1, 12th Edition. p. 567
6

Smeltzer, Suzanne, et. al., “Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Brunner and

Suddarths” Volume 1, 12th Edition. p. 1706
7

Smeltzer, Suzanne, et. al., “Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Brunner and

Suddarths” Volume 1, 12th Edition. p. 1694
8

Smeltzer, Suzanne, et. al., “Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Brunner and

Suddarths” Volume 1, 12th Edition. p. 1687

54

CHAPTER 5 Summary, Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations This chapter presents the summary, the findings and the conclusions from which the recommendations were drawn to give merit to the results of the study. Summary This study attempted to determine the perception by the selected students of Science-related courses of Bicol University Polangui Campus towards on the effects of climate change on health. Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions: 1. To determine the socio-demographic profile of the respondents in terms of: a. age b. gender c. year level d. course 2. To determine the perception about climate change 3. To identify the manifestations observed brought by climate change a. Land b. Water c. Air 4. To determine the effects of climate change on health a. Respiratory Diseases b. Cardiovascular Diseases

55

c. Skin Diseases d. Others 5. To identify the proposed measures in protecting the environment regarding the health effects of climate change Findings 1. Majority of the respondents has the age of nineteen (19) to twenty-one (21) years old with a percentage score of 50.25%, for the gender of the respondents the enormous part the majority one hundred four (104) out of one hundred ninety five (195) students were females having a percentage of 53.33%, in

the year level comprising 29.23% which is the level three, and for the course of the study subjects the total population of two hundred thirty four (234) students of Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN), this imparts the immense component of gathering the data and has a percentage of 61.53% with a frequency count of one hundred twenty (120) respondents. 2. Majority of the subjects with a percentage of 48.71% conveyed that climate change is due to the natural causes and mostly of man‟s activities. This best describes the perception of the study subjects regarding effects on health brought by the climate change. 3. For the manifestations observed by the respondents in terms of land, water and air wherein the researchers divide it in three (3) categories, majority of which are the following: landslide having 36.41%, floods having 35.89%, and monsoon having 62.56%.

56

4. The most suggestive health effects brought by the climate change the majority of which are the following: for the respiratory diseases, colds got a percentage score of 27.69%, for the cardiovascular diseases hypertension has the largest part chosen by the study subjects comprising of 27.17%, rashes which has a percentage of 27.17% also, and lastly, headache has the got 18.97% for the last category. 5. The top three most preferred ways or proposed measures in protecting the environment most of the respondents avoid throwing garbage in the bodies of water with a percentage of 100%, followed by the “Reduce, Reuse, Recycle” method, and protecting all endangered species with an equal percentage of 98.48%. Conclusion Based on the findings and analysis made, the following conclusions are drawn: 1. Majority of the respondents has the age of nineteen (19) to twenty-one (21) years old, most of them were females in year level three (3) and majority of the course is the Bachelor of Science in Nursing. This means that different people with different ages have different perceptions about the health effects of climate change. 2. In the perceptive definition of the respondents about climate change, this shows that majority of the subjects chose that climate change is due to natural causes and mostly of man‟s activities. The respondents believed that they experience climate change because of the wrong doings of the people in our environment.

57

3. Floods, landslide and monsoons are the manifestations of climate change observed by the study subjects since as of this time they are experiencing those manifestations, and because of man‟s misdoings to the environment 4. The most suggestive health effects brought by the climate change the majority of which are the following: for the respiratory diseases-colds, for the cardiovascular diseases hypertension has the largest part chosen by the study subjects, rashes is the well-known skin disease, headache has the largest part for the other category. This concludes that these are the well-known diseases of the respondents and at least it only shows that they are aware of what is happening these days. 5. The top three most preferred ways or proposed measures in protecting the environment most of the respondents avoid throwing garbage in the bodies of water followed by the “reduce, reuse, recycle” method, and protecting all endangered species. This implies that they have enough knowledge in preserving our own environment and what should be done to safeguard our milieu. Recommendations Based on the study made, the researchers came up with the following recommendations: 1. Intensify the monitoring of plans and programs by the Local Government Unit regarding how to protect the environment.

58

2. Promote intensified information dissemination of the programs, ordinances, seminars, workshops, and educational campaigns of Local Government Unit concerning climate change. 3. Sponsor activities, which could segregate waste and dispose waste accordingly. 4. Promote organic farming and natural agriculture and less use of pesticides and other products that may cause harm to the environment. 5. Proper waste management should be done or the Local Government Unit should provide receptacles for the different kinds of wastes and place it on the designated area or in every barangay. 6. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, and composting scheme should be properly implemented. 7. Information dissemination on disaster preparedness should be acknowledged in every area in the community for them to be aware and be ready for what might happen. 8. Health education regarding ways to prevent the rapid spread of diseases that may affect most of the lives of the people. 9. Immunization should be well organized especially to those in far-flung areas.

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